U.S. Department of Education FY 2001 Accountability Report Table of Contents Message from the Secretary of Education Message from the Deputy Chief Financial Officer Management Discussion and Analysis………………………………………..………..……..1 Part I Goals and Objectives Goal 1: Create a Culture of Achievement…………………………..……....6 Goal 2: Improve Student Achievement……………………………...……....7 Goal 3: Develop Safe Schools and Strong Character…………….....…....8 Goal 4: Transform Education into an Evidence-Based Field……...…....9 Goal 5: Enhance the Quality of and Access to Postsecondary and Adult Education…………………………………………...………….10 Goal 6: Establish Management Excellence…………………………….….16 Highlights of Reporting Requirements Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act……………………………...…..25 Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Audit Follow-up…………………..28 Prompt Pay…………………………………………...……………………………28 Management Challenges of the Department of Education...…………………29 Limitations of the Financial Statements………………..………………………….41 Part II Principal Financial Statements, Notes and Required Supplementary Information Principal Financial Statements…………………...…………………………...43 Notes to the Principal Statements…………………………………………….48 Human Capital……………………………………………………………………77 Supplementary Information…………………………………………………………. 85 Attachments……………………………………………………………………………….96 Report of Independent Auditors Report on Internal Control Report on Compliance with Laws and Regulations Appendix A Glossary Appendix B Department of Education Web Sites U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Management Discussion and Analysis Introduction The Department of Education is pleased to present the FY2001 Annual Accountability Report. This report is submitted in response to various statutory requirements, including the Government Management Reform Act of 1994 (GMRA). In accordance with the Reports Consolidation Act of 2000, it includes information on the Department's internal controls and "If our country fails in its reports required under the Federal Manager's Financial Integrity Act responsibility to (FMFIA). Further included are the Department's financial statements educate every prepared in conformity with Office of Management and Budget Bulletins child, we're likely No. 97-01 and 01-09 as applicable. to fail in many areas. But if we succeed in Mission educating our youth, many other Education is an American priority. The American people are constantly successes will follow throughout examining how education is organized, structured, delivered and the country and in assessed in order to improve quality and ensure equal access to all. the lives of our While education is primarily a state and local community responsibility, citizens" private organizations and federal entities play an important role in improving education. President George W. Bush Within this context, the U.S. Department of Education carries out its mission in two major ways. First, the Secretary and the Department provide leadership responsibility in the ongoing dialogue over how to improve the results of our education system. Second, the Department pursues its goals of access and excellence through the administration of programs covering all areas of education from preschool to postdoctoral research. In accordance with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) results-oriented management, the Department utilizes strategic planning and performance reporting. The Department's mission statement is the guiding standard that gives direction to all goals and objectives of the plan and hence, all activities of the Department. The Department’s mission is: to ensure equal access to education and promote educational excellence throughout the Nation Organization The Department is headquartered, with most of its operations, in Washington D.C. Additionally, about one third of the Department's employees are stationed in ten regional offices and 11 field offices, 1 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report making it easier to serve state and local educational systems. The organizational chart, which follows on the next page, shows the structure that supports the day-to-day work. Goals Part I of this report illustrates how the Department pursues its mission of ensuring equal access and promoting excellence by focusing its activities on the following six basic strategic goals extracted from the Department’s Strategic Plan currently under development: 1. Create a culture of achievement 2. Improve student achievement 3. Develop safe schools and strong character 4. Transform education into an evidence-based field 5. Enhance the quality of and access to postsecondary and adult education 6. Establish management excellence Specifically, Part I presents the goals and objectives developed during FY 2001 along with selected indicators. When appropriate, this report will also include other descriptive information aimed at providing a richer and more complete picture of the initiatives and programs supported by the Department. Additionally, in compliance with FMFIA, it identifies major management challenges and describes ED's progress toward their resolution. Part II of the report describes the Department's financial performance during fiscal year 2001. It includes the Department's 2001 consolidated financial statements and the reports of the independent auditor. The reports includes the following two appendices: (A) a glossary of abbreviations and acronyms used in this report, and (B) a list of the Department of Education offices' web sites. High performance will become a way of life that defines the culture of federal service. President's Management Agenda for FY 2002 2 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report U.S. Department of Education Office of the Office of Secretary of Education General Counsel Public Affairs Decision/Strategy Support Deputy Secretary Office of Inspector General Executive Management Team Under Secretary Operations External Relations Budget, Policy and Planning Office of Office of the Chief Legislation and Budget Financial Officer Congressional Affairs Service Office of Planning and Office of the Chief Intergovernmental and Evaluation Service Information Officer Interagency Affairs Office of Management Programs Office of Office of Office of Office of Student Elementary and Educational Research Postsecondary Financial Assistance Secondary Education and Improvement Education Office of Special Office of Office of Bilingual Office Education and Vocational and Adult Education & Minority for Rehabilitative Services Education Languages Affairs Civil Rights 3 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report 4 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report PART I Goals and Objectives Highlights of Reporting Requirements Management Challenges of the Department of Education Limitations of the Financial Statements 5 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Goal 1 Create a culture of achievement Create a culture of educational excellence by effectively implementing the President’s plan, No Child Left Behind As America enters the 21st century full of hope and promises, too many of our neediest students are left behind. Today, nearly 70 percent of inner city fourth graders are unable to read at a basic level on national reading tests. Our high school seniors trail students in developing nations on international math tests. And nearly a third of our college freshmen find they must take a remedial course before they are able to begin regular college level courses. While education is primarily a state and local responsibility, the federal government needs to do more to reward success and sanction failure of our education system. Individuals and groups who work in social systems like the American education system are strongly influenced by the system’s culture. To achieve improvements in such a system, the most potent strategy for change is cultural change. As part of this effort, we have identified several areas that must be addressed in order to build a solid foundation of learning for all children. Specifically, we have identified the following four principles and will embed these principles in programs and activities throughout the Department: • Link federal education funding to accountability for results • Increase flexibility and local control • Increase information and options for parents • Encourage the use of scientifically based methods within federal education programs In order to create a culture of achievement, we must demonstrate that achievement counts. Formula-based grants will become performance based, awarding bonuses to States for significant progress and imposing sanctions for lack of results. With Federal support, States will develop systems that hold all educational institutions accountable for results. Demonstration programs in areas of national significance will be supported, but discretionary programs that do not demonstrate results in terms of student outcomes will be recommended for consolidation. In return for accountability, States, school districts, and other grantees will receive increased flexibility over the use of Federal funds. Department-wide information technology initiatives will dramatically reduce the paperwork burden on State and local officials by seamlessly collecting and disseminating performance information. States will publish report cards that provide school performance information to parents. Children trapped in persistently failing schools will have the 6 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report opportunity to attend better public schools or use Federal funds for private tutoring. Public school options, including charter schools, will be strongly supported. Goal 2 Improve Student Achievement Improve achievement for all groups of students by putting reading "We know that children who first, expanding high quality math and science teaching, and have poor boosting teacher quality beginning reading skills are In education, the bottom line is student learning. As a result of the less likely to develop reading Department’s efforts under this plan, American students will improve skills throughout their achievement in reading, math and science sufficiently to make their school choices about their future work or study, and to participate fully in careers. citizenship of the United States. The U.S. Department of Education will Children, who lead a national campaign to ensure that every child is taught to read at start school behind, often grade level by third grade. Pre-school and elementary school teachers stay behind. throughout the nation will have access to training in the proven We can reverse components of effective early reading instruction. To ensure that students that trend." become proficient in mathematics and science, the Department will establish a broad collaboration of school districts, colleges and First Lady Laura universities, and research institutions to improve the quality of Bush instruction in those areas. Since the quality of instruction is dependent upon the development of well-prepared teachers, the Department will establish initiatives to ensure that supply meets demand. Here are the Department’s objectives for this goal: • Ensure that all students read on grade level by the third grade • Improve math and science achievement for all students • Improve the performance of all high school students • Improve teacher and principal quality Reading Reading is the foundation of all other skills essential for learning, yet the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports that only 63 percent of all fourth-graders read at the basic level or higher. Percentage of fourth-grade students at or above reading achievement levels 100% 80% 62% 60% 62% 63% Basic 60% 40% Proficient 20% Below Basic 0% 1992 1994 1998 2000 7 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Research shows that students who fail to read well by fourth grade are at greater risk of educational failure. Mastering basic skills such as reading are essential first steps to reaching challenging academic standards. Since the 1970's, NAEP scores for fourth-graders have been relatively flat (around 60 percent at basic or higher levels). These statistics are disturbing because they indicate that around 40 percent of the fourth- grade population continues to have difficulty reading at the basic level. The Department will strive to ensure that every child must read on grade level by the end of third grade. To reach that goal we will ensure that reading instruction is based on solid research. Mathematics To be prepared for postsecondary study and promising careers, students need to master advanced skills in mathematics, science and technology. Mathematics also teaches ways of thinking that apply in the workplace and are essential for informed civic participation. A report released in August 2001, by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Eighth Grade Performance in Mathematics Percentage of Eighth Grade Students who Perform at or above Basic on NAEP 80% 66% 58% 62% 60% 52% 40% 20% 0% 1990 1992 1996 2000 Year shows improvement for U.S. students in mathematics. Scores for students in fourth and eighth grade indicate continued progress over the last ten years. The percentage of eighth-graders at or above Basic increased from 52 percent in 1990 to 66 percent in 2000. However, the U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century reported that the nation’s mediocre math and science performance is one of our major national security liabilities. Goal 3 Develop safe schools and strong character Establish safe and disciplined educational environments that foster the development of good character and citizenship September 11th has created a new environment in which we must ensure that our children are safe from threats from without as well as within; we will work to maintain a safe and drug-free environment in which they can learn. In addition, as the President said on his campaign, “Teaching 8 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report is more than training, and learning is more than literacy. Our children must be educated in reading and writing—but also in right and wrong.” He quoted Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., who said, “Intelligence plus “First, we must do character—that is the true goal of education.” We will focus the nation’s everything in our power to ensure the education system on our children’s hearts, as well as their minds. Here safety of our are the Department’s objectives for this goal: children.” • Ensure that our nation’s schools are safe and drug-free and President George that students are free of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs W. Bush • Promote strong character and citizenship among our nation’s youth The Department will sponsor research initiatives to develop a better understanding of the causes of student violence, and it will work with law enforcement departments to remove barriers to information sharing. In addition, states will be supported in their efforts to provide greater parental choice of schools to ensure that students are not forced to attend persistently dangerous schools. Goal 4 Transform education into an evidence-based field Strengthen the quality of educational research For too long, the education field has been subject to fads and fancies, much like the pre-scientific era of medicine. We will change the culture of education into one that values evidence over ideology. We will do our part by dramatically improving the quality of research funded or published by the Department, and by providing policymakers, educators, parents, and other stakeholders ready access to high quality, easy-to- understand research. Here are the objectives for this goal: • Raise the quality of research funded or conducted by the Department of Education • Increase the relevance of our research in order to meet the needs of our research customers The U.S. Department of Education is one of the primary sources of funding for educational research. Thus, we have an opportunity and a responsibility to ensure that the research funded or published by the Department is of the highest quality. We will develop and enforce rigorous standards, will rejuvenate the peer review process, and will bring focus to the Department’s research activities. 9 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Goal 5 Enhance the quality of and access to postsecondary and adult education Increase opportunities for students and the productivity of institutions. The Department of Education recognizes that the productivity of our nation is dependent upon the quality of the postsecondary education opportunities made available to the American people. Besides helping to ensure access to postsecondary training for our young people, it is also essential that we encourage lifelong learning, whether it is graduate school or adult basic education, advanced technical training or training in job entry skills. This includes many for whom lifelong learning opportunities are of special importance, such as persons with disabilities, adults lacking basic skills, and those whose job skills need upgrading or who require retraining because of labor market changes. To help guarantee access to postsecondary education and lifelong learning, the Department has set the following objectives for this goal: • Reduce the gaps in college access and completion among student populations differing by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability while increasing the educational attainment of all • Strengthen accountability of postsecondary institutions • Establish effective funding mechanisms for postsecondary education • Strengthen Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic Servicing Institutions, and Tribal Colleges and Universities • Enhance the literacy skills of American adults The single largest category of investment the Department makes with the federal education dollar is in postsecondary education - helping families pay for college. The history of federal financial assistance to college students goes back to the GI Bill of 1944, which served as the springboard to the middle class for millions of American servicemen and their families. Today, the federal government funds a large percentage of all student financial aid in the nation. The major programs supporting Goal 5 are described below. The Pell Grant Program helps ensure financial access to postsecondary education by providing grant aid to low and middle-income undergraduate students. The most need-focused of the Department's student aid program, Pell Grant awards, vary in proportion to the financial circumstances of students and their families. During fiscal year 2001, almost 4 million students received grants averaging $2,311. 10 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Two major student loan programs account for most of the remainder of the Department's support for postsecondary education. The Federal Direct Loan Program lends funds directly to college students. The U.S. Treasury provides loan funds for the Direct Loan Program. The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program makes federally guaranteed loans available to students through private lenders. The Department's Campus Based programs provide assistance to institutions, which enable them to provide students with employment, grants and low interest rate loans on the basis of need. Higher Education programs provide institutional support, student services, quality reforms and improvements to help minority and other disadvantaged students prepare for and succeed in college. The total portfolio of postsecondary aid programs run by the Department generated $61 billion in student aid (including Federal Family Education Loan capital, Perkins Loan capital from institutional revolving funds, and institutional and state matching funds) to more than 8.1 million postsecondary students and their families during FY 2001. During FY 2001, the Department of Education worked with over 6,000 postsecondary institutions, 4,000 lenders, and 36 guaranty agencies “The purpose of to deliver grant, loan and work-study assistance to students who rely on prosperity is to federal student aid to pay for college. make sure the American dream The Department has identified the modernization of the student aid touches every willing heart. The delivery system as one of the highest priority management purpose is to leave objectives. This modernization is managed by a performance-based no one out – to organization (PBO), Student Financial Assistance (SFA). The PBO's leave no child operations are shaped by a five-year performance plan. behind.” SFA’s 2001 Performance Plan included an ambitious list of 86 operating President George goals and improvement projects. The Plan features an e-commerce W. Bush strategy with products and services for students, schools and financial partners. SFA has published brochures covering a sweeping spectrum of information for students - from finding affordable ways to search for scholarships and apply for federal student aid, to Spanish versions of The Student Guide, Funding Your Education and the 2001-02 drug brochure. A Web portal for schools consolidates many SFA school services onto one master Web page and provides real-time information that will enable financial aid professionals to respond more quickly, accurately and productively. In May 2001, the first release of the Financial Partners data mart was unveiled that provides access to historical information from the FFEL system. Subsequent releases will provide for links with other systems, expand the amount of data which can be accessed and allow guaranty agencies and other SFA divisions access to FFEL financial information needed for reviews and technical assistance. 11 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report However, the plan doesn’t cover the fundamental set of values that employees bring to their jobs. These values -- be worthy of trust, be courteous, deliver great products and services and be efficient -- are the basis for prioritizing day-to-day decisions, especially when things don’t go according to plan. These values are exhibited in SFA’s success of the past years, as noted by its receipt of numerous prestigious awards -- the 2001 Federal Acquisition Award, the 2001 Digital Government Award and the 2001 Pioneer and Explorer Awards -- the highest and second- highest awards given by E-Gov. The following performance measures highlight the progress being made in meeting SFA performance plan goals. Customer Satisfaction - Process Loan Consolidations in 50 days or less SFA consolidated and completed processing of 366,970 loans in FY 2001 with an average turnaround time less than its goal of 50 days or Number of Apps Days to Complete Processing Loan Consolidations 70,000 60 60,000 50 50,000 40 40,000 30 30,000 20 20,000 10 10,000 - 0 Oct-00 Nov-00 Dec-00 Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Accepted Consolidated Avg Days to Consolidation Benchmark less. Loan consolidators have exceeded the established timeframes and are currently averaging 42 days for processing consolidations. For FY 2001, the goal of 150,000 applications filed electronically was exceeded, with over 347,854 electronic applications being received. 12 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Customer Satisfaction - Increase the number of Free Applications for Federal Student Aid (FAFSAs) filed electronically from four million in FY 2000 to five million in FY 2001. FAFSAs Processed in Fiscal Year 2001 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Paper Apps Electronic Apps - Non-Web Electronic Apps - Web SFA met its goal of receiving 5 million electronic FAFSAs by the end of fiscal year 2001. The electronic application is faster and easier for the students to file and for the Department to process. Of 11.1 million applications processed in FY 2001, 5.36 million were filed electronically. SFA was a recipient of the E-Gov Explorer Award for its web-based FAFSA. Customer Satisfaction - Provide, via Direct Loans Servicing Website, new Spanish Language Deferment and Forbearance request. With implementation of the website http://www.dlservicer.ed.gov/ in February 2001, SFA increased E-commerce for the Spanish-speaking borrower. Spanish-speaking borrowers were able to access and download deferment and forbearance forms in Spanish. A borrower now has the ability to toggle between English and Spanish interfaces. SFA was a recipient of the Digital Government Award for the Direct Loans Servicing Website - chosen for top honors from 100 nominations. Reduce Costs - Increase to 400,000 the total number of borrowers repaying direct loans through electronic debiting The Electronic Debit Account (EDA) provides an efficient means of payment, generates savings to SFA processing costs by electronically debiting borrowers and provides a more consistent payment flow in an error free environment. The EDA provides the borrower with an efficient means of payment that eliminates the need for check writing, mailing and postage. The total number of borrowers using Electronic 13 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Debiting increased from 261,236 at the beginning of FY 2001 to 424,209 at the end of the fiscal year. This exceeds the goal of 400,000. More significantly, this increase of EDA users eliminated the need to mail 3,589,630 bills, resulting in direct cost savings of $1,196,414 in FY 2001. Reduce Costs - Implement the National Directory of New Hires database matching program. In FY 2001, SFA collected over $150 million as a result of matching SFA collection records against the National Directory of New Hires (NDNH) database, a database operated by the Office of Child NDNH Collection Results $180,000,000 $160,000,000 $140,000,000 $120,000,000 $100,000,000 $80,000,000 $60,000,000 $40,000,000 $20,000,000 $0 Jan* Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Monthly Collections * Initial Match Occurred Collections to Date Support Enforcement of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Since matching efforts with HHS began in January 2001, new information has been obtained on 890,621 accounts with unpaid loan balances totaling $3.2 billion. Quarterly matches are planned for FY 2002, to include all guaranty agencies and eligible ED accounts. Reduce Costs - Keep the Default Recovery Rate at 10% or higher. The combined ED and Guaranty Agency (GA) collections on defaulted loans totaled $5.121 billion for FY 2001 -- $1.403 billion in ED Default Recoveries - In Billions $6.0 $4.0 $2.0 $0.0 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep FY2000 Cumulative FY2001 Cumulative 14 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report recoveries and $3.718 billion with the guaranty agencies. The collections resulted in annual recoveries of 17.7 percent1 of the outstanding portfolio. SFA exceeded its collections goal of 10 percent of its outstanding portfolio. The commission paid (as a percentage of recoveries) to our private collection agencies has dropped from 18.1 percent in FY 2000 to 16.9 percent in FY 2001. The decreased percentage has resulted in direct cost savings in excess of $9.3 million. Reduce Costs - Keep the Cohort Default Rate Under 8% Under statute, a key measure of student loan defaults is the "cohort default rate," which is the percentage of borrowers that entered into repayment on FFEL and Direct Loan Program loans during one fiscal year and defaulted on those loans in the same fiscal year that they entered repayment or the following fiscal year. Because of concerns about high default rates and inadequate loan collection in the student aid programs, Congress and the Department have taken actions to reduce defaults - including management reforms and increased attention to assist at-risk postsecondary institutions. This has allowed the Department to cut the default rate by 75 percent - from 22.4 percent in FY 1990 to 5.6 percent in FY 1999 (the most recent cohort default rate data available). 1 The recovery rate is comprised of the sum of ED's collections and the guaranty agency's (GA) collection on defaulted loans divided by the outstanding portfolio at the end of the previous year. At the end of FY 00, the outstanding portfolio was $28.8 billion reflecting approximately $12 billion with ED and $16.8 billion with the guaranty agencies. 15 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Goal 6 Establish Management Excellence throughout the Department of Education When the Secretary of Education, Rod Paige, arrived at the Department, he found financial and management problems that over the course of several years had damaged the Department's credibility on Capitol Hill and with the American public. Auditors had been unable to issue a clean opinion on the Department's financial statements for each of the prior three years; the student financial assistance programs remained a fixture of the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) High-Risk List; and information technology security and management needed improvement. GAO and the Department's Office of the Inspector General (OIG) had repeatedly documented problems with respect to Department management. Auditors also had identified several areas within the Department susceptible to fraud and abuse. Secretary Paige decided that the Department of Education needed to strengthen its management in order to fulfill President Bush’s goals for America’s schools and students. He demanded a solid foundation of excellent management to enable the Department to perform its mission more effectively. In April 2001, Secretary Paige took quick and decisive action to address longstanding management problems. He tasked a “SWAT” team of senior career managers -- called the Management Improvement Team (MIT) -- to develop a blueprint for management excellence at the Department. Secretary Paige then directed the MIT to formulate a strategy to: make accountability for results the primary operating principle for all Department employees, grantees, and contractors; obtain a clean audit opinion from the Department's auditors; remove the Student Financial Assistance (SFA) programs from the GAO High Risk List; put in place an effective system of internal controls to protect the Department's assets from waste, fraud and abuse; further modernize student aid delivery and management to continue reducing student loan default cost and use Internal Revenue Service data for income verification; and measure progress toward solving these problems. The Blueprint for Management Excellence describes how the Department will achieve the Secretary's vision to establish the U.S. Department of Education as the benchmark for accountability and performance by which all other Federal agencies and State and local education systems will be measured. The Blueprint embraces GAO guidance with specific actions addressing GAO concerns. 16 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report The Management Improvement Team (MIT) The MIT established a process to identify, catalogue and track actions to correct management weaknesses identified as of April 1, 2001. The MIT identified, prioritized and tracked the progress toward resolution of hundreds of recommendations for management improvements. These recommendations came from reports issued by the Department's auditors, GAO and OIG, other internal reviews and the Student Financial Assistance (SFA) Performance Plan. The MIT worked with Principal Offices to facilitate and monitor the completions of actions and it made every effort to determine the steps necessary to satisfy the auditors’ concerns. The MIT has also taken steps to ensure that this process continues after the MIT's initial work is completed. To be effective, management reforms also require the support of Department employees and the public, including that of their elected representatives in Congress. The MIT worked with the Department's financial statement auditors and the OIG to determine specific action steps and structure for addressing issues raised in previous financial statement audits. The Department's senior leadership worked closely with Congress, GAO and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to update them on the Department’s actions and to obtain their guidance concerning future activities. Senior leadership also implemented an awareness campaign to inform Department of Education employees and the public of management improvements. Without To further engage GAO in the Department’s management reforms, accountability, Secretary Paige and Deputy Secretary Hansen initiated a meeting with how can we the U.S. Comptroller expect results? General in July 2001. The discussion centered GAO High-Risk Guidance President on the high-risk status of • Strengthen Financial Management and Internal George W. the student financial Controls Bush assistance programs and • Implement Integrated Information Systems related management • Minimize Noncompliance and Default Rates issues. GAO wrote to while Promoting the Programs Deputy Secretary August 1, 2001, letter from GAO to the Department Hansen on August 1, 2001 offering its guidance for managing student aid risk and for removing the programs from the high-risk list. The Blueprint Action Plan includes items that address GAO’s requirements. 17 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Vision for the Future The first step to achieving management excellence is to clarify the Department’s appropriate role in education. Through its long-range strategic planning process, the Secretary and his management team are communicating what it means to craft a different, better federal role in education. The Blueprint is a next step in this communication process. The Blueprint action items plus the interrelated goals and objectives in the Department’s Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) strategic and annual performance plans will be tracked in one management system. The Secretary will use the action items to hold political and career leaders accountable for results in all areas of the Department’s responsibilities. Management excellence means that the Department will be a well-run, well-respected agency. It means that the Department maintains and documents its commitment to accountability. A structure for measuring progress in identifying and solving problems, oversight of the management process, and steps to prevent future management problems are all essential to achieving this vision. Having a solid foundation of excellent management will enable the Department to perform its mission more effectively. Selected Highlights of the Blueprint for Management Excellence: The Blueprint describes the Department's commitment to management improvement in five distinct areas: • Developing and Maintaining Financial Integrity and Management and Internal Controls • Modernizing the Student Financial Assistance Programs and Reducing Their High-Risk Status • Expanding Strategies for Using Human Capital • Managing Information Technology Systems to Improve Business and Communications Processes • Achieving an "Accountability for Results" Culture The Blueprint is a living plan, consisting of a series of actions, that will change as circumstances change and as the Department performs benchmarking with high-performing agencies and business. The Department must implement these actions to accomplish its programmatic goals and create a culture of accountability. The MIT worked with the Department's auditors, the Council for Excellence in Government, OMB, GAO and Department managers and employees to establish this action plan. 18 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Develop and Maintain Financial Integrity and Management and Internal Controls Financial Integrity means the Department will be assured of accurate and relevant financial reporting systems and processes to provide managers and stakeholders with timely and accurate financial information and reports. It means revenues and expenditures are properly accounted for and reported on. It means that the reports and data produced by these systems and processes will A clean financial audit is a basic prescription for any well-managed organization. Without accurate and aid managers timely financial information, it is not possible to and accomplish the President’s agenda to secure the best stakeholders performance and highest measure of accountability for when making the American people. programmatic and asset- President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 related decisions. Financial integrity will result in the Department’s auditors concluding that the Department's financial reporting systems produce accurate and reliable data. The sought-after clean audit opinions from the auditor will affirm that systems and processes are reliable and produce accurate and reliable data that will be useful in education program decision-making. Develop and Maintain Financial Integrity Implement Oracle Federal Financials Beginning with FY 2002 the Department will achieve a Prepare quarterly statements clean audit opinion. Reconcile systems to general ledger By FY 2003 program Publish strategic plan and managers will have financial financial reports in one data necessary to manage document effectively. Upgrade Oracle Federal Financials By FY 2004 the Department will receive a Certificate of Submit combined financial and Excellence for Accountability GPRA report to Association of Reporting. Government Accountants 19 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Management and Internal controls will be adopted and enhanced to reduce risk of errors and permit effective monitoring of programs and processes. Management controls will ensure that the Department's organizational structure, policies and procedures support its programs so that they achieve the intended results. They will ensure that resources are used in a manner consistent with the Department's mission and that programs and resources are protected against waste, fraud and mismanagement. Develop and Maintain Management and Internal Controls Complete the examination of structures for monitoring and holding accountable grantees By FY 2002 external and and contractors internal accountability risks will have been Reengineer the process of substantially reduced. developing, issuing, and disseminating directives By FY 2002 monitoring processes will assess the Implement data-mining to detect quality of performance and fraud any issues identified will be promptly resolved. Complete reviews of all internal controls Modernize the Student Financial Assistance Programs and Reduce Their High-Risk Status. The Department will improve its financial and management information to manage the student aid programs effectively. It will follow the specific criteria provided by GAO in their August 1, 2001 letter for reducing student aid risk and removing the programs from the high-risk list. It will strengthen financial management and internal controls so that relevant, timely information is Erroneous payments to students will be reduced, ensuring that aid is targeted to the neediest students available to and increasing public confidence in the programs’ manage day-to- integrity. day operations and provide President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 accountability. It will integrate information systems by refocusing the plans in the SFA's Modernization Blueprint. These plans reflect strategies for improving service, cutting costs and integrating and improving systems. It will also minimize noncompliance and default rates while promoting widespread program use. 20 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Expand Strategies for Using Human Capital. The Department will align its functions and organization structure with its primary mission, its long-range strategic plan, and the Blueprint to support its culture of accountability. It will streamline operations and bring work closer to its customers—taxpayers, states, school districts and schools. At the center of this reform is the Human capital strategies will be linked to organizational mission, vision, core values, goals, strategic use of human and objectives. capital. The Agencies will use strategic workforce planning and Department’s human flexible tools to recruit, retrain, and reward capital strategy will employees and develop a high-performing workforce. transform the agency by Agencies will determine their “core competencies” and decide whether to build internal capacity or reducing the number of contract for services from the private sector. This will managers, delayering maximize agencies’ flexibility in getting the job done management levels, effectively and efficiently. increasing competitive President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 sourcing, and improving decision-making. Through strategic retention and innovative recruitment, the Department will transform the problem of retirements over the next five years into an opportunity to improve the overall workforce quality. (The Blueprint includes action items to guard against the loss of institutional knowledge). The transformed workforce will understand the Department’s mission and will have the tools needed to perform that mission. To recruit top-notch talent, the Department will make full use of all existing authorities, such as repayment of student loans and expedited hiring practices. It will also seek new and innovative human resources authorities to achieve personnel goals. It will implement the administration’s Managerial Flexibility Act. Expanding human capital strategies will result in a high-performing organization that accomplishes its mission effectively and efficiently. Expand Strategies for Using Human Capital Develop a vision of human capital In FY 2002 and FY 2003 the tied to the Department’s strategic Department will meet or plan and mission exceed OMB goals for competitive sourcing. Develop a workforce plan framework By FY 2003 managers will have tools and flexibility to Perform a five-year workforce planning and restructuring recruit top-notch talent. analysis By FY 2004 employees will Determine specific actions needed possess skills necessary to do to implement the plan their jobs. 21 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Manage Information Technology Systems to Improve Business and Communications Processes. To accomplish the expanded electronic government initiative in the President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 and meet the business needs of its customers, the Department will effectively manage information In short, by improving information technology management, technology (IT). simplifying business processes, and unifying information flows The Department across lines of business, agencies will provide high quality will also provide customer service regardless of whether the citizen contacts the principal offices, agency by phone, in person, or on the Web. schools and President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 students with information and services that respond to their business needs and accomplish Blueprint and long-range strategic plan goals. The Department will also manage its IT investments, protect the integrity and confidentiality of data, improve its data management and increase the use of technology in serving customers. Finally, the Department will maintain integrated, secure and reliable systems in a changing data-sharing environment and safeguard its assets, including information. Manage IT Systems to Improve Processes Have Enterprise Architecture in place By FY 2003 the Department Review, approve and prioritize will conduct business with the Department’s significant information system investments customers online to the fullest extent possible. Establish and publish agreed upon data dictionary By FY 2003 financial Certify and accredit general statement audit will be in support systems and major compliance with statutes applications supporting IT management. Complete remedial actions identified in Government By FY 2003 procurement and Information Security Reform Act program data reporting will reviews and Critical be performed online. Infrastructure Protection assessments 22 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Achieve an “Accountability for Results” Culture. The Department will measure progress and monitor results as it performs its mission. Through the Blueprint the recipients of Department funds, Department employees and Department contractors will be held responsible for their performance in relation to the goals and objectives. They will all understand what is High performance will become a way of life that defines the culture of federal service. expected of them. The Department will work President’s Management Agenda for FY 2002 with grantees and contractors to develop performance standards that will yield the results called for in the long-range strategic plan. Managers will evaluate their performance, and will reward or participate in corrective actions as necessary based on that performance. All parties will take personal responsibility for achieving their program and administrative goals. “Accountability” from the employee perspective means that all employees: • realize how their work contributes to satisfying principal office and agency-wide strategic plans, and positively affects students, educators and citizens; • will have zero tolerance for fraud or other forms of intentional abuse of public funds, as will contractors, external partners and customers; • understand agency values, expectations and its code of conduct; and • assume responsibility for identifying and addressing issues, thus allowing the Department to rely less on external auditors to provide this important service. Accountability for Results By FY 2003 the Department will be known for providing Agreement on program and world-class programs and management results for senior customer and internal officers services that focus on results and meet our goals. Agreement on program and By FY 2003 the Department management results for will set the standard for managers performance accountability among federal agencies. Agreement on performance By FY 2003 the Department plans for employees will be the benchmark for management excellence around the nation. 23 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Success Indicators Transforming the Department of Education into a high-performance organization and restoring the public trust will require continuous improvement over an extended time period. By following this Blueprint and the detailed action plan, the Department will achieve the following success indicators envisioned by Secretary Paige. Success Indicators The Department will have established a foundation for management excellence that supports its role in American education. Beginning with the FY 2002 financial By FY 2003 Student Financial Assistance statements the Department will achieve programs will be removed from the GAO a clean audit opinion. High-Risk List. By FY 2003 the Department will get the By FY 2004 the Department will get an A highest rating on the OMB President’s in Federal Financial Management. Management Agenda Score Card. 24 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report The unresolved weaknesses were all identified prior to FY 2001. Specifically, the first of these prior years material weaknesses is listed as “Quality of Data Needed to Support Management Decision” and was first reported in 1995. This material weakness deals with the Student Financial Assistance not having quality data to provide for effective management decision-making. While the data quality issues were initially associated with the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program system, it was expanded to include all SFA systems. ED has completed a considerable number of the planned corrective actions aimed at the resolution of this material weakness. Corrective actions remaining include: 1) secure legislation to allow for data matches with the Department of Treasury; 2) continue data quality efforts to improve timeliness and quality of lender and other FFEL data; and 3) implement the Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) system which will improve the quality of SFA student level information across the SFA systems. This weakness is scheduled to be resolved during FY 2002. Further, the weakness listed under “IT Security Program” in 2001 has been expanded to include security corrective actions, policies, procedures, reviews, and plans necessary to bring the Department’s IT systems into compliance with the Government Information Security Reform Act (GISRA). The last of the corrective actions for this weakness is scheduled to be completed during FY 2002. The remaining material weaknesses reported – Foreign School Recertification, Audit Tracking and Resolution Process and Financial Reconciliation - are scheduled to be resolved during FY 2002. FMFIA Section 4, Management Control Of the 95 financial management systems non-conformances identified since the beginning of the program two remain unresolved. These two material non-conformances were reported prior to FY 2001. Number of Material Non-Conformances Period Number Reported For That Year For That Year Reported for the first time number corrected number still pending Prior Yrs 95 93 2 1999 Rpt 0 0 0 2000 Rpt 0 0 0 2001 Rpt 0 0 0 Total 95 93 2 The two material non-conformances currently outstanding encompass the following areas: The Federal Family Education Loan System -where the Department did not have a methodology for determining the loan loss of FFEL using validated data. This item was first identified as a material non-conformance in 1990. All but one major milestone to close this 26 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report issue has been completed. The completion of the last pending action has been delayed until the Department’s new general ledger becomes fully implemented. This is scheduled for completion in the second quarter of FY 2002. The other area involved is the Department’s Financial Management Systems. The Legacy core financial management systems had numerous functional and technological problems. Conversion to a new system, the Education Central Automated Processing System (EDCAPS), was completed during 1998. However, shortcomings of the Financial Management System Software (FMSS) portion prevented ED from preparing timely financial statements. The implementation of the new general ledger system to replace FMSS is scheduled for completion in the second quarter of FY 2002. 27 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Semiannual Report to Congress on Audit Follow-up As required by the Inspector General Act Amendments of 1988, the Department reports on management actions in response to audit recommendations. Management is required to report on these two areas: 1. Number of Audit Reports and the Dollar Value of Disallowed Costs Disallowed Costs are questioned costs that management, in a management decision, sustained or agreed should be recovered by the federal government. The information contained in the table represents audit reports for which receivables were established. Final Actions on Audits with Disallowed Costs For the Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 2001 # of Reports Disallowed Costs Beginning Balance as of 188 $ 152,870,062 10/1/00 + Management Decision 256 28,460,651 Pending Final Action 444 181,330,713 - Final Action 300 26,882,033 Ending Balance as of 9/30/01 144 154,448,680 2. Reports Pending Final Action One Year or More After Issuance of a Management Decision On September 30, 2001 the Department had a total of 12 OIG internal and nationwide audit reports on which final action was not taken within one year after the issuance of a management decision. Fifty percent of the 12 reports were 1 to 2 years old. Twenty-five percent were 2 to 4 years old. The remaining twenty-five percent were 4 years old. Many corrective actions are dependent upon major system changes that are currently being implemented. For detailed information on these audits, refer to previously issued Semiannual Reports to Congress on Audit Follow-up Numbers 24 and 25. Prompt Pay The Prompt Pay Act requires agencies to report on their efforts to pay bills on time. In FY 2001, ED processed 97.2 percent of its 19,613 payments on time, representing $1.137 billion. Late payment penalties were paid on 565 invoices. 28 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Limitations of the Financial Statements The following limitations apply to the preparation of the FY 2001 Financial Statements: • The principal financial statements have been prepared to report the financial position and results of operations of the entity, pursuant to the requirements of 31 U.S.C. 3515 (b). • While the statements have been prepared from the books and records of the entity in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for Federal entities and the formats prescribed by OMB, the statements are in addition to the financial reports used to monitor and control budgetary resources which are prepared from the same books and records. • The statements should be read with the realization that they are for a component of the U.S. Government, a sovereign entity. One implication of this is that liabilities cannot be liquidated without legislation that provides resources to do so. 41 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report PART II Principal Financial Statements, Notes and Required Supplementary Information Supplementary Information Attachments 42 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidated Balance Sheet As of September 30, 2001 and 2000 DW (Dollars in Thousands) 2001 2000 Assets Intragovernmental Assets: Fund Balance with Treasury (Note 2) $40,476,338 $42,160,719 Accounts Receivable, Net (Note 3) 10,730 Interest Receivable 57 70,755 Governmental Assets: Accounts Receivable, Net (Note 3) 113,083 82,703 Credit Program Receivables, Net (Note 4) 80,698,787 70,472,689 Advances 38,738 38,739 Cash and Other Monetary Assets - 14,132 Property and Equipment (Note 5) 25,224 1,307 Other Governmental Assets 259,945 236,363 Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Receivable (Note 3) 2,462,445 2,231,814 Total Assets $124,085,347 $115,309,221 Liabilities Intragovernmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable $22,293 $6,647 Interest Payable 7,866 83,469 Borrowing from Treasury (Note 6) 77,448,205 65,715,386 Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Due To Treasury (Note 3) 2,462,445 2,231,814 Payable to Treasury (Note 7) 4,212,555 7,860,621 Payable to Federal Financing Bank (Note 8) 31,349 20,699 Other Intragovernmental Liabilities (Note 9) 44,857 362,823 Governmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable 590,921 213,051 Accrued Grant Liability (Note 10) 1,854,940 2,006,129 Liabilities for Loan Guarantees (Note 4) 8,376,767 9,978,668 Other Governmental Liabilities (Note 9) 381,264 231,158 Total Liabilities $95,433,462 $88,710,465 Net Position Unexpended Appropriations (Note 11) $30,691,817 $26,722,760 Cumulative Results of Operations (Note 11) (2,039,932) (124,004) Total Net Position $28,651,885 $26,598,756 Total Liabilities and Net Position $124,085,347 $115,309,221 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 43 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidated Statement of Net Cost For the Years Ended September 30, 2001 and 2000 DW (Dollars in Thousands) 2001 2000 Program Costs Intragovernmental # Interest Expense, Federal (Note 12) $5,578,045 $4,993,313 # Other Production Expense 0 434 # Grant Expense 71,180 79,460 # Contractual Service Expense 81,349 57,754 # Salaries and Administrative Expense (Note 13) 153,433 147,010 # Bad Debt & Write-offs 38 2,050 # Other Program Expenses 0 800 Governmental # Subsidy Expense (Note 4) 999,287 (3,637,993) # Grant Expense 37,068,699 34,715,035 # Interest Expense, Non-Federal (Note 12) 411 305 # Contractual Service Expense 805,532 827,976 # Salaries and Administrative Expense (Note 13) 436,586 438,907 # Bad Debt & Write-offs 588 14 # Other Program Expenses 199,590 180,207 Total Program Cost $45,394,738 $37,805,272 Less: Earned Revenues # Interest, Federal (Note 12) $1,522,371 $1,761,285 # Interest, Non-Federal (Note 12) 4,058,251 3,234,323 # Other Earned Revenue 6,153 90,840 Earned Revenues $5,586,775 $5,086,448 Net Cost of Operations $39,807,963 $32,718,824 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 44 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidated Statement of Changes in Net Position For the Years Ended September 30, 2001 and 2000 (Dollars in Thousands) 2001 2000 Net Cost of Operations $(39,807,963) $(32,718,824) Financing Sources (Other than Exchange Revenues): Appropriations Used $40,730,970 $37,238,317 Donations (Non-exchange Revenue) 535 1,016 Imputed Financing (Note 14) 20,600 20,795 Future Transfers Out due to Downward Subsidy Re-estimate (2,707,275) (4,010,604) Total Financing Sources $38,044,830 $33,249,524 Net Results of Operations $(1,763,133) $530,700 Prior Period Adjustments (Note 15) (152,829) (873,584) Net Change in Cumulative Results of Operations $(1,915,962) $(342,884) Increase (Decrease) in Unexpended Appropriations 3,969,091 (4,039,342) Change in Net Position $2,053,129 $(4,382,226) Net Position - Beginning of Period 26,598,756 30,980,982 Net Position - End of Period $28,651,885 $26,598,756 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 45 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Combined Statement of Budgetary Resources For the Years Ended September 30, 2001 and 2000 (Dollars in Thousands) DW 2001 2000 Budgetary Resources 1 Budget Authority $69,343,857 $56,900,834 2 Unobligated Balance-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) (Note 16) 10,529,655 13,864,271 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) 27,638,727 21,346,713 4 Adjustments (13,393,186) (10,844,127) Total Budgetary Resources (Note 17) $94,119,053 $81,267,691 Status of Budgetary Resources 6 Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $70,697,100 7 Unobligated Balances-Available 2,213,757 1,822,381 8 Unobligated Balances-Not Available 5,520,186 8,748,210 Total Status of Budgetary Resources (Note 17) $94,119,053 $81,267,691 Outlays 10 Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $70,697,100 11 Less: Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) (34,131,697) (21,916,198) 12 Obligated Balance, Net-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) (Note 16 ) 36,112,102 36,166,395 Less: Obligated Balance, Net-End of Period (Adjusted) (36,087,219) (36,339,231) Total Outlays (Note 17 ) $52,278,296 $48,608,066 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 46 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Combined Statement of Financing For the Years Ended September 30, 2001 and 2000 (Dollars in Thousands) 2001 2000 Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources (Note 18) Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $70,697,100 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections and Adjustments (Adjusted) (34,131,697) (21,916,198) Financing Imputed for Cost Subsidies (Note 14) 20,600 20,795 Financing Sources Transferred Out (2,707,275) (4,010,604) Exchange Revenue Not In the Entity's Budget 4,837,150 4,366,080 Other (17,221) (23,089) Total Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources $54,386,667 $49,134,084 Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations (Note 18) Change in Amount of Goods, Services, and Benefits Ordered But Not Yet Provided (Net Increases) Net Decreases ($1,009,541) $2,423,469 Credit Program Collections that Increase Liabilities for Loan Guarantees or Allowance for Subsidy 11,471,786 8,996,426 Resources that Fund Expenses Recognized in Prior Periods (41,431) (33,759) Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities (35,192,107) (31,352,816) Other Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities 4,197,500 4,287,021 Total Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations $(20,573,793) $(15,679,659) Costs That Do Not Require Resources (Note 18) Adjustments $75,145 $(360,763) Total Costs That Do Not Require Resources $75,145 $(360,763) Financing Sources Yet to be Provided (Note 18) $5,919,944 $(374,838) Net Cost of Operations (Note 19) $39,807,963 $32,718,824 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 47 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Note 1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Reporting Entity The U.S. Department of Education (the Department) was established on May 4, 1980, by Congress, under the Department of Education Organization Act of 1979 (Public Law 96-88). It is responsible, through the execution of its congressionally approved budget, for administering direct loan, guaranteed loan, and grant programs. The Department’s Office of Student Financial Assistance (SFA) administers the Federal Direct Student Loan Program, the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, Pell Grants, and the Campus-Based Program. The Federal Direct Student Loan Program, authorized by the Student Loan Reform Act of 1993, makes loans directly to eligible undergraduate and graduate students and their parents through participating schools. Funds are borrowed from the Treasury Department to fund these loans. The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, authorized by the Higher Education Act (HEA) of 1965, as amended, cooperates with state and private nonprofit Guaranty Agencies to provide loan guarantees and interest subsidies on loans made by private lenders to eligible students. The Pell Grant and Campus-Based Programs provide educational grants and other financial assistance to eligible applicants. The Department also administers numerous grant programs and the Facilities Loan Program. Grant programs include grants for the disadvantaged, elementary and secondary education, special education and rehabilitative services, and educational research and improvement. Through the Facilities Loan Program, the Department administers low interest loans to institutions of higher learning for the construction and renovation of facilities. Basis of Accounting and Reporting The financial statements present the financial position of the Department as of September 30, 2001 and 2000, including the statements of net cost, changes in net position, budgetary resources, and financing. This disclosure is required by the Chief Financial Officers Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-576), and the Government Management Reform Act of 1994 (GMRA). The financial statements were prepared from the books and records of the Department, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The accounting principles are promulgated by the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) and are presented in the format prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Bulletin No. 97-01, as amended and OMB Bulletin No. 01-09. These statements are different from the financial reports, also prepared by the Department pursuant to other OMB directives that are primarily used to monitor and control the use of budgetary resources. The balance sheet, statement of net cost, and the statement of changes in net position consolidate the balances of 215 discrete appropriations that comprise 31 fund accounts within eight reporting groups. 48 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 The reporting groups include: Student Financial Assistance (SFA); Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (OESE); Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS); Office of Vocational and Adult Education (OVAE); Office of Postsecondary Education (OPE); Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI); Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA); and Department Management (DM). The accounting structure reflects both accrual and budgetary accounting transactions. Under accrual accounting, revenues are recognized when earned and expenses are recognized when incurred, without regard to receipt or payment of cash. Under budgetary accounting, budgetary resources are obligated based on legal requirements, which may differ from when an accrual-based transaction is recorded. Use of Estimates The preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States requires management to make assumptions and estimates that directly affect the amounts reported in the financial statements, actual results may differ from those estimates. Estimates for the credit program receivables and liabilities contain assumptions that significantly impact the financial statements. The primary components of this assumption set include, but are not limited to, collections, repayments, default rates, prevailing interest rates, and loan volume. Actual loan volume, interest rates, cash flows and other critical components used in the estimation process may differ significantly from the assumptions made at the time the financial statements were prepared. Minor adjustments to any of these assumption components can create significant changes in the estimate. The Department recognizes the sensitivity of the changes in assumptions and the impact that the projections can have on the estimate. As a result, management has attempted to mitigate these fluctuations by utilizing historical trend analysis to project future cash flows. The assumptions used for the September 30, 2001 and 2000 financial statements are based on the best information available at the time the estimate was derived. The Department and OMB have established a Student Loan Credit Modeling Working Group that will refine the underlying assumptions used to generate baseline and policy estimates. The Working Group plans to summarize the key issues regarding the subsidy calculation methodology, which requires an OMB policy decision. This is expected to occur in time for the Mid-Session review of the FY2003 Budget. At this time, the Working Group has not determined a specific set of alternative assumptions or model structures. The use of an alternative set of assumptions or model 49 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 configurations is considered a change in estimate and may produce cost estimates significantly different than those reflected in these financial statements. Present Value Credit Program Receivables and Loan Guarantee Liabilities The financial statements at September 30, 2001 and 2000 reflect the Department’s estimate of the long-term cost of direct and guaranteed loans in accordance with he Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (the Act). The Act requires that the net present value of the estimated long-term cost to the government of new direct loans and loan guarantees be financed from new budget authority and recorded as budget outlays at the time the direct loan or guaranteed loans are disbursed. The FASAB’s Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standard (SFFAS) No. 2, Accounting for Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees, and related regulations and guidance, defines subsidy costs as the present value of interest subsidies, defaults, fee offsets, and other cash flows associated with direct loans and loan guarantees in the year loans are disbursed. The Department records subsidy costs as an allowance to direct loans receivable or as a liability for loan guarantees. Subsidy costs are estimated based on the difference between the present value of expected government cash outflows (e.g. interest the government pays to borrow, interest subsidies, and defaults) and inflows (e.g. interest income from borrowers and collections of fees), discounted by the average interest rate on marketable Treasury securities. Direct Loan subsidy costs are recognized as an expense in the year the loans are disbursed. Guaranty Loan subsidy costs are re-estimated each year. The Department is consistent with SFFAS Standard No. 2 in its treatment of pre-FY92 loan receivables and loan guarantees. SFFAS Standard No. 2 allows pre-FY92 loan receivables and loan guarantees to be valued at net realizable value or expected value, respectively, or at the net present value of their cash flows. The Department values pre-1992 loan receivables and loan guarantees at the net present value of their cash flows. The Department has included additional disclosure in Note 4 as required by FASAB’s SFFAS No. 18 for FY2001, which is included in Note 4. Subsidy re-estimates, the interest rate re-estimate and the technical/default re-estimate are separately disclosed. A reconciliation is provided between the beginning and ending balances for the subsidy cost allowance for direct loans and the liability for loan guarantees. Budget Authority Budget authority is the authorization provided by law for the Department to incur financial obligations that will result in outlays. The Department’s budgetary resources as of September 30, 2001 include current authority (appropriations and borrowing authority) and unobligated balances remaining from annual, multi-year, and no-year budget authority received in prior years. Budgetary resources also include reimbursements received and other revenue (spending authority from offsetting collections credited to an 50 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 appropriation account and recoveries of prior year obligations). Pursuant to Public Law 101-510, unobligated balances associated with appropriations expiring at the end of the fiscal year remain available for obligation adjustment for five years, after which the account is cancelled. Borrowing from Treasury provides most of the funding for the loan principal disbursements made under the Federal Direct Student Loan Program. The costs of the Department’s programs are generally funded with congressional appropriations. Revenues are recognized from other agencies and from the public in exchange for goods or services. Major sources of reported revenue include interest income recognized from the Federal Direct Student Loan Program borrowers on outstanding loans receivable and interest accrued from Treasury on undisbursed loan balances. Property and Equipment The Department capitalizes single items of property and equipment with an aggregate cost of $50,000 or more that have an estimated useful life greater than 2 years. The Department also capitalizes bulk purchases of property and equipment with an aggregate cost of $500,000 or more. A bulk purchase is defined as the purchase of like items related to a specific project or the purchase of like items that occur within the same fiscal year that have an estimated useful life greater than 2 years. In accordance with SFFAS No. 6, Accounting for Property, Plant and Equipment, these assets are depreciated using the straight-line method. The Department adopted the following useful lives for classes of depreciable property: • 3-Year Property – Information Technology (IT) and Telecommunications equipment • 5-Year Property – Furniture and Fixtures. Leases The Department leases office space from the General Services Administration (GSA). Future lease payments are not accrued as liabilities as these lease agreements generally meet the requirements of operating leases. Leased office space costs for FY2001 amounted to approximately $50.8 million, of which $17.0 million related to non-GSA owned office space. In FY2000, leased office costs amounted to approximately $48.8 million, of which $15.6 million related to non-GSA owned office space. Under existing commitments as of September 30, 2001, estimated future minimum lease payments are as follows: 51 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Future Minimum Lease Payments at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Fiscal Year End Amount 2002 $22,475 2003 21,898 2004 22,353 2005 23,007 After 2005 23,484 Total $113,217 The Department does not have any capital leases. Accounts Receivable Accounts receivable are amounts due the Department from the public and other federal agencies. Receivables from the public typically result from items such as overpayments of educational assistance, while amounts due from other federal agencies result from agreements entered into by the Department with these agencies. Accounts receivable are recorded at cost less an allowance for uncollectible amounts. Accounts Receivable – Guaranty Agency Reserves Section 422A of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA), as amended, required FFEL Guaranty Agencies to establish a Federal Student Loan Reserve Fund (the “Federal Fund”) and an Operating Fund by December 6, 1998. The Federal Fund and the non- liquid assets developed or purchased by a Guaranty Agency as a result, in whole or in part with federal funds, are the property of the United States. However, such ownership by the Department is independent of the actual control of the assets. The Department disburses funds to the Guaranty Agency through the Federal Fund for the payment of lender claims and default aversion fees of a Guaranty Agency. The Operating Fund is the property of the Guaranty Agency except for funds an agency borrows from the Federal Fund (under Section 422A of the HEA of 1965, as amended). The Operating Fund is used by the Guaranty Agency to fulfill its responsibilities. These responsibilities include repaying money borrowed from the Federal Fund, default aversion and collection activities. Guaranty Agency Reserves consist of the Department’s interest in the net assets of FFEL Program Guaranty Agencies. Guaranty Agency assets include initial Federal start-up funds (Guaranty Agency advances), receipts of Federal reinsurance payments, insurance premiums, Guaranty Agency share of collections on defaulted loans, investment income and administrative cost allowances, and other assets purchased out of reserve funds. 52 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Liabilities result from initial Federal start-up funds, lender claims, operating expenses and Federal reinsurance fees. Guaranty agency reserves are recorded as a governmental asset (see Note 3) and as a corresponding liability due to Treasury. Liabilities Liabilities represent actual and estimated amounts likely to be paid as a result of transactions or events that have already occurred. Liabilities without budget authority are classified as liabilities not covered by budgetary resources. FFEL and Federal Direct Student Loan Program liabilities result from entitlements covered by permanent indefinite budget authority. Liabilities for Loan Guarantees The liability for loan guarantees under the FFEL Program is the estimated long-term cost to the Department of its loan guarantees calculated on a net present value basis, excluding administrative costs. Obligations for subsidy cost are recorded against budget authority when a loan guarantee commitment is made. Subsidy costs are recognized as expenses in the year loans are disbursed. The subsidy cost is re-estimated each year. The re- estimation results in an increase or decrease of recognized subsidy expense. Borrowing from Treasury Programs are generally funded by congressional appropriations. However, borrowing from the U.S. Treasury provides most of the funding for loans made under the Federal Direct Student Loan Program and the Facilities Loan Program. The Department repays the loan principal based on available fund balances. Interest on the debt is calculated at fiscal year end using rates set by the U.S. Treasury. Principal and interest payments are remitted to the U.S. Treasury on an annual basis. Accrued Grant Liability Disbursements of grant funds are made to recipients through a drawdown request using the Grants and Administrative Payment System (GAPS). Drawdown requests typically are recorded as expenditures at the time of disbursement. However, some grant recipients incur expenditures prior to initiating a drawdown request. Accordingly, a liability is accrued by the Department for expenditures incurred by grantees prior to the processing of a drawdown request. The accrual amount is estimated using statistical sampling techniques. Net Position Net position consists of unexpended appropriations and cumulative results of operations. Unexpended appropriations include undelivered orders and unobligated balances, and exclude activity of the liquidating and financing accounts that are required under the 53 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990. Cumulative results of operations represent the net result of operations since inception. Prior Period Adjustments Prior period adjustments are included in the calculation of the net change in cumulative results of operations. Prior period adjustments reflect correction of errors from prior periods. Annual, Sick and Other Leave The liability for annual leave, compensatory time off, and other leave is accrued when earned and reduced when taken. Each year, the accrued annual leave account balance is adjusted to reflect current pay rates. Annual leave earned but not taken, within established limits, is funded from future financing sources. Sick leave and other types of non-vested leave are expensed as taken. Retirement Plans and Other Employee Benefits Employees participate either in the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), a defined benefit plan, or the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), a defined benefit and contribution plan. For CSRS employees, the Department contributes 8.51 percent of pay. For FERS employees, the Department contributes 10.7 percent of pay to the defined benefit plan and 1 percent of pay to the thrift savings plan, a defined contribution plan. Additionally, the Department matches employee contributions to the thrift savings plan up to an additional 4 percent of pay. For FERS employees, the Department also contributes the employer’s share for Social Security (FICA) and Medicare. SFFAS No. 5, Accounting for Liabilities of the Federal Government, requires government agencies to report the full cost of employee benefits for CSRS, FERS, FEHB (Federal Employee Health Benefits), and FEGLI (Federal Employees Group Life Insurance). For financial statements, the Department uses the applicable cost factors provided by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). Federal Employees Compensation Act A portion of the estimated liability for disability benefits assigned to the Department under the Federal Employees Compensation Act (FECA) is accrued. This estimated liability is administered and determined by the Department of Labor and is based on the net present value of estimated future payments. Related Party Transactions The Department’s financial activities are interrelated with the Federal government as a whole. Specifically, the Department is subject to financial regulation and management 54 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 control by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Treasury. As a result of this relationship, operations may not be conducted and financial positions reported, as they would if the Department were a separate and unrelated entity. Reclassifications Reclassification adjustments were made to the September 30, 2000 balance sheet, statement of budgetary resources and statement of financing to enhance the usefulness of presenting comparative statements, as follows: Amounts were reclassified from “liabilities for loan guarantees” to “credit program receivables, net”. The purpose of this reclassification is to align the present value of future cash flows for the FFEL program between defaults that have already occurred and future defaults. Beginning obligations and obligations incurred were reduced for the FFEL program to conform the re-estimate process to those used in 2001. The reduction of the obligated balance and the corresponding increase in the unobligated balance reflects that a budgetary accounting event only occurs when an actual re-estimate is executed. Note 2. Fund Balance with the U.S. Treasury Fund Balance with Treasury at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Appropriated Funds $33,130,371 $29,993,164 Revolving Funds 7,143,257 12,104,012 All Other Funds 202,710 63,543 Total $40,476,338 $42,160,719 The Fund Balance with the U.S. Treasury represents appropriated funds and revolving funds, which include undisbursed U.S. Treasury borrowings that are available to pay current liabilities and finance loan programs. The Department has the authority to disburse the funds directly to agencies and institutions participating in its programs. The U.S. Treasury processes cash receipts and disbursements on behalf of the Department. The undisbursed account balances are entity assets. A portion of the appropriated funds included at September 30, 2001 was funded in advance by multi-year appropriations for expenditures anticipated during the current and future fiscal years. Revolving funds conduct continuing cycles of business-like activity and do not require an annual appropriation. The decrease in the revolving fund balance 55 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 for FY2001 is primarily due to the return of approximately $4.7 billion to the U.S. Treasury relative to FFEL program cost re-estimates. Note 3. Accounts Receivable Accounts Receivable, Net Amount Due at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Accounts Receivable Intragovernmental $ 10,730 $ -- Governmental 113,083 82,703 Guaranty Agency Federal and Restricted Funds Receivable 2,462,445 2,231,814 Total Accounts Receivable $ 2,586,258 $ 2,314,517 Accounts receivable represent balances due from recipients of grant and other financial assistance programs, and from other Federal agencies. They are recorded at their net realizable value. Estimates for the allowance for loss on uncollectible accounts are based on historical data. Guaranty agency federal and restricted funds receivable are non-entity assets. Guaranty agency federal and restricted funds receivable are also a liability due to the U.S. Treasury and are considered intragovernmental liabilities. These balances represent the Federal government’s interest in the net assets of state and non-profit FFEL Program Guaranty Agencies. Note 4 Credit Program Receivables and Liabilities for Loan Guarantees The Department operates the William D. Ford Direct Student Loan and Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) programs to help students finance the costs of higher education. Under the programs, the Department makes loans directly or guarantees all or a portion of loans made by participating lending institutions to individuals who meet statutorily set eligibility criteria and attend eligible institutions of higher education. Eligible higher education institutions include public and private two- and four-year institutions, graduate schools, and vocational training schools. Students and their parents receive loans regardless of income; student borrowers who demonstrate financial need also receive Federal interest subsidies. Under the Direct Loan program, the Federal Government makes loans directly to students and parents through participating schools. Loans are originated and serviced through contracts with private vendors. Under the FFEL program, over 4,000 financial institutions make loans directly to students and parents. FFEL loans are guaranteed by the Federal Government against default, with 36 State or private non-profit guaranty 56 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 agencies acting as intermediaries in administering the guarantees. Beginning with loans first disbursed on or after October 1, 1993, financial institutions became responsible for 2 percent of the cost of each default; guaranty agencies also began paying a portion of the cost (in most cases 5 percent) of each defaulted loan from Federal funds they hold in trust. FFEL participants receive statutorily set Federal interest and special allowance subsidies; guaranty agencies receive fee payments as set by statute. In most cases, loan terms and conditions under the two programs are identical. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (the Act) governs the proprietary and budgetary accounting treatment of direct and guaranteed loans. The long-term cost to the government for direct loans or loan guarantees is referred to as “subsidy cost.” Under the Act, subsidy costs for loans obligated beginning in FY1992 are recognized at the net present value of projected lifetime costs in the year the loan is disbursed. Subsidy costs are revalued annually. Components of subsidy include interest subsidies, defaults, fee offsets, and other cash flows. Consistent with the Act, subsidy cash flows exclude direct Federal administrative expenses; however, contractual payments to third-party private loan collectors, who receive a set percentage of amounts they collect, are included in these cash flows. The Department estimates all future cash flows associated with Direct Loans and FFEL. Projected cash flows are used to develop subsidy estimates, which, as noted above, represent the net present value of future Federal costs associated with direct loans and defaulted guaranteed loans. Subsidy costs can be positive or negative; negative subsidies occur when expected program inflows (e.g., repayments, fees) exceed expected Federal costs. Subsidy estimates are recorded as a change to direct and defaulted FFEL program loans receivable and the liability for guaranteed loans. The Department uses a computer- based cash flow projection model to calculate subsidy estimates for direct loans and defaulted guaranteed FFEL program loans, and for the FFEL program loan guarantee liability. Cash flows are projected over the life of the loan, aggregated by loan type, cohort year, and risk category. The loan’s cohort year represents the year a direct loan was obligated or a loan was guaranteed, regardless of the timing of disbursements. Risk categories include two-year colleges, freshmen and sophomores at four-year colleges, juniors and seniors at four-year colleges, graduate schools, and proprietary schools. In recent years, the consolidation of existing loans into new direct or guaranteed loans has increased significantly. Under the Act and requirements provided by OMB Circulars A-11 (Budget Formulation) and A-34 (Budget Execution), the retirement of loans being consolidated is considered a receipt of principal and interest, even though no cash is received from the borrower because a new consolidated loan is created. Under this definition of collections, defaults on loans in any given cohort are reduced in that refinancing provides payment of defaulted loans in the cohort and opens new loans in a current cohort. This consolidation activity and resulting refinancing is taken into consideration in setting the subsidy rate for defaults. 57 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 The FFEL estimated liability for loan guarantees is reported at the present value of estimated net cash outflows. Defaulted FFEL loans are reported net of an allowance for subsidy computed using net present value methodology, including defaults, collections, and other cancellations. The same methodology is used to estimate the allowance on Direct Loan receivables. The Department disbursed $18 billion in Direct Loans to eligible borrowers in FY2001 and $16 billion in loans in FY2000. Half of all volume is obligated in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year. Loans typically disburse in multiple installments over an academic period; as a result, multiple loan disbursements for a cohort year often cross fiscal years. Regardless of the fiscal year in which they occur, disbursements are tracked back to the cohort of obligation. As of September 30, 2001 and 2000, the total principal balance outstanding of guaranteed loans held by lenders was approximately $160 billion and $146 billion, respectively. As of September 30, 2001 and 2000, the maximum government exposure on outstanding guaranteed loans held by lenders was approximately $157 billion and $143 billion, respectively. Of the insured amount, the Department would pay a smaller amount to the guaranty agencies, based on the appropriate reinsurance rates, which range from 100 to 95 percent. Any remaining insurance not paid as reinsurance would be paid to lenders by the guaranty agencies from their Federal funds. Payments by guaranty agencies do not reduce government exposure, however, since these payments are made from Federal funds. The liability and allowance estimates on the Department’s books are independent of these guaranty agency Federal funds, since they are considered outside the direct or indirect control of the Secretary. The Department accrues interest on its outstanding performing direct loans. In accordance with SFFAS No. 1, Selected Assets and Liabilities, the Department accrues, but does not report, interest on non-performing loans. Given the Department’s comprehensive compromise authority, there is limited expectation of collection of accrued interest and fees on defaulted loans. Collections from borrowers are allocated to principal, interest, and fees, as appropriate. Non-performing loans have been in default an average of four years before they are assigned to the Department. Program data indicate that significant collections are made later in the life of non-performing student loans. As previously noted, borrowers may pre-pay and close out existing loans without penalty from capital raised through the disbursement of a new consolidation loan. The loan liability and net receivable include estimates of future prepayments of existing loans; they do not reflect costs associated with anticipated consolidation loans. 58 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Credit Program Receivables The Department reclassified $3.6 billion for FY2000 from liabilities for loan guarantees for FFEL to credit program receivables to align the allowance for subsidy to the expected value under credit reform. This reclassification did not result in program costs or additional subsidy. Credit program receivables are comprised of direct and defaulted FFEL loan principal and related interest receivable, net or inclusive of the allowance for subsidy. The credit program receivables are as follows: Direct Loan Program Credit Program Receivables at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Principal Receivable $ 70,544,902 $ 58,522,455 Interest Receivable 2,615,855 1,707,927 Sub-total $ 73,160,757 $ 60,230,382 Allowance for Subsidy 1,568,317 2,585,250 Credit Program Receivable, Net $ 74,729,074 $ 62,815,632 The allowance for subsidy for Direct Loans is a negative (debit) balance due to high interest payment projections on Department receivables such that total projected principal and interest received will exceed the face value of the loan receivables. FFEL Program Credit Program Receivables at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Pre-1992 Post-1991 Total Pre-1992 Post-1991 Total Principal Receivable $14,120,871 $5,366,538 $19,487,409 $14,986,951 $5,341,825 $20,328,776 Interest Receivable 1,740,152 1,286,825 3,026,977 2,006,678 1,188,792 3,195,470 Sub-total $15,861,023 $6,653,363 $22,514,386 $16,993,629 $6,530,617 $23,524,246 Allowance for Subsidy (14,488,687) (2,438,910) (16,927,597) (14,086,594) (2,186,537) (16,273,131) Credit Program Receivable, Net $ 1,372,336 $ 4,214,453 $ 5,586,789 $ 2,907,035 $4,344,080 $ 7,251,115 59 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Direct Loan Program Reconciliation of Allowance for Subsidy The reconciliation of allowance for subsidy for the Direct Loan Program follows: Direct Loan Reconciliation of Allowance for Subsidy (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Beginning Balance, Allowance for Subsidy $2,585,250 ($1,557,854) Components of Subsidy Transfers Interest Rate Differential $2,204,550 $1,880,221 Default, Net of Recoveries (597,850) (784,166) Fees 243,567 341,472 Other (811,259) (368,877) Current Year Subsidy Transfers from Program Account $1,039,008 $1,068,650 Components of Subsidy Re-estimates Interest Rate Re-estimates $875,608 $378,049 Technical and Default Re-estimates (3,221,618) 2,486,229 Total Subsidy Re-estimates $(2,346,010) $2,864,278 Activity Fee Collections $(315,040) $(360,570) Loan Cancellations1 342,897 89,793 Subsidy Allowance Amortization 161,748 459,522 Other 100,464 21,431 Total Activity $290,069 $210,176 Ending Balance, Allowance for Subsidy $1,568,317 $2,585,250 1 Loan cancellations include those loans where the primary borrower has died, become disabled or declared bankruptcy. Liabilities for Loan Guarantees Liabilities for loan guarantees represent the net present value of future projected cash flows, including principal and interest repayments. As such, these estimates vary significantly with changes in forecasting assumptions; particularly involving the interest rates charged to students, those paid to loan holders, and those used for discounting cash flows. The FY2001 and FY2000 liabilities were calculated using government-wide interest rate projections provided by the Office of Management and Budget. 60 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 FFEL Program Reconciliation of Liabilities for Loan Guarantees The FFEL Program loan guarantee liability reconciliation, associated with the FFEL Program loans guaranteed in the financing account is as follows: FFEL Program Guarantee Liability Reconciliation (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Beginning Balance, Liability for Loan Guarantees $9,534,955 $8,250,606 Components of Subsidy Transfers Interest Supplement Costs $2,671,860 $2,816,347 Defaults, Net of Recoveries 954,195 1,267,680 Fees (1,371,175) (1,067,127) Other 854,129 513,234 Current Year Subsidy Transfers from Program Account $3,109,009 $3,530,134 Components of Subsidy Re-estimates Interest Rate Re-estimates $ (43,022) $ (412) Technical and Default Re-estimates (2,864,956) (1,283,104) Subsidy Re-estimates in Liability $(2,907,978) $(1,283,516) Activity Interest Supplement Payments $(3,343,333) $(3,108,557) Claim Payments (2,568,548) (1,858,902) Fee Collections 1,392,343 1,254,210 Interest on Liability Balance 460,717 499,843 Other1 2,549,042 2,251,137 Total Activity $(1,509,779) $(962,269) Ending Balance, Liabilities for Loan Guarantees $8,226,207 $9,534,955 FFEL Liquidating Account Liabilities for Loan Guarantees 150,560 443,713 Total Liabilities for Loan Guarantees $8,376,767 $9,978,668 1 Includes amounts recorded to the liability balance for defaults, adjustments and loan consolidation activity. The adjustments include reclassification between the Liability for Loan Guarantees and Allowance for Subsidy for FY 2001 and FY 2000. 61 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 Subsidy Expense Direct Loan and FFEL Program loan guarantee subsidy expenses are as follows: Direct Loan Program Subsidy Expense For the Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Interest Rate Differential $(2,204,550) $(1,880,221) Defaults, Net of Recoveries 597,850 784,166 Fees (243,567) (341,472) Other 811,259 368,877 Current Year Subsidy Transfers $(1,039,008) $(1,068,650) Re-estimates 2,346,010 (2,864,278) Direct Loan Subsidy Expense $1,307,002 $(3,932,928) FFEL Program Loan Guarantee Subsidy Expense For the Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Interest Supplement Costs $ 2,671,860 $ 2,816,347 Defaults, Net of Recoveries 954,195 1,267,680 Fees (1,371,175) (1,067,127) Other 854,129 513,234 Current Year Subsidy Transfers $ 3,109,009 $ 3,530,134 Re-estimates (3,423,314) (3,234,603) FFEL Loan Guarantee Subsidy Expense $ (314,305) $ 295,531 62 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Subsidy Rates The subsidy rates are used to compute each year’s subsidy expense, disclosed on the Statement of Net Cost. The subsidy rates applicable to the 2001 loan cohort year are as follows: Subsidy Rates Applicable to 2001 Loan Cohort Year Interest Differential Defaults Fees Other Total Direct Loan Program, Cohort 2001 (10.31%) 2.64% (1.18%) 4.39% (4.46%) Interest Supplements Defaults Fees Other Total FFEL Program, Cohort 2001 7.79% 2.47% (4.40%) 2.81% 8.67% The subsidy rates disclosed pertain only to the cohort listed. These rates cannot be applied to direct or guaranteed loans disbursed during the current reporting year to yield the subsidy expense. The subsidy expense for new direct or guaranteed loans reported in the current year relate to disbursements of loans from both current and prior years’ cohorts. Subsidy expense is recognized when direct loans are disbursed by the SFA or third-party lenders disburse guaranteed loans. Facilities Loan Programs The Department administers the College Housing and Academic Facilities Loans (CHAFL), College Housing Loans (CHL), and Higher Education Facilities Loans (HEFL) programs. From 1952 to 1993, these programs provided low-interest financing to institutions of higher education for the construction, reconstruction, and renovation of housing, academic, and other educational facilities. Since 1998, no new loans have been authorized. The Department also administers the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Capital Financing program. Since 1992, this program has provided HBCUs with access to capital financing for the repair, renovation, and, in exceptional circumstances, the construction, or acquisition of facilities, equipment, and infrastructure through Federally insured bonds. The Department has authorized a designated bonding authority to provide for the operation of the program including making the loans to eligible institutions, charging interest, and providing for a schedule of repayments. A mandatory escrow account has been established to pay the principal and interest on bonds for loans that are in default. The credit program receivables are as follows: 63 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Facilities Loan Programs at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Principal Receivable $481,608 $504,976 Interest Receivable 7,426 9,342 Subtotal $489,034 $514,318 Allowance for Subsidy (106,109) (108,375) Credit Program Receivables, Net $382,925 $405,943 The allocation of administrative expense is disclosed in note 13. Note 5. Property and Equipment Property, Plant and Equipment at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Asset Cost Accumulated Depreciation Net Asset Value FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 IT Equipment $28,393 $1,307 $4,732 $ -- $23,661 $1,307 Furniture and Fixtures 1,563 -- 156 -- 1,407 -- Building Improvements 173 -- 17 -- 156 -- Total $30,129 $1,307 $4,905 $ -- $25,224 $1,307 Information Technology Equipment consists of computer hardware and related software. The majority of these costs represent the continuing acquisition and implementation of a new financial accounting system. Furniture and fixtures, and building improvements are related to the renovation and furnishing of new quarters for SFA. The significant increase in capitalized amounts for FY2001 in comparison to FY2000 is related to a modification in capitalization policy. Prior to FY2001, the Department only capitalized bulk purchases with an acquisition cost of $500,000 or more. Beginning in FY2001, the capitalization policy was modified to include the capitalization of single items with a cost of $50,000 or more. 64 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Note 6. Borrowing from Treasury Borrowing from Treasury at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Direct Student Loans Facilities Loans Total FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 Beginning Balance $65,346,881 $52,069,506 $368,505 $ 379,803 $65,715,386 $52,449,309 New Borrowing 20,703,739 16,346,598 2,374 -- 20,706,113 16,346,598 Repayments (8,861,515) (3,069,223) (111,779) (298) (8,973,294) (3,069,521) Reclassified as Payable to FFB -- -- -- (11,000) -- (11,000) Ending Balance $77,189,105 $65,346,881 $259,100 $368,505 $77,448,205 $65,715,386 The Department’s debt to the U.S. Treasury was $77.4 billion as of September 30, 2001 and $65.7 billion as of September 30, 2000. The funds were borrowed to provide funding for the direct loan and facilities loan programs. The borrowing is authorized through indefinite permanent authority at interest rates set each year by the U.S. Treasury. Borrowing authority is a budgetary resource that is realized when disbursed. The Department draws funds from the U.S. Treasury to finance the majority of its direct lending activity in accordance with its needs. Borrowing authority not realized during the year is carried over for use in the future to fund loans that have been obligated, but not disbursed. Unused Borrowing Authority as of September 30, 2001 and September 30, 2000 was as follows: Unused Borrowing Authority from Treasury at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Beginning Balance, Unused Borrowing Authority $4,770,736 $1,505,188 Current Year Borrowing Authority 21,794,507 19,612,146 Realized Borrowing from the U.S. Treasury (20,703,739) (16,346,598) Prior Year Unused borrowing Authority Cancelled (2,318,678) -- Ending Balance, Unused Borrowing Authority $3,542,826 $4,770,736 Note 7. Payable to Treasury At September 30, 2001 and 2000, the Department reported $4.2 billion and $7.9 billion as payable to the U.S. Treasury. For the FFEL liquidating account the Department includes a payable to Treasury equivalent to the net cash inflows for the remaining life of the program; for FY2001, this amount was $1.5 billion, for FY2000 this amount was $3.9 billion. A payable to Treasury is also included for the downward re-estimates of subsidy 65 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 needs for the FFEL financing account. This amount was $2.7 billion in FY2001 and $4 billion in FY2000, respectively. The Department pays downward subsidy re-estimates in the year they are executed in the Budget, usually the fiscal year following financial statement accrual. The payable to Treasury consisted of the following: Payable to the Treasury at September 30 (Dollars In Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Future Excess Liquidating Account Collections – FFEL $1,506,429 $3,850,017 FFEL Downward Subsidy Re-estimate 2,706,126 4,010,604 Ending Balance $4,212,555 $7,860,621 Note 8. Payable to Federal Financing Bank Public Law 102-325, the Higher Education Amendments of 1994, authorized the Department to issue bonds on behalf of the HBCU Capital Financing Program. To date, all bonds issued under this program have been purchased by the Federal Financing Bank (FFB). The Department reports the corresponding liability for full payment of principal and accrued interest as a payable to the FFB under rules established by the Credit Reform Act of 1990. Payable to Federal Financing Bank at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Beginning Balance $20,699 $ -- Reclassified from Borrowing from Treasury -- 11,000 Borrowing 10,983 9,796 Repayments (333) (97) Ending Balance $31,349 $20,699 The level of borrowing increased moderately in FY2001. The difference in ending balances between FY2001 and FY2000 reflects the cumulative effect of net borrowing for both fiscal years. Note 9. Other Liabilities Other liabilities covered by budgetary resources include contractual services, administrative services, interagency agreement accruals, and suspense account balances. 66 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Other liabilities not covered by budgetary resources include accrued annual leave and FECA disability benefits. Other Liabilities at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Other Liabilities Covered by Budgetary Resources: Intragovernmental $ 40,839 $112,562 Governmental 332,764 186,424 Total $373,603 $298,986 Other Liabilities Not Covered by Budgetary Resources: Intragovernmental $ 4,018 $250,261 Governmental 48,500 44,734 Total $ 52,518 $294,995 Total Other Liabilities $426,121 $593,981 Total other Intragovernmental liabilities (covered and not covered by budgetary resources) were $44.8 million in FY2001 and $362.8 million in FY2000. Total other Governmental liabilities (covered and not covered by budgetary resources) were $381.3 million in FY2001 and $231.2 million in FY2000. Note 10. Accrued Grant Liability The Department’s accrued grant liability represents an estimate of the expenses incurred by grantees that have not yet been reimbursed. For FY2000, the total liability was estimated from data reported from a random sample of grant awards and allocated among the reporting groups based on the grant balance available at fiscal year-end. For FY2001, the sample of grant awards was selected at the reporting group level, making further allocation unnecessary. The accrued grant liability by reporting group is shown below: Accrued Grant Liability at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 SFA $ 899,180 $ 319,376 OESE 298,202 752,098 OSERS 303,824 486,687 OVAE 45,419 137,219 OPE 187,077 179,749 OERI 61,934 80,245 OBEMLA 59,304 50,755 Total $1,854,940 $2,006,129 67 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Note 11. Net Position Net position is comprised of two elements – unexpended appropriations and cumulative results of operations. Unexpended appropriations represent appropriations not yet expended, which have not lapsed, been withdrawn, or rescinded. Balances not available are those that are non-apportioned for use by OMB. The Department’s unexpended appropriations consist of unobligated balances - available, unobligated balances – not available, and undelivered orders. The Department’s unexpended appropriations as of September 30, 2001 and September 30, 2000, are summarized as follows: Unexpended Appropriations at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 Unobligated Available $ 2,209,285 $ 1,795,131 Not Available 283,903 566,462 Undelivered Orders 28,198,629 24,361,167 Total $30,691,817 $26,722,760 Undelivered orders and unobligated balances for federal credit financing and liquidating funds are not included in the chart above, as they are not funded through appropriations. As a result, unobligated and undelivered order balances in the above chart will differ from these balances contained in the Combined Statement of Budgetary Resources. The Department had Cumulative Results of Operations of ($2) billion as of September 30, 2001 and ($124) million as of September 30, 2000. Cumulative results of operations arise from unfunded expenses, capital equipment purchases, reimbursable agreements, and upward loan subsidy re-estimates. The FY2001 and FY2000 re-estimate for direct loans were recorded as net upward re-estimates, reducing cumulative results of operations. The net upward re-estimates for direct loans for FY2001 and FY2000 were $2.1 billion and $250 million, respectively. Accordingly, the cumulative results of operations for FY2001 and FY2000 reflect the net upward re-estimate in those years. Note 12. Interest Revenue and Expense For the Direct Loan program, non-federal interest revenue is earned on the individual non-defaulted loans in the loan portfolio and federal interest is earned on the uninvested fund balances with the U.S. Treasury. Also, for the Direct Loan program, interest expense is incurred on the Department’s borrowings from the U.S. Treasury. For the FFEL program, federal interest revenue is earned on the uninvested fund balance with the U.S. Treasury. The interest revenues and expenses directly attributable to the Direct Loan Program, the FFEL Program, and other remaining programs are summarized below: 68 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Interest Revenue and Expenses For Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Direct Student Loans FFEL Program Other Programs Total FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 Interest Revenue Federal $1,061,471 $1,261,281 $460,717 $499,843 $ 183 $ 161 $1,522,371 $1,761,285 Non-Federal 4,039,690 3,211,256 -- -- 18,561 23,067 4,058,251 3,234,323 Total Interest Revenue $5,101,161 $4,472,537 $460,717 $499,843 $ 18,744 $23,228 $5,580,622 $4,995,608 Interest Expense Federal $5,101,161 $4,472,537 $ 460,717 $499,843 $ 16,167 $20,933 $5,578,045 $4,993,313 Non-Federal 183 115 159 109 69 81 411 305 Total Interest Expense $5,101,344 $4,472,652 $460,876 $499,952 $16,236 $21,014 $5,578,456 $4,993,618 Note 13. Allocation of Direct and Indirect Cost The reported salaries and administrative expenses include the allocation of direct and indirect administrative costs among the reporting groups. The distribution is calculated based on a combination of full time employees and program costs. Allocation of Administrative Expenses For Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Direct Costs Indirect Costs Total Costs FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 SFA $52,998 $50,580 $72,263 $63,131 $125,261 $113,711 OSERS 32,300 32,182 30,270 22,628 62,570 54,810 OCR (3) -- 34,852 30,076 34,849 30,076 OERI 36,537 34,806 16,203 14,304 52,740 49,110 OESE 24,284 23,304 34,523 23,124 58,807 46,428 OPE 24,981 25,878 14,441 12,468 39,422 38,346 OBEMLA 3,941 3,729 2,914 2,569 6,855 6,298 OVAE 10,968 9,943 8,878 7,077 19,846 17,020 Total $186,006 $180,422 $214,344 $175,377 $400,350 $355,799 Note 14. Imputed Financing The Statement of Changes in Net Position recognized an imputed financing source of $20.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2001, and $20.8 million for the year ended September 30, 2000. Corresponding post-employment benefit expenses are recognized on the Statement of Net Cost as a program cost under salaries and administrative expense for both fiscal years. The imputed financing source represents annual service costs not paid by the Department or employee contributions to the Civil Service Retirement System. No imputed financing source is recognized for the Federal 69 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Employees Retirement System, since it is a fully funded retirement service plan. The post-employment benefit expense represents the Department’s estimate of the funds necessary to pay employees future pension, life, and health benefits. Note 15. Prior Period Adjustments During FY2001 and FY2000, the Department performed various analyses of its account balances in an effort to improve the financial data recorded in its accounting system. Items of income and expense related to prior periods were recorded as prior period adjustments and Net Position was amended to reflect the adjustments. Prior Period Adjustments to Net Position For Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) FY2001 FY2000 FFEL $ 69 ($824,645) DL 50 (20,694) SFA Grants (48,462) (85,716) OESE (98,942) (3,701) OSERS (2,095) 63,372 OVAE 223 3,824 OPE 44,424 (59,631) OERI (13,031) 27,935 OBEMLA (220) (10,191) DM (34,845) 35,863 Total ($152,829) ($873,584) During FY2001, the Department made prior period adjustments to: • Adjust cumulative results of operations account balances based on an analysis of unfunded liabilities and capitalized assets. • Align Fund Balance with Treasury and budgetary accounts comprising unobligated balances, undelivered orders, and accounts payable and receivable. • Align subsidiary systems to general ledger balances During FY2000, the Department reconciled its undelivered order balances between its general ledger and the GAPS payment system, disbursement in transit account balances, and its Fund Balance with Treasury to the budgetary status of resource accounts. In addition, it reviewed the FFEL financing fund to correct the cumulative results of operations account balance. Prior period adjustments were made based on these analyses. 70 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Note 16. Unobligated and Obligated Balances – Beginning of Period During FY2001 and FY2000, the Department performed a review of unobligated and obligated balances and recorded adjustments to the beginning account balances. The statement of budgetary resources reflects the adjusted beginning unobligated and obligated balances, and the related adjustments to obligations incurred during the period. The FY2001, adjustments to the beginning obligated balances resulted from an analysis of the budgetary and proprietary accounts payable balances. Adjustments to the prior year’s posting logic resulted in changes to the beginning obligated balances. Additionally, the FY2001 beginning obligated and unobligated balances were adjusted due to systematic problems in the general ledger closing process and other accounting problems that occurred in prior years. The beginning unobligated balance was adjusted downward by $16.3 million in FY2001 and adjusted upward by $611 million in FY2000, while the beginning obligated balance was adjusted downward by $227.1 million in FY2001 and adjusted upward by $798 million in FY2000. The obligations incurred balance was adjusted upward by $229 million in FY2001 and adjusted downward by $798 million in FY2000. The reconciliations are shown below: Unobligated Balances – Beginning of Period at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Beginning Balance Beginning Balance (Unadjusted) Adjustments (Adjusted) FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FFEL $8,173,288 $7,771,917 $6,774 $498,922 $8,180,062 $8,270,839 DL 22,960 29,794 (17,969) -- 4,991 29,794 SFA Grants 1,652,835 4,720,204 41,184 182,208 1,694,019 4,902,412 OESE 168,984 349,420 (31,661) (43,763) 137,323 305,657 OSERS 286,040 176,630 (288) (7,741) 285,752 168,889 OVAE 89,588 68,870 577 (9) 90,165 68,861 OPE 118,650 80,431 (324) (986) 118,326 79,445 OERI 6,579 22,278 3,147 (120) 9,726 22,158 OBEMLA 2,847 3,682 -- -- 2,847 3,682 DM 24,212 30,209 (17,768) (17,675) 6,444 12,534 Total $10,545,9831 $13,253,435 $(16,328) $610,836 $10,529,655 $13,864,271 1 The difference between the FY2000 ending unobligated balance and the FY2001 beginning unobligated (unadjusted) balance is the result of a $24 million transfer of a prior year unobligated balance to the Department of Labor. 71 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Obligated Balances – Beginning of Period at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Beginning Balance Beginning Balance (Unadjusted) Adjustments (Adjusted) FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FFEL $3,878,875 $3,060,836 $(170,661) $745,255 $3,708,214 $3,806,091 DL 7,229,151 6,907,766 2,291 -- 7,231,442 6,907,766 SFA Grants 6,510,518 2,807,498 16,126 143,208 6,526,644 2,950,706 OESE 8,825,209 9,751,345 (15,839) (76,228) 8,809,370 9,675,117 OSERS 5,118,981 7,868,327 1,435 (3,320) 5,120,416 7,865,007 OVAE 1,271,965 1,912,742 726 11 1,272,691 1,912,753 OPE 1,994,678 1,572,427 1048 (4) 1,995,726 1,572,423 OERI 732,133 704,807 (6,926) (10,610) 725,207 694,197 OBEMLA 557,130 529,117 263 -- 557,393 529,117 DM 220,591 253,153 (55,592) 65 164,999 253,218 Total $36,339,231 $35,368,018 $(227,129) $798,377 $36,112,102 $36,166,395 Obligations Incurred at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Beginning Balance Beginning Balance (Unadjusted) Adjustments (Adjusted) FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FFEL $15,004,142 $11,560,310 $170,661 $(745,255) $15,174,803 $10,815,055 DL 27,882,115 24,521,127 (2,291) -- 27,879,824 24,521,127 SFA Grants 11,709,192 12,921,838 (14,024) (143,208) 11,695,168 12,778,630 OESE 16,648,985 13,279,508 15,839 76,228 16,664,824 13,355,736 OSERS 9,223,684 5,020,339 (1,435) 3,320 9,222,249 5,023,659 OVAE $1,850,617 866,315 (726) (11) 1,849,891 866,304 OPE 2,175,184 1,839,809 (1,048) 4 2,174,136 1,839,813 OERI 727,456 591,954 6,926 10,610 734,382 602,564 OBEMLA 458,380 405,808 (263) -- 458,117 405,808 DM 476,124 488,469 55,592 (65) 531,716 488,404 Total $86,155,879 $71,495,477 $229,231 $(798,377) $86,385,110 $70,697,100 Note 17. Statement of Budgetary Resources The Statement of Budgetary Resources compares budgetary resources with the status of those resources. As of September 30, 2001, budgetary resources outstanding were $94.1 billion and outlays for the year were $52.3 billion. As of September 30, 2000, budgetary resources outstanding were $81.3 billion and outlays for the year were $48.6 billion. 72 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Budgetary Resources Borrowing authority is a budgetary resource used to fund loans made under the Federal Direct Student Loan Program. Borrowing authority is granted to a federal entity to borrow, obligate and expend the borrowed funds. This program may borrow from Treasury to fund loans originated during the year. Borrowings may be repaid to Treasury at any time without penalty and funds not expended accrue interest as uninvested funds. The majority of the funds used to repay Treasury borrowings are from collections on outstanding loans. The Federal Direct Student Loan Program and the FFEL Program were granted permanent indefinite appropriation budget authority through legislation. Part D of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and Part B of the Federal Family Education Loan Program, pursuant to the HEA of 1965, pertains to the existence, purpose, and availability of this permanent indefinite appropriations authority. Adjustments The “Adjustments” line item on the Statement of Budgetary Resources primarily includes repayments of borrowings, negative subsidy returns, and excess collections returned to Treasury. Adjustments for Direct Loans totaled $8.3 billion in FY2001, consisting of transactions in the Financing fund and in the Program fund. In the Financing fund, repayments to Treasury totaled $6.6 billion. In the Program fund, $1.7 billion of collections from the downward re-estimate/negative subsidy were returned to the Treasury Department. Adjustments to FFEL totaled $5.9 billion in FY2001, consisting of transactions in the Liquidating fund and in the Program fund. In the Liquidating fund, excess collections to Treasury totaled $1.6 billion. In the Program fund, capital transfers (repayment of downward re-estimate to Treasury) totaled $5.1 billion, offset by approximately $800 million in recoveries. 73 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Obligated Balances The budgetary resources obligated balances, by reporting group, as of September 30, 2001 and September 30, 2000 are summarized below: Obligated Balances at September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Reporting Group FY2001 FY2000 SFA $13,985,723 $17,618,544 OES 11,004,528 8,825,209 OSERS 5,517,160 5,118,981 OVAE 1,495,821 1,271,965 OPE 2,442,766 1,994,678 OERI 878,229 732,133 OBEMLA 603,438 557,130 DM 159,554 220,591 Total $36,087,219 $36,339,231 The Department adjusted its obligated balances for the direct loan program downward by $4.6 billion in FY2001, as these amounts are no longer needed. This downward adjustment of obligations resulted in the return of $2.3 billion in unused borrowing authority and the repayment of $2.3 billion in outstanding borrowing from Treasury. Comparison to the Budget of the United States Government Differences exist between the Statement of Budgetary Resources and the FY 2001 actual amounts reported in the Budget of the United States Government. These differences are not material and relate to the use of all appropriations (current and expired) for the Statement of Budgetary Resources versus only current year appropriations for the Budget of the United States Government. In addition, the Budget of the United States Government includes information and estimates that pre-date the completion of the Department’s audited financial statements. Note 18. Statement of Financing The Statement of Financing provides information on the total resources used by an agency, both those received through appropriation and those received through other means during the reporting period. It then explains how they were used in agency operations to finance orders for goods and services not yet delivered, to acquire assets and liabilities, and to fund the entity’s net cost of operations. 74 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Cash flows associated with credit programs, flow through the liability for loan guarantees or the allowance for subsidy. These flows, unlike other accounts, are not recorded as revenues or expenses and do not affect the Department’s net cost of operations. Special circumstances surround unfunded expenses such as upward subsidy re-estimates, accrued annual leave, and other payroll-related accruals. These unfunded expenses affect the Statement of Net Cost but are not covered by budgetary resources, (i.e. do not give rise to a budgetary accounting event). Liabilities not covered by budgetary resources were $52.5 million and $295 million, for FY2001 and FY2000, respectively. The Statement of Financing is presented as a combined statement for the Department and as a combining statement for its major programs. The net cost of operations, by reporting group, for FY2001 and FY2000 is shown below: Net Cost of Operations For Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Reporting Group FY2001 FY2000 SFA $12,746,464 $6,234,813 OESE 13,947,813 13,828,926 OSERS 8,672,602 8,176,263 OVAE 1,549,502 1,608,749 OPE 1,718,380 1,542,678 OERI 603,784 715,758 OBEMLA 416,350 409,166 DM 153,068 202,471 Total $39,807,963 $32,718,824 Note 19. Cost and Revenue by Budget Function The Department’s costs and revenue, by budget function, are presented below: Cost and Revenue by Budget Function For Fiscal Years Ended September 30 (Dollars in Thousands) Earned Gross Costs Revenue Net Costs FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 FY2001 FY2000 Education, training, employ-, ment and social services $45,250,503 $37,666,354 $5,586,644 $5,086,278 $39,663,859 $32,580,076 Administration of justice 144,235 138,918 131 170 144,104 138,748 Total $45,394,738 $37,805,272 $5,586,775 $5,086,448 $39,807,963 $32,718,824 75 United States Department of Education Notes to Principal Financial Statements September 30, 2001 Note 20. Contingencies Guaranty Agencies The Department can assist Guaranty Agencies experiencing financial difficulties by advancing funds or by other means. No provision has been made in the principal statements for potential liabilities related to financial difficulties of Guaranty Agencies because the likelihood of such occurrences is uncertain and cannot be estimated with sufficient reliability. Perkins Loans Reserve Funds The Perkins Loan Program is a campus-based program providing financial assistance to eligible postsecondary school students. The Department provides funds to participating schools to provide about 85.5 percent of the capital used to make loans to eligible students at 5 percent interest. The remaining 14.5 percent of program funding is provided by the school. For the latest academic year ended June 30, 2001, there were approximately 620,000 loans made, totaling approximately $1.1 billion at approximately 1,761 institutions, averaging $1,790 per loan. For the academic year ended June 30, 2000, there were approximately 653,000 loans made, totaling approximately $1.1 billion at approximately 1,817 institutions, averaging $1,700 per loan. The Department’s share of the Perkins Loan Program was approximately $6.1 billion as of September 30, 2001; and approximately $6.2 billion as of September 30, 2000. Perkins Loan borrowers who meet statutory eligibility requirements—such as service as a teacher in low income areas, as a Peace Corps or VISTA volunteer, in the military, or in law enforcement, nursing, or family services—may receive partial loan forgiveness for each year of qualifying service. In these circumstances a contingency exists. The Department may be required to compensate Perkins Loan institutions for the cost of the partial loan forgiveness. Litigation and Other Claims The Department is involved in various lawsuits incidental to its operations. Judgments resulting from litigation against the Department are paid by the Department of Justice. In the opinion of management, the ultimate resolution of pending litigation will not have a material effect on the Department’s financial statements. Other Matters Some portion of the current year financial assistance expenses (grants) may include funded recipient expenditures which were subsequently disallowed through program review or audit processes. In the opinion of management, the ultimate disposition of these matters will not have a material effect on the Department’s financial statements. 76 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 INVESTMENT IN HUMAN CAPITAL The U. S. Department of Education (ED) executes programs under the Education, Training, Employment and Social Services function established by Congress in the Budget Act of 1974. This report presents Human Capital activity related to the execution of the ED's congressionally approved budget and programs. NARRATIVE DISCUSSION The Department of Education’s mission is to ensure equal access to education and to promote educational excellence throughout the nation. To carry out this mission, the Department works in partnership with states, schools, communities, institutions of higher education and financial institutions--and through them with students, teachers and professors, families, administrators, and employers. Key functions of the partnership are: · Leadership to address critical issues in American education. · Grants to education agencies and institutions to strengthen teaching and learning and prepare students for citizenship, employment in a changing economy, and lifelong learning. · Student loans and grants to help pay for the costs of postsecondary education. · Grants for literacy, employment, and self-sufficiency training for adults. · Monitoring and enforcement of civil rights to ensure nondiscrimination by recipients of federal education funds. · Support for statistics, research, development, evaluation, and dissemination of information to improve educational quality and effectiveness. HUMAN CAPITAL PROGRAMS Federal investment in Human Capital comprises those expenses for general public education and training programs that are intended to increase or maintain national economic productive capacity. The Department of Education’s Human Capital programs include Elementary and Secondary, Postsecondary, Student Financial Assistance, Special and Rehabilitative Education, Research and Improvement, Bilingual and Minority Languages, and Vocational and Adult Education. Elementary and Secondary Education The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education provides leadership, technical assistance, and financial support to State and local educational agencies for maintenance and improvement of preschool, elementary, and secondary education. Compensatory Education Programs provide financial assistance to State and local education agencies and other institutions to support services for children in high poverty schools, institutions for neglected and delinquent children, homeless children, and certain Indian children. 77 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 The Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Program provides grants to States to help public schools adopt or develop effective comprehensive school reforms with an emphasis on basic academics and parental involvement. Goals 2000 Programs provide grants to support State and local district efforts to improve schools and parental involvement in schools so all children can reach challenging academic standards. The Impact Aid Program provides financial assistance for the maintenance and operations of school districts in which the Federal Government has acquired substantial real property. It provides direct assistance to local educational agencies that educate substantial numbers of federally connected pupils (children who live on, or whose parents work on, federal property). Indian Education supports the efforts of local educational agencies, Indian tribes, and other entities to meet the academic needs of American Indians and Alaska Natives so these students can achieve to the same State performance standards as all students. Migrant Education Programs support high-quality comprehensive educational programs for migratory children to address disruptions in schooling and other problems that result from repeated moves. Safe and Drug-Free Schools Programs provide leadership to ensure that all schools are free of drugs and violence and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and that all schools offer a disciplined environment that is conductive to learning. School Improvement Programs provide financial assistance to State and Local Educational Agencies, institutions of higher education, and other public and private nonprofit organizations for general assistance, projects to meet special educational needs of target children and teacher development. Class Size Reduction Program is an initiative to help schools improve student learning by hiring additional, highly qualified teachers so children — especially those in the early elementary grades — can attend smaller classes. The 21st Century Community Learning Centers Program provides support to after- school projects that keep children safe and provide academic enrichment and other recreational and enrichment opportunities such as band, drama, art, and other cultural events for children. It also provides life-long learning opportunities for community members. The Community Technology Centers Program expands access to information technology and learning services by creating computer learning centers in low-income 78 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 communities. The centers are used for pre-school preparation, workforce development, after-school enrichment, and adult and continuing education. The Reading Excellence Program helps children learn to read through instruction based on research, professional development, family literacy, and extended learning activities. Postsecondary Education The Office of Postsecondary Education formulates policy and coordinates programs that assist postsecondary educational institutions and students pursuing a postsecondary education. Policy, Planning, and Innovation supports The Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education, which provides grants to colleges and universities to promote reform, innovation, and improvement in postsecondary education. Higher Education Programs (HEP) administer discretionary funds and provide support services that improve student access to postsecondary education and foster excellence in institutions of higher education. Learning Anytime Anywhere Partnerships (LAAP) - The Office of Postsecondary Education supports partnerships among colleges, businesses, and other organizations to promote technology-mediated distance education that is not limited by time or place. Student Financial Assistance (SFA) Programs SFA administers need-based financial assistance programs for students pursuing postsecondary education. ED makes available federal grants, loans and work-study funding to eligible undergraduate and graduate students. ED’s two major loan programs are the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and the William D. Ford Direct Student Loan Program. The FFELP operates with State and private nonprofit guaranty agencies to provide loan guarantees and interest supplements through permanent budget authority on loans by private lenders to eligible students. The William D. Ford Direct Student Loan Program is a direct lending program in which loan capital is provided to students by the Federal Government through borrowing from the U.S. Treasury. Special Education and Rehabilitative Services The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services supports programs that assist in educating children with special needs. It provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities and supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities. 79 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 The Office of Special Education Programs administers programs and projects relating to the free public education of all children, youth, and adults with disabilities from birth through age 21. Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) oversees programs such as counseling, medical and psychological services, job training, and other individualized services that help individuals with physical or mental disabilities to obtain employment. The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation provides leadership and support for a comprehensive program of research related to the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities. Educational Research and Improvement The Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) is responsible for expanding America’s fundamental knowledge and understanding of education through research and development. Media and Information Services (MIS) provides leadership in developing effective media and information services for OERI. The National Center for Education Statistics fulfills a Congressional mandate to collect, collate, analyze, and report complete statistics on the condition of American education, conduct and publish reports, and review and report on education activities internationally. The National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education administers a comprehensive program of research and development to improve early childhood development and education. The National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students administers a comprehensive program of research and development for the improvement of education for at-risk students (defined as those who because of limited English proficiency, poverty, race, geographic location, or economic disadvantage face a greater risk of low education achievement or reduced academic expectations). The National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking, and Management develops and disseminates information to guide the design and implementation of effective governance strategies. The National Institute on Postsecondary Education, Libraries, and Lifelong Learning provides information about the education and training of adults in a variety of settings including postsecondary institutions, community-based education programs, libraries, and the workplace. 80 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 The National Institute on Student Achievement, Curriculum, and Assessment administers a comprehensive program of research and development to provide leadership for states and localities to improve student achievement and enhance student learning. The National Library of Education (NLE) is the largest federally funded library devoted entirely to education. NLE serves in three areas: Reference and Information Services, Collection and Technical Services, and Resource Sharing and Cooperation. The Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination supports comprehensive education reform by linking teachers, administrators, parents, policymakers, and the public with the best knowledge from education research, statistics, and practice. Bilingual and Minority Languages The Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs helps school districts meet their responsibility to provide equal education opportunity to limited English proficient children. Office of Vocational and Adult Education The Office of Vocational and Adult Education provides funds for vocational-technical education for youth and adults. Most of the funds are awarded in the form of grants to State education agencies. STEWARDSHIP EXPENSES In the Department of Education, discretionary spending constitutes approximately 90 percent of the budget and includes nearly all programs, the major exceptions being student loans and rehabilitation services. While spending for entitlement programs is usually a function of the authorizing statutes creating the programs, and is not generally affected by appropriations laws, spending for discretionary programs is decided in the annual appropriations process. Most Department programs are discretionary - for example, Impact Aid, Vocational Education, Special Education, Pell Grants, Research, and Statistics. 81 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 Summary of Human Capital Expenses (Dollars in thousands) Student Financial Assistance FY 2001 FY 2000 Direct Loan Subsidy Expense $ 1,307,001 $(3,932,928) Guaranteed Loan Subsidy Expense (314,305) 295,531 Grant Program Expense 10,812,779 8,960,280 Salaries & Administrative Expense 248,945 273,866 Subtotal $12,054,420 $ 5,596,749 Other Departmental Elementary and Secondary Education Expense $13,850,422 $13,773,266 Special Education & Rehabilitative Services Expense 8,590,455 8,104,963 Other Departmental Program Expense 3,892,814 3,955,390 Salaries & Administrative Expense 341,074 312,051 Subtotal $26,674,765 $26,145,670 Grand Total $38,729,185 $31,742,419 Intra-Governmental Amounts (Dollars in thousands) Assets FY 2001 FY 2000 Fund Balance With Treasury $40,476,338 $42,160,719 Accounts Receivable 10,730 -- Interest Receivable 57 70,755 Total Assets $40,487,125 $42,231,474 Liabilities Borrowing from Treasury $77,448,205 $65,715,386 Payable to Treasury 4,212,555 7,860,621 Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds due to Treasury 2,462,445 2,231,814 Payable to Federal Financing Bank 31,349 20,699 Accounts Payable 22,293 6,647 Interest Payable 7,866 83,469 Other Intra-Governmental Liabilities Covered by Budgetary Resources 40,839 112,562 Other Intra-Governmental Liabilities Not Covered by Budgetary Resources 4,018 250,261 Total Liabilities $84,229,570 $76,281,459 82 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 PROGRAM OUTPUTS Education is primarily a State and local responsibility in the United States. States and communities, as well as public and private organizations, establish schools and colleges, develop curricula, and determine requirements for enrollment and graduation. The structure of education finance in America reflects this predominantly State and local role. Combining ED’s expenditures of roughly $42 billion a year with funding from all other federal agencies, such as the Department of Health and Human Services' Head Start program and the Department of Agriculture's School Lunch program, the Federal Government contributes approximately 9 percent of total national expenditures on education. The remaining 91 percent comes from State, local, and private sources. That $42 billion is about 1.9 percent of the Federal Government's $1.9 trillion budget. ED currently administers 174 programs affecting every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve 15,000 school districts and more than 50 million students attending almost 85,000 public schools and more than 26,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 8 million postsecondary students. While ED's programs and responsibilities have grown substantially over the years, the Department itself has not. In fact, ED's staff of 4,700 is nearly 40 percent below the 7,500 employees who administered Federal education programs in 1980, the year the Department was created. These staff reductions, along with a wide range of management improvements, have helped limit administrative costs to less than 3 percent of the Department’s budget. This means that ED delivers about 97 cents on the dollar in education assistance to States, school districts, postsecondary institutions, and students. PROGRAM OUTCOMES Education is the stepping stone to higher living standards for American citizens. Education is key to national economic growth. But education’s contribution is more than increased productivity and incomes. Education improves health, promotes social change and opens doors to a better future for children and adults. Economic outcomes, such as wage and salary levels, historically have been determined by the educational attainment of individuals and the skills employers expect of those entering the labor force. Recently, both individuals and society as a whole have placed increased emphasis on educational attainment as the workplace has become increasingly technological and employers now seek employees with the highest level of skills. For prospective employees, the focus on higher level skills means investing in learning or developing skills through education. Like all investments, developing higher level skills involves costs and benefits. 83 United States Department Of Education Required Supplementary Information September 30, 2001 Returns, or benefits, of investing in education come in many forms. While some returns accrue for the individual, others benefit society and the Nation in general. Returns related to the individual include higher earnings, better job opportunities, and jobs that are less sensitive to general economic conditions. Returns related to the economy and society include reduced reliance on welfare subsidies, increased participation in civic activities, and greater productivity. Over time, the returns of developing skills through education have become evident. Statistics illustrate the rewards of completing high school and investing in postsecondary education: • Employment Rate: Between 1971 and 1998, the employment rate of male and female 25 to 34 year-olds was generally higher among those individuals with a higher level of education. The employment rate of males ages 25 to34 decreased for those who had not finished high school and those with a high school diploma or GED, and remained relatively constant for those with some college and those with a bachelor's degree or higher. The employment rate of females ages 25 to34 increased across all education levels. However, the rate of increase for females who did not complete high school was lower than the rate of increase for females who attained higher levels of education. • Annual Earnings: In 1998, the median annual earnings of adults ages 25 to 34 who had not completed high school were substantially lower than those of their counterparts who had done so (30 and 31 percent lower for males and females, respectively). Adults ages 25 to 34 who had completed a bachelor’s degree or higher earned substantially more than those who had less education (56 and 100 percent more for males and females, respectively). These returns of investing in education directly translate into the advancement of the American economy as a whole. 84 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Annual Accountability Report - SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION 85 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidating Balance Sheet As of September 30, 2001 (Dollars in Thousands) DW Office of Office of Office of Office of Office of Bilingual Elementary Special Education Vocational Office of Educational Education Student Financial & Secondary & Rehabilitative & Adult Postsecondary Research & & Minority Department Consolidated Assistance Education Services Education Education Improvement Languages Management Assets Intragovernmental Assets: Fund Balance with Treasury (Note 2) $40,476,338 $17,196,330 $11,734,211 $5,659,539 $1,562,591 $2,450,010 $884,121 $608,471 $381,065 Accounts Receivable, Net (Note 3) 10,730 4,488 150 1,957 - - 261 - 3,874 Interest Receivable 57 - - - - 57 - - - Governmental Assets: Accounts Receivable, Net (Note 3) 113,083 111,469 - - - 1,498 - - 116 Credit Program Receivables, Net (Note 4) 80,698,787 80,315,862 - - - 382,925 - - - Advances 38,738 38,738 - - - - - - - Cash and Other Monetary Assets - - - - - - - - - Property and Equipment (Note 5) 25,224 17,307 - - - - 535 - 7,382 Other Governmental Assets 259,945 258,006 - - - 1,896 - - 43 Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Receivable (Note 3) 2,462,445 2,462,445 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 Total Assets $124,085,347 $100,404,645 $11,734,361 $5,661,496 $1,562,591 $2,836,386 $884,917 $608,471 $392,480 Liabilities Intragovernmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable $22,293 $3,410 $9,564 $1,512 $82 $48 $5,541 $8 $2,128 Interest Payable 7,866 (0) (0) (0) (0) 7,866 (0) (0) (0) Borrowing from Treasury (Note 6) 77,448,205 77,189,105 (0) (0) (0) 259,100 (0) (0) (0) Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Due To Treasury (Note 3) 2,462,445 2,462,445 (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) Payable to Treasury (Note 7) 4,212,555 4,212,555 (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) Payable to Federal Financing Bank (Note 8) 31,349 (0) (0) (0) (0) 31,349 (0) (0) (0) Other Intragovernmental Liabilities (Note 9) 44,857 980 193 276 104 390 286 34 42,594 Governmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable 590,921 516,097 19,211 15,356 4,060 7,076 10,627 876 17,618 Accrued Grant Liability (Note 10) 1,854,940 899,180 298,202 303,824 45,419 187,077 61,934 59,304 (0) Liabilities for Loan Guarantees (Note 4) 8,376,767 8,376,767 (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) Other Governmental Liabilities (Note 9) 381,264 119,937 9,312 5,589 2,755 5,056 20,001 965 217,649 Total Liabilities $95,433,462 $93,780,476 $336,482 $326,557 $52,420 $497,962 $98,389 $61,187 $279,989 Net Position Unexpended Appropriations (Note 11) $30,691,817 $8,738,794 $11,400,664 $5,335,102 $1,511,642 $2,241,554 $790,474 $547,781 $125,806 Cumulative Results of Operations (Note 11) (2,039,932) (2,114,625) (2,785) (163) (1,471) 96,870 (3,946) (497) (13,315) Total Net Position $28,651,885 $6,624,169 $11,397,879 $5,334,939 $1,510,171 $2,338,424 $786,528 $547,284 $112,491 Total Liabilities and Net Position $124,085,347 $100,404,645 $11,734,361 $5,661,496 $1,562,591 $2,836,386 $884,917 $608,471 $392,480 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 86 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidating Statement of Net Cost For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 (Dollars in Thousands) DW Office of Office of Office of Office of Office of Bilingual Elementary Special Education Vocational Office of Educational Education Student Financial & Secondary & Rehabilitative & Adult Postsecondary Research & & Minority Department Consolidated Assistance Education Services Education Education Improvement Languages Management Program Costs Intragovernmental # Interest Expense, Federal (Note 12) $5,578,045 $5,561,878 $0 $0 $0 $16,167 $0 $0 $0 # Other Production Expense 0 0 $0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # Grant Expense 71,180 0 $69,954 0 $50 0 $1,176 0 0 # Contractual Service Expense 81,349 12,869 10,779 $4,008 10,042 4,259 34,594 $276 $4,522 # Salaries and Administrative Expense (Note 13) 153,433 95,518 5,854 7,142 3,062 5,984 8,449 909 26,515 # Bad Debt & Write-offs 38 0 37 0 0 0 0 0 1 # Other Program Expenses 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Governmental # Subsidy Expense (Note 4) 999,287 992,696 0 0 0 6,591 0 0 0 # Grant Expense 37,068,699 10,812,779 13,780,468 8,590,455 1,501,867 1,655,321 323,867 403,901 41 # Interest Expense, Non-Federal (Note 12) 411 358 0 6 0 0 8 0 39 # Contractual Service Expense 805,532 484,012 38,507 27,473 17,160 18,778 193,855 5,973 19,774 # Salaries and Administrative Expense (Note 13) 436,586 153,427 42,231 47,628 17,322 29,438 41,860 5,291 99,389 # Bad Debt & Write-offs 588 0 0 0 0 587 0 0 1 # Other Program Expenses 199,590 194,805 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,785 Total Program Cost $45,394,738 $18,308,342 $13,947,830 $8,676,712 $1,549,503 $1,737,125 $603,809 $416,350 $155,067 Less: Earned Revenues # Interest, Federal (Note 12) $1,522,371 $1,522,188 ($0) ($0) ($0) $183 ($0) ($0) ($0) # Interest, Non-Federal (Note 12) 4,058,251 4,039,690 (0) (0) (0) 18,561 (0) (0) (0) # Other Earned Revenue 6,153 (0) $17 $4,110 $1 1 $25 (0) $1,999 Earned Revenues $5,586,775 $5,561,878 $17 $4,110 $1 $18,745 $25 ($0) $1,999 Net Cost of Operations $39,807,963 $12,746,464 $13,947,813 $8,672,602 $1,549,502 $1,718,380 $603,784 $416,350 $153,068 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 87 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Consolidating Statement of Changes in Net Position For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 (Dollars in Thousands) DW Office of Office of Office of Office of Office of Bilingual Elementary Special Education Vocational Office of Educational Education Student Financial & Secondary & Rehabilitative & Adult Postsecondary Research & & Minority Department Consolidated Assistance Education Services Education Education Improvement Languages Management 11 Net Cost of Operations $(39,807,963) $(12,746,464) $(13,947,813) $(8,672,602) $(1,549,502) $(1,718,380) $(603,784) $(416,350) $(153,068) Financing Sources (Other than Exchange Revenues): 21 Appropriations Used $40,730,970 $13,466,364 $13,926,219 $8,608,448 $1,527,097 $1,695,388 $559,198 $409,518 $538,738 23 Donations (Non-exchange Revenue) 535 () () () () () () () 535 # Imputed Financing (Note 14) 20,600 129,421 59,960 64,175 20,451 41,684 54,402 7,055 (356,548) # Future Transfers Out due to Downward Subsidy Re-estimate (2,707,275) (2,706,125) () () () (1,150) () () () Total Financing Sources $38,044,830 $10,889,660 $13,986,179 $8,672,623 $1,547,548 $1,735,922 $613,600 $416,573 $182,725 Net Results of Operations $(1,763,133) $(1,856,804) $38,366 $21 $(1,954) $17,542 $9,816 $223 $29,657 # Prior Period Adjustments (Note 15) (152,829) (48,343) (98,942) (2,095) 223 44,424 (13,031) (220) (34,845) Net Change in Cumulative Results of Operations $(1,915,962) $(1,905,147) $(60,576) $(2,074) $(1,731) $61,966 $(3,215) $3 $(5,188) 60 Increase (Decrease) in Unexpended Appropriations 3,969,091 (514,217) 3,166,980 434,734 291,606 393,749 166,599 40,285 (10,645) Change in Net Position $2,053,129 $(2,419,364) $3,106,404 $432,660 $289,875 $455,715 $163,384 $40,288 $(15,833) 80 Net Position - Beginning of Period 26,598,756 9,043,533 8,291,475 4,902,279 1,220,296 1,882,709 623,144 506,996 128,324 Net Position - End of Period $28,651,885 $6,624,169 $11,397,879 $5,334,939 $1,510,171 $2,338,424 $786,528 $547,284 $112,491 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 88 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Combining Statement of Budgetary Resources For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 (Dollars in Thousands) DW Office of Office of Office of Office of Office of Bilingual Elementary Special Education Vocational Office of Educational Education Student Financial & Secondary & Rehabilitative & Adult Postsecondary Research & & Minority Department Combined Assistance Education Services Education Education Improvement Languages Management Budgetary Resources 1 Budget Authority $69,343,857 $37,514,043 $17,034,680 $9,070,063 $1,825,600 $2,190,453 $722,721 $460,000 $526,297 2 Unobligated Balance-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) (Note 16) 10,529,655 9,879,072 137,323 285,752 90,165 118,326 9,726 2,847 6,444 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) 27,638,727 27,505,541 61,504 8,928 71 55,145 5,035 - 2,503 4 Adjustments (13,393,186) (13,407,710) 161,001 (85) 1,042 (157,903) 2,793 302 7,374 Total Budgetary Resources (Note 17) $94,119,053 $61,490,946 $17,394,508 $9,364,658 $1,916,878 $2,206,021 $740,275 $463,149 $542,618 Status of Budgetary Resources 6 Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $54,749,795 $16,664,824 $9,222,249 $1,849,891 $2,174,136 $734,382 $458,117 $531,716 7 Unobligated Balances-Available 2,213,757 1,293,179 703,861 117,241 66,087 28,848 965 2,213 1,363 8 Unobligated Balances-Not Available 5,520,186 5,447,972 25,823 25,168 900 3,037 4,928 2,819 9,539 Total Status of Budgetary Resources (Note 17) $94,119,053 $61,490,946 $17,394,508 $9,364,658 $1,916,878 $2,206,021 $740,275 $463,149 $542,618 Outlays 10 Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $54,749,795 $16,664,824 $9,222,249 $1,849,891 $2,174,136 $734,382 $458,117 $531,716 # Less: Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) (34,131,697) (33,697,223) (262,730) (45,403) (9,713) (72,056) (14,344) (10,527) (19,701) 12 Obligated Balance, Net-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) (Note 16 ) 36,112,102 17,466,300 8,809,370 5,120,416 1,272,691 1,995,726 725,207 557,393 164,999 Less: Obligated Balance, Net-End of Period (Adjusted) (36,087,219) (13,985,723) (11,004,528) (5,517,160) (1,495,821) (2,442,766) (878,229) (603,438) (159,554) Total Outlays (Note 17 ) $52,278,296 $24,533,149 $14,206,936 $8,780,102 $1,617,048 $1,655,040 $567,016 $401,545 $517,460 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 89 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Departmentwide Combining Statement of Financing For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 (Dollars in Thousands) DW Office of Office of Office of Office of Office of Bilingual Elementary Special Education Vocational Office of Educational Education Student Financial & Secondary & Rehabilitative & Adult Postsecondary Research & & Minority Department Combined Assistance Education Services Education Education Improvement Languages Management Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources (Note 18) Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) (Note 16) $86,385,110 $54,749,795 $16,664,824 $9,222,249 $1,849,891 $2,174,136 $734,382 $458,117 $531,716 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections and Adjustments (Adjusted) (34,131,697) (33,697,223) (262,730) (45,403) (9,713) (72,056) (14,344) (10,527) (19,701) Financing Imputed for Cost Subsidies (Note 14) 20,600 129,421 59,960 64,175 20,451 41,684 54,402 7,055 (356,548) Financing Sources Transferred Out (2,707,275) (2,706,125) - - - (1,150) - - - Exchange Revenue Not In the Entity's Budget 4,837,150 4,824,026 - - - 13,124 - - - Other (17,221) - - - - (17,221) - - - Total Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources $54,386,667 $23,299,894 $16,462,054 $9,241,021 $1,860,629 $2,138,517 $774,440 $454,645 $155,467 Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations (Note 18) Change in Amount of Goods, Services, and Benefits Ordered But Not Yet Provided (Net Increases) Net Decreases ($1,009,541) $3,095,274 ($2,570,631) ($576,673) ($312,522) $(444,007) ($170,933) ($38,330) $8,281 Credit Program Collections that Increase Liabilities for Loan Guarantees or Allowance for Subsidy 11,471,786 11,436,845 - - - 34,941 - - - Resources that Fund Expenses Recognized in Prior Periods (41,431) (4,311) (1,886) (3,970) (860) (4,297) (4,120) (500) (21,487) Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities (35,192,107) (35,171,087) - - - (12,827) (642) - (7,551) Other Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities 4,197,500 4,197,500 - - - - - - - Total Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations $(20,573,793) $(16,445,779) $(2,572,517) $(580,643) $(313,382) $(426,190) $(175,695) $(38,830) $(20,757) Costs That Do Not Require Resources (Note 18) Adjustments $75,145 $11,503 $56,525 $7,951 $1,298 $1,674 $557 $47 $(4,410) Total Costs That Do Not Require Resources $75,145 $11,503 $56,525 $7,951 $1,298 $1,674 $557 $47 $(4,410) Financing Sources Yet to be Provided (Note 18) $5,919,944 $5,880,846 $1,751 $4,273 $957 $4,379 $4,482 $488 $22,768 Net Cost of Operations (Note 19) $39,807,963 $12,746,464 $13,947,813 $8,672,602 $1,549,502 $1,718,380 $603,784 $416,350 $153,068 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 90 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Financial Assistance Consolidating Balance Sheet As of September 30, 2001 SFA (Dollars in Thousands) Federal Direct Family Education Student Grant Consolidated Loan Program Loan Program Programs Assets Intragovernmental Assets: Fund Balance with Treasury $17,196,330 $7,757,905 $785,901 $8,652,524 Accounts Receivable, Net 4,488 4,488 - - Interest Receivable - - - - Governmental Assets: Accounts Receivable, Net 111,469 107,136 4,333 - Credit Program Receivables, Net 80,315,862 5,586,788 74,729,074 - Advances 38,738 38,738 - - Cash and Other Monetary Assets - - - - Property and Equipment 17,307 7,602 8,938 767 Other Governmental Assets 258,006 257,973 - 33 Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Receivable 2,462,445 2,462,445 $0 $0 Total Assets $100,404,645 $16,223,075 $75,528,246 $8,653,324 Liabilities Intragovernmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable $3,410 $1,189 $2,045 $176 Interest Payable (0) (0) (0) (0) Borrowing from Treasury 77,189,105 (0) 77,189,105 (0) Guaranty Agency Federal & Restricted Funds Due To Treasury 2,462,445 2,462,445 (0) (0) Payable to Treasury 4,212,555 4,212,555 (0) (0) Other Intragovernmental Liabilities 980 693 234 53 Governmental Liabilities: Accounts Payable 516,097 141,791 287,409 86,897 Accrued Grant Liability 899,180 (0) (0) 899,180 Liabilities for Loan Guarantees 8,376,767 8,376,767 (0) (0) Other Governmental Liabilities 119,937 67,565 47,779 4,593 Total Liabilities $93,780,476 $15,263,005 $77,526,572 $990,899 Net Position Unexpended Appropriations $8,738,794 $960,037 $116,784 $7,661,973 Cumulative Results of Operations (2,114,625) 33 (2,115,110) 452 Total Net Position $6,624,169 $960,070 ($1,998,326) $7,662,425 Total Liabilities and Net Position $100,404,645 $16,223,075 $75,528,246 $8,653,324 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 91 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Financial Assistance Consolidating Statement of Net Cost For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 SFA (Dollars in Thousands) Federal Direct Family Education Student Grant Consolidated Loan Program Loan Program Programs Program Costs Intragovernmental # Interest Expense, Federal $5,561,878 $460,717 $5,101,161 $0 # Other Production Expense 0 0 0 0 # Contractual Service Expense 12,869 2,758 2,169 $7,942 # Salaries and Administrative Expense 95,518 36,655 36,040 22,823 # Bad Debt & Write-offs 0 0 0 0 Governmental # Subsidy Expense 992,696 (314,305) 1,307,001 0 # Grant Expense 10,812,779 0 0 10,812,779 # Interest Expense, Non-Federal 358 159 183 16 # Contractual Service Expense 484,012 211,989 238,970 33,053 # Salaries and Administrative Expense 153,427 58,086 33,803 61,538 # Other Program Expenses 194,805 73,884 86,902 34,019 Total Program Cost $18,308,342 $529,943 $6,806,229 $10,972,170 Less: Earned Revenues # Interest, Federal $1,522,188 $460,717 $1,061,471 ($0) # Interest, Non-Federal 4,039,690 (0) 4,039,690 (0) Earned Revenues $5,561,878 $460,717 $5,101,161 ($0) Net Cost of Operations $12,746,464 $69,226 $1,705,068 $10,972,170 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 92 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Financial Assistance Consolidating Statement of Changes in Net Position For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 SFA (Dollars in Thousands) Federal Direct Family Education Student Grant Consolidated Loan Program Loan Program Programs 11 Net Cost of Operations $(12,746,464) $(69,226) $(1,705,068) $(10,972,170) Financing Sources (Other than Exchange Revenues): 21 Appropriations Used $13,466,364 $2,779,600 ($152,693) $10,839,457 # Imputed Financing 129,421 2,682 1,361 125,378 # Future Transfers Out due to Downward Subsidy Re-estimate (2,706,125) (2,706,125) () () Total Financing Sources $10,889,660 $76,157 $(151,332) $10,964,835 Net Results of Operations $(1,856,804) $6,931 $(1,856,400) $(7,335) # Prior Period Adjustments (48,343) 69 50 (48,462) Net Change in Cumulative Results of Operations $(1,905,147) $7,000 $(1,856,350) $(55,797) 60 Increase (Decrease) in Unexpended Appropriations (514,217) (385,856) (7,388) (120,973) Change in Net Position $(2,419,364) $(378,856) $(1,863,738) $(176,770) 80 Net Position - Beginning of Period 9,043,533 1,338,926 (134,588) 7,839,195 Net Position - End of Period $6,624,169 $960,070 ($1,998,326) $7,662,425 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 93 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Financial Assistance Combining Statement of Budgetary Resources For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 SFA (Dollars in Thousands) Federal Direct Family Education Student Grant Combined Loan Program Loan Program Programs Budgetary Resources 1 Budget Authority $37,514,043 $3,454,474 $23,351,458 $10,708,111 2 Unobligated Balance-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) 9,879,072 8,180,062 4,991 1,694,019 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) 27,505,541 14,640,197 12,865,344 - 4 Adjustments (13,407,710) (5,853,547) (8,331,853) 777,690 Total Budgetary Resources $61,490,946 $20,421,186 $27,889,940 $13,179,820 Status of Budgetary Resources 6 Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) $54,749,795 $15,174,803 $27,879,824 $11,695,168 7 Unobligated Balances-Available 1,293,179 4,711 261 1,288,207 8 Unobligated Balances-Not Available 5,447,972 5,241,672 9,855 196,445 Total Status of Budgetary Resources $61,490,946 $20,421,186 $27,889,940 $13,179,820 Outlays # Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) $54,749,795 $15,174,803 $27,879,824 $11,695,168 # Less: Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections (Adjusted) (33,697,223) (15,443,193) (17,430,715) (823,315) # Obligated Balance, Net-Beginning of Period (Adjusted) 17,466,300 3,708,214 7,231,442 6,526,644 Less: Obligated Balance, Net-End of Period (Adjusted) (13,985,723) (2,503,952) (4,313,900) (7,167,871) Total Outlays $24,533,149 $935,872 $13,366,651 $10,230,626 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 94 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Student Financial Assistance Combining Statement of Financing For the Year Ended September 30, 2001 SFA (Dollars in Thousands) Federal Direct Family Education Student Grant Combined Loan Program Loan Program Programs Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources Obligations Incurred (Adjusted) $54,749,795 $15,174,803 $27,879,824 $11,695,168 Spending Authority from Offsetting Collections and Adjustments (Adjusted) (33,697,223) (15,443,193) (17,430,715) (823,315) Financing Imputed for Cost Subsidies 129,421 2,682 1,361 125,378 Financing Sources Transferred Out (2,706,125) (2,706,125) - - Exchange Revenue Not In the Entity's Budget 4,824,026 1,738,457 3,085,569 - Other - - - - Total Obligations and Nonbudgetary Resources $23,299,894 $(1,233,376) $13,536,039 $10,997,231 Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations Change in Amount of Goods, Services, and Benefits Ordered But Not Yet Provided (Net Increases) Net Decreases $3,095,274 $650,570 $2,477,101 $(32,397) Credit Program Collections that Increase Liabilities for Loan Guarantees or Allowance for Subsidy 11,436,845 4,462,601 6,974,244 - Resources that Fund Expenses Recognized in Prior Periods (4,311) (4,294) (16) (1) Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities (35,171,087) (10,932,311) (24,237,862) (914) Other Resources that Finance the Acquisition of Assets or Liquidation of Liabilities 4,197,500 3,109,009 1,088,491 - Total Resources That Do Not Fund Net Cost of Operations $(16,445,779) $(2,714,425) $(13,698,042) $(33,312) Costs That Do Not Require Resources Adjustments $11,503 $1,529 $1,767 $8,207 Total Costs That Do Not Require Resources $11,503 $1,529 $1,767 $8,207 Financing Sources Yet to be Provided $5,880,846 $4,015,498 $1,865,304 $44 Net Cost of Operations $12,746,464 $69,226 $1,705,068 $10,972,170 The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements. 95 Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report ATTACHMENTS Report of Independent Auditors Report on Internal Control Report on Compliance with Laws and Regulations 96 U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report APPENDIX A Glossary U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Glossary DLP Direct Loan Program ED U.S. Department of Education EDA Electronic Debit Account EDCAPS Education Central Administrative Processing System EFT Electronic File Transfer ESEA Elementary and Secondary Education Act FAFSA Free Application for Federal Student Aid FASAB Federal Accounting Standard Advisory Board FDLP Federal Direct Loan Program FFEL Federal Family Education Loan FFELP Federal Family Education Loan Program FMFIA Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act FMSS Financial Management System Software GA Guaranty Agency GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAO General Accounting Office GAPS Grant and Administrative Payment System GED General Education Degree GMRA Government Management Reform Act GPRA Government Performance and Results Act HBCU Historically Black College and University HEA Higher Education Act HHS Department of Health and Human Services IASA Improving America's Schools Act IPOS Institutional Participation and Oversight Service IT Information Technology MIT Management Improvement Team NDNH National Directory of New Hires NAEP National Assessment of Educational Progress NLE National Library of Education OBEMLA Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs OESE Office of Elementary and Secondary Education OERI Office of Educational Research and Improvement OIG Office of the Inspector General OMB Office of Management and Budget OPE Office of Postsecondary Education OSEP Office of Special Education Programs OSERS Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services OVAE Office of Vocational and Adult Education PBO Performance Based Organization SFA Student Financial Assistance U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report APPENDIX B Department of Education Web Sites U.S. Department of Education - FY 2001 Accountability Report Department of Education Offices Web Sites: U.S. Department of Education http://www.ed.gov Office of the General Counsel http://www.ed.gov/offices/OGC/ Office of Inspector General http://www.ed.gov/offices/OIG/ Office of Legislation and Congressional http://www.ed.gov/offices/OLCA/ Affairs Budget Office http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/budget.html Office of the Under Secretary Planning http://www.ed.gov/offices/OUS/PES/ and Evaluation Services Office of Management http://www.ed.gov/offices/OM/ Office of the Chief Information Officer http://www.ed.gov/offices/OCIO/ Office of the Chief Financial Officer http://www.ed.gov/offices/OCFO/ Office of Student Financial Assistance http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSFAP/ Program Direct Loans http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSFAP/DirectLo an/ Direct Consolidation Loan Program http://loanconsolidation.ed.gov Free Application for Student Aid http://www.fafsa.ed.gov Office of Elementary and Secondary http://www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/ Education Office of Educational Research and http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/ Improvement Office of Vocational and Adult Education http://www.ed.gov/offices/OVAE/ Office of Postsecondary Education http://www.ed.gov/offices/OPE/ Office of Bilingual Education and http://www.ed.gov/offices/OBEMLA/ Minority Languages Affairs Office of Special Education and http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/ Rehabilitative Services Office for Civil Rights http://www.ed.gov/offices/OCR/ Office of Intergovernal and Interagency http://www.ed.gov/offices/OIIA/ Affairs
U.S. Department of Education FY 2001 Financial Statement Audit Reports.
Published by the Department of Education, Office of Inspector General on 2002-02-27.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)