oversight

Influence Of Public Affairs Organizations On Information And Advertising Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-08-10.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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            COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED =AT&
                      WASHINGTON. D.C. 20848




B- 161939




Dear Mr. Bingham:

      This is our report on the influence of public affairs or-
ganizations on information and advertising programs in the
Department of Defense. Our review was made pursuant to
your requests of June 4 and June 19, 1970.

      We have not followed our usual practice of obtaining
agency comments on this report. No further distribution of
this report will be made unless copies are specifically re-
quested and then only after your agreement has been obtained
o r public announcement has been made by you concerning the
contents of the report.

      We trust that this information meets your needs. If
we can be of further help, we will be glad to comply with
your requests.

                                 Sincerely yours,




                                 Comptroller Gener a1
                                 of the United States

The Honorable Jonathan B. Bingham
House of Representatives




               50TH ANNIVERSARY 1921 1971-
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    I   CGMPl'ROLLER GENERAL ' S REPORT TO                   INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS OR-
    I   THE HONORABLE JONATHAN B. BINGHAM                    GANIZATIONS ON INFORMATION AND
    I
    I
        HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES                             ADVERT I S I NG PROGRAMS
    I                                                        Department of Defense B-761939
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    I   DIGEST
        - - - - * -
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    I   WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE
    I
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I              Congressman Jonathan B. Bingham requested the General Accounting Office
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I              (GAO) t o investigate certain pub1 i c relations a c t i v i t i e s and recruiting
I              services of the Department of Defense (DOD).
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I              T h i s request was based upon data furnished t o Congressman Bingham, which
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               stated t h a t DOD had revised i t s estimates for public relations and infor-
I              mation a c t i v i t i e s i n 1970 from $29 million t o $40 m i 1 1 ion. Conqressman
I              Bingham was concerned because several organizations, including h e Armed
I
I              Forces Radio and Television Service (which i s p a r t of the Office of In-
I              formation for the Armed Forces under the Assistant Secretary of Defense,
I              Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the Aerospace Audio-visual Service
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I              (part of the Department of the Air Force), had budgeted $48 million i n
I              f i s c a l year 1970 and had responsibilities in this area b u t were not
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I              among the organizations accounting for the $40 mi 11ion.
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i              Specifically GAO was asked t o determine (1) the extent t o which the
I              material and services produced by the information and advertising pro-
I
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               grams were used f o r public consumption and ( 2 ) the extent t o which the
I              formal public information and public a f f a i r s organizations o f DOD were
I              consulted when the above organizations decided what kind of materials
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I              and services they would provide.
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I       FINLIINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
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I              The Office of Information f o r the Armed Forces, the Aerospace Audio-
I              Visual Service, and the military recruiting services produce a large
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I              volume of films, broadcast material f o r radio and television, and
I              printed material.
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I              Materials produced by the Office of Information for the Armed Forces
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               are used primarily f o r internal information and entertainment of m i l i -
I              tary personnel. Some of the material is available t o the public by
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               purchase from the Government P r i n t i n g Office or by loan from military
I              base film l i b r a r i e s a f t e r approval f o r public release by the Assistant
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               Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). (See p . 4 . )
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I       Tear Sheet                                  1
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The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) has no role i n the                        I
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production of materials or services by the Office of Information f o r                         I
the Armed Forces. For security purposes, the Assistant Secretary does                          I
review a l l publications, motion pictures, and television and radio shows                     I
disseminated by the Office of Information f o r the Armed Forces. (See
P* 4.)
The Aerospace Audio-visual Service provides photographic and video ser-
vices and products to meet the requirements of the Air force. Aerospace
Audio-Visual Service expenditures f o r f i s c a l year 1970 totaled $12.4 mil-               I
                                                                                               I
lion, o f which $407,000 was f o r materials produced specifically for pub-                    I
l i c showing. {See p. 8.)                                                                     I
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GAO analyzed a sample of films produced specifically for internal Air                          I
Force use, t o determine the extent t o which such films were viewed by                        I
                                                                                               I
the general public. The films are available to c i v i l i a n organizations                       I
such as schools, colleges , universities , churches , and civic groups.                            I
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GAO estimates t h a t , from March through June 1970, 596 films, costing about                     I
$13,300,000, were shown 26,300 times t o civilian organizations and 49,000                         I
times t o Air Force personnel and/or Goverrunent employees. In 1969, 427                           I
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films, costing about $9,000,000, were shown 8,360 times t o civilian or-                           I
ganizations and 172,540 times t o Ai.r Force personnel and/or Government                           I
                                                                                                   I
employees. I t should be noted t h a t most of these films were produced                           I
prior t o the year of showing and will be utilized also i n future years.                          I
(See pp. 9 and 10.)                                                                                I


The Director of Information, Department of the Air Force, and the As-                              I

s i s t a n t Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) review and approve a1 1
Air Force films shown t o the public. (See p. 11.)
Each of the military services has an organization responsible for plan-
ning and directing i t s recruiting program. The material created f o r                            I
                                                                                                   I
and by the military recruiting services is directed t o the general pub-                           I
l i c . DOD requires audio-visual projects- - television, radio, s t i l l photo-                  I
                                                                                                   I
graphs, etc.--of national interest, such as recruiting projects, t o be                            I
submitted t o the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) for ap-                          I
                                                                                                   I
proval before release t o the general public. (See p. 1 2 . )                                      I
                                                                                                   I
W i t h respect t o public a f f a i r s organizations i n the i n d i v i d u a l services,       I
                                                                                                   I
GAO was informed t h a t the production of Navy and Marine Corps recruiting                        I
materials was n o t coordinated w i t h the public a f f a i r s and information                   I
                                                                                                   I
organizations i n their services. The Army and Air Force public a f f a i r s                      I
and information organizations , however, do participate i n the develop-                           I
                                                                                                   I
ment of recruiting materials i n their respective services. (See p. 16.)                           I
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                                                                                                    I




                                    2
                        C o n t e n t s

DIGEST                                                      1

CHAPTER
   1       OFFICE OF INFORMATION FOR THE ARMED FORCES       3
               Armed Forces Radio and Television Service    4
               Media Operations Division                    4
                   Motion Picture Service                   5
                   Publication Service                      6
                   Press Service                            6
                   Visual CoImunication Service            6
                   Production Service                      7
  2        AEROSPACE AUDIO-VISUAL SERVICE                   8
               Motion picture films                         8
               Film clips                                  10
               St ill photography                          10
               Coordination with public affairs organ-
                  izations on production of films          11
   3       MILITARY RECRUITING SERVICES                    12
               Materials used by the military recmit-
                 ing services                              12
                   Radio and television                    13
                   Magazines and newspapers                14
                   Motion picture f i l m s                15
                   Recruiting publicity items              15
               Coordination with public affairs organ-
                 izations                                  15
   4       SCOPE OF REVIEW                                 17
APPENDIX
   I       Letter of June 4 , 1970, with enclosure,from
             Congressman Jonathan B. Bingham               20

  I1       Letter of June 19, 1970, from Congressman
             Jonathan B. Bingham                           23
                         ABBREW IATIONS
    AAVS   Aerospace Audio-visual Service

    DOD    Department of Defense

    GAO    General Accounting Off i c e




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COMFTROLLER GENERAL ' S REPORT TO                  INFLUENCE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS OR-
THE HONORABLE JONATHAN B. BINGHAM                  GANIZATIONS ON INFORMATION AND
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES                           ADVERTISING PROGRAMS
                                                   Department of Defense B-161939




WHY THE REVIEV WAS MADE

     Congressman Jonathan B. Bingham requested the General Accounting Office
     (GAO) t o investigate certain public relations a c t i v i t i e s and recruiting
     services of the Department of Defense (DOD).
     T h i s request was based upon data furnished to Congressman Bingham, which
     stated t h a t DOD had revised i t s estimates f o r public relations and infor-
     mation a c t i v i t i e s i n 1970 from $29 million t o $40 million. Congressman
     Bingham was concerned because several organizations, including the Armed
     Forces Radio and Television Service (which is part of the Office of I n -
     formation f o r the Armed Forces under the Assistant Secretary of Defense,
     Manpower and Reserve Affairs) and the Aerospace Audio-visual Service
     ( p a r t of the Department of the Air Force), had budgeted $48 mill ion i n
     f i s c a l year 1970 and had responsibilities i n this area b u t were not
     among the organizations accounting f o r the $40 mill ion.
     Specifically GAO was asked t o determine (1) the extent t o which the
     material and services produced by the information and advertising pro-
     grams were used f o r public consumption and ( 2 ) the extent to which the
     formal publ i c information and publ i c a f f a i r s organizations of DOD were
     consulted when the above organizations decided what k i n d of materials
     and services they would provide.

FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

     The Office o f Information f o r the Armed Forces, the Aerospace Audio-
     Visual Service, and the military recruiting services produce a large
     volume of films, broadcast material f o r radio and television, and
     printed material.
     Materials produced by the Office of Information f o r the Armed Forces
     are used primarily f o r internal information and entertainment o f mil i -
     tary personnel. Some of the material i s available t o the public by
     purchase from the Government Printing Office or by loan from military
     base film l i b r a r i e s a f t e r approval f o r public release by the Assistant
     Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). (See p. 4 . )




                                          1
The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) has no role i n the
production of materials or services by the Office of Information f o r
the Armed Forces. For security purposes , the Assistant Secretary does
review a l l publications, motion pictures, and television and radio shows
disseminated by the Office of Information f o r the Armed Forces. (See
P. 4.1
The Aerospace Audio-Visual Service provides photographic and video ser-
vices and products t o meet the requirements of the Air Force. Aerospace
Audio-visual Service expenditures f o r f i s c a l year 1970 totaled $12.4 mil -
l i o n , of w h i c h $407,000 was for materials produced specifically for pub-
l i c showing, (See p. 8 . )
GAO analyzed a sample of films produced specifically for internal Air
Force use, t o determine the extent t o which such films were viewed by
the general public. The films are available t o c i v i l i a n organizations
such as schools, colleges, universities, churches, and civic groups.
GAO estimates t h a t , from March through June 1970, 596 films, costing about
$13,300,000, were shown 26,300 times t o civilian organizations and 49,000
times to Air Force personnel and/or Government employees. In 1969, 427
films, costing about $9,000,000, were shown 8,360 times to civilian or-
ganizations and 172,540 times t o Air Force personnel and/or Government
employees, I t should be noted t h a t most of these films were produced
prior t o the year of showing and will be utilized also i n future years.
(See pp. 9 and lo.}
The Director of Information, Department o f the Air Force, and the As-
s i s t a n t Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs} review and approve a l l
Air Force films shown t o the public. (See p. 11.)
Each of the military services has an organization responsible f o r p l a n -
n i n g and directing i t s recruiting program. The material created f o r
and by the military recruiting services is directed to the general pub-
1ic. DOD requires audio-visual projects- -television, radio, s t i l l photo-
graphs, etc.--of national i n t e r e s t , such as recruiting projects, to be
submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) f o r ap-
proval before release t o the general public. (See p. 1 2 . )
W i t h respect t o public affairs organizations i n the individual services,
GAO was informed that the production of Navy and Marine Corps recruiting
materials was not coordinated w i t h the public a f f a i r s and information
organizations i n t h e i r services. The Army and Air Force public a f f a i r s
and information organizations, however, do participate i n the develop-
ment of recruiting materials in their respective services. (See p. 1 6 . )




                               2
                         CHAPTER 1

        OFFICE OF INFORMATION FOR THE ARMED FORCES
     The Office of Information for the Armed Forces--under
the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower and Reserve Af-
fairs)--is responsible for developing and conducting the
Armed Forces Information and Education Program. This re-
sponsibility includes the production of materials concerning
national policies and commitments on such topics as
     --Democracy and Communism,
     --World Affairs,
     --Forces for Freedom (U.S. and friendly forces),
     --Citizenship (including voting),
     --Orientation for Overseas Duty, and
     --Code of Conduct.
     We were informed by officials of the Department of De-
fense that the program currently included information on
such subjects as equal opportunities, drug abuse, an all-
volunteer force, human goals, police recruiting, domestic
action, and open housing.
     The main operating divisions of the Office of Informa-
tion are the (1) Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
and (2) Media Operations Division. Total expenditures for
these divisions during fiscal year 1970 amounted to
$6,389,000, as follows:
Armed Forces Radio and Television
  Service                                         $2,315,000
Media Operations Division:
    Motion Picture Service            $400,000
    Pub1ication Service                 397,000
    Press Service                       217,000
    Production Service                   44,000
    Visual Communication Service         36,000      1,094,000
Other costs (including payroll, administrative
  support, transportation, and equipment and
  supplies applicable to all the above)              2,980.000
        Total                                     $6,389,000


                              3
     The Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) has
                                                          '
no role in the production of materials or services by the
Office of Information. For security purposes, the Assistant
Secretary, however, does review all Office of Information
publications, motion pictures, and television and radio
shows,
     Materials produced by the Office of Information are
used primarily for internal information and entertainment of
military personnel. Some of the material is available to
the public by purchase from the Government Printing Office
or by loan from military base film libraries after approval
for public release by the Assistant Secretary of Defense
(Public Affairs).
ARMED FORCES RADIO AND TELEVISION SERVICE
     The Armed Forces Radio and Television Service produces
and distributes programs and materials to 328 military radio
outlets and 90 military television outlets. Programs are
selected from a cross section of news, current events, docu-
mentary, general information, and entertainment programs ob-
tained from commercial radio and television stations at nom-
inal cost; from the Directorate of Armed Forces Information
and Education; and from other Government departments and
agencies. The Armed Forces Radio and Television Service ed-
its all programs selected for use by affiliated military ra-
dio and television networks. The networks are responsible
for developing their own programming schedules.
     DOD directives do not require the Armed Forces Radio
and Television Service to consult with public affairs and
public information organizations of DOD on material used in
the Service's affiliated radio and television outlets.
MEDIA OPERATIONS DIVISION

     The Media Operations Division consists of five activi-
ties which support the military internal information pro-
grams through the production of motion pictures, publica-
tions, press releases, still photographs, and other items,
All the materials and services provided by these activities
are intended for the entertainment and information of mili-
tary personnel, but some are made available to the general
public.
                             4
Motion Picture Service
     The Motion Picture Service produces or purchases and
distributes about 30 films annually for military information
programs. During fiscal year 1970, 26 motion pictures were
either produced or purchased at a cost of about $400,000.
The films, which vary in length from 10 to 35 minutes each,
are distributed in quantities up to 1,000 prints to the mil-
itary departments as needed, Examples of the films pur-
chased in fiscal year 1970 are: "Changing Face of
Communism-Eastern Europe ,I1 "Your Tour in Vietnam," and I'Peo-
ple Versus Pot." Some of these films are available to the
public by loan from military film libraries after the films
have been cleared for public showing by the Assistant Secre-
tary of Defense (Public Affairs).
     We attempted to determine the extent to which motion
pictures produced by the Office of Information were being
used by the military services and by civilian organizations.
In this regard,we noted that nearly 200 films had been pro-
duced or purchased during the period 1950 through 1970 and
that approximately 170 of these films had been cleared for
public showing to schools, churches, civic groups and other
civilian organizations. Both the Army and the Air Force
maintain machine listings which indicate the number of times
a film has been shown in a given period and the total number
of people who have attended. These listings do not show,
however, how many of the people attending were military per-
sonnel, Government employees, or civilian organization mem-
    .
ber s
     Of the 170 films cleared for public showing, the Army
used 99 during a 12-month period ending March 1970. These
films were shown a total of 165,431 times--129,512 showings
to military personnel and Government employees and 35,919
showings to civilian organizations.
     Identical information on Air Force showings of the
films to civilian organizations was not available. The Air
Force categorizes loans of films as either short-term--less
than 2 weeks--or long-term--over 2 weeks. We found that 101
films had been used on a short-term basis. These films were
shown a total of 29,936 times during the period March
through June 1970--17,177 showings to Air Force personnel
and Government employees and 12,759 showings to civilian

                              5
organizations. We found that 100 films had been used on a
long-term basis. These films were shown a total of 37,395
times during calendar year 1969--35,261 showings to Air
Force personnel and Government employees and 2,134 showings
to civilian organizations.
     We were unable to obtain similar information from the
Department of the Navy because its records were incomplete.
We were informed that only about 15 percent of actual film-
use information was being reported to the office responsible
for accumulating such information.
Publication Service
     The Publication Service prepares and edits information
publications, which are printed by the Government Printing
Office, for use by the military services. Approximately 100
publications, such as pamphlets, fact sheets, pocket guides,
brochures, and similar items, were produced in fiscal year
1970 at a cost of about $397,000.  Examples of such publica-
tions are pamphlets entitled "Federal Source Book--Answers
to Most Frequently Asked Questions About Drugs," "Pocket
Guide to Korea," and "Voting Information.I1 Many of these
publications are available to the public through the Govern-.
ment Printing Office book store.
Press Service
     The Press Service produces three publications. The
"Armed Forces Press File" is distributed weekly to assist
military editors in the field in publishing their periodi-
cals. Currently there are over 1,700 such periodicals. The
"Galley Guide" is a monthly four-page publication of in-
struction and professional comments advising editors how to
write, edit, print, and publish their newspapers. The tlCom-
manders Digest" is distributed weekly to military units, em-
bassies, and missions and provides military staffs with au-
thoritative information on national and DOD policies.
Visual Communication Service
     The Visual Communication Service produces illustrations,
charts, photographs, and sketches for all Office of Informa-
tion publications. In fiscal year 1970, 17 art work and
poster projects were listed as completed.
                               6
Production Service
     The Production Service produces and distributes about
100 video-taped programs a year for dissemination to mili-
tary television stations and interested Government agencies.
At present these programs include a series on activities in
Vietnam and other areas around the world, which are believed
to be of general interest to military audiences, and a panel
discussion series covering topics of general military and
command interest, such as drug use, cost reduction, military
compensation, and medical care programs.




                              7                                .   .
                              CHAPTER 2

                   AEROSPACE AUDIO-VISUAL SERVICE

          The Aerospace Audio-Visual Service (BAVS) is an organi-
     zationalunit of the Department of the Air Force Military
     Airlift Command, AAVS provides photographic and video ser-
     vices and products to meet the requirements of the Air Force,
     its major commands, and separate operating agencies., All
     films produced by AAVS for public showing are reviewed and
     approved by the Director, Office of Information, and the
     Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Abrfairs).

c.
          During fiscal year 1970 AAVS expenditures totaled
     $12.4 million, of which $407,000 was spent on material in-
     tended specifically €or public showing.
                Motion picture films         $ 47,600
                Film clips                    197,700
                Still photography             161,700
                    Total                    $407 000
     MOTION PICTURE FILMS
          Two films were produced during fiscal year 1970. One
     film, entitled "Friends, Neighbors and People We Know," was
     produced at a cost of $44,755. The film portrays how mem-
     bers of the Air National Guard contribute to national de-
     fense, The National Guard Bureau, Washington, D.C., re-
     quested production of this film, to emphasize the theme that
     the Air National Guard is not a haven for draft dodgers.
     The other film, a short one entitled "NORAD Tracks Santa,"
     was produced for $2,879. The film portrays Santa Claus'
     trip from the North Pole to homes of children in the United
     States and Canada as tracked by the men and equipment of the
     North American Air Defense Command. The Director of Public
     Affairs in the Command's radio and television branch re-
     q i e s t e d production of the film to publicize the Comand.

          AAVS was not reimbursed for the cost of producing these
     films. AAVS files did not disclose any other films produced
     during fiscal year 1970 specifically for public exhibition.


                                   8
     M V S prepares a consolidated inventory and use report
which identifies films in the inventory and the number of
showings of the films to authorized civilian organizations,
Air Force personnel, and Government employees. One part of
the report lists the inventory of films at the Audio-visual
Center and the monthly distribution of films loaned directly
to users on a short-term basis, %.e., for 2 weeks or less.
The other part of the report shows the inventory of films
released to Air Force film libraries on a long-term basis--
for a period over 2 weeks--and the use of those films during
a 6-month period as reported by the libraries to the Audio-
Visual Center.
     As of June 26, 1970, 6,312 films w e r e in t h e M V S in-
ventory. Because of the large number of films in the Air
Force inventory and the number of times the films had been
shown, we selected a statistical sample of the film inven-
tory (a sample of films produced specifically for internal
Air Force use), to arrive at the cost of the films and the
extent to which they had been shown to authorized civilian
organizations.
     Air Force films cleared for public showing may be used
by such civilian organizations as schools, colleges, univer-
sities, civic groups, and churches. Films are made avail-
able free of charge to civilian organizations with the stip-
ulation that no admission or other fees may be charged.
     Our samples were selected from the consolidated report
prepared by Audio-visual Center employees. They told us,
however, that, except for the report covering the period
March through June 1970, the short-term report was not re-
liable because of automatic data processing problems. Also
the latest long-term report, which was processed in July
1970, included all of 1969 rather than 6-month periods. Be-
cause these were the best source documents available at the
time of our review, we used the March through June 1970 re-
port for our short-term sample selection and the report
processed in July 1970 for our long-term sample selection
and based our cost and public-showing projections on these
two reports.
     On the short-term report we identified 596 films pro-
duced at a cost of about $13.3 million. About 26,300, or

                                9
35 percent of the 75,300 showings of these films, were made
to the public. On the long-term report we identified 427
films produced at a cost of $9 million. These films were
shown about 180,900 times, of which 8,360 showings, or about
5 percent, were made to the public.
     It should be noted that most of these films were pro-
duced prior to the year of showing and will also be utilized
in future years.
FILM CLIPS
    AAVS initiated a film-clip program at the request of
the Director, Office of Information, in 1968. Film clips
are produced in color and are distributed to local televi-
sion stations weekly. They are intended to show activities
of Air Force personnel throughout the world.
     During fiscal year 1970, 52 film clips were completed
for the Office of Information, On the basis of an average
cost of $3,803 a film clip, the 52 film clips cost about
$197,700. These costs were expended from AAVS funds with-
out reimbursement from the Office of Information.
STILL PHOTOGRAPHY

     AAVS supports public information programs through its
Central Still Photo Depository, Arlington, Virginia; the
Audio-visual Center, Norton Air Force Base; and various
field units.
     The Central Still Photo Depository maintains an inven-
tory of photographs of subjects of Air Force interest and
supplies copies to all Air Force activities within the Met-
ropolitan Washington, D.C., area including the Air Force
Office of Information. The Audio-visual Center provides
regional photographic support to Air Force activities.
     Costs of photographic services supporting public infor-
mation programs cannot readily be identified from AAVS rec-
ords. With the assistance of AAVS officials, we estimate
that, during fiscal year 1970, AAVS spent about $161,700 to
provide still photographic support for public viewing to the
Air Force Office of Information.

                             10
COORDINATION WITH PUBLIC AFFAIRS
ORGANIZATIONS ON PRODUCTION OF FILMS
     As stated previously AAVS is a service organization
directed by the Military Airlift Command as to the kinds of
products and services it will produce. Consequently AAVS
officials stated there was no need for them to consult DOD
public information and public affairs organizations about
these matters.
     In the production of motion-picture films, the Air
Force Office of Information reviews the original film pro-
posal, the completed script, and the completed film produced
for public showing. The approval of the Assistant Secretary
of Defense (Public Affairs) is required before funds are
committed for the production of any film intended for public
showing.
     The Air Force Office of Information reviews also, for
compliance with policy, scripts and films for internal use.
Air Force films produced for internal use but later released
for public showing must have the approval of the Air Force
Office of Information and the Assistant Secretary of Defense
(Public Affairs).




                            11
                                        CHAPTER 3

                        MILITARY RECRUITING SERVICES

          The mission of t h e m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t i n g services i s t o
r e c r u i t q u a l i f i e d persons, to meet m i l i t a r y needs f o r en-
l i s t e d ’ personnel, o f f i c e r candidate t r a i n i n g schools s and
s p e c i a l i s t s required by the s e r v i c e s . Each of t h e m i l i t a r y
s e r v i c e s has an organization responsible f o r planning and
d i r e c t i n g i t s r e c r u i t i n g programs e




          The material created f o r and by t h e m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t -
t n g s e r v i c e s i s d i r e c t e d to t h e general p u b l i c , DOD re-
q u i r e s t h a t audio- visual p r o j e c t s - - t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o , s t i l l
phstographs , e t c . --of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , such as r e c r u i t i n g
p r o j e c t s , be submitted to t h e A s s i s t a n t Secretary of Defense
 (Public Affairs) f o r approval before r e l e a s e t o t h e general
public,

         With r e s p e c t t o public a f f a i r s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e indi-
v i d u a l s e r v i c e s , w e were informed t h a t t h e production of
Navy and Marine Corps r e c r u i t i n g materials was not coordi-
nated with t h e public a f f a i r s and information a c t i v i t i e s i n
t h e i r s e r v i c e s . The Army and A i r Force public a f f a i r s and
information organizations, however, do p a r t i c i p a t e i n devel-
oping r e c r u i t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e r v i c e s ,

MATERIALS USED BY THE
MILITARY RECRUITING SERVICES

         I n fiscal y e a r 1970 operations and maintenance funds
were spent f o r a d v e r t i s i n g and p u b l i c i t y programs f o r t h e
r e c r u i t i n g s e r v i c e s , as follows:

                     Amy                                  $3,079,000
                     Navy                                   2,460,381
                     A i r Force                            1,618,599

                           Total                          $7,157 ?980

     These amounts are not included i n t h e $48 m i l l i o n men-
tioned on page 1 of t h i s r e p o r t . O f the above t o t a l amount,
$2.5 m i l l i o n w a s budgeted f o r s e r v i c e s of commercial


                                               12
a d v e r t i s i n g agencies i n p r e p a r i n g v a r i o u s p o r t i o n s of t h e
milita-ry services r e c r u i t i n g programs.

         The U . S . Army R e c r u i t i n g Command budgeted $1,737,525
f o r t h e services of N. W. Ayer and Sons, I n c . , of P h i l a d e l -
p h i a , Pennsylvania; t h e A i r Force budgeted $231,000 f o r t h e
services of MacManus, John and Adams I n c . ; t h e Navy budgeted
$336,000 f o r t h e services of Young and Rubicam of New York;
and t h e Marine Corps budgeted $226,000 f o r t h e services of
t h e J . Walter Thompson Co.

        All a v a i l a b l e media- - television, r a d i o , f i l m , magazines,
newspapers , etc. --are used by t h e r e c r u i t i n g services t o
r e c r u i t q u a l i f i e d persons.

Radio and t e l e v i s i o n

          Radio programs are of two types- - spot announcements
        variety shows. Spot announcements, which are u s u a l l y
        20, 30, o r 60 seconds long, c o n t a i n a b r i e f message
about t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s of m i l i t a r y l i f e . Variety shows,
which are u s u a l l y 15 t o 25 minutes long, combine t h e r e c r u i t -
i n g message w i t h a musical program. Examples of variety
shows are t h e Army's t h r e e 15-minute weekly programs en-
t i t l e d " I t ' s Music," "Country Express," and "America's Best."
The Army R e c r u i t i n g Command s u p p l i e s programs t o Army re-
c r u i t e r s who d i s t r i b u t e them t o l o c a l r a d i o s t a t i o n s .
          T e l e v i s i o n programs are u s u a l l y 20-,30-, and 60-second
s p o t announcements d e p i c t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l , career, t r a i n i n g ,
and travel o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e m i l i t a r y services, For ex-
ample, t h e Nairy s u p p l i e s about 600 t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s w i t h
a s e t of c u r r e n t Navy t e l e v i s i o n s p o t announcements which
are replaced r e g u l a r l y . The Navy a l s o makes f i l m s a v a i l a b l e
t o a l l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s through an annual summer series
e n t i t l e d " N a v y Film of t h e Week," The series is r e v i s e d
y e a r l y , and r e c r u i t e r s receive promotional packages t o a i d
them i n d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e series and o b t a i n i n g b r o a d c a s t
t i m e on l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s .

     The r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r y schedules a c e r t a i n
amount of t i m e each week f o r p u b l i c service. Much of t h e
above material is used t o t a k e advantage of t h i s public-
service requirement. For example, w e were provided w i t h


                                                13
information from two r e p o r t s purchased by t h e A i r Force
from a commercial organization which monitors t e l e v i s i o n
announcements. The r e p o r t s showed t h e number and length
of Armed Forces public- service s p o t announcements t e l e v i s e d
i n l w e e k , broken down i n t o f i g u r e s f o r each of t h e 75
United S t a t e s t e l e v i s i o n markets. The f i r s t study, made i n
November 1967, showed t h a t 399 A i r Force t e l e v i s i o n s p o t
announcements had been made a t an estimated c o s t of $23,733.
The second study made i n August 1969 showed t h a t t h e r e had
been 665 s p o t announcements telecast and t h a t t h e value of
f r e e t e l e v i s i o n t i m e had been $65,892.

          Rather than depend upon public- service scheduling by
l o c a l s t a t i o n s , which is r a r e l y prime t i m e , t h e Army Re-
c r u i t i n g Command purchased major t e l e v i s i o n network t i m e ,
from March t o May 1971 f o r a r e c r u i t i n g campaign aimed a t
s p r i n g graduates. The Command estimated t h a t it would spend
about $3 m i l l i o n f o r a d v e r t i s i n g during prime t i m e , when a
heavy concentration of prospective r e c r u i t s would be i n t h e
t e l e v i s i o n viewing audience. The Army introduced a similar
p r o j e c t f o r r a d i o broadcasting i n prime t i m e ,

         The Army Recruiting Command plans t o e v a l u a t e t h i s
p i l o t p r o j e c t t o determine whether t h e a d d i t i o n a l expendi-
t u r e f o r a d v e r t i s i n g on network prime t i m e a t t r a c t s a l a r g e
number of r e c r u i t s ,

Magazines and newspapers

          I n f i s c a l y e a r 1970 magazines were t h e p r i n c i p a l ad-
v e r t i s i n g medium used i n t h e Army r e c r u i t i n g program. Army
r e c r u i t i n g programs were a d v e r t i s e d 272 times i n various
types of magazines, such as "Life," "Look," "Ebony ,I1 "PoPU-
l a r Mechanics , I 1 "Popular E l e c t r o n i c s ," "American B a r Asso-
ciation                        "Outdoor Life," "Field & Stream," "Stu-
d e n t Weekly ,I1 "Newsweek (College Edition) ,'I "Time (College
E d i t i o n ) ,If and llPlayboy."

           The A r m y ' s a d v e r t i s i n g agency produces a weekly news-
paper column e n t i t l e d "The Army Green."                The column has been
d i s t r i b u t e d weekly s i n c e September 1968 t o Army recruiters
f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o l o c a l newspapers and i s c a r r i e d regu-
l a r l y i n about 600 newspapers across t h e United States,


                                          14
I t contains i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t s about t h e Army, i s t a i l o r e d
f o r l o c a l readers, and contains references t o t h e area's
recent enlistees.

Motion p i c t u r e f i l m s

        The Army Recruiting Command now uses seven movie f i l m s
i n i t s r e c r u i t i n g programs. During f i s c a l y e a r 1970 t h e
Command produced two of these films--one e n t i t l e d ''Four
Faces High" a t a c o s t of $71,426 and t h e o t h e r e n t i t l e d
"Medicine Plus1' a t a c o s t of $51,269.

        The Marine Corps uses f o u r f i l m s i n i t s r e c r u i t i n g
program, The t i t l e s are "Engineer Upsff "Something i n Re-
serve," " S t r a i g h t Up and Away," and "Dewey Canyon." The
f o u r f i l m s c o s t about $90,000.

Recruiting p u b l i c i t y i t e m s

         A variety of r e c r u i t i n g p u b l i c i t y material i s prepared
and d i s t r i b u t e d by each of t h e r e c r u i t i n g s e r v i c e s . These
i t e m s are p o s t e r s , brochures , s t i c k e r s , d i s p l a y s , f a c t
f o l d e r s , bookmarkers, handbooks, and book covers. P o s t e r s
and d i s p l a y s are aimed a t group audiences and are n o t given
d i r e c t l y t o i n d i v i d u a l s ; while bookmarkers, book covers,
s t i c k e r s , e t c . , are designed f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n .
The Army Recruiting Command has about 150 d i f f e r e n t public-
i t y i t e m s . During f i s c a l y e a r 1970, about 23.8 m i l l i o n
p r i n t s were made of 83 r e c r u i t i n g p u b l i c i t y items a t a c o s t
of about $646,000 and about 20.5 m i l l i o n p r i n t s of various
r e c r u i t i n g p u b l i c i t y i t e m s were d i s t r i b u t e d .

COORDINATION WITH PUBLIC AFFAIRS ORGANIZATIONS

         DOD r e q u i r e s t h a t audio- visual p r o j e c t s of broad na-
t i o n a l i n t e r e s t , such as r e c r u i t i n g programs, be submitted
through appropriate channels t o t h e A s s i s t a n t Secretary of
Defense (Public A f f a i r s ) f o r approval before release t o t h e
public. Audio-visual materials include s t i l l photography,
motion p i c t u r e s , t e l e v i s i o n f i l m s , live t e l e v i s i o n produc-
t i o n s , video tapes, r a d i o tapes, kinescope recordings,
motion- picture- stock footage, and associated materials.




                                             15
                With r e s p e c t t o public a f f a i r s organizations i n t h e
      i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s , w e w e r e informed t h a t production of
      Navy and Marine Corps r e c r u i t i n g materials w a s n o t coordi-
      nated w i t h t h e public a f f a i r s organizations i n those ser-
      v i c e s b u t t h a t , i n t h e production of Army and A i r Force
      r e c r u i t i n g m a t e r i a l s , public a f f a i r s and information organi-
      z a t i o n s d i d p a r t i c i p a t e i n developing some of t h e materials.

              The Army Recruiting Command is required t o have t h e
      p l o t and s c r i p t of motion p i c t u r e s reviewed and approved by
      t h e Chief of Information, Department of t h e Army, before
      t h e shooting begins. The s t a t e d purpose of t h i s review i s
      t o prevent d u p l i c a t i o n of content.

                I n regard t o A i r Force r e c r u i t i n g , t h e Office of Infor-
      mation p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e development of r e c r u i t i n g mate-
      r i a l . This Office furnishes information o b j e c t i v e s , mate-
      r i a l s , and b r i e f i n g s and a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e c r e a t i v e
      and review s t a g e s of the r e c r u i t i n g program from the i n i t i a l
      proposal t o t h e f i n i s h e d product. This i s intended t o en-
      s u r e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s produced are c o n s i s t e n t with A i r
      Force information objectives.




" !




                                                    16
                         CHAPTER 4

                      SCOPE OF REVIEW

     We examined into the production oE information material
and services by the Armed Forces Radio and Television Ser-
vice, Los Angeles, California; the Media Operations Division,
Office of Information for the Armed Forces, at the Pentagon
and at their offices located in Arlington, Virginia; the De-
partment of the Army Film Distribution and Utilization Cen-
ter, Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania; and the Department of the Air
Force Aerospace Audio-visual Service, Norton Air Force Base,
California.
     Our review of the development and use of public infor-
mation materials by the recruiting services was conducted
at the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, Hampton, Virginia; the
U.S. Navy Recruiting Service and Recruiting Aids Division,
Washington, D.C. ; the U.S. Air Force Recruiting Service and
Military Personnel Center, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas;
and the U.S. Marine Corps Military Personnel Procurement
Branch, Arlington, Virginia.
APPENDIX




19
                                                                      APPENDIX I


                                                                      cOl*MInEeS%
JONATHAN B.BINGHAM                                                FOREIGN AFFAIRS
  Z3D DISTRICT. N W Y O R K                                     HOUSE ADMINISTRATION




                                  June 4, 1970
           B-161939
          M r . Elmer B. Staats
          Comptroller General of the United States
          General Accounting Office Building
          441 G Street, N.W.
          Washington, D.C. 20548
          Dear Mr. Staats:
              In the enclosed House speech, I noted that the Department
          of Defense has revised its earlier estimates for spending in
          public relations and information in 1970 from $29-million to
          $40-million. This represents a 38% increase beyond original
          figures. Moreover, several agencies which spent $48-million
          in Fiscal 1970 had responsibilities in this area, but w e r e
          not included in the $40-million figure. These agencies
          include the Armed Services Radio and Television Services and
          the Aerospace Audio Visual Services.
              A significant portion of the funds these agencies expend
          are used for public information and relations. I therefore
          wish to request a formal investigation by the General
          Accounting Office to determine the full and precise extent
          of expenditures of public funds by the Defense Department
          for the purpose of public affairs during the Fiscal Year
          1970. Such an investigation would provide an invaluable
          2ublic service and encourage more accurate accounting in
          the future.




                                                                  Y
                                         Jonathan B. Bingharn
                                    I/




                                            21
APPENDIX 1


 a                                         CQ.




                                                                                                                                        -
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                                                                                      l,m              5s         1. w
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            *              of wkpixw
                                                                           I
                                                                                                    I, 438
        off   mD, ae-&&        sm m.................................................................................
                                                           ..............................................       24,$43 .............
                                        .................................             9,s           2,410        3I.a        la,=,




                                                                22
                                                                                            APPENDIX I


June 2. 1970   1NGRESSIONAL RECORD - HOGFSE
               networks. wire services and mtlltary come-           moranatlng l h m e n t ot w p m eotfmr
               rpoadents. ts transmltted 24 boura a day.            relatlng to congressional condderatdon of Um
               mven days a week, by shortwave. direct voice         leglelauve pmgfiun of t h e :t-                 (9)
               a b l e and teletype to all Amerlcan Force8          ccmdlwtlng the deVelOPment.oleafum, ood
               Radio and Television networts and outlets            furrrlshh3g ai lni-aon          In raspom do
               worldwide. Provides leosimlle photo aervtm           requests received in the W e n s e St& Om-
               to American Forces Televi8lon 8tatioas world-        from membenr of Coagrem and the omunlt-
               wide.                                                taeS of COngreaa and thdr -8;         (4) urryls-
               B. Armed forces in/onnatiun programs and Ing for the dbsignatloa aM Pppoaranol d
                                 medin operations                   -A-        frmn the -t             OlDdsuae rt
                                                                    congmsional hearInge on B e f a mpttara:
                  I Americnn Forces Press Service produces and ( 6 ) maintaining direct Ual8on With tdle
               the following publlcatlons for the Armed CO-,                    the Executive OBiCa d the Fred-
               porces newspapers.                                   dent, and at$et Oovamment agenolea *ltb
                  (8) Commanders Digest distributed e l d y         re-     to kglslative Inve8tdgatlond end other
               to mllltarg commanders of sll the Bervlces. pertlnent ma-                 aneotlng rahwcaa of t h e
               the Reserves. and ROTC components. It Is Depsrtmrrmt 03 Defeose Mia the m m .
               deeigned to provide commander8 and thelr
               stega with authorltatIve lniormatlon of Na-              These agenoies amount for $56.738
               tional and Department of Dsfense pollciw million in expenditures. Of that amount
               anti goals and other event8 of algntarance.          948.062 million-the tlscal gear 1870 ex-
                  (b) AmtrtcOn FOrCW Freda FUe distributed Penattures for lesislative UsLSon. le%a-
               weekly to mllitary editors In the field to OI- lative r&kire. the Armed P x c S radio
               a t In publishing thelr newspa-.         Copy and
               photographs are sent to all Armed Wrcerr and TV services.and the aemxpfbce audio
               newsoam throwhout the world. CurrttntlY vkual services-                 is not reflected in the
               thesbnbber mo& than 1,800.                           437.675 million the Pentagon Is QOW re-
                  (c) QaIlcv Gurde A monthly lour-psge puesting for spending in this a m . whye
               pubhation -of irmtruction ana p r o f e s s i d it is clear that not dl the expendikuoe
               mmrmnta ad-               newspapee editors and of these agencies are devoted to public
               military loumallsts on how to wrlte. edlt, information and relations, f                 m afunlna-
               print and publish their nempapers.
                  a. ~ r r n e d~ o m e aMotion kfcetures Service tion of the omclai dascrlpttone of a              ha
                                                                                                                     r
                                                                                                                     i
               includes the annual production and dlatrl- responsibilities. and the typed of ma-
               butlon of fllms for Servlce lnformatlon pro- terials they produce. make It ckap that
               gram8. diatrlbutad In quantities of up to a significant porgon d the iunda they
               1,OOO prints. depending on Service require- expend                   In f8Ck used fOr D U b k h-
               menta.In t h e production of Blm8. thls oiace formation and public rel~tiom.
               wora with commercial film compan1~5and
               atrrvlce prcductbn agencies.                                   this b f O m u O n , it              thst
                  3. Armed Forces Publicatfonr Service pro- the figure of $37 millton stated by
               vldes lor the edltlng and preparation ai in-         the   Defense    Department       (LB   t h e level
               formstion publications printed by the aOs- of its publlc.information and publlc re-
               ernment Printlng Omce and used by all latloas expenditure is far too low. The
               BBUltary Ddpartments Approximately 100 true figwe could M as higfi sa twice
               publlcotlons a year are produced; half of that amount.
               them sre contdacted and hall prOauc6d ln-
               house. These materials take the lorm 01                  Amrdhgly, I am s&i.ng the t3enerel
               pamphlets. fact sheets. pocket guldta. bro- Accounting Ofece to fnvestlget.8 the ex-
               chures and W l a r prlnted materlale.                penditures    of these agencia In auestlon
                  4. VLrueI Comrnunrcutiom Service produces and determine exactly how much Ia be-
               la or more originel posters snnuslly: pro- ing used for public infomation. I hope
               d u e 4 or man A r t F f l e s annually for u s e by to have this materlal available when the
               8ervlce newspaper editors: provides art sup- defense approgriatlon bill comes fmfow
               port-Including Qealgn. layout and original the House.
               art em au IAF publlcatloPs p r t n w by GPO-
               and monItor8 QPO Ior prlnting phase; aup-                Last year the Congrecns exprebdy pro-
               ports Roduction Servlce's twh-weekly pro- hibited DOD propaganda unleas 8peciil-
               graming: provides support for briefings. and cal4 authorized by Congress. However, it
               handles the reprint program of the Military appears that more stringent re&rlctiom




                                                                                                          -
               88rVlceS.                                            wUl have to be placed on the Pentagon's
                 6. Armed Fmce.s Production Service pro-            tendency to advertise its own actions and
               duces anddbtrtbutes approxlmately 100 video          to promote its own cam%.
               taped programs for dlsSeminatl011to Ameri-
               can Porcea Televlsion stations and other
               MUltary Sarvlces for direct 'siewlng. These                    WlLhmvaToN. N.C.
               ledude T e k n r w n JaurnaZ. a half-hour news
               program produced wf=ekly on actfvltles In              (Mr. -ON        asked and w s e v e n
               Bletnnm and other 8 r e s around the world of        permission to extend NS remarlis a t this
               ganeral interest to mllitary audiences; Pen-         point in the RECORD and to include ex-
               tagon Fwurn. a dtscusslon serles mverlng             traneous matter.)
               topla of genes81 mllltary and command in-
               tentst snch a8 drugs. Coat Reduction. Mllitary    Mr. LENNON. Mr. Speaker, the All-
               Compensatlon. and Medlcal Programs. also       American and port city of Wmington.
               pmduced weekly in a half-hour format: Bnd      N.C.,wa& recently featured in an article
               selected vnriable length TelevLqtm Journal     appearing in Generator, an employee
               "Sp2clal Report.5" produced 88 sound-on-fllm   publication of the Babcock & WFlcox Co.
               tnwrlews.
                                     -                           I am proud of the htstory. progres-
                                                              sive development,and attractions offered
                A S ~ A N T O THE SECXRARS    OF
                           LZGE~LATIVK  ATPAIS
                                                              by my hometown. and I wish b? share
                 The Assletant to the Secretary of Defense
                                                              the article with our colleagues and other
               (L@SlStlOe -Sirs)   IZ the ptlnclpal staf? as-
                                                              readers of the RECORD:
               Sistsnt to the Secretary of Defense for De-             WILXPIGTON. N.C.' ALL-AMEFSCXW CrrY
               partment of Defeme relatlona wlth the                 h¶ldmy between New York and Flollda on
               Congress. He performs runctlons In his as-          a penlnsula bounded by the Atlantic Ocean
               slgnea aeids of respOIUlbilJtg such &S (1)          and the Cape Fear River sits Wilmlngton.
               advising and assisting the Secretary or De-         N.C Population: 75.000 Cllrnate mlld In-
               fense and other omclals of the Department           dustry. dlverslfled Seapart fastest grow-
               on mngresslonal aspects of Department of            ing in the East Ristorlcal sltes' respectrully
               Defense pllcres, p l w . and programs. (21          msintalned Parks and gardens: literally




                                            23
APPENDIX I1

                                                                   COM-
JONATHAN 6. BINGHAM                                             FOREIGN AFFAIRS
  Y D DISTRIST,   NEW YORK                                    HOUSE ADMINISTRATION




      Mr. Elmer B. Staats                                Secorded
      Comptroller General of the United States
      General Accounting Office Building
      441 G Street, N.W.
      Washington, D.C. 20548
       Dear M r . Staats:
            The purpose of this letter is to reaffirm several agree-
      ments reached today in my conversations with M r . Rothwell and
      others of your staff.
            In my letter of June 4, I requested "the full and precise
      extent of expendituires of public funds by the Defense Depart-
      ment for the purpose of public affairs during the Fiscal Year
      1970." It is now my understanding that the GAO will limit its
      investigation to the Armed Services Radio and Television
      Service, the Aerospace Audio-visual Services, and military
      recruitment activities of all agencies involved therein. In
      specific, your investigation will seek to determine in as much
      detail as practicable (1) the extent to which the materials
      and services produced by these agencies are utilized for public
      consumption, and ( 2 ) the extent to which the formal public infor-
      mation and public affairs agencies of the Department of Defense
      are consulted by these agencies in the process of deciding what
      kinds of materials and services they will produce. This infor-
      mation will allow me to make more accurate judgments about the
      proportion of the budgets of these agencies that might reason-
      ably be regarded as "public affairs" and "public information"
      expenditures.
            As I indicated to M r . Rothwell, I would hope to request
      and receive a brief status report from the GAO on its progress
      in this investigation at the time the Defense Appropriations
      Bill for FY 1971 comes before the House, probably some time in
      mid-July. Thereafter I will expect to receive additional in-
      formath3 & t b d &7 the investigation as it becomes available.
                                        Cordially,



                                        Jonathan B. Bingham
      JBB :RKB

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