oversight

Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Western Carolina University and Participating Schools in North Carolina

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-05-20.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

Assessment Of The
Teacher Corps Program
At Western Carolina University               ’
And Participating Schools
In North Carolina              8.764037~7~




Office of Education
Department of Health, Education,
  and Welfare




BY THE      COMPTROLLER    GENERAL
OF THE      UNITED  STATES
                COMPTROLLER      GENERAL     OF   THE      UNITED     STATES
                               WASHINGTON     0 C       20543




B-164031(       1)




To the      President       of the Senate     and the
Speaker       of the     House    of Representatives

         This 1s our report          on our assessment         of the Teacher
Corps     program        at Western     Carolma     Unlverslty       and partlcl=
patmg     schools      in North    Garolma       This   program        1s authorleed
by title    V of the higher        Education    Act of 1965 (20 U S C 1101)
and 1s admmlstered             by the Offlce    of Education,       Department       of
Health,     Education,      and Welfare

        Our revxew  was made pursuant                            to the Budget   and Account-
mg Act,    1921 (31 U S C 53), and the                          Accountmg     and Auditing
Act of 1950 (31 U.S C. 67)

         Copies    of this      report    are being   sent to the Director,
Office    of Management            and Budget,    the Secretary     of Health,            Ed-
ucation,     and Welfare,         and the Commlssloner          of Education,             De-
partment       of Health,      Education,      and Welfare




                                            Comptroller                General
                                            of the United              States




                        50TH   ANNIVERSARY              1921-       1971
COMPTROLLER
          GE~RAL'S                        ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPROGRAMAT
REPORT
     TO THECONGRESS                       WESTERNCAROLINA UNIVERSITY AND PARTIICIPAT-
                                          ING SCHOOLSIN NORTHCAROLINA
                                          Office of Education, Department of Health,
                                          Education, and Welfare  B-164031(1)


DIGEST
------

WHYTHEREVIEWWASM4DE
       Because of Interest expressed        by the Congress sn the Teacher Corps pro-
       gram as a part of the overall        Federal effort  1n the field of education,
       the General Accounting Office        (GAO) has revlewed the program natIonwide,
       This report, one of a series,       assesses the program at Western Carolina
       Unlverslty  and participating      local educational agencies--referred   to as
       the Western Carolina program.

       The Teacher Corps program was established     in the Office of Education,
       Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) by the Higher Educa-
       tlon Act of 1965. The leglslatlve    obJectlves of the program are to

          --strengthen    educatIona    opportunltles    for children   In low-income     +
             areas and

          --encourage colleges     and unlverslties     to broaden their   programs for
             training teachers.

       The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains quallfled   teachers (team leaders)
       and inexperIenced teachers (interns)     for service ln areas of low-income
       families.   Teams conslstlng   of a team leader and several interns are as-
       signed to particlpatlng    schools.

       During their service,   the interns also take courses leading to a college
       or university   degree and to qualiflcatlon  for a State teaching certlfl-
       cate.   The Office of Education pays up to 90 percent of the salaries of
       Teacher Corps members and pays the cost of the Interns'    courses    (See
       P- 8.1

FlNDIiVGSAhD CONCLUSIONS
       S-kwn&henzqq      educatzonat   opportunztzes

       Although the Western Carolina program did increase the educational op-
       portunlties  available to pupsls ?n grades to which corps members were
       assigned, the program's Impact was not nearly as great as it could have
       been.

 Tear Sheet

                                                                 MAY    20,lS     7 1
  Some interns participated      in special proJects or used new methods of                      I
  instruction;      however, most of these activities      were not continued after              I
  corps members left the schools.        Program officials     said that manpower                I
                                                                                                 I
  and resources were lnsufflclent      and that they had not evaluated the ac-                   I
  tlvltles     to identify  those that were successful.       (See p. 17.)                       I
                                                                                                 I
  Offlclals  believed that the program had benefited lndlvldual   students
  by reducing the student-to-teacher  ratio.  In addltlon,   the program ex-                     i
  posed the children to Interns from a variety of backgrounds.      (See p. 17.)                 I
                                                                                                 I
  Team leaders and local educational                agency officials    believed that some
  regular teachers had changed their                methods of lnstructlon     as a result       I
  of the program.   Interns, however,               believed that the program's influence        !
  on the regular teaching staff was               limited   because of                           I
                                                                                                 I
     --;;,";;e       contact    between the interns    and the maJonty      of the teaching      !
                 ,                                                                               i
     --lack      of effective      salesmanship    by corps members, and

    '--the interns'  failure to demonstrate that their                 lnnovattons   worked
        or that change was needed. (See p. 17.)

  Some interns initiated       or participated  ln education-related      community              I
  activities      such as scout troops, ball teams, and a breakfast program                      I
_ for needy children.        Community involvement,   however, was made difficult                I
                                                                                                 I
  ;icrstern      North Carolina's   mountainous terrain and its scattered popu-                  I
             Also most children were unable to participate       in after-school                 I
  acti;itles     because they rode buses which left as soon as the school day
  ended. The program director         said that corps members in more heavily                    i
                                                                                                 I
  populated areas found that community activity         programs had already been                I
  established      or that there was an organltatlon    better equipped to promote
  them. (See p. 21.)                                                                             i
                                                                                                 I

  Of the 71 interns who completed the program as of the time of GAO's re-                        I
  view, 14 remained as teachers in the eight-county  area in the Western
  Carolina program.  (See p. 22.) The program director   has stated that

    --most interns do not want to stay in the immediate area because it
       1s isolated and lacks cultural facllltles and available housing,                          I

    --teacher salaries  in North Carolina              are generally     lower than those
       of surrounding Jurisdictions; and

    --most local educational            agencies have a low turnover         in teachers   and   I
       few vacancies to fill.            (See pp. 22 and 23.)                                    I
                                                                                                 I




                                              2
      Broadenzng teacher preparatzon programs

      Western Carolina Unlverslty has had some degree of success ln broaden-
      ing its teacher preparation program. The classwork required of educa-
      tlon maJors has not changed as a direct result of the program, but
      student-teaching practices have. (See p. 28.)

      University  offlclals believed that the Western Carolina program had
      contributed  to the university's  development of new approaches to student
      teaching In its regular curriculum.     (See p. 29.) The director of stu-
      dent teaching said that the program

             --alerted   school personnel   to the posslbllltles       for change,

             --assisted    in developing a closer working relatlonshlp        between the
                university   and the local educational agencies; and

             --helped prove that   a county educational      system could support      an in-
                ternshlp program    (See p. 30.)

      University officials  did not emphasize lntroduclng    new courses for
      Teacher Corps interns because they believed that existing     courses could
      be adapted to teaching disadvantaged children.      (See p. 28 )

      Most interns said that their course work was irrelevant  and repetltlous,
      however, the program director  disagreed and stated that the interns had
      not yet encountered the problems to which the courses were directed.
      (See p. 29.)
      GAO believes that Offlce of Education and Western Carolina University
      offlclals    should examine these opposing viewpoints to determine whether
      new courses are needed to make the interns'       education more relevant to
      the instruction    of children from poor families.

      RoZe of the S-bate zn the progrmn                                                4
      The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction    did not take an ac-
      tive role In the development of the Western Carolina program but has
      demonstrated a wllllngness   to take a more active role tn the Teacher
      Corps program in the future.    (See p. 32.)


RECQMME~ATITSOR SUGGESTIOiVS
      The Secretary        of HEWshould provide     for   the Office    of Education       to

             --work with the North Carolina local educatlonal          agencies to adopt
                procedures for evaluating  innovations resulting        from the Teacher


Tear Sheet


                                              3
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
         Corps program and to promote the contlnuatlon    of those which have            I
         proven successful {see p. 24),                                                  I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
       --explore,  with the State, university, and local educational agencies,           I
          ways to retain a higher percentage of Teacher Corps program grad-              I
          uates in rural North Carolina (see p. 25),                                     I
                                                                                         I
       --reassess and clarify   the types of conmnunlty education activities             1
          reasonably attainable   in rural areas, such as western North Carollna,        I
          where geographic condltlons    and population dispersion impede such           I
          activities  (see p. 25); and                                                   I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
       --evaluate,  with the university,  the need to incorporate   new courses
          and approaches to education into the Teacher Corps curriculum as well          1
          as into the regular teacher preparation curriculum.     (See p* 31.)           i
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         i
AGENCY ACTIONS   AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES                                                   I
                                                                                         I
                                                                                         I
     The Assistant Secretary (Comptroller)  of HEWconcurred with GAO's recom-            I
     mendations and described actions planned to implement them      (See pp. 25         I
     and 31.) He said that the Program Branch of the Teacher Corps would                 i
     work with the director  of the Western Carolina program and officials   in          I
                                                                                         I
     the local educational agencies to develop procedures to evaluate the in-            I
     novations introduced by the Teacher Corps.                                          I

                                                                                         I
                                                                                      I
MATTERS FOR COiWIDB?ATION   BY TBE CONGRESS                                           I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
     Beginning in 1969, the Western Carolina program assigned members of the         I
                                                                                      I
     Corps to State or locally  allotted  teaching positions.    According to
     program offlclals,  these corps members supplanted teachers who would have      I
                                                                                     I
     otherwise been hired by the local educational agencies.      This practice IS   I
     not authorized by the enabling legislation    which states, in part, that no    I
     member of the Teacher Corps shall be used to replace any teacher who is         I
                                                                                     I
     or would otherwise be employed by a local educational agency.                   I
                                                                                     i
     Although the practice was not authorized,   the State and local funds that      I
                                                                                     I
     would have been expended for teacher salaries were applied to the cost of       I
                                                                                     I
     the Western Carolina program. As a result,     the amount of Federal funds      I
     needed to operate this phase of the Western Carolina program was reduced.       I
     This fundlng procedure IS being implemented at other locations and may          I
                                                                                     I
     provide local educational agencies with the impetus to continue the suc-
     cessful features of a Teacher Corps program after Federal funding ceases.       ;
                                                                                     I
     Therefore the Congress may wish to consider whether section 517 of the          I
     Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1107), should be            I
                                                                                      I
     amended to authorize arrangements of the type conducted under the Western        I
     Carolina program.    (See pp* 18 and 26.)                                        I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                         4                                           I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
                                                                                     I
            The Teacher Corps IS waiting for a legal declslon on this matter by
            HEW's General Counsel.    Depending upon this decision,  amendments would
            be introduced accordingly   at this year's authorization  hearings.  (See
            p. 27.)




I   Tear   Sheet
I


                                           I


                                               5
                         Contents
                                                                  Page

DIGEST                                                              1
CHAPTER

  1       INTRODUCTION
              Operation of the Teacher Corps program
              Funding
              Program participation

          THE WESTERNCAROLINA TEACHERCORPS PROGRAM                 10
              Selection of interns                                 13
          IMPACT OF PROGRAMON STRENGTHENINGTHE EDU-
          CATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-
          INCOME FAMILIES                                          15
              Work performed by corps members in par-
                tlclpatrng     schools                             16
                    Special projects     and new teaching
                      methods not continued after corps
                      members completed their       assignments    17
                    Unauthorized   use of corps members            18
              Education-related       community activities         21
              Retention    of program graduates after
                training                                           22
              Conclusion                                           24
              Recommendations to the Secretary          of
                Health,    Education,    and Welfare               24
              Agency comments                                      25
              Matter for consideration        by the Congress      26
          IMPACT OF PROGRAMON BROADENING WESTERNCARO-
          LINA UNIVERSITY'S TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM 28
              Conclusion                                30
              Recommendation to the Secretary   of
                Health,  Education, and Welfare         31
          ROLE OF THE NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENTOF
          PUBLIC INSTRUCTION IN THE PROGRAM                        32
              Conclusion                                           33
  6       SCOPE OF REVIEW                                          34
APPENDIX                                                             Page

        I   Statistical  data on Western Carolina          Teacher
              Corps program                                           37

   II       Map prepared by GAO showing the geographical
              locations,  the approximate mileagep and
              the cycles of participation   for those
              schools that participated   in cycles I
              through IV of the Western Carolina program              38

 III        Letter    dated March 16, 1971, from the Assis-
               tant Secretary,    Comptroller,   Department of
               Health, Education,    and Welfare,   to the Gen-
               eral Accounting Office                                 39

   IV       Principal      officials     of the Department of
               Health, Education,         and Welfare having re-
               sponsibility        for the activities   discussed
               in this report                                         43

                                ABBREVIATIONS

GAO         General     Accounting    Office

HEW         Department      of Health,    Education,   and Welfare

LEA         local     educational    agency
COMPTROLLERGENERAL'S                    ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPROGRAMAT
REPORTTO TBECOiVGRBSS                   WESTERNCAROLINA   UNIVERSITYAND PARTICIPAT-
                                        ING SCHOOLSIN NORTHCAROLINA
                                        Office of Education, Department of Hea'lth,
                                        Education, and Welfare  B-164031(1)


DIGEST
------

WHYTHEREVZEW
           WASMADE
    Because of interest    expressed      by the Congress In the Teacher Corps pro-
    gram as a part of the overall         Federal effort  in the field of education,
    the General Accounting Office         (GAO) has reviewed the program natIonwide.
    This report, one of a series,         assesses the program at Western Caro'llna
    University  and participating       local educational agencies--referred   to as
    the Western Carolina program.

    The Teacher Corps program was established    in the Office of Education,
    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) by the Higher Educa-
    Won Act of 7965. The legislative     ObJectlves of the program are to

         --strengthen   educatIona    opportunities   for children   in low-income
            areas and
         --encourage colleges    and unlversltles     to broaden their   programs for
            tralnlng teachers.

    The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains qualified   teachers (team leaders)
    and inexperienced teachers (interns)     for service in areas of low-income
    families.    Teams conslst7ng of a team leader and several interns are as-
    signed to participating    schools.

    During their service, the interns also take courses leading to a college
    or university   degree and to qualiflcatlon for a State teaching certlfl-
    cate.   The Office of Education pays up to 90 percent of the salarIes of
    Teacher Corps members and pays the cost of the interns'   courses.   (See
    P* 8.1

FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
    S-tmngthenzng       educatzoml   opportunztzes

    Although the Western Carolina program did Increase the educational op-
    portunlties available  to pupils in grades to which corps members were
    assigned, the program's impact was not nearly as great as It could have
    been.
Some Interns partlclpated      In special protects or used new methods of
lnstructlon,      however, most of these activities      were not continued after
corps members left the schools.        Program offlclals     said that manpower
and resources were InsufflcJent       and that they had not evaluated the ac-
tlvltles     to Identify  those that were successful.       (See p. 17.)
Offlclals  believed that the program had benefited lndlvldual   students
by reducing the student-to-teacher  ratio   In  addltlon,  the program   ex-
posed the children to interns from a variety of backgrounds.      (See p.  17.)

Team leaders and local educational                 agency offlclals    believed that some
regular teachers had changed their                 methods of instruction     as a result
of the program. Interns, however,                  believed that the program's influence
on the regular teaching staff was                ltmlted because of

  --little       contact      between the interns     and the maJonty      of the teaching
      staff,

  --lack       of effective       salesmanship    by corps members, and

  --the Interns'  failure to demonstrate that their                   innovations   worked
     or that change was needed. (See p. 17 )

Some Interns    lnltlated   or partlclpated  in education-related      community
activities    such as scout troops, ball teams, and a breakfast program
for needy children.       Community involvement,   however, was made difficult
zcFstern      North Carolina's   mountainous terrain and its scattered popu-
          Also most children were unable to partlclpate       in after-school
actl&tles     because they rode buses which left as soon as the school day
ended The program director said that corps members in more heavily
populated areas found that community activity        programs had already been
established    or that there was an organlzatlon     better equipped to promote
them. (See p 21.)

Of the 71 interns who completed the program as of the time of GAO's re-
view, 14 remained as teachers in the eight-county area in the Western
Carolina program.  (See p 22 ) The program director   has stated that

  --most       interns     do not want to stay in the immediate area because 1-t
     1s isolated and lacks cultural           facllltles and available housing,

  --teacher salaries  in North Carolina               are generally     lower than those
     of surrounding Jurisdictions, and

  --most local educational             agencies have a low turnover         in teachers   and
     few vacancies          to fill.    (See pp 22 and 23 )




                                             2
   Broadenznq teacher ppeparatzon               programs

   Western Carolina Unlverslty  has had some degree of success in broaden-
   -rng its teacher preparation program   The classwork required of educa-
   tlon maJors has not changed as a direct result of the program, but
   student-teaching  practices have. (See p 28.)

   University  officials believed that the Western Carolina program had
   contributed  to the university's  development of new approaches to student
   teaching In its regular curriculum.     (See p. 29.) The dlrector of stu-
   dent teaching said that the program

      --alerted      school personnel      to the possibilities         for change,

      --assisted    7n developing a closer working relationship                between the
         unlverslty   and the local educatIona   agencies; and

      --helped prove that a county educational                system could support      an ln-
         ternshlp program. (See p, 30.)

   University officials  did not emphasize introducing    new courses for
   Teacher Corps interns because they believed that existing     courses could
   be adapted to teaching disadvantaged children,      (See p 28 )

   Most Interns said that their course work was irrelevant  and repetitious,
   however, the program director  disagreed and stated that the interns had
   not yet encountered the problems to which the courses were directed
   (See p 29 )
   GAO believes that Office of Education and Western Carolina University
   offlclals   should examine these opposing viewpoints to determlne whether
   new courses are needed to make the interns'      education more reJevant to
   the instruction   of children from poor families,

   RoZe   of   the   State   zn the   program

    The North Carolina Department of Public Instruction    did not take an ac-
    tive role in the development of the Western Carolina program but has
    demonstrated a wlllsngness   to take a more active role in the Teacher
    Corps program In the future.    (See p. 32 )


RECOMMElfDATIOiW
             OR SUGGESTIONS
    The Secretary       of HEWshould provide         for   the OffIce    of Education   to

      --work with the North Carolina local educational                   agencies to adopt
         procedures for evaluating  innovations resulting                 from the Teacher
        Corps program and to promote the contlnuatlon    of those which have
        proven successful {see pQ 24),

      --explore,  with the State, unlverslty,  and local educational agencies,
         ways to retain a higher percentage of Teacher Corps program grad-
         uates in rural North Caro‘lina (see p. 25),

      --reassess and clarify   the types of cowanunlty education actlvltles
         reasonably attainable   in rural areas, such as western North Carolina,
         where geographic condltlons    and population dispersion impede such
         actlvltles  (see p. 25); and

      --evaluate,   with the unlverslty, the need to incorporate   new courses
         and approaches to education into the Teacher Corps curriculum as well
         as into the regular teacher preparation curriculum.     (See p. 31.)


AGENX'ACTIONSAND UNRESOLVED
                         ISSUES
    The Assistant  Secretary (Comptroller) of HEWconcurred with GAO's recom-
    mendations and described actions planned to implement them     (See pp. 25
    and 31,) He said that the Program Branch of the Teacher Corps would
    work with the director of the Western Carolina program and offlclals   in
    the local educational agencies to develop procedures to evaluate the ln-
    novatlons introduced by the Teacher Corps.


MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY TBE CONGRESS
    Beginning in 1969, the Western Carolina program assigned members of the
    Corps to State or locally  allotted  teaching positions.    According to
    program officials,  these corps members supplanted teachers who would have
    otherwise been hired by the local educational agencies.      Thrs practice IS
    not authorized by the enabling legislation    which states, ln part, that no
    member of the Teacher Corps shall be used to replace any teacher who IS
    or would otherwise be employed by a local educational agency

   Although the practice was not authorized,   the State and local funds that
   would have been expended for teacher salaries were applied to the cost of
   the Western Carolina program. As a result9 the amount of Federal funds
   needed to operate this phase of the Western Carolina program was reduced.
   This funding procedure IS being implemented at other locations   and may
   provide local educational agencies with the impetus to continue the suc-
   cessful features of a Teacher Corps program after Federal fundlng ceases.
   Therefore the Congress may wish to consider whether section 517 of the
   Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1107), should be
   amended to authorize arrangements of the type conducted under the Western
   Carolina program.    (See pp 18 and 26.)
The Teacher Corps IS waiting for a legal decision on this matter by
HEW's General Counsel.    Depending upon thrs declslon, amendments would
be introduced accordingly   at this year's authonzatton  hearings.  (See
p. 27.)




                               5
                                                                 L




                            CHAPTER1

                          INTRODUCTION

      We evaluated the effectiveness of the Teacher Corps
program at Western Carolina University,    Cullowhee, North
Carolina, and at participating    local educatronal agencies
(IXAs) in accomplishing the legislative    objectives of the
Teacher Corps. These objectives are
     --to strengthen the educational opportunities       available
        to children in areas having concentrations      of low-
        Income families, and
     --to encourage colleges and universities      to broaden
        their programs of teacher preparation.
       To accomplish these objectives, the Teacher Corps is
authorized to (1) attract and train qualified teachers who
will be made available to IXAs for teaching in areas of low-
income families, 1 (2) attract and train inexperienced
teacher-interns    who will be made available for teaching and
in-service training to LEAS in such areas in teams led by
an experienced teacher, (3) attract volunteers to serve as
part-time tutors or full-time    instructional     assistants in
programs carried out by LEAS and institutions         of higher ed-
ucation serving such areas,    and  (4)  attract   and  train edu-
cational personnel to provide training,       lncludlng literacy
and communications skills,    for juvenile delinquents, youth
offenders, and adult criminal offenders.         The latter two
means of achieving the objectives were authorized subsequent
to the commencementof our review by Public Law 91-230--an
act to extend programs of assistance for elementary and sec-
ondary education--approved April 13, 1970, and therefore
were not within the scope of our review.

1The enabling legislation   permitted experienced teachers to
 be assigned to LEAS individually    or as the head of a teach-
 lng ieam. Public Law 90-35, approved June 29, 1967,
 amended the legislation  by permitting experienced teachers
 to be assigned only as the head of a teaching team.


                                 6
       Tins review was one of several made by GAO at selected
universities    and LEAS throughout the Nation.

OPERATION OF THE TEACHER
CORPS PROGRAM

       The Teacher Corps was established         In the Office of Ed-
ucation,   Department of Health, Education,          and Welfare,    pur-
suant to title    V, part B,     of the  Higher    Education   Act  of
1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101).           The Teacher Corps is
basically   a locally   controlled     and operated program.        The
Office of Education provides funds to operate approved
Teacher Corps programs which have been locally              conceived to
meet local needs and have been approved by the applicable
State educational     agency.     To be eligible     for approval,     a
program must be designed to serve children             in areas having
high concentrations     of poverty.

       Persons eligible       to be enrolled    in the Teacher Corps
are (1) experienced       teachers,    (2) persons who have a bacca-
laureate    degree or its equivalent,        and (3) persons who have
completed 2 years in a program leading toward a baccalaure-
ate degree.      After selection,      the corps members are placed
In teams consisting       of an experienced       teacher   (the team
leader) and a number of teacher-interns.               During their   ser-
vice, the Interns      receive training      and instruction     leading
to a degree from the participating           college or university
and to qualification        for State teaching certification.          The
training    consists   of academic courses,work         in the classrooms
of local schools, and participation           in community-based      edu-
cation activities.

      While in the schools,      corps members are under the di-
rect supervisron   of officials      of the LEA to which they are
assigned.    With certain     exceptions,    LEAS are authorized  to
(1) assign and transfer      corps members wrthin the school sys-
tem, (2) determine the subject matter to be taught,           and
 (3) determine the terms and continuance        of the assignment of
corps members within    the system.       Corps members may not be
used, however, to replace any teacher who is or would have
otherwise   been employed by the LEA.

     The Teacher Corps program operates           on a cycle     basis.
Generally a cycle consists  of preservice          training--a     period

                                     7
  of no more than 3 months during which corps members' suit-
. ability   for acceptance into the program PS determined--and
  2 academic years with an intervening          summer. However, cer-
  tarn programs operate for a shorter period of time.            The au-
  thorizing    legislation     provides for enrollment   of corps mem-
  bers for periods of up to 2 years,           A new Teacher Corps
  cycle has started        each year, beginning with the first    cycle
  in 1966.

         The cost of the interns9   course work and the admlnis-
 tratlve    costs of the college or university    and the LEAS are
 pa1.d by the Office of Education.       The LEAS are expected to
 provide at least 10 percent of the corps members' salaries
 and related     benefits while they are ln the schools, and the
 Office of Education provides the remainder.

        Team leaders are to be compensated at a rate agreed to
 by the UA and the Commissioner of Education.        At the time
 that our review began, interns      were compensated either   at a
 rate whxch was equal to the lowest rate paid by the TEA for
 teaching full    time in the school system and grade to which
 an intern was assigned or $75 a week plus $15 a week for
 each dependent, whichever amount was less.       Public Law 91-
 230, however9 amended the compensation authorized       for in-
 terns by providing     that they be paid either  at a rate which
 did not exceed the lowest rate paid by the LEA for teaching
 full  time in the school system and grade to which an intern
 was assigned or $90 a week plus $15 a week for each depen-
 dent, whlchever      amount was less.



        From inception  of the Teacher Corps program in fiscal
 year 1966 through fiscal      year 1970, funds authorized and
 appropriated    by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program,
 nationwsde,    were as follows:

          Fxscal     year   Authorizatron      Appropriation

              1966           $36,100,000        $ 9,500,000
              1967            64,715,OOO         11,323,OOO
              1968            33,000,000         13,500,000
              1969            46,000,000         20,900,000
              1970            80,000,OOO         21,737,OOO


                                     8
        As of June 1970, Western Carolina  University   and the
participating    LEAS had received Federal funds of about
$1,826,000,     As of January 1970, the university    had expended
about $579,000 and, as of about June 1970, the LEAS had ex-
pended about $971,000.      (See app. I.>

PROGRAMPARTICIPATION

      Certain nationwrde    data relating   to the Teacher Corps
program participation    from its inception    in fiscal  year
1966 through fiscal    year 1970 is shown below.


                    Entered vxogram             Comvleted v~o~ram                Rate      of dropout
                            Team                        Team                              Team      All corps
   Cycle       Interns    leaders Total     Interns   leaders Total    Interns          leaders       members
                                                                                        (percent)
           I    1,279        337    1,616     627      170       797      51              50
      II           882       152    1,034     674      143       817      24               6          4:
    III         1,029        186    1,215     832      170    1,002       19              10          18
      Iva       1,375        200    1,575      -
       va       1,445        221    1,666      -
                                                                                                                >
   ap articipants        had not completed program at time of GAO renew
                                 CHAPTER2

                           THE WESTERN
                                     CAROLINA
                           TEACHERCORPSPROGRAM
        The Western    Carolina program is a cooperatrve         effort    by
LEAS, the State Department of Public Instruction,               and Western
Carolina   University.        The program recruits    college graduates
(primarily   noneducation       majors) for Internship     training     to
produce teachers for areas with concentrations             of low-income
families.    In most cases, the interns         obtain teacher certrfr-
cation and a master's degree through a combination               of teach-
ing experience     rn the LEAS and course rnstructron           at the unr-
versity.

        The Western Carolina     program is the only Teacher Corps
program In North Carolina        and one of the few rn the Nation
that has been funded for four consecutrve           cycles.   The West-
ern Carolina program was inrtrated         1.n 1966 with cycle I
(1966-68)    and has operated continuously       through cycle IV
whrch 1s scheduled to end in the summer of 1971. At the
time that our review began, cycles I and II had been com-
pleted,    cycle III was nearing completion,        and cycle IV was
in the first     year of operation.      The program was administered
by a program director       appointed by the unlversrty.        Each par-
ticrpatlng     LEA appointed a project     coordrnator    who was re-
sponsible    for coordinating     the program activities     within   the
LEA and with the program director.

      During its 4 years,the    Western Carolina   program has en-
compassed a geographical     area involving  eight counties  in
western North Carolina.      The area served by the program is
prlmarlly    mountainous     and rural    and 1s located    xn the   Appala-
chian region generally       west of Asheville,     North Carolina.
At the time of our review,       the program had included nine
LEAS--seven county and two city school systems.             A total   of
31 individual    schools had participated       m one or more cycles.
Generally    the interns   taught in small, rural       schools,   some
with combinatron     grades.    The distances    between the university
and the schools where the interns         taught ranged from about
7 miles to approximately       85 miles.     (See map, app. II.)



                                         10
        Accordrng to the Western Carolina program director,       the
priorities     of the program were to (1) train    teachers,  (2)
provide services      to the local schools,   and (3) encourage the
university     to broaden its program of teacher preparation.
The priorities     had not changed during the four cycles,     how-
ever, the methods of achieving      them did.

      In the third cycle,     interns    were assigned to local
schools in teams of four      to eight under the guidance of a
team leader.    The interns     spent about 60 percent of the school
day in the local schools      supplementing      the work of the regu-
lar teaching staff.     The   interns    generally   taught selected
SubJects rn all elementary       grades.

      In the fourth cycle, teams generally       consisted   of a team
leader and two interns.      The team members spent the entire
school day teaching in grades four through eight.           The dean
of the School of Education and Psychology at the unrversity
informed us that the primary obJectives        of the fourth cycle
had been to introduce   new concepts into the schools,         such as
team teaching and differentiated     staffing,    in terms of expe-
rience and background and to achieve a transition          in funding
from Federal to State and local support.

       According   to program officials,     LEAS generally  partici-
pated in the cost of the in-service        phases of the first      three
cycles at the required        rate of 10 percent of team leader and
intern salaries      and fringe benefits.     However, LEAS substan-
tially   increased    their participation    in the cost of the fourth
cycle.

        Prior to cycle IV, each participating      LEA and the uni-
versity     submitted   budgets and received and administered   funds
separately.       In the fourth cycle,   all Federal funds for oper-
ation of the Western Carolina       program were received and ad-
ministered     by the university.
       During its 4 years of operation,     the Western Carolina
program had four directors.       The first   director  served from
1966 until    mid-1968, the second director      served until  his
death in December 1968, about 5 months.          A member of the pro-
gram staff    then assumed responsibility     and served in an in-
terim capacity until     he resigned in March 1969. The third
director    was appointed in March 1969 and served until       June

                                   11
1970, a period of about 15 months, at which time he returned
to teaching   at the unlversltye  The fourth director  was ap-
pointed In June 1970, after serving with the Western Carolina
program since July 1969 as assistant    director and coordinator.




                                 12
SELECTION OF INTERNS

       The Teacher Corps guldelines                 contain general criteria
 for the selectlon       of interns but permit grantees to estab-
lish specific     selection       criteria       and to select interns.
During the first       four cycles,         118 interns        were accepted by
the Western Carolina program.                 Interns      for the first   three
cycles were selected by a panel comprising                      the program di-
rector   and other university            officials.          For the fourth cycle,
selections    were made by a panel consisting                   of members of the
program staff,      selected third-cycle              interns    and team
leaders,   university      officials,         LEA officials,        and a commu-
nity representative.

        To be accepted for the Western Carolina program, appli-
cants were required        to have a bachelor's     degree and meet
certain     academic standards.        Candidates for the fourth cycle
were not to be accepted if they held a North Carolina            teach-
ing certificate.         Our review of the qualifications     of the
interns     selected for the third and fourth        cycles showed that,
in general,      the interns    selected either met or exceeded the
eligibility      requirements.

      The major academic criterion         established       for third-
cycle interns was that they have an overall               quality     point
ratio  of at least 2.3 out of a 4.0 maximum for their under-
graduate work.    The applicants      were also expected to have
a desire to teach, a willingness         to learn,      and a willingness
to work with rural people.         The panel waived the major aca-
demic criterion   for three of the 33 interns             selected.         The
Teacher Corps guidelines       state that the selection            criteria
should make possible     the enrollment      of outstanding         teacher
prospects who have only average academic records.                   The ma-
jor academic criterion      for fourth-cycle       interns was that
they would have at least a 2.0 overall            quality      point ratio.
All the 22 interns     selected met this criterion.

        A few of the interns   selected for the third and fourth
cycles had some previous     teaching experience,    but only two
had undergraduate    degrees in education.     One was a member
of a husband and wife team.        The other had a minor in educa-
tion but had not taken all the courses required         for State
certification.



                                       13
      As of August 1970, 71 interns had completed the pro-
gram and 18 were still  enrolled but had not finished.    A
total of 29, or 25 percent,   of the interns had  dropped out
of the program.
      On the basis of available data and from discussions with
program personnel, we were able to obtain information as to
why 19 of the 29 interns dropped out. The reasons follow.
     --Illness                                        2
     --To accept a fellowship        at another
        university                                     1

     --To accept other employment                     8

     --Other reasons such as marriage, per-
        sonal problems, and inability to ad-
        just to the rural setting of the pro-
        s=                                           -8
             Total                                   19
                                                     C
     Of the eight accepting employment, six accepted full-
time teaching positions,  two of which were in the eight-
county area served by the Western Carolina program.
      During cycles I through IV, 32 experienced teachers
were recruited to serve as team leaders.    Of these, seven
served 1 year or less whereas the remainder had either
completed the program or were still participating    in the
program at the time of our review.   (See app. I,)




                                14
                              CHAPTER 3


              IMPACT OF PROGRAMON STRENGTHENING

         THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN

                      OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES

     We believe that the Western Carolina           Teacher Corps pro-
gram strengthened     the educational    opportunities     available
to children   in participating     schools in the grades where
corps members had been assigned.         The participating       schools
were in areas having concentrations        of low-income families.

       By providing   additional     teaching manpower while the
program was in operation,        corps members helped reduce the
student-to-teacher     ratio   in the grades to which they were
assigned.      Some new approaches to educating children     were
introduced     in the program area.

       One of the objectives     established    by the Office of Ed-
ucation for the Teacher Corps program was to bring about
changes in LEA instructional        methods to strengthen    the edu-
cational   opportunities    available    to children   in the program
areas.    We found that the program had only limited         success
in stimulating    changes in LEA instructional        methods that
were continued after corps members had completed their             as-
signments.

      New approaches initiated    by corps members were not con-
tlnued generally     because LEAS lacked the manpower and re-
sources to continue them, and program personnel had not
evaluated the new approaches to Identify       those that were
most successful     and warranted inclusion  in the schools'
regular  currxulum.

       During the fourth cycle of the Western Carolina program,
team leaders and interns     were occupying State or locally     al-
lotted   teaching positions.     This practice is not authorized
by the enabling legislation.

      As of the date of our review,    14 of the 71 interns who
had completed the first   three cycles of the program remained
as teachers in the eight-county    area served by the program.

                                   15
Also, the Western Carolina program placed little      emphasis
on education related   communxty activities   because of such
factors  as the geographic terrain   and scattered   populace.

WOK PERFORMEDBY CORPS MEMBERS
IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

       Interns were assigned to participating         schools where
they supplemented the regular        teaching staffs    by teaching
selected     subjects in full  classroom situations      and by work-
ing with small groups of slow learners,           In  some  instances
they also initiated     or participated      in special proJects,

        The amount of time spent by interns     in the classroom
increased in cycle IV compared with cycle III.          Cycle III
interns    spent about 60 percent of the school day in the
schools and taught In several different       grade levels;
whereas, cycle IV interns     taught the full     day rn one or more
of the middle grades.      In addition  to their teaching duties,
interns    attended classes at the university      and some partlc-
ipated in community activities,

       Cycle III interns       stated that they generally  spent 20
to 25 hours a week in        the schools and 12 to 15 hours a week
on college classwork.          Cycle IV interns spent about 30 to
40 hours a week in the         schools and 9 to 12 hours a week on
college classwork.

        Although most interns       that we interviewed         considered
time spent in the schools to be directly                related    to Teacher
Corps objectives,       some made suggestions          which they believed
would result       in more effective     utilization       of their time.
 Some interns were of the opinion that they could be more
effective      if they worked exclusively          with disadvantaged
children     rather than teaching selected subjects              in a full
classroom situation.         Some interns       believed that their work
load was too heavy, both in the schools and In their col-
lege classwork.        Also, some interns        believed that team lead-
ers were not providing        them with sufficient          help, supervi-
sion, and guidance and that they had not assumed a leader-
ship role in the program.

       Team leaders said that their  teaching responsibilities
left   them with little time for intern supervision.       They
said also that they were satisfied        with utilization     of the
interns    but that there was not enough time for planning and
evaluating    as a team. Most of the school principals          and
county officials     interviewed    were satisfied    with the effec-5
tiveness    of the corps members' utilization;        however, some
said cycle III interns        should have remained in the local       P
schools for the entire       day.

       Representatives     at all levels of the Western Carolina
program believed that the program had benefited           individual
students.      Among the benefits     cited were an increased '
teacher-to-student      ratio  and exposure to young interns       with
varying backgrounds,       especially    those with the "successful
young male" image,

Special  pro.lects and new teaching methods
not continued after
corps members completed their assignments

        During their assignments,            some of the interns     initiated
or participated       in special projects,           such as reading,labora-
tories,     a cross-age     tutoring      program rn which ninth-grade
students tutored        seventh-grade        students,   and a ceramics           1i
class.      Program officials         informed us, however, that the
special projects        were generally        not continued by the schools
after corps members left because of a lack of evaluation                       to
identify     successful     activities       and because of a lack of man-
power and resourceso           For example, the principal          of a school
in which a reading laboratory               was started   by interns     stated
that he could not continue              the laboratory    after the interns
left because he would-not             have the necessary teachers.

       Interns   also used some teaching methods which program
personnel considered      to be new to the schools where the in-
terns were assigned.        These personnel     said that the methods
included such techniques        as extensive    use of audio-visual
equipment, more student participation           in conducting   classes,
more freedom of movement within         classrooms,    use of materials
available     at the university    but not at the schools,      reward-
ing students for good performance,           and new approaches to
teaching mathematics.

     Team leaders        and LEA officials        believed that the pro-
gram had resulted        in instructional        changes by some of the

                                         17
regular    teachers,     such as   a more relaxed classroom atmo-
sphere and more extensive          use of audio-visual      equipment.
Interns    believed,    however,    that the program's      influence      on
the regular      teaching staff     was limited    because of little
contact between the interns           and the maJorlty    of the teach-
ing staff,     lack of effective       salesmanship on the part of
corps members, and failure          of interns   to demonstrate       that
their   innovations     actually    worked or that change was really
needed,

       Procedures had not been established         for evaluating     new
teaching methods and techniques.           The program director     said
that LEAS would be slow to change as long as the success of
new teaching methods was not demonstrated            but that Federal
funds made available      under this program could not be used
for research and evaluation.          Members of the program staff
were of the opinion that, although the Western Carolina               pro-
gram had not resulted       in specific    changes In LEA methods of
instructing    children   from low-income families,        the program
had a positive     effect   on the attitude    of LEA officials     re-
garding the possibility       of change.

Unauthorized    use of corps members

       During the fourth cycle,   the Western Carolina program
was conducted under an arrangement whereby team leaders and
interns    were occupying State or locally    allotted    teaching
positions.     In discussing  the arrangement with the director
and an ex-director     of the Western Carolina     program, we were
informed that the fourth-cycle      corps members were supplant-
                                                                    \
ing teachers who would otherwise      have been hired by the
LEAS. Section 517 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as
amended (20 U.S.C. 11071, states that:

     V!Jo member of the Teacher Corps shall be furnished
     to any local educational  agency under the provi-
     sions of this subpart if such agency will use such
     member to replace any teacher who is or would oth-
     erwise be employed by such agency."

Therefore we believe that the arrangement under which the
Western Carolina program operated during the fourth cycle
was not authorized,



                                      18
       During the fourth cycle, we found that 18 interns              were
sharing nine State or locally        allotted     teaching posltlons--
two interns    for each position.       During the first        year of in-
service training,     the salary for each teaching position,            as
established    by the State, was divided between the two in-
terns.     This salary was paid from State and/or local funds,
During the second year of in-service           training,     the salary
for each teaching position       was Increased.          Federal funds
were used to make up the difference           between the amounts
paid from State and/or local funds and the amounts which
were due the interns     In salaries      and dependency allowances
pursuant to the Teacher Corps legislation.

        Fourth-cycle     team leaders occupied individual      State or
locally    allotted    teaching positions    and their basic salaries,
as established       by the State, were paid from State and/or
local funds.        Team leaders received a $500 supplement from
Teacher Corps but were required         to take certain    courses at
the university       which they paid for from their     own funds.
Team leaders took these courses to meet State requirements
for a certificate        in supervision   at the completion    of the
program.

       The Office of Education program specialist           rn Washlng-
ton, D.C., responsible       for monitoring    the program agreed
that two interns      were occupying one State or locally         allot-
ted teaching posltlon,      as was each team leader.         The program
specialist,     however, expressed the belief       that the procedure
followed    for the Western Carolina      program was not in vrola-
tion of section 517 of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as
amended (20 U.S.C. 1107).         It was her opinion that section
517 would not be violated        so long as State and/or local
funds are expended to the same degree that they would have
been spent if the Teacher Corps did not have a program at
the location.      The program specrallst      stated that there
were two requirements      that had to be met in order for the
corps members to occupy State or locally           allotted   teaching
positions,     namely

      --that   State and/or local funds be expended at the
          same rate as they would have been without Teacher
          Corps and

      --that     the corps   members be considered      qualified   to
          teach,
                                   19
       It was the program specialzst's    view that, since these
requirements   were met in the Western Carolina program,
there was no conflict    with the provisions   of the law.

       The program specialist     informed us that the fourth
cycle of the Western Carolina        program was set up as a pilot
program to provide for increased         State and local participa-
tion in the cost of the Teacher Corps program,               It was con-
templated     that such action would tend to increase the like-
lihood that successful      program features      would be carried      on
after Federal funding ceased.         The  portion   of   the   total  bud-
geted costs for the salaries        and related    benefits     of the
corps members to be borne by the LEAS in the Western Caro-
lina program increased from about 10 percent during the
first   three cycles of the program to 69 and 79 percent,re-
spectlvely,during     the 2 years of cycle IV.

       Most LEA officials     have informed us that fourth-cycle
interns    asslgned to their LEAS ~111 be offered          teaching
positions    if they desire to remain in the area, and if posi-
tions are available.        The Teacher Corps guidelines        for sixth-
cycle programs (1971-73) state that a school district               must
be certain     that there is a specific    school district        need for
the type of teacher who will be prepared by their program
and that Teacher Corps interns who successfully             complete
the program and want to remain In the school district               where
they were tralned      should be given hlrlng    priority.

        One of the six LEAS partlclpatlng        in the fourth cycle
of the Western Carolina program is being considered            for
participation       in a sixth-cycle   program that plans to use
basically     the same funding arrangement that was used in the
fourth-cycle       program.    Teacher Corps offlclals    have informed
us that this funding arrangement          is also being promoted in
other areas to help bring about a transition           from Federal to
non-Federal      funding.

      We have consldered     the views of the program specnallst
and, after review of the legislative         history,  it is still
our position   that the practice      of corps members' occupying
State or locally    allotted    teaching positions    1s not autho-
rized by the Higher Education Act of 1965.


                                   20
    EDUCATION-RELATED COMMUNITYACTIVITIES

           Although the authorizing        legislation       does not specifl-
    tally    provide for communxty actlvlties,            the Teacher Corps
    guidelines     encourage involvement        by the    corps members xn
    community-based       education activities.          The focus of commu-
    nlty activities       in Teacher Corps is on         educating parents and
    children     of low-income famrlies.

           The Teacher Corps position      was based on the belief
    that children     learn not only in school but also from other
    children   both in and out of school, and from their parents
    and neighborhood,       and that each of these areas must be
    strengthened    if low-income children     are to receive an educa-
    tion   comparable    to  that  of the more advantaged children.

          The proposal for the fourth cycle of the Western Caro-
    lina program broadened the definition          of community involve-
    ment to include participation       in virtually    any type of com-
    munity activity.       The Office of Education program specialist
    responsible    for the Western Carolina      program stated that
    community involvement       encompassed any activity    related   to
    community education,      including   such things as scout troops
    and sports activities.

            Community involvement      in the Western Carolina      program
\   was not emphasized.         Some interns,  however, had initiated
    and assisted with such community activities            as scout troops,
    a little   league baseball team, school ball teams, and a
    breakfast    program for needy children.        Participation      in
    these activities      resulted   from the efforts     and interests    of
    individual    interns    rather  than being team centered.

           Interns    stated that they were permitted       to select the
    community activity        in which they wanted to participate       but
    indicated     that they spent very little      time on such active-
    ties.     They pointed out that many of the areas where they
    were assigned either         already had organized community pro-
    grams or did not desire such programs.            Generally   they be-
    lieved that they should not force themselves upon the com-
    munity and that time should not be diverted           from the class-
    room to be spent In community activities.            Most team leaders
    interviewed      by us believed     that community actrvitles     should
    be subordinated        to classroom teaching,


                                          21
        The Offlee of Education program specialist          responsible
for the Western Carolina        program was of the opinion that
corps members had not participated           in community activities
to the extent desirable.         The  director   of the Western Caro-
lina program said that little         emphasis was placed on com-
munity activities      because of such factors       as the geographic
terrain    and scattered   populace.      The geographrc terrain      is
mountainous and the populace is rural,           scattered,    and iso-
lated,     Also many families      do not have adequate transporta-
tion and most children       ride buses which leave the schools as
soon as the school day ends.

        The Western Carolina      program dlrector      said that corps
members who had served in areas that were more heavily                popu-
lated found that these areas either had organized community
activities      or an organization      in the area which was better
equipped to promote community activities.              The program dl-
rector     stated also that the university         had always regarded
the Teacher Corps program as a vehicle for training               teachers
and prov;ldlng educational        services    to local schools rather
than as a vehicle for accomplishing             community social work.

RETENTION OF PROGRAMGRADUATES
AFTER TRAINING

       Of the 71 interns    who had completed the first         three cy-
cles, 48 remained 1n the field        of education;     14 of the 48
remained in the eight-county       area served by the Western
Carolina   program.    Most of the 14 interns       were either     from
the area or had performed their undergraduate            work at the
university    prior to joining   the Teacher Corps,        Information
was not available     to show the number of program graduates
teaching in areas with concentrations        of low-income families.

      The program director attributed  the low retention             rate
in the immediate area to the following    reasons.

      1. Most of the interns         did not want to stay in the imme-
         dlate area because of Its geographic rsolatlon,            lack
         of cultural     facilities,     and lack of available   housing.
         He also pointed out that teacher salaries           In North
         Carolina    are, In general,      lower than those of sur-
         rounding areas.



                                     22
     2. Most of the LEAS experience mrnrmal teacher turn-
        over and have few vacancies to fill.
      The dean of the School of Education and Psychology
agreed with these reasons and stated that under the circum-
stances he considered the retention rate to be good. He
pointed out that the area had experienced a declining popu-
lation for a number of years and that the number of teacher
allotments was limited.   Consequently, some teachers who re-
tire are not replaced.




                             23
CONCLUSION
      Regarding the Teacher Corps' legislative     objective of
strengthening educational opportunities    available to chil-
dren in areas having concentrations of low-income families,
it is our opinion that the program accomplished this objec-
tive in the grades to which corps members were assigned,
      However, since the program had only limited success in
stimulating changes in LEA instructional  methods which were
continued after corps members completed their assignments
and srnce many of the corps members who received training
under the program did not stay as teachers in the program
area, the impact of the Western Carolina program on strength-
ening the educational opportunities available to children of
low-income families in that area was not nearly as great as
could have been achieved.
      Concerning the lack of emphasis by Western Carolina
program officials    on community education activities,    we be-
lieve that the geographic setting and the dispersion of the
population in the eight-county area served by the program
hindered the establishment of such activities.        Therefore if
the Office of Education program specialist     responsible for
the Western Carolina program is still     of the opinion that
greater participation    by corps members in community activi-
ties is desirable, we believe that all parties involved
should work together to identify and implement projects that
would be both beneficial to the education of children and
adults in the rural areas of the State and feasible--consid-
ering the geographic limitations    of the program area,
RECOMMENDATIONSTO THE SECRETARY
OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,ANDWELFARE
     To make the Teacher Corps program more effective, we
recommend that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Wel-
fare provide for the Office of Education to
     --work in conjunction with the North Carolina LEAs to
        adopt specific procedures for evaluating new ap-
        proaches and concepts initiated as a result of the
        Teacher Corps and to actively promote the continua-
        tion of those which have proven successful;

                                24
      --explore,   in conjunction   watb the State, university,
         and local educational    agencies, ways in whic'h to
         achieve a higher degree of retention     of Teacher Corps
         program graduates within    the rural areas of North
         Carolina;  and

      --reassess   and clarify  the nature and extent of corn-
         munity education activxtxes    reasonably    attainable    in
         rural areas, suczl as western North Carolina,        where
         geographic conditions    and population   dispersion    im-
         pede such activities,

AGENCY COMMENTS

       The Assistant   Secretary,   Comptroller,   HEW, commented
on a draft of this report by letter        dated March 16, 1971,
(See app, III.>      He stated that the report presented an ac-
curate account of the strengths        and weaknesses of the West-
ern Carolina program, that the conclusions        were sound, and
that our recommendations were sufficiently         objective    to make
the Teacher Corps program more effective,          He stated also
that the comments were the product of a review of the re-
port by cognizant HEW and Office of Education staff            and the
responses from the director       of the Western Carolina      pro-
gram, the dean of the university's        School of Education,      and
university   staff   and local school officials     associated     with
the program.

       The Assistant    Secretary     informed us that HEM would en-
deavor to implement our recommendation that the Office of
Education work in conjunction          with the LEAS in North Caro-
lina to evaluate new approaches and concepts introduced                 by
the Teacher Corps.       He informed us also that the Teacher
Corps' Program Branch would deal directly             with the director
of the Western Carolina program and key officials               in the
various   educational    Jurisdictions       to develop specific     proce-
dures for performing       this evaluation       and that reports    pre-
pared by the program officials           upon completion    of the pro-
gram would indicate      prospects      for inclusion    of these innova-
tions into the school systems after the Western Carolxna
program was completed.         He also included a list        of changes
whic'h, according     to the director       of the program, were occur-
ring as a result      of Teacher Corps influence,          The change3
were in the planning stage at the time of our review.


                                    25
       With regard to our recommendation concerning graduate
retention,   the Assistant Secretary advised us that the
Teacher Corps had discussed the problem with education au-
thorities   at all levels affected by the program throughout
its operation,    He stated that, although graduate retention
was essentially   a local problem, the Teacher Corps would
continue to influence constructive decisions along these
lines.
        The Assistant Secretary concurred with our recommenda-
tion concerning community activities     and noted that the re-
vised Teacher Corps guidelines contained greatly strength-
ened sections on connnunity-based education,      He expressed
the belief that the recently authorized student volunteer
Teacher Corps, which was being implemented at key projects
aroundeecountry--some       in rural areas--would develop valu-
able information and insights into community education ac-
tivities    in rural areas.
MATTERFORCONSIDERATION
BY THE CONGRESS
      During the fourth cycle, the Western Carolina program
assigned corps members to State or locally allotted teach-
ing positions and, according to program officials,   the corps
members supplanted teachers who would have otherwise been
hired by the LEAS. This practice is not authorized by the
enabling legislation   which states, in part, that no member
of the Teacher Corps shall be used to replace any teacher
who is or would otherwise be employed by an LEA.
      Although the practice was not authorized, the State
and local funds that would have been expended for teacher
salaries were applied to the cost of the Western Carolina
program, Therefore Federal funding for the fourth cycle of
the program was reduced. Since this funding procedure is
being implemented at other locations and may provide LEAS
with the impetus to continue successful features of a
Teacher Corps program after Federal funding ceases, the Con-
gress may wish to consider whether section 517 of the Higher
Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U,S,C. 1107), should
be amended to specifically  authorize arrangements of the'
type being conducted under the Western Carolina program,


                              26
      The Assistant    Secretary   informed us that t'he Teacher
Corps was waiting    for a legal decision to be rendered by the
Department's   General Counsel.       He stated that,  depending
upon this decision,     amendments to the Teacher Corps legxs-
lation would be introduced       accordingly   at this year's
Teacher Corps authorization       hearings.




                              27
                                 CHAPTER 4

                  IMPACT OF PROGRAWON BROADENING

              WESTERNCAROLINA UNIVERSITY'S TEACHER

                          PREPARATION PRCGRAM

        The Teacher Corps program at Western Carolina Unrver-
sity has had some degree of success an broadening the uni-
verslty's    teacher preparation     program.   The classwork re-
quired of education majors has not changed as a direct             re-
sult of the Teacher Corps program, but student-teaching
practices    have changed as well as the university's        relation-
ship with LEAS. Introduction         of new courses for Teacher                 1
Corps interns       was not emphasized at the university     because
university     officials   believed that existing   courses were
flexible    and could be adapted to teaching disadvantaged
children.

       The university     required   2 years for an intern to obtain
a master's     degree in education as compared with 1 year for
regular    students.    The difference     in time resulted        from the
requirement     for interns,     who were generally     not education
majors,    to complete some undergraduate         education     course re-
qvlrements     before completing     graduate-level     requirements.
The graduate-level      course requirements       for interns     were the
same as those for education mayors, but interns               received
credit   for specrfic     courses on the basis of their          teaching
experience     during the 2-year period instead of taking class-
room work.      Interns   generally   took courses with regular          stu-
dents; however, in some instances,          interns were taught as a
group in special classes to facilitate            scheduling.

       Intern course requirements         were not changed to empha-
size teaching children         from low-income families;      however,
there was increased emphasis in the courses on teaching edu-
cationally    deprived children.         Some interns'  instructors
stated that their approaches to the subject matter covered
in the courses had been changed to meet Interns'              needs,
since instruction     should be relevant        to the needs of students.
Other university     officrals     stated that existing     education



                                     28
courses offered by the unlversnty   were flexrble   and the sub-
Ject matters lent themselves readily    to teaching children
from low-Income famllles.

       Most interns    at the unlversIty    sard that their  course
work was Irrelevant      and repetitious.     The program dlrector
believed   differently    and stated that much of the work may
have seemed irrelevant       to the Interns   at this stage in their
careers,   because they had not yet encountered the problems
to which the courses were dlrecte_d.

       Since the inception     of Its Teacher Corps program, the
university    has made changes In Its student-teaching        prac-
tices and has entered into a closer relatlonshlp          wrth LEAS.
The unlverslty    planned to use three supplementary        approaches
to student teaching,     starting    In the school year 1970-71,
which are slmllar     to the Teacher Corps program,       These ap-
proaches were characterized       by the unlversltyss   director      of
student teaching as an lnternshlp         program9 a modlfled    lntern-
ship program, and a physlcal        education program,

       The internship      program 1s a cooperative effort    between
the university       and the Haywood Comty School System.       The
unlverslty    will provide the county with 16 undergraduate          ed-
ucation maJors who will occupy eight allotted         teaching posl-
tions.     These students will teach In a school in the county
for the entire       school year.   Haywood County will pay each
student one half of the State salary for the allotted            teach-
ing position.        At the end of the year, the students will re-
ceive credit      for 1 year's teaching experience     as well as for
courses In education.

      The dean of the School of Education and Psychology In-
formed us that Hay-wood County was wllllng       to partlclpate
because of its prior    experience with the Teacher Corps pro-
gram and because It would obtain two teachers with expenses
for only one. He said that,       if the internship   program
proved successful,   rt would be continued.

        The director    of student teaching stated that the modl-
fied lnternshlp      program IS based on a guarantee by the unl-
verslty    that a given number of student teachers will be made
available     to the schools for each quarter     of the school year.



                                   29
This would enable      the schools to plan on having a given            num-
ber of additional      teachers for the entire school year.

        The director  of student teaching said that the physical
education program involves a plan which will allow five ele-
mentary schools to have a supervised physical         education pro-
gram for the entire      school year at no cost to the schools.
To implement the program, he stated that the university
would provide a graduate assistant        and five student teachers
each quarter whereas the participating        county would hire a
full-time    physical  education  specialist.     The student teach-
ers will    conduct the program in the schools under the super-
vision    of the graduate assistant    and the county specialist.

      University   officials     believed that the Western Carolina
Teacher Corps program had been a contributing          factor to these
new approaches.     The dean of the School of Education and
Psychology stated that the program had aided the university
in making its teacher preparation         program an integral   part
of LEA programs.      He added that the LEAs are beginning to
view teacher training        as an asset rather than as a liability
to their   programs, especially       when they can plan on a given
number of additional       teachers for the entire    school year,

       The director    of student teaching    said that     the Western
Carolina   Teacher    Corps program

      --influenced   school   personnel   relative   to possibilities
         for change,

      --assisted   in bringing    a closer working    relationship
         between the university     and LEAs, and

      --helped prove that a county educational            system could
         support an internship program.

CONCLUSION

      Concerning the Teacher Corps' legislative     objective    of
encouraging   colleges and universities   to broaden their    pro-
grams of teacher preparation,     it is our opinion that the
Western Carolina program has had some degree of success.
Since the inception    of the Western Carolina program, the


                                   30
university    has made changes In its student-teaching         prac-
tlces and has entered into a closer relationship           with the
LEAs. Concerning the course work of the interns,            however,
we believe that the opposing viewpoints          of the university
and the interns    concerning   the relevancy      of the course work
offered to interns      warrant examination    by Office of Educa-
tion and Western Carolina University        officials,     This exam-
ination,    in our view, should be directed        toward determining
whether new courses are necessary to make the education               -
that the interns     receive more relevant     to the instruction
of children    from low-income families,

RECOMMENDATIONTO THE
SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
ANDWELFARE

      Accordingly,      we recommend that the Secretary    of Health,
Education,   and Welfare provide for the Office of Education
to evaluate,    with the unlverslty,     the need for lncorporatlng
new courses and approaches to education        into the Teacher
Corps curriculum      as well as that of the regular    teacher
preparation    curriculum.



       The Assistant      Secretary,     Comptroller,     HEW, concurred
with our recommendation.           In his comments he stated that a
letter    received from the director          of the Western Carolina
program indicated       that a faculty       committee was studying ed-
ucational     innovations    for possible      lncluslon    in the univer-
sity's    teacher preparation        program.     He stated also that
the university      had participated       in all Teacher Corps confer-
ences on new materials        and approaches to educatron,         and that
the university      would be invited       to participate     in such a
seminar in the spring of 1971.




                                    31
                               CHAPTER 5

                    ROLE OF THE NORTH CAROLINA

                DEPARTMENTOF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION

                           IN THE PROGRAM

        The North Carolina  Department of Public Instruction   did
not take an active part in the development of the Western
Carolina program proposals but monitored the program to a
llmlted    extent.  The State has demonstrated   a willingness
to take a more active role in the Teacher Corps program in
the future.

        The State director       of teacher education and certlfica-
tlon said that in prior years the number of North Carolina
institutions      desiring     to participate     in the Teacher Corps
was not sufficient         to warrant establishment       of a formal sys-
tem for granting        State approval.        A State official   informed
us that he had accompanied the Office of Education program
representative       in visits    to the program sites and had held
periodic     discussions     with representatives       of the Western
Carolina program.          In addition,     the Office of Education fur-
nished the State with Its trip reports and other correspon-
dence related      to the program.

        In March 1970 the State Initiated       plans for partici-
pating in cycle VI of the Teacher Corps program (1971-73).
 Since then, the State has contacted various universities               in
North Carolina     concerning  cooperative     participation      in
cycle VI.     A time schedule for further       planning and imple-
mentation    of Teacher Corps activities       has been prepared;       a
North Carolina     Teacher Corps Advisory Commlttee has been
formed by the participants       to consider and advise the State
on Teacher Corps activities;       six universities        have submitted
papers to the State concerning        their proposed participation;
and the State has informed the Office of Education of its
plans for the utilization      of Federal,     State, and local funds
to operate the cycle VI program if it is approved by the Of-
fice of Education.       The State proposed that        during cycle VI
each university     would be primarily     responsible      for the op-
eration    of its own program.     Program negotiations        leading to
the awarding of Teacher Corps funds and evaluation               of

                                   32
program results  are to be a cooperative effort  lnvolvrng
the Office of Education,  the State, and each university                and
administrative  unit.

        The State planned to appornt a full-time         coordinator
and to provide participating        schools with In-service        train-
ing assistance,      consultant  servrceso program results,          and
encouragement and assistance        an making long-range      changes
In education     nn North Carolina.      In a letter   to the Office
of Education,     the State superintendent      of public instruc-
tion pointed out that the six urnversitles           desiring    to par-
ticipate    educate 42 percent of the students who graduate In
teacher education      in North Carolina.

      As set forth in the State's   plans submitted  to the Of-
fice  of Education,  the total estimated  budget and sources of
funds for each year of operation    of the sixth cycle ~,ti:te to
be as follows:

        Office of Education                            $446,000     b
        State and local                 $326,000
        University                        76,000
        Other      -                      10;000        412,000

             Total                                     $858,000

CONCLUSION

      We believe that the active role being taken by the
North Carolina   Department of Public Instruction       in the con-
duct of Teacher Corps program actrvitles        in the State should
serve to enhance the program's    effectiveness      in accompllsh-
ing its obJectives   in future  cycles.




                                   33
                               CHAPTER 6

                           SCOPEOF REVIEW

       We reviewed the legislative     history  of the Teacher
Corps program and the related      policies,   procedures,     and
guidelines    of the Offxe    of Education.    We reviewed records
relating    to corps member selection,corps     member activities
in the schools and Western Carolina University,          retention
of corps members in teaching after completion         of Teacher
Corps service,     and various administrative     aspects of the
program.

        Our review was performed at Teacher Corps headquarters
in Washington,        D.C., Western Carolina University,        and at
selected    schools in the eight-county          area of western North
Carolina.      We also interviewed      interns,     team leaders,  LEA
officials,     Western Carolina University          officials,  Teacher
Corps officials,         and North Carolina Department of Public
Instruction      officials.

      Our fieldwork    was concerned primarily    with the activl-
ties of the third     and fourth cycles of the Teacher Corps
program, since these were the cycles in operation          at the
time of our review.      We also obtained certain     information
on activities    of the first   and second program cycles.




                                   34
35
                                                                                                                                                                       APPENDIFI

                                                              STATI5IIcAI.                 DATA ON
                                             UE%RRNCAROLBUlEACHRRCORPS                                        PRCCRU4


RUMBRR OF INXRNS PARTICIPATING          IH PRocRAn
    Started   Program
    Dropped from program
    Completed    program
          (1     without  graduating
          9,     end graduated
          "      and remained     in education
          *,     and remained     in education   in
       prwgrsm mea

NUMBER OF TE&M LEADERS PARTICIPATING                         IN
  PROGUH
     Nmber         enrolled                                                                                   P
     Nu$er         serving    1 year or less                                               7
                   cemp1eting     the Program
           n       currently    Partxipating                                           I

                     Total                                                                                    P
                                                                                                                                              1969-:fo:ho$                     year
                                                                       Cycles                  IEA        Number of schools
                                                                            psZtiCi-                           served by                    Number of                      Student
                                                                            jetedin                         Teacher   Corus                  schools                   pouulation

l.XMA=ISTICS       OF IEAS PARTICIPATING                      W
   PRCCRAH
     Haywood County                                                    1. 2.               3. 4                        6                           20                       0,502
     t?accn county                                                     1. 2.               3, 4                        5                                                    3,397
                                                                                                                                                   i:                       3,655
     Jacksen
     Grh          County
                county                                                 1,1s 2.
                                                                            3.             3,
                                                                                           4 4                         x                                4                   1,621
     svain county                                                      2. 3,               4                           3                                                    1,791
     Trensylvanie        County                                        2. 4                                            2                            2                       4,344
     Asheville                                                         2                                               3                           14                       8.927
     Hrrphy                                                             i                                              i                                                    1.352
     Cherwke       County                                               1                                              3                                ;                   1,222
                                                                                                     . Received                                                         &ended
TEACHERCoRpSCR&WEVNDS
    Wgtern   Carolina University                                                                      $     830.116c                                                   3     578,644d
               cherwbee       canty                               $ 41,423e                                                             s 40,45ae
               Grshm      County                                    89,497e                                                               80,766e
               Xaymod       County                                 221,9a3=                                                              220,76ae
               Jeckswn      tivnty                                 174,640e                                                              166,250e
               Macwn County                                        157,345*                                                              153,86he
               Swain County                                         99,212e                                                                88 ,047e
               Trensylvanio         County                          40,321e                                                                36.830e
               &heVille                                            126.291e                                                              133,407e
               -hy                                                  43,me                                   996.278                        42,24Ze                           970.632
                     Taal                                                                             $1.826.394                                                        $1.549.276
aFeurth-cycle     interns   erg scheduled  to complete    the program in the sumax of 1971          There were
  18 interns  in the fourth     cycle at the start     of the second year of in-service    training      which
  begen in September      1970
b Information   for school year 1968-69 is shown for Asheville,         Ku-phy, end Cherokee      County
%eceiPts          as of June       1970--includes           $54,880     for            IEAS for             cycle      IV

kpenditares             es of Janvary        1970--includes            $33,896                 for        IEAs for      cycle       IV

'Amounts   provided           by the LRAs,          not   verified      by GAO                       IEA figures            are   for     cycles            I,   II,       and III
  as of about June            1970
‘“““““‘L-“““‘--------~


t MAP PREPARED BY GAO SHOWING THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS 1
i THE APPRDXIMATE MILEAGE AND THE CYCLES OF PARTICIPATION 1
1 FOR THOSE SCHOOLSTHAT PARTICIPATED IN CYCLES I IV Of THE 1
t WESTERN CAROLINA PROGRAM                                 I
L----------------,,,-------



                                                                                                                     MADISON COUNTY

                                                                                         HAYWOODCOUNTY




                                                                      -
                                                  TENNESSEE

                                                                      SWAINCOUNTY
                                           t---




                         CHEROKEE COUNTY                                                                       TRANSYLVANIA COUNTY



                                                      CLAY COUNTY   MACDN COUNTY    JACKSON COUNTY



                                                                                                         SOUTH CAROLINA
                                                                                      APPENDIX III     J



                          DEPARTMENT   OF HEALTH,    EDUCATION,         AND WELFARE
                                        WASHINGTON        D C   20201




OFFKEOFTHE   SECRETARY




                                           MAR 16 1971


              Mr PhIlIp Charam
              Associate Dlrector
              UnIted States General
              Accounting Offlce
              Washington, D C    20548

              Dear Hr     Charam

              The Secretary has asked that I reply to your letter dated
              January 20, 1971, wrth which you forwarded the draft report of tne
              General Accountxng Office review of the Teacher Corps Program at
              Western Carolina University     and particxpatlng schools I.? western
              North Carolina     We appreciate the opportunity   to review and com-
              ment on the report, the conclusions and recommendations

              The report lndlcates   that a very comprehenslve review was performed
              and presents an accurate account of the strengths and weaknesses      of
              the Teacher Corps Western Carolina Unlvers-rty Program    The conc&-
              slons are sound and the recommendatxons are sufflclently   ObJectlve
              to produce required remedial actlon to make the Teacher Corps
              Program more effective

              Detailed comments on the recommendations, together with the
              statements of actions to be taken to implement them, are set forth
              In the enclosure hereto    They are the product of a review of thz
              report by cognizant Departmental and Office of Education staff and
              the responses from the Dxrector of the Program at Western Carolina
              University,  the Dean of the School of Education, University  staff
              and local school officials  associated with the program

                                                           SIncerely     vours,




                                                          Assrstant      Secretary,    Conrntro‘ller

              Enclosure



                                                     39
APPENDIX    III


              Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
    Comments Pertinent    to-the Draft Report to the Congress of the
    Unlted States by the Comptroller General of the United States on
       Assessing the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at Western
 Carolina University    and Participating Schools in Western North Carolina


The General AccountlnP Office recommends that to make the Teacher Corps
program
program   more effective   In accomplishing    its legislative objectives,
the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare provide for the Office
of Education to work in conjunction       with the North Carolina LEAS to
adopt specific    procedures for evaluating new approaches and concepts
initiated    as a result of Teacher Corps, and to actively     promote &he
contlnuatlon    of those which have proven successful.

Department Comment

We concur with    this   recommendation

During the remaining four months of this particular       program at Western
Carolina Unlverslty    we will endeavor to implement the suggestion that the
Office of Educatron (OE) work in conjunction with the LEAS in North
Carolina to evaluate new approaches and concepts introduced by the Teacher
corps    The Program Branch of the Teacher Corps will deal directly        with the
Drrector and key officials     in the various educational    jurjsdictions  to
develop cpeciflc    procedures for doing this     Reports prepared by Western
Carolina Unrverslty    program officials   upon the completion of the North
Carolina program ~~11 indicate prospects fur inclusion        of these innova-
tions in the school system after Teacher Corps departure

The Dlrector informed us by letter that the following  things that were
in the planning stage at the time of the GAO review are now occurring
in the LEAS as a result of Teacher Corps influence    Some of these
are.

   -Other teaching teams are organked by local education agencies
   -In September 1970, one new school was built          for team teaching
     with others being planned
   -The Dean of the School of Education is seeing that inservice
     faculty training     is centering on team teaching and indivrduali-
     zing ins tructlon
   -Flexrble    State certification      arrangements are avallable
   -TradItional     teachers are examining the merits of team teaching
     and lndivldualized      instruction
   -Full year internships         (pald by LEAS) are now In practice in
     one county an$next year will be In five counties




                                          40
2.   The General. Accounting Offlce recommends that to make the Teacher Corps
     program more effectrve  in accompllshmg  its leglslatlve  objective,
     the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare provrde for the Offzce
     of Educatzon to explore, xn con.lunctlon with the State, University,
     and LEAS, ways in which to achieve a higher degree of graduate retentron
     wlthln the rural areas of North Carolina

     Department Comment

     We concur wrth this     recommendation.

     Teacher Corps has repeatedly discussed the problem of graduate retention
     with education authorltles       at all levels affected by this program through-
     out its almost five years of existence.        We have repeatedly received
     assurances--particularly       In the proposal submltted for fundlng--that
     strenuous efforts ~111 be made to retain such lndlvlduals,         Although
     this IS essentially      a local problem, Teacher Corps ~111 continue Ln
     the remalnlng four months of the program to influence constructive
     declslons along these lines.

3.   The General Accounting Office recommends that to make the Teacher Corps
     program more effectLve in accompllshmg   Its legislative      obJectlves,
     the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare provide for the Offlce
     of Education to evaluate, with the Unlverslty,   the need for 1ncorporatLng
     new courses and approaches to education rnto the Teacher Corps curriculum
     as well as that of the regular teacher preparation     curriculum,

     Department Comment

     We concur with   this   recommendation

     The Director lndrcated In his letter   that a faculty cormnittee 1s now
     studying teacher competency and performance for lncluslon      rn the Unlverslty
     program     Contact has been made with the Far West Regional Laboratory
     which 1s responsible   for developing "mini-courses"   and contact will be
     made with a group rn Oregon which has developed a new teacher tralnlng
     model to study possible ideas For lncluslon     In the Western Carolina
     Unrverslty   School of Education

     The Unlverslty    plans to introduce some competency-based education courses
     into the summer 1971 teacher training       program. Along these lines,
     Western Carolina Unlverslty     has partlclpated    1n all Teacher Corps con-
     ferences on new materials     and approaches to education, and ~111 soon be
     receiving an lnvltatlon    to participate     in a developmental seminar in the
     spring of 1971 to discuss competency-based teacher education and system-
     atic program design for Teacher Corps proJects.          A number of universltles
     currently   associated mth the Teacher Corps have long since incorporated
     new materials   and approaches Into their Teacher Corps proJects and are
     in the process of achlevlng their adoptlon wlthln the School of Educataon
     as a whole.




                                               41
     APPENDIX III

4.     The General Accounting Offlce recommends that to make the Teacher Corns
       program more effective   1n accompllshlng Its legislative    obJectlves,
       the Secretary of Health, EducatEon, and Welfare provide for the Office
       of Education to reassess and clarify     the nature and extent of community
       education actlvitles   reasonably attalnable   ln rural areas, such as
       western North Carolma, where geographic conditions and population
       dispersion impede such actlvltles.

       Department Comment

       We concur with   this   recommendation

       Revised Teacher Corps guldellnes      contain greatly strengthened sections
       on community-based education.      Teacher Corps leglslatlon    was amended
       last year to allow for a student volunteer Teacher Corps which IS being
       Implemented at key proJects around the country--some m rural areas.
       These w113 doubtless develop valuable lnformatlon       and lnslghts into
       community education actlvrties     in rural areas.    The uneven record of
       com;lunrty-based actlvltles    in rural Teacher Corps proJects 1s attrzb-
       utable,    among other things, to the wide geographic separation between
       the University   and the school-community served.      This has made It ex-
       ceedlngly drfflcult    for Western Carolina University     to have an altogether
       "whole" Teacher Corps proJect.


Matter    for Consideration     by the Congress

During the fourth cycle, the Western Carolina program asslgned corpsmembers
to State or locally   allotted  teaching posltlons and, according to program
officials,   the corpsmembers supplanted teachers who would otherwise have
been hlred by the LEAS. This practice 1s not authorized by the Teacher
Corps leglslatlon   which states m part that no member of the Teacher Corps
shall be used to replace any teacher who 1s or would otherwlse be employed
by an LEA.

Although the practice was not authorized,   it resulted In a substantial
Increase m State and/or local funding for the program with a resultant
decrease -Ln Federal fundmg.    Since this concept 1s being continued at
other locations,  and may provide LEAS knth the impetus to continue success-
ful features of a Teacher Corps program after Federal funding ceases, the
Congress may wish to consider whether the Teacher Corps legislation
 (20 U.S.C. 1101) should be amended to speclfrcally    authorize arrangements
of the type being conducted under the Western Carolina program.
Department Comment

The Teacher Corps 1s waltlng for a legal declslon to be rendered by the
Education Division,  Offrce of the General Counsel for Health, Education, and
Welfare.   Depending on this declslon, amendments to the Teacher Corps legls-
latlon will be introduced accordingly  at the Teacher Corps authorlzatlon
hearings to be held this year.


                                            42
                                                     APPENDIX IV


                PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE

       DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

         HAVING RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACTIVITIES

                 DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT


                                        Tenure     of office
                                        From                   To
                                                               -
SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
  AND WELFARE.
    Elliot L. Richardson             June   1970      Present
    Robert H. Finch                  Jan.   1969      June 1970
    Wilbur J. Cohen                  Mar.   1968      Jan.    1969
    John W. Gardner                  Aug.   1965      Mar.    1968
ASSISTANT SECRETARY(EDUCATION),
  DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
  AND WELFARE:
    Vacant                        June      1970      Present
    James E. Allen,  Jr.          May       1969      June 1970
    Peter P. Muirhead (acting)    Jan.      1969      May     1969
    Lynn M. Bartlett              July      1968      Jan.    1969
    Paul A. Miller                July'     1966      July    1968
    Francis Keppel                Oct.      1965      May     1966
COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION:                                                   ).n
   Sidney P, Marland, Jr.            Dec.   1970      Present
   Terre1 H. Bell (acting)           June   1970      Dec.    1970
   James E. Allen,  Jr.              May    1969      June 1970
   Peter P. Muirhead (acting)        Jan.   1969      May     1969
   Harold Howe, II                   Jan.   1966      Dec. 1968
   Francis Keppel                    Dec.   1962      Jan.    1966




                                                        U S GAO     Wash,   D C

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