TO THE CONGRESS f The Teacher Csr orthern Arizonti articipating o And Hopi In (71 B-764031 Office of Education Department of Health, Education, and Welfare ’ BY THE COiWTROLLER GENERAL ’ OF THE UNITED STATES . . COMPTROLLER GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES WASHINGTON DC 20548 B-l 64031(l) To the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives This 1s our report on the assessment of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona Unlverslty and partlclpatmg schools on the Navqo and Hop1 Indian Reservations. This program, which was authorazed by title V of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.&C, IlOl), 1s admmlstered by the Offlce of Educatxon, De- partment sf Health, Education, and Welfare. Our review was made pursuant to the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 53), and the Accountmg and Audltmg Act of 1950 (31 u,s c. 67). Copies of this report are being sent to the Director, Offlce of Management and Budget, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, and the Commlssloner of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, h Comptroller General of the United States 50 TH ANNIVERSARY 1921- 1971 ( COMPTROLLER GENERAL'S ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPRO- REPORT TO THECONGRESS GRAMAT NORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY AND PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSON THE NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RESERVATIONS Office of Education Department of Health, Education, and Welfare B-164031(1) DIGEST ------ WHYTh!EREVIEVWASMADE Because of interest expressed by committees and members of the Congress in the Teacher Corps program as a part of the overall Federal effort in the field of education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) has revlewed the program, natIonwIde This report, one of a series, assesses the Impact of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona University and partlclpatlng schools on the NavaJo and Hopi Indian Reservations The Teacher Corps was established in the Office of Education, Depart- ment of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), under the Higher Educa- tion Act of 1965 The legislative obJectives of the program are --To strengthen educational opportunities for children In areas having concentrations of low-income families --To encourage colleges and universltles to broaden their programs for training teachers. The Teacher Corps recruits and trains qualified teachers (team leaders) and Inexperienced teachers (interns) for service in areas having con- * centrations of low-income families Members of the Corps are assigned to schools ln teams conslstlng of a team leader and interns During their service, interns also engage in courses of study leading to col- lege or university degrees and to quallflcat-ton for State teaching cer- tificates Local educational agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of the salaries of Teacher Corps members, the Office of Education pavs the balance and also pays the costs of the Interns' courses (See p 7.) From Its inception In July 1968 to May 1970, the program at Northern Arizona University (NavaJo-Hopi program) had spent about $766,500 of Federal funds Tear Sheet Of the 12 participating schools, 11 are on the NavaJo Reservatlon-- nine in Arizona and two In New Mexico The 72th school IS on the Hopi Reservation which is within the NavaJo Reservation In Arizona The NavaJo Reservation has a population of 130,000; the Hop1 Reserva- tlon has-6,000 (See p 9.) FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS Strengthenwag educatzona2 opportmztzes The NavaJo-Hop1 program Increased the educational opportunities avall- able to Indian children in schools to which corps members were assigned (See Pe 15.) Corps members provided lndlvldual~zed instruction that otherwise would not have been available. (See p. 15 ) They also introduced several new teaching methods that made the Instruction more relevant to the culture and background of the children, such as --use of NavaJo-related stories, rather than Anglo-American-related ones, to teach reading, --use of a unique 40-character alphabet, with a different character for each dlstlnct sound, to teach reading; --lntroductlon of NaVaJO history tnto social studies, and --slmulatlon of transactions In a store to teach mathematics (See P 16.) School officials stated that the new teaching methods had been success- ful and had been adopted by their regular teaching staffs. (See p. 18.) Cores members partlclpated in various education-related community ac- tlvltles benefltlng children and their parents, such as --vlsltlng chlldren's homes; --attendIng tribal government, parent-teacher assoclatlon, and school board meetings, --teaching the NavaJo language to local teachers, and --teaching adult education classes. (See p. 20.) Corps members devised and carried out a cultural exchange proJect in which 25 HawaIIan children visited the NavaJo Reservation and 24 NavaJo chlldre vlslted Hawall. It was the first trip away from the reserva- tlon fo ! some of the NavaJo chtldren. One teacher cited a subsequent noticeable increase In the NavaJo children's Interest In social studies. (See p. 20.) 2 I GAO noted that only 5 percent of the teachers ln Bureau of Indian I Affairs schools on the reservations were NavaJo or Hop1 Indians I (See p 10 ) NavaJo or liipl knd;,,p constituted 42 percent of the I Teacher Corps interns ee I I I Exposure to Indian members of the Teacher Corps gave the Indian ch-rl- I dren incentive for their own schooling, because they could see what an I I educated Indian could accomplish (See p 15 ) The program director I plans to increase the number of Indian interns, lf the program 1s funded I I in the future (See p 14 > School ofhclals believed that the interns were better trained for teaching the Indian children than were teachers trained by tradltlonal methods About three fourths of the 26 interns who had completed the program as of the time of GAO's review had been hired as teachers in reservation schools, and most of the interns still ln tralnlng planned to accept such positions after their graduation (See p 21 ) 1 I Broadenzng teacher prepamtzon programs I I The NavaJo-Hopi program had some degree of success In broadening North- I ern Arizona Unlverslty's teacher preparation program. The unlverslty ! I I --provided courses designed to give interns an understandlng of the I rudiments of the Indian language, culture, and history and i I --modified existing courses to make their content more relevant to I teaching Indian children (See p 23 ) I I I For example, interns took courses in the NavaJo language and community, I the growth and development of Indian children, community relations, and I I the teaching of English to students from homes where another language I 1s predominant They were trained to teach mathematics and other sub- I I Jects by using language, symbols, and concepts familiar to Indians ) I (See p 23 ) I Experience with the Teacher Corps influenced the university to make %a some changes in its regular teacher preparation program and to establish student-teaching centers where students ln the regular program lives teach, and take academic courses University officials stated that the Teacher Corps program had fostered a more cooperative relate onshlp among the various colleges within the unlversl ty, through the program's use of some courses from outside the College of Education Some professors who taught the interns became more aware of the environment of the 1nd-r an reservations (See p. 24 ) GAO noted, however, that much of the special curriculum offered to Teacher Corps interns was not offered to students ln the unlverslty's I I Tear Sheet 3 regular teacher-training program The university has begun a study to ldentlfy aspects of the Teacher Corps rogram that should be made avaIlable to other students (See pa 26.7 Role of the Arzzona Department of Educatzon Offlclals of the Arizona Department of Education agreed with GAO's oplnlon that the effectiveness of the Teacher Corps program could be enhanced through dissemination by the department of lnformat~on on successful Corps lnnovatlons and teaching methods to other educational lnstltutions in the State The officials plan to Increase their ef- forts in that area (See p 28 ) RECOMMENDATIONS OR SUGGESTIONS The Secretary of HEWshould see that the Office of Education --siays abreast of the progress of the unlverslty's study of the ideas, experiments, and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hopi program and encourages the university to incorporate the successful ones in its regular teacher preparation program (see p. 26) and --cooperates with the Arizona Department of Education in its plans to disseminate information on successful lnnovatlons and teaching methods to other educational lnstltutlons in the State (see p 29) I AGENCY ACTIONSANDUNRESOLVED ISSUES HEW's Assistant Secretary, Comptroller, concurred with GAO's recommen- dation regarding the unlverslty's study. He said Teacher Corps head- quarters would provide technical assistance to ensure timely evaluation of future Corps programs at the university (See p, 26.) He said also that HEWconcurred in GAO's recommendation that the Of- fice of Education cooperate with the Arizona Department of Education but preferred to delay action until the Department could provide staff and expertise to carry out its plans (See p 29 ) MATTER9 FORCONSIDERATION BY THE CONGRESS Committees of the Congress, ln their deliberations on extending the Teacher Corps program, may wish to consider the information In this report and others in the series on the program's effectiveness In achieving legislative ObJectlves and on steps needed to improve effec- tiveness I 4 Contents Page DIGEST 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Operation of the Teacher Corps program Funding Program participation 2 NAVAJO-HOPI TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM 9 Selection of interns 12 3 DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHENEDUCATIONAL OP- PORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME FAM- ILIES', 15 Work performed by corps members in par- ticipatrng schools 15 Utilization of interns 16 Innovative teaching approaches in- troduced by corps members 16 Comments of school officials on work performed by corps members 18 Education-related community activities 20 Retention of corps members as regular teachers 21 Conclusion 22 4 DID THE PROGRAMBROADENNORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY'S TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM', 23 Academic courses offered to Teacher Corps interns 23 Influence of Teacher Corps on the uni- versity's regular teacher preparation program 24 Conclusion 26 Recommendation to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare 26 Pane CHAPTER 5 ROLE OF THE ARIZONA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION IN THE PROGRAM 28 Recommendation to the Secretary of Health, Educatxon, and Welfare 29 6 SCOPE OF REVIEW 30 APPENDIX I Map of the Navajo and Hop1 Tndlan Reserva- tlons 33 11 Comparison of ethnic backgrounds and other general lnformatlon pertaining to teachers and children at certain schools included in GAO's review 34 III Letter dated March 8, 1971, from the Assls- tant Secretary, Comptroller, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, to the General Accounting Offlce 35 IV Prlnclpal offlclals of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare respon- srble for the acfxvltles discussed In this report 38 ABBREVIATIONS GAO General Accounting Office HEW Department of Health, Education, and Welfare LEA Local Educatlonal Aeencv ” , COMPTROLLER GENERAL ‘S ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPRO- REPORT TO THE CONGRESS GRAMAT NORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY AND PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSON THE NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RESERVATIONS Office of Education Denartment of Health, Education, and Welfare 3-lGQ031(1) DIGEST ------ WHY !Z’UE l?EV.EW WAS MADE Because of interest expressed by committees and members of the Congress in the Teacher Corps program as a oari. of the overall Federal effort ln the f-reld of education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) has revlewed the program, natlonwlde This report, one of a series, assesses the impact of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona Unlverstty and participating schools on the NavaJo and Hop1 Indian Reservations The Teacher Corps was established in the Office of Education, Depart- ment of Health, Education, and hlelfare (HEU), under the Higher Educa- tion Act of 1965 The legislative ObJectiVeS of the program are --To strengthen educational opportunities for children in areas having concentrations of low-income families --To encourage colleges and unlversltles to broaden their programs for training teachers The Teacher Corps recruits and trains quallfled teachers (team leaders) and inexperienced teachers (Interns) for service in areas having con- centrations of low-income families Members of the Corps are assIgned to schools in teams conslstlng of a team leader and interns During their service, interns also engage -rn courses of study leading co col- lege or university degrees and to quallflcatlon for State teaching cer- tiflcates Local educatIona agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of the salaries of Teacher Corps members, tke Office of Education pavs the balance and also pays the costs of the Interns' courses (See p 7 ) From its inception in July 1968 to May 1970, the program at Northern Arizona University (NavaJo-Hopi program) had spent about $766,500 of Federal funds Of the 12 partlcTpatlng schools, 11 are on the NavaJo Reservatlon-- nine in Arizona and two in New Mexico The 12th school IS on the HOPI Reservation which IS within the NavaJo Reservation In Arizona The Navago Reservation has a population of 130,000, the Hop1 Reserva- tlon has 6,000 (See p 9 ) FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS Strengthenzng educatzonai! opportunztzes The NavaJo-Hop? program increased the educataonal opportunltles avail- able to Indian children in schools to which corps members were asslgned (See P* 15 ) Corps members provided lndl vldual lzed lnstructlon that otherwise would not have been avaIlable (See p 15 ) They also introduced several new teaching methods that made the lnstruct~on more relevant to the culture and background of the children, such as --use of NavaJo-related stories, rather than Anglo-American-related ones, to teach reading, --use of a unique 40-character alphabet, with a different character for each dlstlnct sound, to teach reading, --lntroductlon of NavaJo hlstory Into social studies, and --simulate on of transactlons in a store to teach mathematics (See P 16) School offlclals stated that the new teaching methods had been success- ful and had been adopted by their regular teaching staffs. (See p 18 ) Corps members partlclpated in various educat?on-related community ac- tlvltles benefiting children and their parents, such as --vlslt?ng children's homes9 --attending tribal government, parent-teacher association, and school board meetings, --teaching the NavaJo language to local teachers, and --teaching adult education classes (See p 20 ) Corps members devised and carried out a cultural exchange proJect In which 25 Hawaiian children visited the NavaJo Reservation and 24 NavaJo children visited Hawaii. It was the first trip away from the reserva- tion for some of the NavaJo children One teacher cited a subsequent noticeable increase in the NavaJo children's interest in social studies. (See p* 20 ) 2 GAO noted that only 5 percent of the teachers In Bureau of Indian Affairs schools on the reservations were NavaJo or Hopi Indians (See p 10 ) NavaJo or Mpi ind;?; constituted 42 percent of the Teacher Corps interns ee , Exposure to Indian members of the Teacher Corps gave the Indian chil- dren Incentive for their own schooling, because they could see what an educated Indian could accomplish (See p 15 ) The program director plans to Increase the number of Indian Interns, If the program IS funded In the future (See p 14 > School officials believed that the Interns were better trained for teaching the Indian children than were teachers trained by traditional methods About three fourths of the 26 Interns who had completed the program as of the time of GAO's review had been hired as teachers in reservation schools, and most of the Interns still In training planned to accept such pos~tlons after their graduation (See p 21.) Broadenmg teacher preparatzon programs The NavaJo-Hopi program had some degree of success In broadening North- ern Arizona University's teacher preparation program. The univevlsity --provided courses designed to give Interns an understanding of the rudiments of the Indian language, culture, and history and --modified existing courses to make their content more relevant to teaching Indian children (See p. 23 ) For example, interns took courses in the NavaJo language and community, the growth and development of Indian children, community relations, and the teaching of English to students from homes where another language IS predominant They were trained to teach mathematics and other sub- Jects by us-rng language, symbols, and concepts familiar to Indians (See p 23.) Experience with the Teacher Corps Influenced the university to make some changes in its regular teacher preparation program and to establish student-teaching centers where students In the regular program live, teach, and take academic courses University officials stated that the Teacher Corps program had fostered a more cooperative relatlonshlp among the various colleges WI thin the university, through the program's use of some courses from outside the College of Education Some professors who taught the interns became more aware of the environment of the Indian reservations (See p. 24 ) GAO noted, however, that much of the special curriculum offered to Teacher Corps Interns was not offered to students in the university's regular teacher-tralnlng program The unlverslty has begun a study to Identify aspects of the Teacher Corps rogram that should be made avaIlable to other students. (See p 25 7 Role of the Arzzona Department of Educatzon Offlclals of the Arizona Department of Education agreed with GAO's oplnlon that the effectiveness of the Teacher Corps program could be enhanced through dlssemlnatlon by the department of information on successful Corps innovations and teachTng methods to other educatlonal lnstltutlons in the State The offlclals plan to increase their ef- forts in that area (See p 28 ) RECOi@!E~fDATIONS ORSUGGESTIONS The Secretary of HEWshould see that the OffIce of Education --stays abreast of the progress of the unlverslty's study of the ideas, experiments , and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hopi program and encourages the university to incorporate the successful ones in its regular teacher preparation program (see p. 26) and --cooperates with the Arizona Department of Education In its plans to disseminate information on successful lnnovatlons and teaching methods to other educational lnstltutlons in the State (see p 29) AGENCY ACTIOK ANDUNRESOLVED ISSUES HEW's Assistant Secretary, Comptroller, concurred with GAO's recommen- dation regarding the unlverslty's study. Me said Teacher Corps head- quarters would provide technxal assistance to ensure timely evaluation of future Corps programs at the university. (See p* 26 ) He said also that HEWconcurred in GAO's recommendation that the Of- fice of Education cooperate ~7th the Arizona Department of Education but preferred to delay action until the Department could provide staff and expertise to carry out its plans (See p 29 ) MATTERS FOR COWIDERATIONBY THE CONGRESS Committees of the Congress , in their deliberations on extending the Teacher Corps program, may wish to consider the information in this report and others in the series on the program's effectiveness In achieving legislative obJectives and on steps needed to improve effec- tiveness 4 CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION We evaluated the effectiveness of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, and participating schools in accomplishing the legislative objectives of Teacher Corps. The schools were located in Arizona and New Mexico on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reserva- tions. The obJectives of the program are: --To strengthen the educational opportunities available to children in areas having concentrations of low- income families. --To encourage colleges and universities to broaden their programs of teacher preparation. To accomplish these objectives, the Teacher Corps is au- thorized to (1) attract and train qualified teachers who will be made available to local educational agencies (LEAS) for teaching in areas of low-income families,1 (2) attract and train inexperienced teacher-interns who will be made avail- able for teaching and in-service training to LEAS in such areas in teams led by experienced teachers, (3) attract volunteers to serve as part-time tutors or full-time instruc- tional assistants an programs carried out by LEAS and in- stitutions of higher education serving such areas, and (4) attract and train educational personnel to provide train- ing, including literacy and communications skills, for juve- nile delinquents, youth offenders, and adult criminal of- fenders. The latter two means of achieving the objectives were authorized subsequent to the commencementof our re- view by Public Law 91-230--an act to extend programs of as- sistance for elementary and secondary education--approved April 13, 1970, and therefore were not within the scope of our review. 1The enabling legislation permitted experienced teachers to be assigned to LEAS individually or as the heads of teaching teams. Public Law 90-35, approved June 29, 1967, amended the legislation by permitting experienced teachers to be assigned only as the heads of teaching teams. 5 This review was one of several made by GAO at selected universities and LEAS throughout the Nation, OPERATION OF THE TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM The Teacher Corps was established in the Office of Ed- ucation, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, pur- suant to title V, part B, of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101). The Teacher Corps ES basically a locally controlled and operated program. The Office of Education provides funds to operate approved Teacher Corps programs which have been locally conceived to meet local needs and which have been approved by the appli- cable State educational agency. To be eligible for approval, a program must be designed to serve chxldren in areas hav- ing high concentrations of poverty. Persons eligible to be enrolled in the Teacher Corps are (1) experienced teachers, (2) persons who have bacca- laureate degrees or their equivalents, and (3) persons who have completed 2 years in programs leading to baccalaureate degrees. After selection, the corps members are placed in teams consisting of a team leader and a number of interns. During their service, the interns receive training and instruction leading to degrees from the particlpatlng col- leges or universities and to qualification for State teach- ing certifications. The training consists of academic courses, work in the classrooms of local schools, and partic- ipation in community-based education activities. While in the schools, corps members are under the di- rect supervision of officials of the LEAS to which they are assigned. With certain exceptions, LEAS are authorized to (1) assign and transfer corps members within the school systems, (2) determine the subjects to be taught, and (3) determine the terms and continuance of the assignment of corps members within the system. Corps members, however, may not be used to replace any teachers who are or other- wise would have been employed by the LEAS. The Teacher Corps program operates on a cycle basis. Generally a cycle consists of preservice training--a period of no more than 3 months during which corps members' suit- ability for acceptance into the program is determined--and 6 2 academac years with an intervening summer. Certain pro- grams, however, operate for shorter periods of time, The authorizing legislation provides for enrollment of corps members for periods up to 2 years. A new Teacher Corps cycle has started each year, the first cycle having begun In 1966. The cost of the interns' courses and the administra- tive costs of the colleges or universities and the LEAS are paid by the Office of Education. The LEAS are expected to provide at least 10 percent of the corps members' salaries and related benefits while they are in the schools, and the Office of Education provides the remamder, A team leader is to be compensated at a rate agreed to by the LEA and the Commissioner of Education. At the time our review began, an intern was compensated at either a rate which was equal to the lowest rate paid by the LEA for teaching full time in the school system and grade to which the intern was assigned or $75 a week plus $15 a week for each dependent, whichever amount was less. Public Law 91-230, however, amended the compensation authorized by pro- viding that an intern be paid at either a rate which did not exceed the lowest rate paid by the LEA for teaching full time in the school system and grade to which the intern was assigned or $90 a week plus $15 a week for each dependent, whichever amount was less. FUNDING From inception of the Teacher Corps program in fiscal year 1966 through fiscal year 1970, funds authorized and appropriated by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program, nationwIde, were as follows: Fiscal year Authorization Appropriation 1966 $36,100,000 $ 9,500,000 1967 64,715,OOO 11,323,OOO 1968 33,000,000 13,500,000 1969 46,000,OOO 20,900,000 1970 80,000,OOO 21,737,OOO I The Navajo-Hop1 program has been operational since the third Teacher Corps cycle, which began in 1968. As of May 1970, Northern Arizona University and the participating lo- cal schools involved in the Navajo-Hopi program had expended about $766,500 of funds provided by the Office of Education, as follows: Amount Grantee expended Northern Arizona University $338,400 Barticipatmg reservation schools: Bureau of Indian Affairs schools 342,500 Tuba City Public Elementary School 60,300 Keams Canyon Public School- 25,300 Total $766,500 PROGRAMPARTICIPATION Certain nationwide data relating to Teacher Corps pro- gram participation from its inception in fiscal year 1966 through fiscal year 1970 is shown in the tabulation below. Entered program Completed program Rate of dropout Team Team Team All corps Cycle Interns readers Total Interns leaders Total Interns leaders members [percent) I 1,279 337 1,616 627 170 797 50 51 II 882 152 1,034 674 143 817 zt 6 21 III(a) t'!$z 186 1,215 832 170 1,002 19 10 18 1;(a) 221 200 1,575 - 71445 1,666 apartxlpants had not completed program at time of GAO review CHAPTER 2 NAVAJO-HQPI TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM The NW~JO-HO~I Teacher Corps program has been a coop- eratlve effort involving Northern Arizona University, 10 el- ementary schools operated by the Department of the Interl- or's Bureau of Indian Affairs, two public elementary schools, local communities, and the Arizona Department of Education, Of the 12 schools that have participated, 11 are located on the Navajo Indian Reservation--nine in Ari- zona and two in New Mexico. The other participating school is located on the Hop1 Indian Reservation in Arizona. - There is an extreme shortage of Navajo and Hopi teach- ers on the reservations. The program 1s designed to im- prove the educational opportunities available to children on the reservations by developing teachers, primarily of Navajo or Hopi descent, who, without the program, would re- main potentially able to teach on the reservations but who might not actually try teaching. It was the view of pro- gram organizers that tradrtlonal teacher preparation methods applicable to middle-class public schools were not produc- ing entirely effective teachers for Indian children. Therefore the program was intended to provide a curriculum to the interns that was geared specifically to the Indian childrenPs culture. The Navajo Reservation encompasses parts of Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah and has a population of about 130,000. The Hopi Reservation, which is situated inside the boundary of the Navajo Reservation and entirely within Arizona, has a population of about 6,000. Appendix I is a map of these reservations. Northern Arizona University is located near the south- west corner of the Navajo Reservation. During the 1968-69 school year, the university had a full-time enrollment of about 6,500 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. The universityqs College of Education graduates about 400 teachers annually. According to a university official, 9 about 34 teachers trarned in the nniversrty's regular teacher preparation program between 1968 and 1970 have taken positions on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations, For the 1970-71 school year, the Bureau of Indian Af- fairs employed about 1,000 teachers for Its schools on the NavaJo Reservation and about 50 teachers for Its schools on the Hopi Reservation. Less than 60, or about 5 percent, of these teachers were NavaJo or Hopi Indians. About 400 addi- tional teachers were employed by the public schools on the reservations. Appendix II is a comparison of ethnic back- grounds and other general information pertarning to teach- ers and children at certain schools included in our review, The NavaJo-Hop1 program has been funded for two cycles--cycle III which operated from July 1968 through May 1970 and cycle IV which began operation In June 1969 and which 1s scheduled for completion in May 1971. Interns re- ceived their training In four basic phases: (1) preservice, (2) first-year in-service, (3) intervening summer, and (4) second-year in-service, The preservice and intervening summer training phases were conducted at the university. The maJor purpose of pre- service was to give interns an understanding of what they could expect to encounter on the reservations, Training during the intervening summer consisted of the interns' taking academic courses, Including a course dealing with teaching English to students coming from homes where En- glish is not the predominant language. During the two in- service training phases from September through May of each year, the interns lived and received on-the-Job training at the reservation schools where they were assigned. They participated In community activities and took academic courses. Because the reservation schools were located long dis- tances (40 to 225 miles) from the university, the interns could not take their academic courses at the unlverslty during the in-service training phases. In 1969, after finding that it was impractical to send instructors to cen- tral locations where the interns were assembled or to the individual schools, the university decided to use a video 10 tape technique. This involved recording courses on video tape at the miversity and distributing the tapes to the schools where the interns were training. Although joint program proposals were developed by them, the unrverslty, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the public schools prepared separate budgets and flnanclal re- ports and submrtted them to the Offlce of Education for each cycle in which they partlcrpated. They also received separate grants from the Offrce of Education. The Navajo-Hopi program was admrnlstered by a program director who was on the faculty of the university's College of Education. Designated coordinators, who acted In behalf of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the superintendents of the public school!& admrnnstered the program for the par- tlclpatlng schools. SELECTION OF INTERNS The Navajo-Hopi program's selectlon process was gener- ally effective in providing interns qualified to be trained as teachers of disadvantaged Indian children. Interns for the third cycle were selected by a panel consisting of representatives from the unlverslty and some of the participating schools. For the fourth cycle, one or two community representatives and team leaders and interns from the third cycle were added to the selection panel. The Navajo-Hopi program director told us that repre- sentatives from each of the participating schools were ln- vited to all the selection panel meetings but that many did not attend. He stated that community representatives were not asked to participate in the selection of interns for the third cycle, because the program was scheduled to begin shortly after its authorization by the Office of Educa- tion. The program director informed us that the university had tried to recruit as many NavaJo and Hopi Indians as could meet the established qualifications. The program for the third cycle was designed to include students who were work- ing toward either bachelor*s or masterPs degrees. In the fourth cycle the program was intended to be exclusively for undergraduate students. It was desired that an intern have at least a C-grade average and be from 21 to 30 years old. Approximately 150 persons applied for intern positions in cycles III and IV of the Navajo-Hopi program. Of these 150 persons, 72 were accepted for training as teachers of children on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, includ- ing 30 (42 percent) who were either Navajo or Hopi Indians. As of June 1970, 26 interns, including 19 who planned to teach on the reservations, had completed the third cycle and 27 interns were still participating in the fourth cycle which was not scheduled for completion until May 1971. This data, as it relates to the respective program cycles is shown in the graph on the following page 12 CYCLE 111 CYCLE !V (JULY 1968 - MAY 197Q) (JUNE 1969 - MAY 1971) Of the 72 interns in the two cycles, 19, or 26 percent, dropped out of the program before completion, for the fol- lowing reasons. 13 Dissatisfied with university staff 3 Unexplained reasons 3 Personal problems 3 Dissatisfied with university courses 2 Personal conflict with program implementation 2 Financial problems 2 Dissatisfied with local school system 1 Lacked interest in teaching as a career 1 Accepted other employment 1 Transferred to another program 1 Total 19 We noted that 17 percent of the 30 Navajo and Hopi Indians dropped out of the program during training, whereas 31 percent of the 42 other interns dropped out, To in- crease the number of Indian interns for future cycles, the program director plans to send posters to other universities near the reservation and to solicit applicants from the Navajo (Junior) Community College on the reservation and through the Indian club at Northern Arizona University. During cycles III and IV, 11 experienced teachers were recruited to serve as team leaders, Of these 11 teachers four completed the program and five were still participating in the fourth cycle as of June 1970. 14 CHAPTER 3 DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHENEDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES', We belleve that the NavaJo-Hopi program strengthened the educational opportunities available to Indian children in participating schools where the Teacher Corps teams were assigned. We found that participating schoolswere in areas having concentrations of low-income families. The interns provided the children with more individual- ized instruction, which gave them additional educational op- portunities that would not otherwise have been available. Exposing the children to Indian corps members provided an educational stimulus by showing the children what an Indian could accomplish through education. Some new approaches to educating children were intro- duced in the schools. Many of these ideas were adopted and used by regular teachers after the interns completed their assignments. Corps members initiated or participated in certain community activities, which resulted in increased interest on the part of the children or parents in various aspects of education. Also about three fourths of the corps members who had completed the program as of the time of our review were retained as teachers In reservation schools. WORKPERFORMEDBY CORPSMEMBERS IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS Corps members were assigned to schools in teams con- sisting of a team leader and from four to nine interns. Team leaders were responsible for supervising the interns and acted as liaison officer between the interns and the regular teachers, prlnclpals, and university officials. The responsibilities of team leaders were designed to prepare them for supervisory positions in the Bureau of Indian Af- fairs schools and public schools on the reservations. While at the schools, the teams were under the supervrsion of the principals and teacher supervisors and worked in cooperation with regular teachers. Utilization of interns On the basis of discussions with school principals, teacher supervisors, and interns in five schools, we learned that the interns generally began their training by observing regular teachers In classroom situations and gradually ex- panded this training by planning lessons, tutoring lndlvid- uals, and working with small groups, until they ultimately taught entire classes. (See photograph furnished by the Office of Education on pm 17 .) The interns were rotated periodically, to expose them to a number of regular teachers and teaching situations and to give them the opportunity to teach classes in many different subjects. Our analysis of information obtained from interns showed that they generally spent about 60 percent of their time training in classrooms in the schools to which they had been assigned, 20 percent of their time in community ac- tivities, and the remaining 20 percent on academic study. Innovative teaching approaches introduced by corps members The schools participating in the Navajo-Hopi program did not develop plans which identified and outlined innova- tions that would be tested with the help of Teacher Corps interns. Rather, the interns were generally allowed, and in some cases encouraged, to innovate in the classrooms. As a result, several innovative teaching methods were Intro- duced in the schools where the interns were assigned. These new teaching methods included* --Using NavaJo rather than Anglo-American-related stories to teach reading. --Simulating transactions in a store to teach math- ematics. --Introducing instruction in Navajo history in so- cial studies classes. --Comparing NavaJo and English expressions in the instruction of English. 16 . --Using a unque 40-character alphabet, with a different character for each distinct sound, In teaching reading. --Establishing a language laboratory using tape recordings for use In teaching children to read. --Using team teachlng-- two or more teachers sharing responsibility for teaching a group of students and alternating their subject presentations. Comments of school officials on work performed by corps members In December 1970 we interviewed officials of five of the six schools that completed their participation in the program in May 1970. Most of these officials told us that teaching innovations introduced by corps members had been found to be successful and had been adopted by members of their teaching staffs. The principal at one of the schools stated that the team-teaching concept, which had been initiated entirely by the Interns, had been expanded and carried on at his school. He said that team teaching was being used in approximately one third of the school--all the third, fourth, and fifth grades. He stated also that the interns seemed to be some- what more enthusiastic about teaching than did the average member of his teaching staff. It seemed to him that some of this enthusiasm had rubbed off on the other teachers. Although this principal acknowledged that the interns had contributed good ideas to the school, he commented that they seemed to arrive at the school with an idea that every- thing there would be wrong. He believed that it would be helpful if Teacher Corps officials would impress upon the interns the importance of arriving with a more objective outlook. The superintendent and former principal at another school informed us that new teaching techniques introduced by corps members had made the instruction to the children more relevant to their culture and background and thereby 18 had made It easier for the chrldren to understand the teachers' presentations. He stated that these techniques, which the Interns had applied very successfully, had been adopted by many members of his teachrng staff. He stated also that he had initiated a study to ldentrfy addrtional ways to make courses more relevant. Another prlnclpal stated that, although she could not pornt to specific teaching I-nnovatlons whrch the interns had introduced and which had been carried on by some members of the teaching staff, she believed that the interns had made the other teachers more conscrous of the need to make the academic courses In the schools more relevant to the children's backgrounds. A teacher-supervisor at another school told us that the expanded use of the team-teaching technique at his school was the result of the Interns' efforts. He also pornted out that the interns had introduced certain dzscussrons of NavaJo history and culture Into the social studies classes. He stated that the expanded curriculum had been continued in the social studies classes even though the interns had left and that the school was In the process of developing a text to teach NavaJo hrstory and culture, Another school offlcral whom we interviewed was of the oplnlon that interns seemed to have the phllosop@ that they had to change the way that children were being taught In the school and that they did not give fair conslderatlon to whether changes were in order. He pointed out that he did not feel that this philosophy was particularly a fault of the way the Teacher Corps program was being operated but rather that it was due to the personality of the lndlvldual interns assigned to his school. 19 EDUCATION-RELATED COMMUNITYACTIVITIES Although the legsslation does not specifically require the involvement of corps members in community activities, the Teacher Corps guidelines encourage such involvement, The intent of the corps members' involvement in community activities is not only to give the interns an understanding of the children and their environment but also to educate parents and children of low-income families. We learned from discussions with team leaders and school officials that corps members participated in various community activities and projects. One community project provided for 25 Hawaiian children and their chaperones to visit the Navajo Reservation and for 24 Navajo children and their chaperones to visit Hawaii. The project was selected, planned, and carried out by the interns at one school. It offered some of the children their first opportunity to travel away from the reservation and to see other people of similar complexion. The principal and teachers at the school believed that the project was worthwhile, and one teacher cited a subsequent noticeable increase in the chil- dren's interest in social studies. The project was received favorably by the local commu- nity. It was financed primarily with Federal funds obtained through the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Office of Eco- nomic Opportunity, The interns planned a similar exchange project for the 1970-71 school year. A team of interns at another location visited numerous homes in the community and learned that the parents were very interested in having an adult education program. ThlS interest led to the establishment of adult education classes as a community project. Attendance at classes varied from 15 to 40 adults, and 13 adults ultimately passed most parts of a high school equivalency test, The project was consld- ered quite successful by the school principal, team leader, and interns and was subsequently adopted by the local high school, The team assigned to two other schools made a survey to acquaint themselves with the political organization, the economic conditions, and the educational needs in the local 20 communities. As a result of suggestions by adults In the communities, the interns established adult education courses, Another community proJect involved the teaching of the NavaJo language to the local teachers. The interns also visited studentsq homes; worked with Girl Scouts; and attended tribal government, parent-teacher associationb and school board meetings. Team leaders and officials of the schools where the corps members were assigned told us that the community ac- tivltles undertaken by the interns had been successful. RETENTION OF CORPS MEMBERSAS REGULAR TEACHERS Of the 26 interns who had completed the Nava-jo-Hopi pro- gram as of May 1970, 19 (about 75 percent) had accepted teaching positions In reservation schools. Of the 19 teach- ers retained, seven were Navajo or Hopi Indians. As of Ma 1970, 27 additional Interns, including 17 NavaJo or Hopi I dians, had completed the first year of their assignments. Through intervIewso we learned that at least 23 of these 1 terns planned to teach in reservation schools after they graduated in May 1971. Principals and teacher-supervisors at the reservation schools where the interns trained generally considered the graduates of the NavaJo-Hopi program to be better trained for working with Indian children on the reservations than were teachers trained under traditional methods. They pointed out that teachers prepared by the traditional meth- ods, which emphasxze SubJect matter and teaching methods ap- plied to the typical middle-class public school, are defi- cient in such practical aspects as Indian culture and lan- guage~ Although some school officials believed that the interns were not as well prepared academically and in teach- ing methods as were other teachers, they considered the in- terns to be well prepared from a practical application stand- point, and most believed that the interns would be better overall teachers as a result. The director of the NavaJo-Hopi program stated that the graduated interns who were employed as full-time teachers in the reservation schools could strengthen the educational 21 opportunities available to the Indaan chrldren by becoming catalysts for educational changes at the schools. We noted that three of the four team leaders who completed the pro- gram in May 1970 had taken positions in Navajo Reservation schools. One team leader was to be a teacher-supervisor and the other two were to be teachers, School officials planned to offer the latter supervisory positions as soon as such positions became available. CONCLUSION It is our opinion that the Navajo-Hopi program has strengthened educational opportunities avarlable to children on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations, an line with the legsslative objectnveof the Teacher Corps program. The objective was accomplished by recruiting and trann- ing, as teachers of disadvantaged children, persons who, upon completion of their assignments, were considered by school officrals to be better trained for teaching Indian children than were teachers prepared by traditional pro- grams, Schools on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations wolf- ingly offered teaching positions to the interns who gradu- ated. We believe that the number of Indians in the program who have taken or plan to take teaching positions will sig- nificantly increase the number of Indxan teachers an schools on the reservations. Estimates furnished by local offi- cials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs showed that, at the time of our review, about 60 NavaJo or Hopi teachers were employed at the Bureau's schools on the Navajo and Hopi Res- ervations. The Teacher Corps interns provided more individualized instructron and introduced some new approaches to educating children, and many of the approaches were continued in the schools after the interns had completed their assignments. The Interns' efforts gave the children edusatlonal oppor- tunities that otherwise would not have been avaIlable to them Exposing the children to Indian corps members pro- vided the children with an educational stimulus. Community actlvltses which were organized by the corps members pro- vided additional educational benefits to chrldren and adults on the reservations. 22 CHAPTER 4 DID THE PROGRAMBROADENNORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY‘S TEACHER PREPARATIONPROGRAM', The Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona Universrty had some degree of success in broadening the university's teacher preparatron program. The university trained the Teacher Corps interns by (1) provrding courses that were designed to give them an understandrng of the rudiments of the Indian language, culture, and history and (2) modifying courses to make the content more relevant for preparing the interns to teach Indian children. Experience with the Teacher Corps influenced the unlverslty to make certain changes in its regular teacher preparation program; however, much of the special curriculum offered to the Teacher Corps interns was not offered as part of the university's regular teacher preparation program. As stated on page 21, prlnclpals and teacher-supervisors at the reservation schools where the interns trained generally considered the graduates of the Navajo-Hopi program to be better prepared for working with Indian children on the res- ervations than were teachers prepared by traditional methods. No formal procedures were established by the unlversltyp however, for evaluating the various Ideas, experiments, and approaches that were used by the Navajo-Hopi program until December 1970--2-l/2 years after the program started. ACADEMIC COURSESOFFERED TO TEACHER CORPS INTERNS The teacher preparation curriculum offered to other students at Northern Arizona Unlverslty was revised exten- sively for the Teacher Corps interns. The changes were de- signed to prepare the interns for teaching on the reserva- tions. For example, the interns took several courses that were not in the teacher preparation curriculum of other students. These courses related to such subjects as the Navajo language, the Navajo communaty,the growth and develop- ment of Indian chlldren,communlty relations,and the teaching of English to students coming from homes where English is not the predominant language. 23 Instructors at the university informed us that they had adJusted the content of the Interns' courses so that the courses would be more applicable to the Indian culture In which the interns were being traaned to teach. For example, a mathematics instructor stated that, although he had not changed basic mathematical concepts when he worked with the interns, he had explained the application of the concepts in language and symbols that would be better understood by Indians, A psychology instructor explained that the ample- mentatlon of principles of learning varied among various cultures and that he had emphasized the Indaan applications when workrng with the interns. He illustrated his point by stating that other elementary school children normally are encouraged to compete with each other to learn, whereas NavaJo children must be encouraged to work as groups since they will not compete with one another, INFLUENCE OF TEACHER CORPS ON THE UNIVERSITY'S REGUIAR TEACHERPREPARATION PROGRAM University officials informed us that a lack of available positions for student teachers in the elementary schools in the Flagstaff area had caused the unlverslty to look else- where for such teachrng positions Drawing upon Its experi- ence in providing courses to the Teacher Corps interns while they were training away from the university, the university took the further step of establishing two student-teaching centers near Phoenix, Arizona, where there were still student-teaching opportunities available. At these centers students in the universlty9s regular teacher preparation program love, teach, and take academic courses. The centers became operational an the fall of the 1970-71 school year. The offlclals stated that the university would consider es- tablishing a similar center on the NavaJo Reservation if the first two centers were successful. The dean of the unlversrty9s College of Education told us that the Teacher Corps program had fostered a more co- operative relatronship among the various colleges within the university through the college"s use of certain courses from outslde the College of Education. The assistant dean felt that certain university professors who taught the in- terns' courses had become more aware of the environment on Indian reservations. He stated that he included a discus- sion of the opportunity to teach on Indian reservations In 24 his own introductory education course He also planned to make a film whrch would highlight the unique aspects of teaching on reservations We noted that, as of August 1970, only one of the spe- cially designed courses for the Ieacher Corps interns had been offered In the universrty's regular teacher prepara- tion program. This course, lnvolvlng internship in schools and comrnunitres on Indian reservations, is offered as a substitute for student teaching In the elementary schools in Flagstaff. The regular students' curriculum, however, in- cludes only one semester of this course, compared with four semesters for Teacher Corps interns, and the university has not established a method of providing other courses to the regular students while they are training on the reservations. The NavaJo-Hopi program proposals for cycles III and IV, submitted to the Offrce of Education in March and December of 1968, respectively, outlined the specialized curriculum which would be offered to interns and emphasized that the program would enable Northern Arizona University to study the effects of this specialized currxculum and consider applying It to other students at the unlverslty. The study had not been undertaken at the time that we completed our fieldwork at the university In August 1970 In April 1970, we had discussed with unlversrty officials the apparent need for such a study in furthering the ob- Jectlves of the Teacher Corps program. In December11970 the assistant dean of the College of Education told us that the study was under way and should be completed by May 1971. 25 CONCLUSION We believe that the Navajo-Hopi program had some degree of success in encouraging the university to broaden its teacher preparation program. The university provided the interns with courses more relevant to their needs as prospec- tive teachers of Indian children. Experience with the Teacher Corps influenced the university to make certain changes in its regular teacher preparation program. The uni- versity, however, did not undertake an evaluation of the Navajo-Hopi program to identify those aspects which warranted inclusion in its regular teacher preparation curriculum un- til December 1970--2-l/2 years after the program started. RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE We recommend that the Secretary of HEW provide for the Office of Education to stay abreast of the progress of the university's study of the various ideas, experiments, and techniques used in the Navajo-Hops program and encourage the university to incorporate in its regular teacher preparation curriculum those aspects of the program that are found to be successful. The Assistant Secretary, Comptroller, HEW, commented on a draft of our report by letter dated March 8, 1971 (See app. III ) He stated that our conclusions were sound and that our recommendations were sufficiently objective to pro- duce the action required to make the program more effective. He saidthat HEW's comments were the product of a review of the draft of our report by cognizant departmental and Office of Education staff and of the responses from the director of the Navajo-Hopi program, the dean of the Northern Arizona University College of Education, officials of the Arizona De- partment of Education, and local school officials associated with the program The Assistant Secretary stated also that HEW concurred in our recommendation that the Office of Education stay abreast of the university's study and encourage adoption of successful program features into the university's regular 26 teacher preparatron program. He noted that, after our re- vrew had been completed, three additronal Teacher Corps courses had been made avarlable to students rn the unrversrty's regular teacher preparation program. He noted also that the unlversrty's College of Education had established a student- teachrng center at one of the schools partrcrpatlng rn the Teacher Corps program on the NavaJo Reservation. The frrst non-Teacher-Corps students were to be asslgned to the center for the spring semester of 1971, The Assistant Secretary pointed out that Northern Arizona Unlverslty had submitted an impressive proposal for a srxth- cycle Teacher Corps program, which demonstrated planning to ensure program continurty as Federal funds were withdrawn. He stated that the Teacher Corps headquarters would monitor the sixth-cycle program and provide technical assistance to encourage and ensure timely evaluation of program actlvrtles. 27 CHAPTER 5 ROLE OF THE ARIZONA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION IN THE PROGRAM Teacher Corps legislation requires that the appropriate State educatronal agencies approve program proposals. The Office oE Education encourages State agencies to review proposals In the light of the States' educational objectives and priorities. Officials of the Arizona Department of Education ad- vised us that they considered the department to be a minor participant in the Navajo-Hopi program, They stated that the department had revrewed the program proposals to satisfy itself that they were educationally sound and had obtained clarification of the contents, when considered necessary, before notifying the Office of Education of its approval. Department officials stated also that they had visited the university during the preservice orientation phase of the program to meet with the corps members and learn more about the program's operation. The Department's director of teacher certification, who was the former liaison officer for the Teacher Corps pro- gram, said that the type of curriculum given the NavaJo-Hopi program interns appeared to be very good for preparing the interns for teaching on the reservations. It was his opm- ion that all students who intended to teach on the reserva- tions should be given the same or similar-type curriculum. Department officials stated, however, that they had not drs- semlnated lnformatlon on the operations of the NavaJo-Hop1 program to other universities in Arizona. We apprised officials of the Arizona Department of Ed- ucation of our view that the department could contribute to the achievement of Teacher Corps objectives by obtaining in- formation on successful techniques and results of the Teacher Corps program and disseminating this information to other educational institutions in the State that could benefit from such information. We noted that about 40 percent of the approximately 180 new teachers hired for schools on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations for the 1970-71 school year 28 came from three colleges rn Arizona--Northern Arizona Uni- versity, the University of Arizona, and Arizona State Uni- versity. Department officials stated that they planned, through visits to program sites, to learn how educational innova- tions introduced in the schools and the university were working out and planned also to disseminate information about successful innovations to other educational mstitu- tions rn the State. RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE We recommend that the Secretary of HEW provide for the Office of Education to cooperate with the Arizona Depart- ment of Education in its plans to assume a more active role in disseminating information concerning successful tech- niques and teaching methods to other educational Lnstitu- tions in the State. The Assistant Secretary stated that HEW concurred in our recommendation but preferred to delay specific action until such time as the Arizona Department of Education in- dicated that it could provide staff, time, and personnel expertise to carry out its plans. He stated also that a closer relationship had been established between the Arizona Department of Education and the Teacher Corps program and that the department had established a new procedure for keeping itself informed of Teacher Corps actxvities and of changes in Northern Arizona University's teacher-training program. 29 CHAPTER6 SCOPE OF REVIEW We reviewed the legrslatrve history of the Teacher Corps program and the related policies, procedures, and guidelines of the Office of Education. We reviewed records relating to selection of corps members, activities of corps members in the schools and at Northern Arizona University, retention of corps members in teaching after completion of Corps service, and various administrative aspects of the program. Our review was performed at the Teacher Corps headquar- ters In Washington, D.C., Northern Arizona University, the Navajo Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Arizona, and Bureau of Indran Affairs schools and public schools on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations. We also interviewed interns, team leaders, teachers, local school officials, Northern Arizona University offrcl-als, Teacher Corps offi- cials, and Arizona Department of Education officrals. 30 APPENDIXES 31 MAPOFTHE#AVAJOAND WEfERVATIBWS COLORADO ------- --I NEW MEXICO LEGEND - RESERVATION BOUNDARY -- STATE BOUNDARY ROADS r LOCATIONS OF SCHOOLS WHERE TEACHER CORPS MEMBERS ASSIGNED a TOWNS CHUSKA J 30 MILES [ ARIZONA NAVAJO INDIAN RESERVATION HOPI INDIAN RESERVATION NOTES MAP PREPARED BY GAO FROM AN OFFICIAL BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS’ NAVAJO-HOPI JOINT USE AREA0 MAP TO SHOW APPROXIMATE LOCATIONS OF SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN NAVAJO HOPI PROGRAM a BOUNDARY OF THE HOPI RESERVATION IS UNDER DISPUTE APPENDIXII COMPARISONOF ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS AND OTHERGENERAL INFORMATION PERTAINING TO TEACHERSAND CHILDREN AT CERTAIN SCHOOLSINCLUDED IN GAO'S REVIEW Number of Number of Ethnic background School Grades children teachers Children Teachers Bureau of Indian Affairs schools (percent) Tohatchi ,(a) to 8th 376 13 100 Navajo or Hop1 Other Indian 185 Black 15 Caucasian 62 Chuska ,(a> to 8th 595 24 Navajo or Hop1 100 4 Black 29 Caucasian 67 Dilcon ,(a> to 8th 680 32 99 Navajo or Hopi Other Indian 1 3 Black 6 Caucasian 91 ,(a) Toy& to 8th 610 24 Navajo or Hopi 100 4 Other Indian 4 Black 4 Caucasian 88 Arizona public school, Tuba City 1st to 8th 1,138 54 Navajo or Hopi 80 4 Other Indian 6 Black 1 2 Caucasian 13 94 Navajo or Hopi 93 3 Other Indian 2 3 Black 1 9 Caucasian 4 85 Total 3,399 147 -- g& 100 34 APPEtiJIX III DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH EDLJCATiON AND WELFARE WASHINGTON D C 20201 OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY MAR8 1971 Ilr Phlllp Charam Associate Dlrector UnIted States General Accounting Office Washrngton, D C 20548 Dear Mr Charam I Tne Secretary nas asked that I reply to your letter dated December 28, 1970, with whxh you forwarded the draft report of the General Account- lng Office revxew of “Assessug the Impact of the Teacner Corps Program at Northern Arizona Unxverslty and Partxlpatlng Schools in Arizona and New Mexico on the NavaJo and Hopi Indian Reservations " We appreciate the opportunity to review and comment on the report, the conclusions and recommendations The report xndxates that a very comprehensive review was performed and e presents an accurate account of the strengths and weaknesses of the Teacher Corps Northern Arxona Program The conclusions are sound and the recommendations are sufficiently ObJectlve to produce required remedial action to make the Teacher Corps Program more effectxve Detailed comments on the recommendations, together with the statements of actions to be taken to implement them, are set forth xn the enclosure hereto They are the product of a review of the report by cognizant Departmental and Offxe of Education staff and the responses from the Director of the Program at Northern Arxzona Unxvers-Lty, the Dean of the School of Education, Department Chairman and local school offxxals associated wrth the program SIncerely yours, James B. Cardwell Assxstant Secretary, Comptroller Enclosure 35 APPENDIXIII Denartment of Health. Education. and Welfare --A- -- I Comments Pertinent to the Draft of Report-to the Congress of the Unlted States by the Comptroller General of the UnIted States on Assessuw ----------” the ---a--- Imnact of the Teacher CorD,s Program at Northern Arizona University and Part~clpatlng*Schools in Arizona and New Mexico on the Naval0 and Honi Indian Reservatlc 3115 The GAO recommended that the Secretary provide for the Office of Education to stay abreast of the progress of the Unlversltyfs study of the various Ideas, experiments, and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hop1 program and encourage the Unlverslty to incorporate in Its regular teacher preparation curriculum those aspects which are found to be successful. Department Comment We concur in the recommendation. The Director of Northern Arizona Unlverslty (N.A.U.) as well as the Dean and Department Chairman mformed us that "Teacher Corps courses, since last year, have been avallable to non-Teacher Corps personnel. After the GAOreview ended a survey was done that lndlcated a need for additional offerings, which resulted in three additional courses available from the College of Education In September of 1970. Students other than Teacher Corps will also receive on site advisement.t( Teacher Corps Washington, via its monitoring and technical assistance efforts, ~~11 encourage and assure evaluation In the 6th cycle of this pro;)ect. Northern Arizona University has submitted an Impressive proposal for the 6th cycle which demonstrates planning to ensure program contlnulty as Federal funds are withdrawn and clearly overcomes the evaluation short- comings noted by GAO. The GAOrecommended that the Secretary provide for the Office of Education to cooperate with the Arizona Department of Education in Its plans to assume a more active role in disseminating informatlon concerning successful experiments and teaching methods to other educational lnstltutlons in the State. Denartment Comment We concur In the recommendation but prefer to delay specific action until such time as the Arizona State Department of Education lndlcates 1C has staff time and personnel expertise to do the tasks outlined in the recommendation. 36 APPENDIXIII However, in the interxm the Director of Northern Arizona University informed us that llThe Dean of the College of Education encourages the State Department to vlslt, observe, and disseminate information of Teacher Corps and regular N.A.U. programs on the Reservatxon.W Also, the State Department Indicated a new procedural set up has been initiated that will keep them alerted to actlvltles, changes in the teacher trazning program at N.A.U., and hopefully, evidence from the field where the programs have been affected by the Teacher Corps, Flnally, before the signature from the State Department of Education goes on the final documents endorsing the 6th cycle program, the Department has requested the goals and ObJeCh.VeS of the Teacher Corps program be sent to them for lnformatxon and review purposes. A closer relationship is being established between the Arizona State Department of Education and the Teacher Corps program. The lhrector at N.A.U. indicated the College of Education has begun a student teaching center at Drlcon Boarding School, a Cycle 4 School on the NaVaJO Reservation. The first non-Teacher Corps student teachers ~111 be assigned there Spring Semester of 1971. Teacher Corps lnterns)at the school ~~11 aid In orientation of the new student teachers. 37 APPENDIX IV PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACTIVITIES DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT Tenure of office From To - SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, ANDWELFARE: Elliot L. Richardson June 1970 Present Robert H. Finch Jan. 1969 June 1970 Wilbur J. Cohen Mar. 1968 Jan. 1969 John W. Gardner Aug. 1965 Mar, 1968 ASSISTANT SECRETARY, EDUCATION: Vacant June 1970 Present James E. Allen, Jr. May 1969 June 1970 Peter P. Muirhead (actrng) Jan. 1969 May 1969 Lynn M. Bartlett July 1968 Jan. 1969 July 1966 July 1968 Q Paul A. Miller Francis Keppel Oct. 1965 May 1966 COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION: Sidney P. Marland, Jr. Dec. 1970 Present Terre1 H. Bell (acting) June 1970 Dec. 1970 James E. Allen, Jr. May 1969 June 1970 Peter P. Muirhead (acting) Jan. 1969 May 1969 Harold Howe II Jan. 1966 Dec. 1968 Francis Keppel Dec. 1962 Jan. 1966 US GAO Wash,DC 38
Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Northern Arizona University and Participating Schools on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-05-13.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)