oversight

Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at Northern Arizona University and Participating Schools on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-05-13.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 TO THE CONGRESS




                        f The Teacher Csr
                        orthern Arizonti
                           articipating
                        o And Hopi In
                            (71
                      B-764031




Office of Education
Department of Health, Education,
  and Welfare ’




BY THE       COiWTROLLER     GENERAL        ’
OF THE       UNITED   STATES
                      .       .



                          COMPTROLLER     GENERAL    OF    THE      UNITED     STATES
                                        WASHINGTON    DC         20548




    B-l    64031(l)




    To the      President   of the Senate     and the
    Speaker       of the House   of Representatives

              This 1s our report         on the assessment          of the Teacher      Corps
    program     at Northern         Arizona    Unlverslty      and partlclpatmg        schools
    on the Navqo         and Hop1 Indian       Reservations.          This program,      which
    was authorazed         by title    V of the Higher       Education      Act of 1965
    (20 U.&C,     IlOl),     1s admmlstered         by the Offlce        of Educatxon,    De-
    partment    sf Health,        Education,    and Welfare.

              Our review   was made pursuant     to the                             Budget   and Accounting
    Act,    1921 (31 U.S.C.   53), and the Accountmg                                 and Audltmg    Act of
    1950     (31 u,s c. 67).

            Copies     of this report  are being      sent to the Director,        Offlce
    of Management          and Budget,  the Secretary      of Health,    Education,
    and Welfare,       and the Commlssloner        of Education,      Department
    of Health,     Education,    and Welfare,


h




                                                                   Comptroller           General
                                                                   of the United         States




                                  50 TH ANNIVERSARY               1921-      1971
(


    COMPTROLLER
              GENERAL'S                          ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPRO-
    REPORT
         TO THECONGRESS                          GRAMAT NORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY
                                                 AND PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSON THE NAVAJO
                                                 AND HOPI INDIAN RESERVATIONS
                                                 Office of Education
                                                 Department of Health, Education, and
                                                 Welfare B-164031(1)


    DIGEST
    ------

    WHYTh!EREVIEVWASMADE
           Because of interest   expressed by committees and members of the Congress
           in the Teacher Corps program as a part of the overall Federal effort in
           the field of education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) has revlewed
           the program, natIonwIde      This report, one of a series, assesses the
           Impact of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona University     and
           partlclpatlng  schools on the NavaJo and Hopi Indian Reservations

           The Teacher Corps was established in the Office of Education, Depart-
           ment of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), under the Higher Educa-
           tion Act of 1965 The legislative    obJectives of the program are

                 --To strengthen     educational opportunities   for   children   In areas having
                    concentrations    of low-income families

                 --To encourage colleges      and universltles   to broaden their    programs for
                    training teachers.

           The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains qualified    teachers (team leaders)
           and Inexperienced teachers (interns)      for service in areas having con- *
           centrations   of low-income families     Members of the Corps are assigned
           to schools ln teams conslstlng     of a team leader and interns      During
           their service, interns also engage in courses of study leading to col-
           lege or university    degrees and to quallflcat-ton   for State teaching cer-
           tificates

           Local educational  agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of
           the salaries  of Teacher Corps members, the Office of Education pavs the
           balance and also pays the costs of the Interns'   courses  (See p 7.)

           From Its inception         In July 1968 to May 1970, the program at Northern
           Arizona University         (NavaJo-Hopi program) had spent about $766,500 of
           Federal funds




    Tear Sheet
    Of the 12 participating    schools, 11 are on the NavaJo Reservatlon--
    nine in Arizona and two In New Mexico      The 72th school IS on the
    Hopi Reservation which is within the NavaJo Reservation In Arizona
    The NavaJo Reservation has a population of 130,000; the Hop1 Reserva-
    tlon has-6,000      (See p 9.)

FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
    Strengthenwag       educatzona2 opportmztzes

    The NavaJo-Hop1 program Increased the educational opportunities avall-
    able to Indian children in schools to which corps members were assigned
    (See Pe 15.)
    Corps members provided lndlvldual~zed   instruction    that otherwise would
    not have been available.   (See p. 15 ) They also introduced several
    new teaching methods that made the Instruction      more relevant to the
    culture and background of the children,    such as

      --use of NavaJo-related stories,                      rather   than Anglo-American-related
         ones, to teach reading,

      --use of a unique 40-character alphabet, with                         a different      character
         for each dlstlnct sound, to teach reading;

      --lntroductlon           of    NaVaJO     history     tnto social    studies,    and

      --slmulatlon       of transactions              In a store to teach mathematics              (See
         P 16.)
    School officials stated that the new teaching methods had been success-
    ful and had been adopted by their regular teaching staffs.  (See p. 18.)

    Cores members partlclpated    in various education-related community ac-
    tlvltles benefltlng   children and their parents, such as

      --vlsltlng       chlldren's         homes;

      --attendIng   tribal            government,         parent-teacher    assoclatlon,      and school
         board meetings,
      --teaching       the NavaJo language to local                  teachers,   and

      --teaching       adult        education       classes.     (See p. 20.)

   Corps members devised and carried out a cultural         exchange proJect in
   which 25 HawaIIan children visited     the NavaJo Reservation and 24 NavaJo
   chlldre    vlslted Hawall.   It was the first   trip away from the reserva-
   tlon fo ! some of the NavaJo chtldren.      One teacher cited a subsequent
   noticeable    increase In the NavaJo children's     Interest  In social studies.
   (See p. 20.)


                                                2
        I
                    GAO noted    that only 5 percent      of the teachers     ln Bureau of Indian
        I           Affairs   schools   on the reservations      were NavaJo or Hop1 Indians
        I           (See p 10 ) NavaJo or liipl          knd;,,p  constituted    42 percent  of the
        I           Teacher   Corps interns        ee
        I
        I
        I           Exposure    to Indian       members of the Teacher        Corps gave the Indian      ch-rl-
        I           dren incentive       for their     own schooling,      because  they could see what an
        I
        I           educated    Indian     could accomplish         (See p 15 ) The program         director
        I           plans    to increase      the number of Indian       interns,   lf the program      1s funded
        I
        I           in the future          (See p 14 >

                    School     ofhclals        believed       that    the interns      were       better    trained      for
                    teaching      the Indian        children       than were teachers             trained     by tradltlonal
                    methods         About three        fourths       of the 26 interns            who had completed           the
                    program      as of the time of GAO's review                  had been         hired    as teachers        in
                    reservation         schools,      and most of the interns             still        ln tralnlng       planned
                    to accept       such positions           after     their  graduation              (See p 21 )
        1
        I
                   Broadenzng teacher prepamtzon                     programs
        I
        I           The NavaJo-Hopi      program           had some degree     of          success     In broadening     North-
        I
                    ern Arizona    Unlverslty's             teacher preparation               program.     The unlverslty
        !
        I
        I                  --provided      courses     designed    to give      interns        an understandlng     of the
        I                      rudiments    of the     Indian   language,       culture,        and history     and
        i
        I                  --modified      existing       courses   to make their content               more    relevant       to
        I                     teaching     Indian     children        (See p 23 )
        I
        I
        I           For example,     interns      took courses       in the NavaJo language      and community,
        I           the growth     and development         of Indian       children, community   relations,       and
    I
    I               the teaching      of English      to students        from homes where another       language
    I               1s predominant          They were trained          to teach mathematics    and other       sub-
    I
    I               Jects by using       language,      symbols,     and concepts    familiar  to Indians
)   I               (See p 23 )
    I

                    Experience       with       the Teacher     Corps influenced      the university       to              make        %a
                    some changes         in     its regular     teacher   preparation     program     and to               establish
                    student-teaching               centers  where students      ln the regular      program                lives
                    teach,     and take         academic    courses

                    University     officials     stated  that   the            Teacher    Corps program            had fostered
                    a more cooperative       relate onshlp     among            the various       colleges         within    the
                    unlversl   ty, through     the program's      use           of some courses         from       outside     the
                    College    of Education         Some professors               who taught      the interns           became
                    more aware of the environment            of the            1nd-r an reservations               (See p. 24 )

                    GAO noted,     however,           that much of the         special    curriculum     offered     to
                    Teacher    Corps interns             was not offered         to students      ln the unlverslty's


    I
    I       Tear   Sheet

                                                                    3
    regular teacher-training  program    The university has begun a study
    to ldentlfy  aspects of the Teacher Corps rogram that should be made
    avaIlable to other students     (See pa 26.7

    Role of the Arzzona Department of Educatzon
    Offlclals    of the Arizona Department of Education agreed with GAO's
    oplnlon that the effectiveness    of the Teacher Corps program could be
    enhanced through dissemination    by the department of lnformat~on on
    successful Corps lnnovatlons and teaching methods to other educational
    lnstltutions    in the State   The officials plan to Increase their ef-
    forts in that area       (See p 28 )


RECOMMENDATIONS
            OR SUGGESTIONS
    The Secretary   of HEWshould see that the Office   of Education

      --siays abreast of the progress of the unlverslty's    study of the
         ideas, experiments,  and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hopi program
         and encourages the university   to incorporate the successful ones
         in its regular teacher preparation program (see p. 26) and

      --cooperates with the Arizona Department of Education in its plans
         to disseminate information   on successful lnnovatlons   and teaching
         methods to other educational   lnstltutlons  in the State (see p 29)
                                                                                   I


AGENCY
     ACTIONSANDUNRESOLVED
                       ISSUES
    HEW's Assistant Secretary, Comptroller,    concurred with GAO's recommen-
    dation regarding the unlverslty's  study.    He said Teacher Corps head-
    quarters would provide technical assistance to ensure timely evaluation
    of future Corps programs at the university       (See p, 26.)

    He said also that HEWconcurred in GAO's recommendation that the Of-
    fice of Education cooperate with the Arizona Department of Education
    but preferred to delay action until the Department could provide staff
    and expertise to carry out its plans    (See p 29 )


MATTER9
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY THE CONGRESS

    Committees of the Congress, ln their deliberations  on extending      the
    Teacher Corps program, may wish to consider the information    In   this
    report and others in the series on the program's effectiveness      In
    achieving legislative ObJectlves and on steps needed to improve       effec-
    tiveness


                                                                                   I




                                     4
                          Contents
                                                                Page
DIGEST                                                            1
CHAPTER

   1      INTRODUCTION
              Operation of the Teacher      Corps program
              Funding
              Program participation

   2      NAVAJO-HOPI TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM                      9
              Selection of interns                              12
  3       DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHENEDUCATIONAL OP-
          PORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME FAM-
          ILIES',                                               15
               Work performed by corps members in par-
                  ticipatrng      schools                       15
                     Utilization      of interns                16
                      Innovative     teaching approaches in-
                         troduced by corps members              16
                      Comments of school officials         on
                         work performed by corps members        18
               Education-related         community activities   20
               Retention       of corps members as regular
                  teachers                                      21
               Conclusion                                       22
  4       DID THE PROGRAMBROADENNORTHERNARIZONA
          UNIVERSITY'S TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM',            23
              Academic courses offered      to Teacher
                 Corps interns                                  23
              Influence    of Teacher Corps on the uni-
                 versity's   regular  teacher preparation
                 program                                        24
              Conclusion                                        26
              Recommendation to the Secretary       of
                 Health, Education,     and Welfare             26
                                                                  Pane

CHAPTER

       5   ROLE OF THE ARIZONA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION
           IN THE PROGRAM                                          28
               Recommendation to the Secretary  of
                 Health, Educatxon, and Welfare                   29

       6   SCOPE OF REVIEW                                        30

APPENDIX

       I   Map of the Navajo      and Hop1 Tndlan Reserva-
             tlons                                                33

   11      Comparison of ethnic backgrounds and other
             general lnformatlon   pertaining    to teachers
             and children  at certain    schools included
             in GAO's review                                      34

 III       Letter dated March 8, 1971, from the Assls-
              tant Secretary,   Comptroller,   Department of
             Health, Education,    and Welfare,   to the
             General Accounting Offlce                            35
   IV      Prlnclpal   offlclals of the Department of
              Health, Education,  and Welfare respon-
             srble   for the acfxvltles   discussed In
              this report                                         38

                             ABBREVIATIONS

GAO        General   Accounting    Office

HEW        Department    of Health,    Education,   and Welfare

LEA        Local   Educatlonal    Aeencv
                                   ”    ,
COMPTROLLER GENERAL ‘S                   ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHERCORPSPRO-
REPORT TO THE CONGRESS                   GRAMAT NORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY
                                         AND PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSON THE NAVAJO
                                         AND HOPI INDIAN RESERVATIONS
                                         Office of Education
                                         Denartment of Health, Education, and
                                         Welfare 3-lGQ031(1)


DIGEST
------

WHY !Z’UE l?EV.EW WAS MADE

     Because of interest   expressed by committees and members of the Congress
     in the Teacher Corps program as a oari. of the overall Federal effort   ln
     the f-reld of education, the General Accounting Office (GAO) has revlewed
     the program, natlonwlde      This report, one of a series, assesses the
     impact of the Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona Unlverstty    and
     participating  schools on the NavaJo and Hop1 Indian Reservations

     The Teacher Corps was established   in the Office of Education, Depart-
     ment of Health, Education, and hlelfare (HEU), under the Higher Educa-
     tion Act of 1965 The legislative      ObJectiVeS of the program are

         --To strengthen     educational opportunities    for children   in areas having
            concentrations    of low-income families

         --To encourage colleges      and unlversltles   to broaden their   programs for
            training teachers

     The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains quallfled    teachers (team leaders)
     and inexperienced teachers (Interns)      for service in areas having con-
     centrations   of low-income families     Members of the Corps are assIgned
     to schools in teams conslstlng     of a team leader and interns      During
     their service, interns also engage -rn courses of study leading co col-
     lege or university    degrees and to quallflcatlon    for State teaching cer-
     tiflcates

     Local educatIona   agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of
     the salaries  of Teacher Corps members, tke Office of Education pavs the
     balance and also pays the costs of the Interns'   courses  (See p 7 )
     From its inception       in July 1968 to May 1970, the program at Northern
     Arizona University        (NavaJo-Hopi program) had spent about $766,500 of
     Federal funds
    Of the 12 partlcTpatlng   schools, 11 are on the NavaJo Reservatlon--
    nine in Arizona and two in New Mexico     The 12th school IS on the
    HOPI Reservation which IS within the NavaJo Reservation In Arizona
    The Navago Reservation has a population of 130,000, the Hop1 Reserva-
    tlon has 6,000     (See p 9 )


FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS
    Strengthenzng       educatzonai! opportunztzes

    The NavaJo-Hop? program increased the educataonal opportunltles avail-
    able to Indian children in schools to which corps members were asslgned
    (See P* 15 )
    Corps members provided lndl vldual lzed lnstructlon     that otherwise would
    not have been avaIlable    (See  p  15  )  They   also  introduced several
    new teaching methods that made the lnstruct~on       more relevant to the
    culture and background of the children,   such as

      --use of NavaJo-related stories,                    rather   than Anglo-American-related
         ones, to teach reading,

      --use of a unique 40-character alphabet, with                       a different      character
         for each dlstlnct sound, to teach reading,

      --lntroductlon           of NavaJo hlstory          Into social    studies,    and

      --simulate    on of transactlons            in a store       to teach mathematics          (See
         P 16)
    School offlclals stated that the new teaching methods had been success-
    ful and had been adopted by their regular teaching staffs.  (See p 18 )

    Corps members partlclpated    in various educat?on-related community ac-
    tlvltles benefiting   children and their parents, such as

      --vlslt?ng       children's      homes9

      --attending   tribal          government,     parent-teacher        association,      and school
         board meetings,
      --teaching       the NavaJo language to local                teachers,   and

      --teaching       adult    education       classes       (See p 20 )

    Corps members devised and carried out a cultural        exchange proJect In
    which 25 Hawaiian children visited   the NavaJo Reservation and 24 NavaJo
    children visited   Hawaii. It was the first   trip away from the reserva-
    tion for some of the NavaJo children      One teacher cited a subsequent
    noticeable  increase in the NavaJo children's     interest   in social studies.
    (See p* 20 )


                                            2
GAO noted    that only 5 percent      of the teachers     In Bureau of Indian
Affairs   schools   on the reservations      were NavaJo or Hopi Indians
(See p 10 ) NavaJo or Mpi           ind;?;    constituted    42 percent  of the
Teacher   Corps interns        ee          ,

Exposure   to Indian     members of the Teacher       Corps gave the Indian       chil-
dren Incentive     for their    own schooling,     because they could see what an
educated    Indian   could accomplish        (See p 15 ) The program        director
plans to Increase      the number of Indian      Interns,   If the program      IS funded
In the future        (See p 14 >

School     officials        believed       that    the Interns      were       better    trained      for
teaching       the Indian        children       than were teachers             trained     by traditional
methods          About three        fourths       of the 26 Interns            who had completed           the
program     as of the time of GAO's review                    had been         hired   as teachers         in
reservation          schools,      and most of the Interns             still        In training       planned
to accept        such pos~tlons           after     their  graduation              (See p 21.)

Broadenmg          teacher preparatzon           programs

The NavaJo-Hopi     program           had some degree     of            success     In broadening     North-
ern Arizona   University's             teacher preparation                 program.     The univevlsity

   --provided        courses      designed    to give        Interns        an understanding     of the
       rudiments      of the      Indian   language,         culture,        and history     and

   --modified        existing       courses     to make their  content               more    relevant      to
      teaching       Indian     children          (See p. 23 )

For example,     interns    took courses      in the NavaJo language      and community,
the growth     and development      of Indian       children, community   relations,      and
the teaching     of English     to students       from homes where another       language
IS predominant         They were trained        to teach mathematics    and other sub-
Jects by us-rng language,         symbols,    and concepts    familiar  to Indians
(See p 23.)

Experience       with     the Teacher     Corps Influenced      the university       to make
some changes         in   its regular     teacher   preparation     program     and to establish
student-teaching             centers  where students      In the regular      program   live,
teach,     and take       academic    courses

University     officials     stated   that   the            Teacher     Corps program           had   fostered
a more cooperative       relatlonshlp       among             the various       colleges        WI thin    the
university,      through   the program's       use            of some courses         from      outside      the
College     of Education        Some professors                 who taught     the interns           became
more aware of the environment             of the            Indian    reservations              (See p. 24 )

GAO noted,     however,  that much of the                   special    curriculum     offered     to
Teacher    Corps Interns    was not offered                   to students      in the university's
     regular teacher-tralnlng   program    The unlverslty has begun a study
     to Identify  aspects of the Teacher Corps rogram that should be made
     avaIlable to other students.     (See p 25 7

     Role of the Arzzona Department of Educatzon
     Offlclals    of the Arizona Department of Education agreed with GAO's
     oplnlon that the effectiveness    of the Teacher Corps program could be
     enhanced through dlssemlnatlon    by the department of information  on
     successful Corps innovations    and teachTng methods to other educatlonal
     lnstltutlons    in the State   The offlclals plan to increase their ef-
     forts in that area       (See p 28 )


RECOi@!E~fDATIONS
              ORSUGGESTIONS
     The Secretary   of HEWshould see that the OffIce   of Education

       --stays abreast of the progress of the unlverslty's    study of the
          ideas, experiments , and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hopi program
          and encourages the university   to incorporate the successful ones
          in its regular teacher preparation program (see p. 26) and
       --cooperates with the Arizona Department of Education In its plans
          to disseminate information  on successful lnnovatlons   and teaching
          methods to other educational lnstltutlons   in the State   (see p 29)


AGENCY
     ACTIOK ANDUNRESOLVED
                       ISSUES
    HEW's Assistant Secretary, Comptroller,     concurred with GAO's recommen-
    dation regarding the unlverslty's  study.     Me said Teacher Corps head-
    quarters would provide technxal   assistance to ensure timely evaluation
    of future Corps programs at the university.      (See p* 26 )
    He said also that HEWconcurred in GAO's recommendation that the Of-
    fice of Education cooperate ~7th the Arizona Department of Education
    but preferred to delay action until the Department could provide staff
    and expertise to carry out its plans    (See p 29 )


MATTERS FOR COWIDERATIONBY THE CONGRESS

    Committees of the Congress , in their deliberations on extending      the
    Teacher Corps program, may wish to consider the information    in   this
    report and others in the series on the program's effectiveness      In
    achieving legislative obJectives and on steps needed to improve       effec-
    tiveness




                                     4
                           CHAPTER1

                         INTRODUCTION
       We evaluated the effectiveness of the Teacher Corps
program at Northern Arizona University,     Flagstaff, Arizona,
and participating    schools in accomplishing the legislative
objectives of Teacher Corps. The schools were located in
Arizona and New Mexico on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reserva-
tions.    The obJectives of the program are:
     --To strengthen the educational opportunities      available
        to children in areas having concentrations     of low-
        income families.
     --To encourage colleges and universities     to broaden
        their programs of teacher preparation.
       To accomplish these objectives, the Teacher Corps is au-
thorized to (1) attract and train qualified teachers who will
be made available to local educational agencies (LEAS) for
teaching in areas of low-income families,1     (2) attract and
train inexperienced teacher-interns    who will be made avail-
able for teaching and in-service training to LEAS in such
areas in teams led by experienced teachers, (3) attract
volunteers to serve as part-time tutors or full-time       instruc-
tional assistants an programs carried out by LEAS and in-
stitutions   of higher education serving such areas, and
(4) attract and train educational personnel to provide train-
ing, including literacy and communications skills,      for juve-
nile delinquents, youth offenders, and adult criminal of-
fenders. The latter two means of achieving the objectives
were authorized subsequent to the commencementof our re-
view by Public Law 91-230--an act to extend programs of as-
sistance for elementary and secondary education--approved
April 13, 1970, and therefore were not within the scope of
our review.

1The enabling legislation    permitted experienced teachers to
 be assigned to LEAS individually     or as the heads of teaching
 teams. Public Law 90-35, approved June 29, 1967, amended
 the legislation  by permitting experienced teachers to be
 assigned only as the heads of teaching teams.
                                 5
       This review was one of several made by GAO at selected
universities    and LEAS throughout the Nation,

OPERATION OF THE TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM

       The Teacher Corps was established        in the Office of Ed-
ucation,   Department of Health,     Education,     and Welfare,  pur-
suant to title    V, part B, of the Higher Education Act of
1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101).          The Teacher Corps ES
basically   a locally   controlled   and operated program.       The
Office of Education provides funds to operate approved
Teacher Corps programs which have been locally           conceived to
meet local needs and which have been approved by the appli-
cable State educational      agency.     To be eligible   for approval,
a program must be designed to serve chxldren in areas hav-
ing high concentrations      of poverty.

       Persons eligible         to be enrolled      in the Teacher Corps
are (1) experienced          teachers,     (2) persons who have bacca-
laureate      degrees or their equivalents,            and (3) persons who
have completed 2 years in programs leading to baccalaureate
degrees.       After selection,        the corps members are placed in
teams consisting         of a team leader and a number of interns.
During their        service,    the interns     receive training    and
instruction       leading to degrees from the particlpatlng             col-
leges or universities           and to qualification       for State teach-
ing certifications.            The training     consists   of academic
courses, work in the classrooms of local schools,                  and partic-
ipation     in community-based         education activities.

      While in the schools,      corps members are under the di-
rect supervision   of officials      of the LEAS to which they are
assigned.    With certain    exceptions,   LEAS are authorized   to
(1) assign and transfer      corps members within    the school
systems, (2) determine the subjects        to be taught,   and
(3) determine the terms and continuance        of the assignment
of corps members within      the system.    Corps members, however,
may not be used to replace any teachers who are or other-
wise would have been employed by the LEAS.

        The Teacher Corps program operates on a cycle basis.
Generally     a cycle consists of preservice training--a   period
of no more than 3 months during which corps members' suit-
ability    for acceptance into the program is determined--and


                                      6
2 academac years with an intervening        summer. Certain pro-
grams, however, operate for shorter periods of time,           The
authorizing  legislation    provides for enrollment     of corps
members for periods up to 2 years.         A new Teacher Corps
cycle has started     each year, the first    cycle having begun
In 1966.

       The cost of the interns'    courses and the administra-
tive costs of the colleges or universities       and the LEAS are
paid by the Office of Education.        The LEAS are expected to
provide at least 10 percent of the corps members' salaries
and related    benefits while they are in the schools, and the
Office of Education provides     the remamder,

      A team leader is to be compensated at a rate agreed
to by the LEA and the Commissioner of Education.     At the
time our review began, an intern was compensated at either
a rate which was equal to the lowest rate paid by the LEA
for teaching full   time in the school system and grade to
which the intern was assigned or $75 a week plus $15 a week
for each dependent, whichever amount was less.    Public Law
91-230, however, amended the compensation authorized    by pro-
viding that an intern be paid at either a rate which did not
exceed the lowest rate paid by the LEA for teaching full
time in the school system and grade to which the intern was
assigned or $90 a week plus $15 a week for each dependent,
whichever amount was less.

FUNDING

      From inception  of the Teacher Corps program in fiscal
year 1966 through fiscal     year 1970, funds authorized and
appropriated   by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program,
nationwIde,   were as follows:

     Fiscal      year   Authorization          Appropriation

          1966           $36,100,000            $ 9,500,000
          1967            64,715,OOO             11,323,OOO
          1968            33,000,000             13,500,000
          1969            46,000,OOO             20,900,000
          1970            80,000,OOO             21,737,OOO

 I
        The Navajo-Hop1 program has been operational     since the
 third Teacher Corps cycle, which began in 1968. As of May
 1970, Northern Arizona University   and the participating     lo-
 cal schools involved in the Navajo-Hopi program had expended
 about $766,500 of funds provided by the Office of Education,
 as follows:

                                                                                  Amount
                                 Grantee                                         expended

          Northern Arizona University                                            $338,400
          Barticipatmg    reservation    schools:
                Bureau of Indian Affairs    schools                                342,500
                Tuba City Public Elementary School                                  60,300
                Keams Canyon Public School-                                         25,300

                         Total                                                   $766,500

PROGRAMPARTICIPATION

      Certain nationwide    data relating  to Teacher Corps pro-
gram participation     from its inception  in fiscal   year 1966
through fiscal     year 1970 is shown in the tabulation    below.

          Entered     program                Completed program                Rate of dropout
                         Team                         Team                          Team All corps
Cycle     Interns      readers   Total   Interns    leaders  Total     Interns    leaders  members

                                                                                [percent)

     I     1,279         337     1,616     627        170        797                 50      51
  II           882       152     1,034     674        143        817       zt         6      21
III(a)     t'!$z         186     1,215     832        170     1,002        19        10      18
  1;(a)                  221
                         200     1,575      -
           71445                 1,666

apartxlpants         had not completed   program   at time of GAO review
                                 CHAPTER 2

                 NAVAJO-HQPI TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM

       The NW~JO-HO~I Teacher Corps program has been a coop-
eratlve   effort    involving  Northern Arizona University,       10 el-
ementary schools operated by the Department of the Interl-
or's Bureau of Indian Affairs,         two public elementary
schools,    local communities,     and the Arizona Department of
Education,       Of the 12 schools that have participated,        11
are located on the Navajo Indian Reservation--nine             in Ari-
zona and two in New Mexico.         The other participating      school
is located on the Hop1 Indian Reservation          in Arizona.       -

       There is an extreme shortage of Navajo and Hopi teach-
ers on the reservations.            The program 1s designed to im-
prove the educational          opportunities      available    to children
on the reservations          by developing teachers,        primarily     of
Navajo or Hopi descent,          who,   without    the  program,     would   re-
main potentially        able to teach on the reservations             but who
might not actually         try teaching.       It was the view of pro-
gram organizers       that tradrtlonal       teacher preparation        methods
applicable     to middle-class       public schools were not produc-
ing entirely      effective     teachers for Indian children.
Therefore    the program was intended to provide a curriculum
to the interns       that was geared specifically           to the Indian
childrenPs     culture.

      The Navajo Reservation   encompasses parts of Arizona,
New Mexico, and Utah and has a population     of about 130,000.
The Hopi Reservation,   which is situated  inside the boundary
of the Navajo Reservation    and entirely within  Arizona,  has
a population   of about 6,000.   Appendix I is a map of these
reservations.

       Northern Arizona University    is located near the south-
west corner of the Navajo Reservation.           During the 1968-69
school year, the university      had a full-time      enrollment   of
about 6,500 undergraduate      and 500 graduate students.         The
universityqs    College of Education graduates about 400
teachers annually.      According to a university       official,




                                       9
about 34 teachers trarned   in the nniversrty's regular
teacher preparation  program between 1968 and 1970 have taken
positions  on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations,

       For the 1970-71 school year, the Bureau of Indian Af-
fairs   employed about 1,000 teachers for Its schools on the
NavaJo Reservation     and about 50 teachers for Its schools on
the Hopi Reservation.       Less than 60, or about 5 percent,      of
these teachers were NavaJo or Hopi Indians.          About 400 addi-
tional    teachers were employed by the public schools on the
reservations.      Appendix II is a comparison of ethnic back-
grounds and other general information       pertarning   to teach-
ers and children     at certain  schools included in our review,

       The NavaJo-Hop1 program has been funded for two
cycles--cycle     III which operated from July 1968 through May
1970 and cycle IV which began operation             In June 1969 and
which 1s scheduled for completion           in May 1971.    Interns   re-
ceived their training         In four basic phases:      (1) preservice,
(2) first-year      in-service,     (3) intervening    summer, and (4)
second-year    in-service,

        The preservice     and intervening    summer training     phases
were conducted at the university.            The maJor purpose of pre-
service was to give interns          an understanding    of what they
could expect to encounter on the reservations,              Training
during the intervening        summer consisted     of the interns'
taking academic courses,         Including   a course dealing with
teaching English to students coming from homes where En-
glish is not the predominant          language.    During the two in-
service training       phases from September through May of each
year, the interns       lived and received on-the-Job       training   at
the reservation      schools where they were assigned.           They
participated     In community activities        and took academic
courses.

        Because the reservation     schools were located long dis-
tances (40 to 225 miles) from the university,           the interns
could not take their academic courses at the unlverslty
during the in-service      training   phases.    In 1969, after
finding    that it was impractical     to send instructors     to cen-
tral locations     where the interns    were assembled or to the
individual     schools, the university     decided to use a video


                                   10
tape technique.    This involved recording        courses on video
tape at the miversity    and distributing       the tapes to the
schools where the interns    were training.

      Although joint  program proposals were developed by
them, the unrverslty,    the Bureau of Indian Affairs,   and the
public schools prepared separate budgets and flnanclal       re-
ports and submrtted them to the Offlce of Education for
each cycle in which they partlcrpated.      They also received
separate grants from the Offrce of Education.

        The Navajo-Hopi program was admrnlstered       by a program
director    who was on the faculty    of the university's     College
of Education.      Designated coordinators,   who acted In behalf
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs       and the superintendents      of
the public school!& admrnnstered the program for the par-
tlclpatlng    schools.
SELECTION    OF   INTERNS

      The Navajo-Hopi   program's     selectlon     process was gener-
ally effective   in providing    interns     qualified    to be trained
as teachers of disadvantaged       Indian children.

      Interns   for the third     cycle were selected by a panel
consisting    of representatives      from the unlverslty   and some
of the participating      schools.      For the fourth cycle, one or
two community representatives         and team leaders and interns
from the third cycle were added to the selection           panel.

       The Navajo-Hopi    program director   told us that repre-
sentatives    from each of the participating      schools were ln-
vited    to all the selection     panel meetings but that many
did not attend.       He stated that community representatives
were not asked to participate       in the selection    of interns
for the third cycle, because the program was scheduled to
begin shortly     after its authorization    by the Office of Educa-
tion.

      The program director         informed us that the university
had tried   to recruit     as many NavaJo and Hopi Indians as could
meet the established       qualifications.        The program for the
third cycle was designed to include students who were work-
ing toward either bachelor*s            or masterPs degrees.    In the
fourth cycle the program was intended to be exclusively               for
undergraduate    students.       It was desired that an intern have
at least a C-grade average and be from 21 to 30 years old.

       Approximately     150 persons applied for intern positions
in cycles III and IV of the Navajo-Hopi               program.      Of these
150 persons,     72  were  accepted     for  training      as  teachers    of
children    on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations,                 includ-
ing 30 (42 percent)       who were either Navajo or Hopi Indians.
As of June 1970, 26 interns,          including     19 who planned to
teach on the reservations,        had     completed     the third cycle
and 27 interns      were still   participating        in the fourth cycle
which was not scheduled for completion until                  May 1971.
This data, as it relates        to the respective          program cycles
is shown in the graph on the following              page




                                       12
            CYCLE 111                             CYCLE !V
      (JULY 1968 - MAY 197Q)                 (JUNE 1969 - MAY 1971)




      Of the 72 interns in the two cycles,  19, or 26 percent,
dropped out of the program before completion,   for the fol-
lowing reasons.




                               13
Dissatisfied  with university staff                          3
Unexplained reasons                                          3
Personal problems                                            3
Dissatisfied  with university courses                        2
Personal conflict with program implementation                2
Financial problems                                           2
Dissatisfied  with local school system                      1
Lacked interest in teaching as a career                     1
Accepted other employment                                   1
Transferred to another program                              1

    Total                                                  19
      We noted that 17 percent of the 30 Navajo and Hopi
Indians dropped out of the program during training,    whereas
31 percent of the 42 other interns dropped out,     To in-
crease the number of Indian interns for future cycles, the
program director plans to send posters to other universities
near the reservation and to solicit applicants from the
Navajo (Junior) Community College on the reservation and
through the Indian club at Northern Arizona University.
       During cycles III and IV, 11 experienced teachers were
recruited to serve as team leaders, Of these 11 teachers
four completed the program and five were still participating
in the fourth cycle as of June 1970.




                              14
                               CHAPTER 3

    DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHENEDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

               FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES',

      We belleve that the NavaJo-Hopi program strengthened
the educational      opportunities    available  to Indian children
in participating      schools where the Teacher Corps teams were
assigned.      We found that participating      schoolswere   in areas
having concentrations       of low-income families.

       The interns    provided the children    with more individual-
ized instruction,       which gave them additional   educational     op-
portunities    that would not otherwise     have been available.
Exposing the children        to Indian corps members provided an
educational     stimulus by showing the children     what an Indian
could accomplish through education.

       Some new approaches to educating          children    were intro-
duced in the schools.       Many of   these    ideas    were   adopted and
used by regular    teachers after the interns           completed their
assignments.     Corps  members  initiated       or  participated      in
certain   community activities,     which resulted         in increased
interest   on the part of the children         or parents in various
aspects of education.       Also about     three    fourths    of the corps
members who had completed the program as of the time of our
review were retained     as teachers In reservation            schools.
WORKPERFORMEDBY CORPSMEMBERS
IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

        Corps members were assigned to schools in teams con-
sisting    of a team leader and from four to nine interns.
Team leaders were responsible          for supervising    the interns
and acted as liaison       officer    between the interns       and the
regular    teachers,   prlnclpals,     and university    officials.     The
responsibilities      of team leaders were designed to prepare
them for supervisory       positions     in the Bureau of Indian Af-
fairs    schools and public schools on the reservations.
While at the schools, the teams were under the supervrsion
of the principals       and teacher supervisors       and worked in
cooperation      with regular    teachers.
Utilization      of interns

       On the basis of discussions      with school principals,
teacher supervisors,     and interns    in five schools, we learned
that the interns    generally    began their training    by observing
regular teachers In classroom situations         and gradually     ex-
panded this training     by planning lessons, tutoring       lndlvid-
uals, and working with small groups, until         they ultimately
taught entire   classes.      (See photograph furnished     by the
Office of Education on pm 17 .) The interns        were rotated
periodically,   to expose them to a number of regular teachers
and teaching situations       and to give them the opportunity        to
teach classes in many different        subjects.

         Our analysis    of information   obtained from interns
showed that they        generally   spent about 60 percent of their
time training      in   classrooms in the schools to which they
had been assigned,         20 percent of their time in community ac-
tivities,     and the    remaining 20 percent on academic study.

Innovative     teaching approaches
introduced     by corps members

       The schools participating       in the Navajo-Hopi program
did not develop plans which identified            and outlined   innova-
tions that would be tested with the help of Teacher Corps
interns.     Rather, the interns     were generally     allowed, and
in some cases encouraged,        to innovate    in  the classrooms.
As a result,     several innovative     teaching methods were Intro-
duced in the schools where the interns           were assigned.      These
new teaching methods included*

       --Using NavaJo rather than Anglo-American-related
          stories to teach reading.

       --Simulating      transactions        in a store   to teach math-
          ematics.

       --Introducing    instruction          in Navajo history    in so-
           cial studies classes.

       --Comparing      NavaJo and English        expressions    in the
          instruction     of English.


                                        16
.
      --Using a unque 40-character    alphabet,      with a
         different  character for each distinct      sound, In
         teaching reading.

      --Establishing      a language laboratory using tape
         recordings    for use In teaching children   to
         read.

      --Using team teachlng-- two or more teachers sharing
         responsibility  for teaching a group of students
         and alternating   their subject presentations.

Comments of school officials on
work performed by corps members

       In December 1970 we interviewed      officials   of five of
the six schools that completed their participation           in the
program in May 1970. Most of these officials          told us that
teaching innovations      introduced  by corps members had been
found to be successful       and had been adopted by members of
their    teaching staffs.

       The principal    at one of the schools stated that the
team-teaching     concept, which had been initiated    entirely  by
the Interns,     had been expanded and carried    on at his school.
He said that team teaching was being used in approximately
one third of the school--all      the third,  fourth,  and fifth
grades.    He stated also that the interns      seemed to be some-
what more enthusiastic      about teaching than did the average
member of his teaching staff.        It seemed to him that some
of this enthusiasm had rubbed off on the other teachers.

        Although this principal     acknowledged that the interns
had contributed      good ideas to the school, he commented that
they seemed to arrive       at the school with an idea that every-
thing there would be wrong.         He believed that it would be
helpful     if Teacher Corps officials     would impress upon the
interns     the importance of arriving     with a more objective
outlook.

      The superintendent  and former principal    at another
school informed us that new teaching techniques      introduced
by corps members had made the instruction      to the children
more relevant   to their culture  and background and thereby

                                 18
had made It easier for the chrldren   to understand    the
teachers'  presentations.  He stated that these techniques,
which the Interns had applied very successfully,     had been
adopted by many members of his teachrng staff.      He stated
also that he had initiated  a study to ldentrfy    addrtional
ways to make courses more relevant.

       Another prlnclpal     stated that,   although she could not
pornt to specific     teaching I-nnovatlons     whrch the interns
had introduced     and which had been carried      on by some members
of the teaching staff,       she believed that the interns      had
made the other teachers more conscrous of the need to make
the academic courses In the schools more relevant           to the
children's    backgrounds.

      A teacher-supervisor       at another school told us that the
expanded use of the team-teaching            technique at his school
was the result    of the Interns'       efforts.        He also pornted
out that the interns       had introduced        certain   dzscussrons of
NavaJo history    and culture      Into the social studies classes.
He stated that the expanded curriculum               had been continued
in the social studies classes even though the interns                 had
left and that the school was In the process of developing
a text to teach NavaJo hrstory          and culture,

        Another school offlcral   whom we interviewed       was of the
oplnlon that interns     seemed to have the phllosop@          that they
had to change the way that children      were being taught In
the school and that they did not give fair conslderatlon               to
whether changes were in order.       He pointed out that he did
not feel that this philosophy      was particularly       a fault   of
the way the Teacher Corps program was being operated but
rather that it was due to the personality           of the lndlvldual
interns    assigned to his school.




                                   19
EDUCATION-RELATED COMMUNITYACTIVITIES

        Although the legsslation      does not specifically   require
the involvement      of corps members in community activities,
the Teacher Corps guidelines         encourage such involvement,
The intent     of the corps members' involvement       in community
activities     is not only to give the interns      an understanding
of the children      and their environment     but also to educate
parents and children       of low-income families.

       We learned from discussions         with team leaders and
school officials       that corps members participated           in various
community activities        and projects.      One community project
provided for 25 Hawaiian children           and their chaperones to
visit   the Navajo Reservation        and for 24 Navajo children         and
their chaperones to visit        Hawaii.      The project    was selected,
planned, and carried        out by the interns       at one school.       It
offered    some of the children       their first     opportunity    to
travel    away from the reservation        and to see other people of
similar    complexion.      The principal     and teachers at the
school believed that the project           was worthwhile,       and one
teacher cited a subsequent noticeable             increase in the chil-
dren's interest      in social studies.

        The project  was received favorably    by the local commu-
nity.     It was financed primarily   with Federal funds obtained
through the Bureau of Indian Affairs        and the Office of Eco-
nomic Opportunity,       The interns planned a similar    exchange
project     for the 1970-71 school year.

       A team of interns   at another location      visited    numerous
homes in the community and learned that the parents were
very interested    in having an adult education program.           ThlS
interest    led to the establishment      of adult education classes
as a community project.       Attendance at classes varied from
15 to 40 adults,     and 13 adults ultimately      passed most parts
of a high school equivalency       test,    The project     was consld-
ered quite successful     by the school principal,        team leader,
and interns    and was subsequently      adopted by the local high
school,
     The team assigned to two other schools made a survey
to acquaint themselves with the political  organization,  the
economic conditions,  and the educational needs in the local


                                    20
communities.    As a result  of suggestions    by adults In the
communities,  the interns   established   adult education courses,
Another community proJect involved the teaching of the
NavaJo language to the local teachers.

      The interns   also visited studentsq homes; worked with
Girl Scouts; and attended tribal     government, parent-teacher
associationb    and school board meetings.

         Team leaders and officials    of the schools where the
corps members were assigned told us that the community ac-
tivltles     undertaken by the interns    had been successful.

RETENTION OF CORPS MEMBERSAS REGULAR TEACHERS

      Of the 26 interns     who had completed the Nava-jo-Hopi pro-
gram as of May 1970, 19 (about 75 percent)           had accepted
teaching positions    In reservation      schools.    Of the 19 teach-
ers retained,   seven were Navajo or Hopi Indians.          As of Ma
1970, 27 additional     Interns,   including    17 NavaJo or Hopi I
dians, had completed the first        year of their assignments.
Through intervIewso    we learned that at least 23 of these 1
terns planned to teach in reservation          schools after they
graduated in May 1971.

       Principals   and teacher-supervisors       at the reservation
schools where the interns       trained   generally    considered       the
graduates of the NavaJo-Hopi program to be better               trained
for working with Indian children         on the reservations         than
were teachers trained under traditional           methods.      They
pointed out that teachers prepared by the traditional                  meth-
ods, which emphasxze SubJect matter and teaching methods ap-
plied to the typical      middle-class    public school, are defi-
cient in such practical      aspects as Indian culture          and lan-
guage~ Although some school officials            believed     that the
interns were not as well prepared academically             and in teach-
ing methods as were other teachers,         they considered         the in-
terns to be well prepared from a practical            application       stand-
point,    and most believed that the interns         would be better
overall    teachers as a result.

      The director     of the NavaJo-Hopi program stated that the
graduated interns      who were employed as full-time    teachers
in the reservation       schools could strengthen   the educational


                                     21
opportunities     available   to the Indaan chrldren        by becoming
catalysts     for educational   changes at the schools.         We noted
that three of the four team leaders who completed the pro-
gram in May 1970 had taken positions           in Navajo Reservation
schools.      One team leader was to be a teacher-supervisor
and the other two were to be teachers,            School officials
planned to offer the latter        supervisory    positions    as soon
as such positions      became available.

CONCLUSION

       It is our opinion that the Navajo-Hopi program has
strengthened    educational   opportunities avarlable    to children
on the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations,        an line with the
legsslative   objectnveof   the Teacher Corps program.

       The objective      was accomplished by recruiting         and trann-
ing, as teachers of disadvantaged            children,    persons who,
upon completion        of their assignments,       were considered by
school officrals        to be better trained       for teaching Indian
children     than were teachers prepared by traditional             pro-
grams,      Schools on the Navajo and Hopi Reservations             wolf-
ingly offered       teaching positions     to the interns      who gradu-
ated.      We believe that the number of Indians in the program
who have taken or plan to take teaching positions                will    sig-
nificantly      increase the number of Indxan teachers an schools
on the reservations.          Estimates  furnished     by local offi-
cials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs              showed that, at the
time of our review, about 60 NavaJo or Hopi teachers were
employed at the Bureau's schools on the Navajo and Hopi Res-
ervations.

        The Teacher Corps interns       provided more individualized
instructron      and introduced     some new approaches to educating
children,      and many of the approaches were continued in the
schools after the interns had completed their assignments.
The Interns'      efforts    gave the children    edusatlonal  oppor-
tunities     that otherwise would not have been avaIlable         to
them       Exposing the children      to Indian corps members pro-
vided the children        with an educational     stimulus.   Community
actlvltses      which were organized by the corps members pro-
vided additional        educational   benefits  to chrldren   and adults
on the reservations.


                                     22
                               CHAPTER 4

   DID THE PROGRAMBROADENNORTHERNARIZONA UNIVERSITY‘S

                    TEACHER PREPARATIONPROGRAM',

      The Teacher Corps program at Northern Arizona Universrty
had some degree of success in broadening the university's
teacher preparatron     program.     The university       trained   the
Teacher Corps interns      by (1) provrding      courses that were
designed to give them an understandrng           of the rudiments       of
the Indian language, culture,        and history     and (2) modifying
courses to make the content more relevant            for preparing      the
interns   to teach Indian children.         Experience with the
Teacher Corps influenced       the unlverslty      to make certain
changes in its regular      teacher preparation        program; however,
much of the special curriculum        offered    to the Teacher Corps
interns   was not offered     as part of the university's         regular
teacher preparation     program.

     As stated on page 21, prlnclpals      and teacher-supervisors
at the reservation     schools where the interns    trained    generally
considered    the graduates of the Navajo-Hopi     program to be
better prepared for working with Indian children          on the res-
ervations   than were teachers prepared by traditional         methods.
No formal procedures were established       by the unlversltyp
however, for evaluating      the various Ideas, experiments,       and
approaches that were used by the Navajo-Hopi        program until
December 1970--2-l/2     years after the program started.

ACADEMIC COURSESOFFERED TO
TEACHER CORPS INTERNS

      The teacher preparation     curriculum      offered   to other
students at Northern Arizona Unlverslty             was revised exten-
sively for the Teacher Corps interns.             The changes were de-
signed to prepare the interns       for teaching on the reserva-
tions.    For example, the interns       took several courses that
were not in the teacher preparation           curriculum    of other
students.     These courses related      to such subjects        as the
Navajo language, the Navajo communaty,the growth and develop-
ment of Indian chlldren,communlty          relations,and      the teaching
of English to students coming from homes where English is
not the predominant     language.

                                     23
        Instructors      at the university     informed us that they had
adJusted the content of the Interns'              courses so that the
courses would be more applicable            to the Indian culture         In
which the interns         were being traaned to teach.          For   example,
a mathematics instructor          stated that,      although he had not
changed basic mathematical           concepts when he worked with the
interns,       he had explained    the application       of the concepts in
language and symbols that would be better understood                   by
Indians,        A psychology instructor       explained that the ample-
mentatlon       of principles   of learning      varied among various
cultures       and that he had emphasized the Indaan applications
when workrng with the interns.             He illustrated      his point by
 stating     that other elementary       school children      normally are
encouraged to compete with each other to learn, whereas
NavaJo children        must be encouraged to work as groups since
they will not compete with one another,

INFLUENCE OF TEACHER CORPS ON THE UNIVERSITY'S
REGUIAR TEACHERPREPARATION PROGRAM

      University    officials      informed us that a lack of available
positions     for student teachers in the elementary               schools in
the Flagstaff       area had caused the unlverslty             to look else-
where for such teachrng positions                Drawing upon Its experi-
ence in providing         courses to the Teacher Corps interns             while
they were training         away from the university,         the university
took the further        step of establishing         two student-teaching
centers near Phoenix, Arizona,            where there were still
student-teaching       opportunities       available.     At these centers
students in the universlty9s            regular    teacher preparation
program love, teach, and take academic courses.                   The centers
became operational         an the fall     of the 1970-71 school year.
The offlclals      stated that the university           would consider es-
tablishing      a similar     center on the NavaJo Reservation           if the
first    two centers were successful.

      The dean of the unlversrty9s          College of Education told
us that the Teacher Corps program had fostered               a more co-
operative    relatronship      among the various colleges within
the university      through the college"s         use of certain   courses
from outslde the College of Education.               The assistant   dean
felt   that certain     university     professors    who taught the in-
terns'    courses had become more aware of the environment              on
Indian reservations.         He stated that he included a discus-
sion of the opportunity          to teach on Indian reservations        In

                                       24
his own introductory     education course    He also planned to
make a film whrch would highlight      the unique aspects of
teaching on reservations

      We noted that,    as of August 1970, only one of the spe-
cially    designed courses for the Ieacher Corps interns             had
been offered      In the universrty's     regular     teacher prepara-
tion program.       This course, lnvolvlng       internship    in schools
and comrnunitres on Indian reservations,            is offered    as a
substitute     for student teaching In the elementary            schools
in Flagstaff.       The regular    students'   curriculum,     however, in-
cludes only one semester of this course, compared with four
semesters for Teacher Corps interns,           and the university        has
not established      a method of providing       other courses to the
regular    students while they are training           on the reservations.

     The NavaJo-Hopi program proposals       for cycles III and IV,
submitted   to the Offrce of Education in March and December
of 1968, respectively,    outlined   the specialized    curriculum
which would be offered    to interns    and emphasized that the
program would enable Northern Arizona University         to study
the effects   of this specialized    currxculum   and consider
applying It to other students at the unlverslty.

      The study had not been undertaken       at the time that we
completed our fieldwork     at the university      In August 1970
In April 1970, we had discussed with unlversrty          officials
the apparent need for such a study in furthering          the ob-
Jectlves   of the Teacher Corps program.        In December11970
the assistant    dean of the College of Education told us that
the study was under way and should be completed by May 1971.




                                     25
CONCLUSION

       We believe that the Navajo-Hopi         program had some degree
of success in encouraging        the university      to broaden its
teacher preparation     program.     The university       provided the
interns with courses more relevant          to their needs as prospec-
tive teachers of Indian children.           Experience with the
Teacher Corps influenced       the university      to make certain
changes in its regular      teacher preparation        program.      The uni-
versity,   however, did not undertake         an evaluation      of the
Navajo-Hopi     program to identify     those aspects which warranted
inclusion    in its regular    teacher preparation        curriculum    un-
til December 1970--2-l/2       years after the program started.

RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARYOF
HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

       We recommend that the Secretary    of HEW provide for the
Office of Education to stay abreast of the progress of the
university's     study of the various ideas, experiments,   and
techniques used in the Navajo-Hops program and encourage the
university    to incorporate  in its regular  teacher preparation
curriculum    those aspects of the program that are found to be
successful.



      The Assistant  Secretary,   Comptroller,  HEW, commented on
a draft of our report by letter     dated March 8, 1971          (See
app. III ) He stated that our conclusions       were sound and
that our recommendations were sufficiently      objective     to   pro-
duce the action required     to make the program more effective.
He saidthat   HEW's comments were the product of a review of
the draft of our report by cognizant departmental         and Office
of Education staff and of the responses from the director             of
the Navajo-Hopi program, the dean of the Northern Arizona
University  College of Education,    officials  of the Arizona De-
partment of Education,    and local school officials      associated
with the program

      The Assistant  Secretary   stated also that HEW concurred
in our recommendation that the Office of Education stay
abreast of the university's    study and encourage adoption of
successful  program features   into the university's  regular

                                     26
teacher preparatron        program.    He noted that,    after our re-
vrew had been completed,         three additronal    Teacher Corps
courses had been made avarlable           to students rn the unrversrty's
regular     teacher preparation      program.    He noted also that the
unlversrty's      College of Education had established         a student-
teachrng center at one of the schools partrcrpatlng              rn the
Teacher Corps program on the NavaJo Reservation.               The frrst
non-Teacher-Corps       students were to be asslgned to the center
for the spring semester of 1971,

      The Assistant     Secretary    pointed out that Northern Arizona
Unlverslty    had submitted     an impressive proposal    for a srxth-
cycle Teacher Corps program, which demonstrated           planning     to
ensure program continurty         as Federal funds were withdrawn.
He stated that the Teacher Corps headquarters           would monitor
the sixth-cycle     program and provide technical       assistance     to
encourage and ensure timely evaluation          of program actlvrtles.




                                    27
                                 CHAPTER 5

          ROLE OF THE ARIZONA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION

                             IN THE PROGRAM

      Teacher Corps legislation      requires   that the appropriate
State educatronal      agencies approve program proposals.       The
Office oE Education encourages State agencies to review
proposals     In the light   of the States'   educational objectives
and priorities.

        Officials      of the Arizona Department of Education ad-
vised us that they considered the department to be a minor
participant        in the Navajo-Hopi     program,       They stated that
the department had revrewed the program proposals                  to satisfy
itself     that they were educationally          sound and had obtained
clarification         of the contents,    when considered necessary,
before notifying         the Office of Education of its approval.
Department officials           stated also that they had visited         the
university        during the preservice      orientation     phase of the
program to meet with the corps members and learn more about
the program's         operation.

       The Department's   director     of teacher certification,        who
was the former liaison      officer   for the Teacher Corps pro-
gram, said that the type of curriculum          given the NavaJo-Hopi
program interns    appeared to be very good for preparing            the
interns   for teaching on the reservations.          It was his opm-
ion that all students who intended to teach on the reserva-
tions should be given the same or similar-type            curriculum.
Department officials     stated,    however, that they had not drs-
semlnated lnformatlon     on the operations       of the NavaJo-Hop1
program to other universities        in Arizona.
       We apprised officials       of the Arizona Department of Ed-
ucation   of our view that the department could contribute              to
the achievement of Teacher Corps objectives               by obtaining  in-
formation   on successful      techniques     and results    of the Teacher
Corps program and disseminating           this information     to other
educational    institutions      in the State that could benefit
from such information.         We noted that about 40 percent of
the approximately        180 new teachers hired for schools on the
Navajo and Hopi Reservations          for the 1970-71 school year

                                      28
came from three colleges   rn Arizona--Northern    Arizona       Uni-
versity, the University  of Arizona,    and Arizona State        Uni-
versity.

       Department officials     stated that they planned, through
visits   to program sites,    to learn how educational       innova-
tions introduced    in the schools and the university         were
working out and planned also to disseminate          information
about successful    innovations     to other educational     mstitu-
tions rn the State.

RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARYOF
HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

      We recommend that the Secretary    of HEW provide for the
Office of Education to cooperate with the Arizona Depart-
ment of Education in its plans to assume a more active role
in disseminating   information concerning   successful   tech-
niques and teaching methods to other educational       Lnstitu-
tions in the State.



       The Assistant     Secretary stated that HEW concurred in
our recommendation but preferred        to delay specific       action
until   such time as the Arizona Department of Education in-
dicated that it could provide staff,         time, and personnel
expertise   to carry out its plans.        He stated also that a
closer relationship       had been established    between the Arizona
Department of Education and the Teacher Corps program and
that the department had established         a new procedure for
keeping itself     informed of Teacher Corps actxvities          and of
changes in Northern Arizona University's          teacher-training
program.




                                  29
                             CHAPTER6

                          SCOPE OF REVIEW

       We reviewed the legrslatrve     history   of the Teacher Corps
program and the related policies,       procedures,    and guidelines
of the Office of Education.       We reviewed records relating        to
selection    of corps members, activities      of corps members in
the schools and at Northern Arizona University,          retention    of
corps members in teaching after completion of Corps service,
and various administrative      aspects of the program.

       Our review was performed at the Teacher Corps headquar-
ters In Washington, D.C., Northern Arizona University,           the
Navajo Area Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs           in Arizona,
and Bureau of Indran Affairs      schools and public schools on
the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations.         We also interviewed
interns,   team leaders,  teachers,     local school officials,
Northern Arizona University     offrcl-als,   Teacher Corps offi-
cials,   and Arizona Department of Education officrals.




                                   30
APPENDIXES




      31
                                          MAPOFTHE#AVAJOAND                    WEfERVATIBWS


                                                                                                        COLORADO
                                                                                                    -------

                                                                                              --I                  NEW MEXICO




                                                                                                                                      LEGEND
                                                                                                                -           RESERVATION      BOUNDARY
                                                                                                                --          STATE BOUNDARY
                                                                                                                            ROADS
                                                                                                                     r      LOCATIONS    OF SCHOOLS
                                                                                                                               WHERE TEACHER       CORPS
                                                                                                                               MEMBERS ASSIGNED
                                                                                                                     a      TOWNS

                                                                                                CHUSKA                             J   30 MILES     [




                                                ARIZONA


NAVAJO       INDIAN     RESERVATION


HOPI     INDIAN   RESERVATION
                                                      NOTES
                                                               MAP PREPARED    BY GAO FROM AN OFFICIAL    BUREAU            OF INDIAN AFFAIRS’
NAVAJO-HOPI           JOINT   USE AREA0                        MAP TO SHOW APPROXIMATE    LOCATIONS    OF SCHOOLS            PARTICIPATING     IN
                                                               NAVAJO  HOPI PROGRAM

                                                              a BOUNDARY   OF THE   HOPI   RESERVATION     IS UNDER      DISPUTE
APPENDIXII


                                         COMPARISONOF ETHNIC BACKGROUNDS

                                          AND OTHERGENERAL INFORMATION

                                        PERTAINING TO TEACHERSAND CHILDREN

                                   AT CERTAIN SCHOOLSINCLUDED IN GAO'S REVIEW


                                           Number of           Number of               Ethnic   background
          School             Grades        children            teachers                          Children      Teachers

Bureau of Indian         Affairs      schools                                                           (percent)

    Tohatchi          ,(a)     to 8th               376               13                            100
                                                                           Navajo or Hop1
                                                                           Other Indian                              185
                                                                           Black                                     15
                                                                           Caucasian                                 62

    Chuska            ,(a>     to 8th               595               24   Navajo or Hop1           100               4
                                                                           Black                                     29
                                                                           Caucasian                                 67

     Dilcon           ,(a>     to 8th               680           32                                    99
                                                                           Navajo or Hopi
                                                                           Other Indian                  1            3
                                                                           Black                                      6
                                                                           Caucasian                                 91
                      ,(a)
    Toy&                       to 8th               610           24       Navajo or Hopi           100               4
                                                                           Other Indian                               4
                                                                           Black                                      4
                                                                           Caucasian                                 88
Arizona     public   school,

    Tuba City         1st to 8th                1,138             54       Navajo or Hopi               80               4
                                                                           Other Indian                  6
                                                                           Black                         1            2
                                                                           Caucasian                    13           94



                                                                           Navajo or Hopi               93               3
                                                                           Other Indian                  2               3
                                                                           Black                         1               9
                                                                           Caucasian                4               85
           Total                                3,399           147
                                                                --                                  g&              100




                                                          34
                                                                                             APPEtiJIX III



                               DEPARTMENT   OF HEALTH     EDLJCATiON         AND   WELFARE
                                             WASHINGTON    D    C    20201




OFFICE   OF THE   SECRETARY


                                                    MAR8 1971


                  Ilr Phlllp Charam
                  Associate Dlrector
                  UnIted States General
                  Accounting Office
                  Washrngton, D C    20548

                  Dear Mr     Charam
                                                                                                                    I

                  Tne Secretary nas asked that I reply to your letter dated December 28,
                  1970, with whxh you forwarded the draft report of the General Account-
                  lng Office revxew of “Assessug the Impact of the Teacner Corps Program
                  at Northern Arizona Unxverslty and Partxlpatlng    Schools in Arizona and
                  New Mexico on the NavaJo and Hopi Indian Reservations " We appreciate
                  the opportunity  to review and comment on the report, the conclusions
                  and recommendations

                  The report xndxates that a very comprehensive review was performed and                        e
                  presents an accurate account of the strengths and weaknesses of the
                  Teacher Corps Northern Arxona Program     The conclusions are sound and
                  the recommendations are sufficiently ObJectlve to produce required
                  remedial action to make the Teacher Corps Program more effectxve

                  Detailed comments on the recommendations, together with the statements
                  of actions to be taken to implement them, are set forth xn the
                  enclosure hereto     They are the product of a review of the report by
                  cognizant Departmental and Offxe of Education staff and the responses
                  from the Director of the Program at Northern Arxzona Unxvers-Lty, the
                  Dean of the School of Education, Department Chairman and local school
                  offxxals   associated wrth the program

                                                                    SIncerely      yours,



                                                                    James B. Cardwell
                                                                    Assxstant Secretary,          Comptroller

                  Enclosure



                                                           35
   APPENDIXIII

                 Denartment of Health. Education. and Welfare
                          --A-   --                             I


      Comments Pertinent to the Draft of Report-to the Congress of the
      Unlted States by the Comptroller General of the UnIted States on
            Assessuw
            ----------”
                                      the
                                        ---a---
                                                  Imnact   of   the      Teacher     CorD,s Program   at
      Northern Arizona University  and Part~clpatlng*Schools in Arizona
           and New Mexico on the Naval0 and Honi Indian Reservatlc 3115



The GAO recommended that the Secretary provide for the Office of Education
to stay abreast of the progress of the Unlversltyfs   study of the various
Ideas, experiments,  and techniques used in the NavaJo-Hop1 program and
encourage the Unlverslty  to incorporate in Its regular teacher preparation
curriculum those aspects which are found to be successful.

Department Comment

We concur in the recommendation.

The Director of Northern Arizona Unlverslty    (N.A.U.) as well as the Dean
and Department Chairman mformed us that "Teacher Corps courses, since
last year, have been avallable to non-Teacher Corps personnel.     After the
GAOreview ended a survey was done that lndlcated a need for additional
offerings,  which resulted in three additional   courses available from the
College of Education In September of 1970. Students other than Teacher
Corps will also receive on site advisement.t(

Teacher Corps Washington, via its monitoring                                       and technical assistance
efforts,  ~~11 encourage and assure evaluation                                      In the 6th cycle of this
pro;)ect.

Northern Arizona University  has submitted an Impressive proposal for the
6th cycle which demonstrates planning to ensure program contlnulty   as
Federal funds are withdrawn and clearly overcomes the evaluation short-
comings noted by GAO.


The GAOrecommended that the Secretary provide for the Office of Education
to cooperate with the Arizona Department of Education in Its plans to
assume a more active role in disseminating informatlon  concerning successful
experiments and teaching methods to other educational lnstltutlons  in the
State.

Denartment Comment

We concur In the recommendation but prefer to delay specific   action until
such time as the Arizona State Department of Education lndlcates    1C has staff
time and personnel expertise to do the tasks outlined in the recommendation.




                                                                    36
                                                              APPENDIXIII

However, in the interxm the Director of Northern Arizona University  informed
us that llThe Dean of the College of Education encourages the State Department
to vlslt,  observe, and disseminate information of Teacher Corps and regular
N.A.U. programs on the Reservatxon.W

Also, the State Department Indicated a new procedural set up has been
initiated  that will keep them alerted to actlvltles,    changes in the
teacher trazning program at N.A.U., and hopefully,    evidence from the field
where the programs have been affected by the Teacher Corps,

Flnally,   before the signature from the State Department of Education goes
on the final documents endorsing the 6th cycle program, the Department has
requested the goals and ObJeCh.VeS     of the Teacher Corps program be sent to
them for lnformatxon and review purposes.      A closer relationship is being
established    between the Arizona State Department of Education and the
Teacher Corps program.

The lhrector   at N.A.U. indicated the College of Education has begun a
student teaching center at Drlcon Boarding School, a Cycle 4 School on the
NaVaJO  Reservation.    The first non-Teacher Corps student teachers ~111 be
assigned there Spring Semester of 1971. Teacher Corps lnterns)at     the
school ~~11 aid In orientation    of the new student teachers.




                                      37
APPENDIX IV


                       PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE

             DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

                     RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACTIVITIES

                        DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT


                                               Tenure of office
                                               From             To
                                                                -

SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
  ANDWELFARE:
    Elliot L. Richardson                    June    1970   Present
    Robert H. Finch                         Jan.    1969   June 1970
    Wilbur J. Cohen                         Mar.    1968   Jan.    1969
    John W. Gardner                         Aug.    1965   Mar,    1968

ASSISTANT SECRETARY, EDUCATION:
    Vacant                                  June    1970   Present
    James E. Allen,  Jr.                    May     1969   June 1970
    Peter P. Muirhead (actrng)              Jan.    1969   May     1969
    Lynn M. Bartlett                        July    1968   Jan.    1969
                                            July    1966   July    1968
Q Paul    A. Miller
    Francis Keppel                          Oct.    1965   May     1966

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION:
   Sidney P. Marland, Jr.                   Dec.    1970   Present
   Terre1 H. Bell (acting)                  June    1970   Dec. 1970
   James E. Allen, Jr.                      May     1969   June 1970
   Peter P. Muirhead (acting)               Jan.    1969   May     1969
   Harold Howe II                           Jan.    1966   Dec. 1968
   Francis Keppel                           Dec.    1962   Jan.    1966




US   GAO   Wash,DC

                                     38