oversight

Assessment of the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Miami and Participating Schools in South Florida

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-04-16.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

I




                 T Tb                   CONGRESS




                               e llmpact
                          er Corps Program
                           ity Of Miami
                               Schools
                           a 5-764037   f7J




    Office of Education
    Department of Health, Education,
      and Welfare




    BY THE COMPTROLLER                        GENERAL
    OF THE UNITED STATES
                 COMPTROLLER      GENERAL      OF    THE      UNITED    STATES
                                WASHINGTON      DC         20548




B- 164031(l)




To the     President       of the Senate     and the
Speaker      of the     House    of Representatives

          This   IS our report     on assessment       of the impact      of the
Teacher       Corps    program     at the Unlverslty      of Miami     and par-
tlclpatmg      schools     in south Florida        This program      IS autho-
razed by title       V of the Higher     Education     Act of 1965 (20 U S C
 1101) and 1s admmlstered            by the Office     of Education,     Depart=
ment      of Health,   Education,     and Welfare

         Our review   was made pursuant   to the Budget                          and Ac-
counting    Act,  1921 (31 U S C 53), and the Accountmg                             and Au0
dltmg    Act of 1950 (31 U S G 67)

         Copies     of thxs report     are being    sent to the Director,
Offxe      of Management       and Budget,      the Secretary    of Health,
Education,      and Welfare,       and the Commlssloner        of Education,
Department        of Health,    Education,     and Welfare




                                             Comptroller               General
                                             of the United             States




                         50TH   ANNIVERSARY                  192’l-    1971 -
COMPTROLLER
          GENERAL'S                               ASSESSMENTOF THE IMPACT OF
REPORT
     TO THECONGRESS                               THE TEACHERCORPSPROGRAMAT
                                                  THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI AND
                                                  PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSIN SOUTH FLORIDA
                                                  Office of Education, Department of
                                                  Health, Education, and Welfare
                                                  B-164031(7)


DIGEST
------

WHYTREREVIEWWASM&X
       Because of Interest  expressed by committees and members of Congress in
       the Teacher Corps program as part of the overall Federal effort in the
       field of education, the General Accounting Office {GAO) has reviewed the
       program, nationwide    This report, the first  of a series, assesses the
       impact of the program at the University   of Mlaml and participating local
       educatIona   agencies In south Florida (Miami program)

       The Teacher Corps was establlshed    In the Office of Education, Department
       of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), under the Higher Education Act
       of 1965 The leglslat>ve    obJectives of the program are to

             --strengthen    educational opportunities    for children   in areas having
                concentrations   of low-income families    and

             --encourage colleges    and unlversltles     to broaden their   programs for
                training teachers.

       The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains qualified teachers {team leaders)
       and Inexperienced teacher interns for teaching in areas where family in-
       comes are low. Members of the corps are asslgned to schools in teams
       consisting   of a team leader and several interns.    During their service,
       the interns also study in courses leading to a college or unlvers7ty de-
       gree and to qualification    for a State teaching certificate

       Local educatlonal agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of th
       salaries of Teacher Corps members, the Office of Education pays the re-
       mainder and the costs of the interns'  courses   (See p. 7 >             !$
        As of the summer of 1970, Federal funds of about $1 9 million  had been
        expended under the Miami program since its inception -rn 1966. (See p 8 )


FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS


        The Miami program strengthened the educational opportunities             available
        to pupils in classes to which corps members were asslgned               (Seep      12)
Tear Sheet                                                    ‘APRIL16,197          1
                                             1
GAO belleves,  however> that        the program had much less Impact than it
might have had

Many Teacher Corps 7nnovatlons were not continued after the corps mem- _
bers flnlshed theTr assignments     Lack of staff and funds were usua'l‘Iy
cited as reasons     No speclflc procedures had been developed to deter-
mine which lnnovatlons would be desirable for the schools' regular cur-
rlculums.    (See p 17 )

Innovative     teaching     methods introduced     Included

  --teaching  slow-learning  pupils        by hav-ing them wnte            or tell   stories
     based on thetr experiences,

  --using    photography      and other audio-vlsu81      aids,

  --dramatizing      of stories    to improve reading         and language skills,

  --teaching     black history,     the origin     and development of Jazz, and cor-
     rective    handwriting,    and

  --using the Spanish language to teach Spanish-speaking                     children.      {See
     PP 13 to 15 >
School prlnclpals  and teachers generally agreed that the new teaching
methods and the lndlvldual    attention provided by the program increased
the learning capability    and Improved the attendance of many students,
(See p. 13 )

To achieve faculty desegregation,  teachers were transferred   to different
schools In the middle of the school year.   Principals   said that the
corps members helped the teachers in adJusting to their new schools.
(See p 13 )

Members of the Teacher Corps initiated            or participated  in community ed-
ucational actlvltles for the children            and their parents, such as

  --organjzlng   an expertmental learning center in which children                       could
     gain experience with various educational materials,

  --establ7shTng      cultural    arts and industrial         arts     programs,

  --teaching      English    to Spanish-speaking     adults,         and

  --sponsoring a workshop to educate parents on how they could help at
     home in their children's learning process  (See PO 19 )
Over half of the 71 interns who had completed the program at the time of
GAO's review were hired as teachers in schools serving poor areas    (See
P 22 >



                                    2
      Broadenmg teacher preparatzon progrms
      The Mlaml program had some degree of success ln broadening the Unlvers-ity
      of Miami's teacher preparation program    The unlverslty  initiated new
      courses, adapted regular courses to make them more relevant to teaching
      children from poor famllles,  and employed some new teaching techniques
      (See p. 24 )

      According    to unlverslty   officials,   the program had Influenced

         --the lntroductlon  of video recorders      as teaching   aids   in the School
            of Education and

         --a new requirement for field teaching experience in some undergraduate
            courses before the senior year--the year when student teaching nor-
            mally 1s performed.  (See p. 25 )

      A number of new courses for Teacher Corps interns were not offered to
      students In the University        of Mlaml's regular teacher preparation   pro-
      gram      University    offlclals  informed GAO that no formal procedures had
      been established      to determine which ideas, experiments,    and techniques
      used in the Teacher Corps program would warrant lncluslon         tn the unl-
      verslty's     regular teacher preparation program.      (See p. 26 ) GAObe-
      lieves that such procedures should be established.‘

      RoZe of the S-bate zn the pzvgrm
      GAO believes that the Teacher Corps programs in Florida could be made
      more effective   through broader dlssemlnatlon     by the State Department of
      Education of lnformatlon    on experiments and methods used successfully     in
      the Miami program      In GAO's oplnlon, such information     would be of bene-
      fit to other unlversltles    and local educational    agencies In Florida,
      particularly   those not engaged In a Teacher Corps program.       (See p 29.)


RECOMMENDATIONS
            ORSUGGESTIONS
      HEW should

         --emphasize to Offlce of Education offlclals  the Importance of having
            local educatlonal agencies in the Mlaml program adopt speclflc pro-
            cedures to Tntegrate successful Teacher Corps InnovatIons Into the
            regular school programs (see p 23),
         --promote the izstabllshment of formal procedures by the unlvers0zy to
            determine which ideas, experiments,  and techniques used in the pro-
            gram should be included in the university's   regular teacher prepa-
            ration program (see p 27), and

Tear Sheet




                                          3
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
      --discuss with the FlorIda Department of Educatlon'the      feaslbillty  of                 I
         dissemination   of lnformatlon   on successful corps methods to other                     I
                                                                                                   I
         FlorIda universjttes    and local educational agencies, particularly                      I
         those not engaged In the Teacher Corps program,      (See p 29 )                         I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
                                                                                                  I
AGEhX'Y
      ACTIONSANDVNRESOLKZD
                        ISSUES                                                                 I
                                                                                                  I

                                                                                               I
    The Assistant Secretary,   Comptroller, of HEWconcurred in GAO's recom-                    I
                                                                                              I
    mendations and described   actlons planned to put them into effect.  (See                 ,
    pp. 23, 27, and 29 )
                                                                                              I
                                                                                              I
    He acknowledged that early Teacher Corps guidelines    did not place    enough            I
                                                                                              I
    emphasis on program continuity   and the process for achieving it       He                I
    said that current guidelines   contaIned more expllclt  requirements    on                I
    program continuity  and that the Office of Education would follow      their              I
                                                                                              I
    ~mplementatton closely.    (See p. 23 )                                                   I
                                                                                              I
                                                                                              I

MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERAT1ON
                    BY TBECO~GR,?JSS                                                          i

                                                                                              I
    Th3s report provides the Congress with information    on the effectiveness                I
    of the Teacher Corps program in achjevlng its legislative      ObJectIves                 I
                                                                                              I
    and on the additional  steps needed to improve effectiveness       Some com-
    mlttees of Congress may wish to consider the report's     contents In their               I
                                                                                             I
    deliberations on extending the program,                                                  I
                                                                                             I
                                                                                             I
                                                                                             I
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                                                                                             I
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                                                                                     I
                          Contents
                                                                 Page

DIGEST                                                             1

CHAPTER

  1        INTRODUCTION
               Operation of the Teacher Corps program
               Funding
               Program participation

  2        THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI TEACHERCORPS PRO-
           GRAM                                                    9
               Selection of interns                               10

  3        DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHENTHE EDUCATIONAL
           OPPORTUNITIES FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME
           FAMILIES?                                              12
               Work performed by corps members in
                  participating       schools                     13
                     Utilization      of team leaders             14
                     Utilization      of interns                  14
                     Special projects       and new teaching
                        methods were discontinued        after
                        completion     of assignments             17
               Support of education-related          community
                  activities                                      19
               Retention       of program graduates     after
                  training                                        22
               Conclusion                                         22
               Recommendation to the Secretary           of
                  Health,      Education,   and Welfare           23

  4        DID THE PROGRAMBROADENTHE UNIVERSITY OF
           MIAMI'S TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM?                   24
               Conclusion                                         26
               Recommendation to the Secretary   of
                  Health, Education, and Welfare                  27

  5        ROLE OF THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION
           IN THE PROGRAM                                         28
      .+       Conclusion                                         29
               Recommendation to the Secretary   of
                 Health,  Education, and Welfare                  29
CHAPTER                                                                Page

      6        SCOPE OF REVIEW                                          30

APPENDIX

           I   StatIstical      data on University   of Miami
                 Teacher      Corps program                             33

      II       Letter   dated February 19, 1971, from the
                 Assistant   Secretary,    Comptroller,   Depart-
                 ment of Health,     Education,   and Welfare,    to
                  the General Accounting Office                        34

  III          Principal     officials     of the Department of
                  Health,    Education,     and Welfare having
                  responsrbility       for the activities   dis-
                  cussed in this report                                37

                                   ABBREVIATIONS

GAO            General  Accounting Office
                                ,
HEW            Department of Health,-Education,         and Welfare

LEA            local     educational   agency
COMPTROLLER
          GENERAL'S                           ASSESSMENTOF THE IMPACT OF
REPORT
     TO THECONGRESS                           THE TEACHERCORPSPROGRAMAT
                                              THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI AND
                                              PARTICIPATING SCHOOLSIN SOUTH FLORIDA
                                              OffIce of Education, Department of
                                              Health, Education, and Welfare
                                              B-164031(1)


DIGEST
------

WHYTHEREVIEWWASMADE
    Because of Interest  expressed by committees and members of Congress ?n
    the Teacher Corps program as part of the overall Federal effort      In the
    field of education, the General Accounting OffIce (GAO) has reviewed the
    program, natlonwlde    This report, the first  of a series, assesses the
    Impact of the program at the University   of Miami and partlc7patlng    loca'l
    educational  agencies in south FlorIda (Miami program)

    The Teacher Corps was established    in the Office of Education, Department
    of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), under the Higher Education Act
    of 1965 The legislative    obJectives of the program are to

         --strengthen    educational opportunltles    for children   in areas having
            concentrations   of low-income famllles    and

         --encourage colleges    and unlversltles     to broaden their   programs for
            training teachers

    The Teacher Corps recruits    and trains qualified teachers (team leaders)
    and lnexperlenced teacher interns for teaching In areas where family in-
    comes are ‘low. Members of the corps are assigned to schools in teams
    consisting   of a team leader and several Interns     During their service,
    the interns also study in courses leading to a college or unlverslty       de-
    gree and to quallflcatlon    for a State teaching certificate

    Local educational agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of the
    salaries of Teacher Corps members, the OffIce of Education pays the re-
    mainder and the costs of the interns'  courses   (See p. 7 )

    As of the summer of 1970, Federal funds of about $1 9 mllllon             had been
    expended under the Miami program since its lncept-ron in 1966              (See p 8 )


FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
     Strengthent.ng    educatconaZ opportunztzes

    The Miami program strengthened the educational opportunltles             available
    to pupils in classes to which corps members were assigned               (See p 12 )
 GAO belleves,  however, that             the program had much less *impact than it
 might have had

Many Teacher Corps innovations were not continued after the corps mem-
bers finished their assignments     Lack of staff and funds were usually
cited as reasons     No specific procedures had been developed to deter-
m-me which lnnovatlons would be desirable for the schools' regular cur-
rlculums.    (See p 17 >

 Innovative      teaching     methods introduced      included

   --teachlng  slow-learnlng  pupils            by having them write        or tell   stones
      based on their experiences;

   --using      photography     and other audio-visual        alds,

   --dramatizing       of stories     to improve reading and language skills,

   --teaching      black history,     the orlgln      and development of Jazz, and cor-
      rective     handwntlng;     and

   --using the Spanish language to teach Spanish-speaking                     children,       (See
      PP 13 to 15 )
School principals  and teachers generally agreed that the new teaching
methods and the lndlvldual    attent-ron provided by the program Increased
the learning capability    and improved the attendance of many students.
(See p. 13 >
To achieve faculty  desegregation, teachers were transferred    to different
schools In the middle of the school year     Principals   said that the
corps members helped the teachers in adJUStlng    to their new schools
(See p 13 )

Members of the Teacher Corps Initiated               or participated  In community ed-
ucat?onal actlvltles for the children               and their parents, such as

  --organizing   an experimental learning center In which children                        could
     gain experience with various educatlonal materials,

  --establlshlng       cultural     arts    and lndustrlal    arts     programs,

  --teaching       English    to Spanish-speaking       adults,      and

  --sponsoring   a workshop to educate parents on how they could help at
     home in their children's  learning process   (See P* 19 >
Over half of the 71 interns who had completed the program at the time of
GAO's revlew were hlred as teachers in schools serving poor areas.   (See
P 22 )



                                      2
    Broadenmg    teacher preparatz-olL prsgrams

    The Mlaml program had some degree of success in broadening the Unlverslty
    of Mlaml's teacher preparation program    The un-rverslty initiated new
    courses, adapted regular courses to make them more relevant to teaching
    children from poor famlllesg  and employed some new teaching techniques
    (See p 24 )

    According   to unlverslty   offlclals,   the program had influenced

      --the lntroductlon  of video recorders      as teaching   aids in the School
         of Education and

      --a new requirement for field teaching experience 1n some undergraduate
         courses before the senior year--the year when student teaching nor-
         mally 1s performed   {See p 25 )

    A number of new courses for Teacher Corps interns were not offered to
    students in the Unlverslty     of Mlaml's regular teacher preparation pro-
    gram. Unlverslty     offlclals  informed GAO that no formal procedures had
    been establlshed    to determine which Ideas, experiments, and techniques
    used In the Teacher Corps program would warrant inclusion     in the unl-
    verslty's   regular teacher preparation   program    (See p 26 ) GAO be-
    lleves that such procedures should be established      -

    Role of the State m the progrm
    GAO believes that the Teacher Corps programs in Florida could be made
    more effective    through broader dlssemlnatlon    by the State Department of
    Education of lnformatlon     on experiments and methods used successfully    in
    the Mlaml program       In GAO's opinion, such informatIon    would be of bene-
    fit to other unlversltles     and local educational agencies in FlorIda,
    particularly   those not engaged in a Teacher Corps program        (See p 29 )


RECO~Eh'DATIONS OR SUGGESTIOXS

    HEWshould
      --emphasize to Office of Education officials   the importance of having
         local educational agencies In the M-ram1 program adopt speclflc  pro-
         cedures to Integrate successful Teacher Corps innovations   into the
         regular school programs (see p 23),

       --promote the establishment  of formal procedures by the university   to
          determlne which ideas, experiments, and techniques used In the pro-
          gram should be included in the unlverslty's  regular teacher prepa-
          ration program (see p 27); and
      --discuss with the Florida Department of Education the feaslblllty       of
         dlssemlnatlon   of lnformatlon   on successful corps methods to other
         Florlda unlversltles    and local educational agencies9 particularly
         those not engaged In the Teacher Corps program       (See p* 29 )

AGENCY
     ACTlONSAND UNRESOLVED
                        ISSUES
    The AssIstant Secretary,   Comptroller,  of HEWconcurred In GAO's recom-
    mendations and described   actions planned to put them into effect,   (See
    pp 23, 27, and 29 )

    He acknowledged that early Teacher Corps guidelines did not place      enough
    emphasis on program contlnulty  and the process for achlevlng it       He
    said that current gulde'ilnes contalned more expllclt requirements     on
    program contlnuTty and that the Office of Education would follow      their
    lmplementatlon   closely.   be p 23 )

MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY TL?EGOiQGRESS
   This report provides the Congress with lnformatlon    on the effectiveness
   of the Teacher Corps program In achieving Its legislative    obJectives
   and on the addltlonal  steps needed to Improve effectiveness      Some com-
   m7ttees of Congress may wish to consider the report's contents in their
   del3beratlons on extending the program,
                                  CHAPTER 1

                                 INTRODUCTION

      We evaluated    the effectiveness      of the Teacher Corps
program at the Unlverslty         of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida,
and at partlclpating      local educational      agencies (LEAS) In
accomplishing     the legislative     ObJectives   of the Teacher
Corps.   These obJectives       are

       --to strengthen     the educational opportunltles                  available
          to children    In areas having concentrations                  of low-
           income famllles    and

       --to encourage colleges and unlversltles                    to broaden
           their programs of teacher preparation

       To accomplish these oblectlves,                the Teacher Corps IS
authorized    to (1) attract          and train quallfled           teachers who
will be made available            to LEAS for teaching           lnareasof        low-
Income families ;l (2) attract               and train     lnexperlenced
teacher interns       who will be made available               to LEAS for teach-
ing and In-service          training      In such areas in teams led by an
experienced     teacher;       (3) attract      volunteers      to serve as part-
time tutors     or full-time         instructional        assistants       in pro-
grams carried       out by LEAS and lnstltutlons               of higher educa-
tion serving such areas, and (4) attract                     and train       educa-
tional   personnel to provide training,                 lncludlng      literacy      and
communication       skills,      for Juvenile       delinquents,       youth of-
fenders,    and adult crlmlnal            offenders.       The latter        two means
of achieving      the objectives          were authorized,         subsequent to
the commencement of our review,                by Public Law 91-230--an              act
to extend programs of assistance                 for elementary        and secondary
education--approved           April    13, 1970, and, therefore,               were not
within   the scope of our review.


1The enabling leglslatlon      permitted   experienced teachers to
 be assigned to LEAS individually        or as the head of a teach-
 ing team.     Public Law 90-35, approved June 29, 1967, amended
 the leglslatlon     to permit experienced    teachers to be as-
 signed only as the head of a teaching team.


                                            5
       This review was one of several made by GAO at selected
unlversltles    and LEAS throughout the Natlon

OPERATION OF THE TEACHER
CORPS PROGRAM

      The Teacher Corps was establlshed       1n the Offlce of
Education,    HEW, pursuant to title    V, part B, of the Higher
Education Act of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101)             The
Teacher Corps 1s basically    a locally    controlled    and operated
program    The Office of Education provides funds to operate
approved Teacher Corps programs which have been locally
conceived to meet local needs and which have been approved
by the applicable    State educational    agency,     To be ellglble
for approval,   a program must be designed to serve children
In areas having high concentrations       of low-income famllles.

       Persons eligible       to be enrolled    In the Teacher Corps
are (1) experienced       teachers,    (2) persons who have a bac-
calaureate     degree or Its equivalent,        and (3) persons who
have completed 2 years In a program leadlng toward a bacca-
laureate    degree.    After selection,      the corps members are
placed In teams conslstlng          of an experienced teacher (the
team leader),      and a number of teacher Interns.           During their
service the interns receive training            and lnstructlon     leading
to a degree from the partlclpatlng           college or unlverslty
and to quallflcatlon        for State teaching certlflcatlon.           The
training    consists   of academic courses, work In classrooms of
local schools, and partlclpatlon           In community-based      educa-
tion activities

      While In the schools,     corps members are under the dl-
rect supervlslon  of offlclals      of the LEA to which they are
assigned.   With certain    exceptions,   LEAS are authorized   to
(1) assign and transfer     corps members wlthln    the school sys-
tem, (2) determine the subject matter to be taught, and
(3) determine the terms and continuance       of the assignment
of corps members within     the system.    However, corps members
may not be used to replace any teacher who 1s or otherwise
would have been employed by the LEA

     The Teacher Corps program operates on a cycle basis.
Generally a cycle consists  of preservlce training--a period
of no more than 3 months during which the corps members'

                                     6
suitability    for acceptance Into the program 1s determrned--
and 2 academic years with an intervening          summer. Certain
programs, however, operate for a shorter perrod of time.
The authorizing    legislation     provides for enrollment   of
corps members for periods up to 2 years.           A new Teacher
Corps cycle has started        each year, beginning with 1966

      The cost of the interns'courses     and the admrnlstratrve
costs of the colleges or universltles      and the LWsJee      paid
by the Office of Education.      The LEAS are expectedso      ?pro-
vlde at least 10 percent of the corps members' salefes
and related   benefits while they are in the schools,      and
the Office of Education provides      the remainder.

        Team leaders are to be compensated at a rate agreed
to by the LEA and the Commissioner of Education          At the
time our review began, interns      were compensated either    at a
rate which was equal to the lowest rate paid by the LEA for
teaching    full time in the school system and grade to which
an intern was assigned or $75 a week plus $15 a week for
each dependent, whichever amount was less         Public
Law 91-230, however, amended the compensation authorized         for
interns    by provrding  that they be paid either   at a rate
which did not exceed the lowest rate paid by the LEA for
teaching full     time In the school system and grade to which
an intern was assigned or $90 a week plus $15 a week for
each dependent, whichever amount was less.

FUNDING

      From inception  of the Teacher Corps program rn fiscal
year 1966 through fiscal     year 1970, funds authorized and
appropriated   by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program,
nationwide,   were as follows

      Fiscal   year      Authorization        Approprlatlon

           1966           $36,100,000          $ 9,500,000
           1967            64,715,OOO           11,323,OOO
           1968            33,000,000           13,500,000
           1969            46,000,OOO           20,900,000
           1970            80,000,000           21,737,ooo



                                  7
      As of the summer of 1970, the University     of Miami and
the LEAS involved     In the Miami program had received about
$2 million   and had expended about $1.9 million.      (See
app. I.)    The Miami program has been operational     for four
consecutive   cycles,   beginning with the first  cycle in 1966.

PROGRAMPARTICIPATION

       Certain nationwide data relating to partlclpatlon     in
the Teacher Corps program, from its inception      in fiscal
year 1956 through fiscal   year 1970, 1s shown in the tabu-
latlor? below.

                      Entered       vrogram               Comaleted       DrOEram                      Rate of    dropout
                                                                                                                          All
                                  Team                                 Team                                   Team       corps
 ,Cycle     Interns             leaders       Total   Interns        leaders        Total    Interns       leaders      members

                                                                                                          (percent)
    4           882
             1,279                337
                                  152         1,034
                                              1,616     674
                                                        627            143
                                                                       170             817
                                                                                       797       51
                                                                                                 24              50
                                                                                                                  6         21
                                                                                                                            51

  III$       ;:g                  221
                                  186
                                  200         1,215
                                              1,575      832
                                                          -            170          1,002        19              10         18
                  9                           1,666
 "p artlcxpanis          had not          completed   program   at     time    of GAO review




                                                                8
                               CHAPTER 2

                      THE UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

                        TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM

        The University     of Miami Teacher Corps program is a co-
operative    effort    involving   LEAS; cormnunrtles in south Flor-        *
ida in Dade, Broward, and Collier           Counties;    the Florida    De-
partment of Education;         and the University      of Miami.    The
Miamr program is designed to train           individuals    who have un-
dergraduate     degrees in an area other than education            to be-
come teachers of disadvantaged         children.      The program was
rnltrated    in 1966 and has operated continuously           through the
fourth cycle, which is scheduled to be completed in July
1971,

        During the first      cycle (1966-68),   the second cycle
(1967-69),     and the third cycle (1968-70),        Teacher Corps
teams were assigned to schools in Dade County               Some of the
first-    and second-cycle      corps members were also assigned to
Broward County schools during the school years 1966-67 and
1967-68.      Fourth-cycle     (1969-71) corps members were asslgned
only to schools in Collier          County, which is about 120 miles
from the university.          (See app. I.)    During the first     three
cycles,     the interns    received classroom instructron        at the
university.       During the fourth cycle, however, because of
the distance between Collier          County and the university,       pro-
fessors from the university          and/or consultants    traveled    to
Collier     County to provrde classroom instruction          to the in-
terns.

       First-   and second-cycle    Teacher Corps teams were as-
signed to both elementary        and secondary schools, while
third-    and fourth-cycle   corps members were assrgned to ele-
mentary schools only.       The corps members worked largely
with black, Mexican-American,        and Cuban children    from inner-
city ghettoes,      migrant camps, and other rural and urban
poverty areas in Dade, Broward, and Collier          Counties

       Although Joint program proposals were prepared by the
university     and the LEAS for each cycle, the university   and
LEAS prepared separate budgets and financial     reports   and
submltted    them to the Offrce of Education for each cycle in

                                     9
which    they   participated          The university        and LEAS also   re-
cexved    separate    grants   from     the   OffIce   of    Education

        The Miami program was administered       by a program direc-
tor who was a professor     in the university's       School of Edu-
cation.     Designated coordinators    who acted in behalf of the
county school superintendents       administered    the program for
the LEAS.

SELECTION OF IhTERNS

        The Miami program's selection         process was generally           ef-
fective    in provldang interns      qualified     to be trained  as
teachers of disadvantaged       children.

       The Miami program had representatives        from the commu-
nltY > the LEAS and the university        on its intern    selection
panel for the second, third,        and fourth cycles       Some third-
cycle interns    participated    in the selection     of fourth-cycle
interns.    There was no formal selection        panel for the first
cycle because of the short span of time between funding au-
thorization   and program implementation.         The program direc-
tor selected first-cycle      interns.

        TO be accepted into the Miami program9 prospective                in-
terns had to have at least a C+ average and a combined
score of 800 on the verbal and Quantitative               sections of the
Graduate Record Examination        (the requirements          for admittance
to the university's     graduate school).         Teacher Corps guide-
lines,    however, state that the selection          criteria      should
make possible     the enrollment     of outstanding       teacher prospects
who may have only average academic records.                 Fourth-cycle
interns    were also required    to have a valid college degree
in an area other than education           A Miami program staff
member stated that, as a general rule,            interns who had ma-
Jored in education and were certified           to teach were not ac-
cepted

       According to University     of Miami graduate school re-
cords, 36 of 128 interns      selected for the first   four cycles
did not have the required      C+ average.    Of these 36 interns,
six dropped out of the program and the participation          of four
was terminated   by the university.      Three of the four termi-
nations were for academic reasons          The other 26 interns

                                         IO
admitted wrth     less   than a C+ average     completed    the program
successfully

      Of the 128 interns,  17 were admitted with            less than a
score of 800 on the Graduate Record Examination                 Only four
of these interns   dropped out of the program

        Of the 128 interns  who had been recruited          by the Uni-
versity    of Miami and participating       LEAS, 71 had completed
the program and 24 were in the process of completing                the
fourth cycle as of September 1970.           Thirty-three,     or 26
percent of the interns     In the four cycles,         dropped out of
the program before completing         it for the following       reasons.

                                                                   Number
                                                                   --
Accepting other employment                             C
Personal reasons                                                       :    ~
Health reasons
Personal conflict          wrth program rmplementatlon                 i
Unsatisfactory          grades                                         3
Interest      in teaching In area other than elementary
   education                                                           2
Transferring        to other programs                                  2
Ineligibility         for master's   degree                            1
Financial       problems                                              -2
     Total                                                            33
      During cycles one through four, 30 experienced     teachers
were recrurted   as team leaders to supervise  the interns       Of
these, 11 served 1 year or less and 19 either     completed the
program or were participating    in the program at the trme of
our review.




                                    11
                              CHAPTER 3

                    DID THE PROGRAMSTRENGTHEN

                 THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

              FOR CHILDREN OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES?

       We believe that the Miami program strengthened           the ed-
ucational    opportunities      available    to children who attended
classes 1n participating         schools where corps members had
been assigned       Participating       schools were in areas having
concentrations     of low-income families

      As a result  of the program, additional       educational     ser-
vices were introduced    in the participating      schools.     Corps
members initiated   or participated     in education-related      com-
munity activities   for the children      and their parents       Some
of these community proJects were continued by the schools
after the corps members had completed their         assignments.
Over half of the 71 interns who had completed the Miami pro-
gram at the time of our review were employed as teachers in
schools serving low-income areas.

       One of the obJectives         established    by the Office of Ed-
ucation for the Teacher Corps program was to bring about
changes in LEA instructional            methods to strengthen     the edu-
cational    opportunities       available    to children    in the program
areas.     We were informed by corps members and school offi-
cials that the Miami program had limited               success in stimu-
lating   lasting   changes in LEA methods of instruction.             Most
of the educational        services    introduced    an the schools under
the Teacher Corps were not continued after the corps members'
assignments to the schools were completed.

      We noted that neither    the LEAS, nor the Florida Depart-
ment of Education,northe      University  of Miami had any plans
for the transition    of funding responsibility     to State and/or
local sources for this type of teacher-training        program when
and if Federal funding should cease.        Such action was in-
tended by the Office     of Education under the Teacher Corps
program.



                                   12
WORKPERFORMEDBY CORPS MEMBERS
IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

       Corps members were assigned to the schools in teams
consisting    of a team leader and generally   five or six in-
terns.     The interns, under the supervision    of the team lead-
ers, were assigned to and worked In cooperation       with a regu-
lar teacher or regular     teachers at their respective    schools.

        In gtneral    the team leaders,         interns,     principals,       and
teachers interviewed         by us believed        that the children         in the
schools where Teacher Corps teams were assigned had benefited
from corps members' presence.               According to those involved
with the program, the children's              learning      capability    was in-
creased by the individual           attention      provided by interns,
also, because of the special training                 received by the in-
terns in dealing with the disadvantaged                  child,    the atten-
dance of many students improved.                Special educational          in-
struction     was provided by a corps member in Spanish for cer-
tain Spanish-speaking         children,      which helped them improve
their     educational    achievement and remain in school.                 Instruc-
tion in Spanish had not been provided previously                      because of
the unavailability        of a bilingual        teacher.

       School principals         informed us that the Teacher Corps
provided their       schools with an additional            teaching resource
in the team leader and enabled regular                 teachers to devote
time to attending        training      courses when interns         had the re-
sponsibilrty      for teaching their         classes.      Because of deseg-
regation,     teachers were transferred           to different       schools in
the mrddle of the school year.               Principals      stated that the
corps members were of considerable               assrstance       to the teach-
ers by helping them adJust to their new classroom situations.
The prrncipals       stated also that corps members tutored                 the
more disruptive       students      and thereby allowed regular           teach-
ers to continue teaching other students                  and that the sizes
of classes were reduced to more manageable numbers through
tutoring     of small groups.

      Many of the accomplishments             in the schools attributed
to the Teacher Corps program were               of a temporary nature,  1.n
that the services provided by the               corps members in the
schools were not continued    after           the teams completed their
Z-year assignments.   According to             LEA officials,   these

                                         13
services were discontinued      primarily because the schools
lacked staff     and funds to continue the special proJects   and
services  initrated     by corps members.

Utilization     of team leaders

        Team leaders were responsible         for the supervision           of
the interns      comprrsing    the teams.     Their dutres included as-
sisting    the interns     in lesson planning;        demonstrating       teach-
ing techniques      to interns,    evaluating      interns'     performance,
and, in general,       promoting the activities          of the teams by
acting as a liaison        between interns,      regular     teachers,      and
the principals.        In our discussions      with school prrnclpals,
we were informed that the team leaders were also utilrzed                       to
a limited     extent for other miscellaneous           duties,    such as
orlentrng     new or substitute     teachers and assisting           with
curriculum     planning.     The principals      informed us, however,
that these duties did not interfere            wrth the team leaders'
supervrslon     of the interns.

       In addrtlon to the actrvrties  discussed above, the
University   of Miami program staff  cited some instances where
team leaders had provided rnrservrce     training  for regular
teachers but stated that this practice      had not been empha-
sized.

Utilization     of Interns

         In their assigned schools,       interns     observed other
teachers in the classroom sltuatron,              tutored    individual
students,      taught small groups of children,           taught selected
subJects to classes,       and ultimately       taught entire       classes.
They also became Involved        rn specral proJects          at established
community agencies and developed or initrated                  clubs and
proJects     on their own in the various          schools and communities.
A section of this report       (see p. 19) concerns the community
activities0     of the corps members.

       Most   of the interns    informed us that they were per-
mitted to     develop their own teaching methods when provldrng
rnstruction      to the children.     The teams introduced   several
innovative     teaching methods not previously       used in the
schools to     which they were asslgned.      Included were


                                       14
       --creatron    of a cultural  arts proJect for drsadvantaged
          children   that included areas of the arts not usually
          explored   In the elementary   school, such as archltec-
          ture and   the art of creating   movies,

       --a method of teaching low achievers which rnvolved
          having the children write or relate stories based on
          therr experiences;

       --development   of materials   that were not included               In
          the standard textbooks    used by the children,

       --organrzatlon      of classes into different     work groups
          and lndlvldualrzrng      each group's actlvltres    rather
          than having the entire      class perform a particular
          activity,

       --dramatlzatlon      of stories        to improve   reading    and lan-
          guage skills,

       --use of audio-visual        aids      and photography     in teaching
          various subJects;       and

       --use of a specral device which could               be manrpulated
          by the students learnrng mathematics

        Also, as part of their         studies at the unlverslty,            the
interns     were required      to develop special teachrng plans
(units)     on subJects that were relevant            to children       from low-
Income families,         Units In black history,           the origin      and de-
velopment of razz, and corrective              handwriting      were among the
numerous units that were developed.                According to a Unrver-
slty of Miami program staff            member, the interns         usually
taught these subjects          in their     assigned schools.         Copies of
the special teaching plans were drstrrbuted                   to offlclals      In
the schools,      to  other    LEA  offlclals,     to   other   Interns,     to
professors      at the unlverslty,         and to proJects      at other unl-
versitres.       The staff     member informed us also that LEA of-
flcrals     responsrble     for developing       a manual on black lltera-
 ture used a portion        of a special plan on this SubJect that
an intern had developed.

       Our analysis  of Mlaml program records and dlscusslons
with   interns  showed that the interns  devoted from 29 to

                                         15
50 hours a week to the program with about 58 percent of
their  time allocated     to duties rn their assigned school, 21
percent allocated      to community actlvltles      or special proJ-
ects, and 21 percent allocated         to their unlverslty    courses.
Most of the interns      consldered    their  time to be well utl-
llzed,   some raised questions      regarding    the value of com-
munity actlvltles      and suggested that more emphasis ought to
be placed upon their      teaching duties to directly      help the
disadvantaged     child In the classroom sltuatlon.

       Prlnclpals   of the schools where the interns were as-
signed expressed the belief      that Interns were generally     utl-
llzlng    their time effectively   while they were In the school,
but some stated that they would have preferred       having them
In the schools for longer periods of time.        The university
schedule of courses prevented the interns      from being In the
schools for longer periods.

       Although team leaders had little            crltlclsm     of the time
interns     devoted to their actlvltles,         some suggested that
interns     might be utilized      more effectively        If they assumed
full    classroom responslblllty       earlier     than the last semester
of their     2d year In the program.         We noted that a paper sub-
mitted by Miami program offlclals            to the Office of Education
In June 1970, as a prellmlnary          step to obtalnlng         funds for
an addltlonal      cycle,   included plans for the interns            to as-
sume full classroom responsrbllity             one semester earlier       than
had been the case previously.

       A University      of Mlaml staff member informed us that
time became avaIlable         for the regular     staff to attend In-
service tralnlng       courses provided by the LEAS when interns
assumed classroom responslblllty.            We were Informed,           how-
ever, that the training          was not particularly        related     to the
problems of children        from low-income areas.          We suggested,
and the director       of the Miami program agreed, that the
1970-71 school. year would be an opportune time to begin pro-
viding regular      teachers with speclallzed         training      related    to
such problems when teachers were released from classroom
responslbllltles       by corps members.




                                       16
Special prolects     and new teachIna methods
were dlscontlnued     after completion of
assignments

       According to a March 1970 questlonnalre             sent by the
unlverslty     program staff       to 1969 graduates,     several grad-
uates who were then teaching had wrltten,              developed,     or
contributed     materials     related   to teaching the disadvantaged
and many were involved          In some education-related       actlvrty
beyond the regular        lnstructlonal    schedule

        For the most part, however, the special proJects         and
new teaching methods introduced          by the corps members III the
partlclpatlng       schools during all cycles were not continued
after the corps members' assignments           to the schools were
completed.       New   lnstructlonal methods     used by corps members
during their       assignments generally    were not adopted by the
regular     teaching staff.
       From drscusslons      with principals       and other LEA offl-
cl-als, we learned that no speclflc            procedures had been de-
veloped for evaluating         the various methods, proJects,        and
other techniques     introduced     by corps members with the obJec-
tlve of ldentlfylng       those that might warrant retention           as
part of the schools'        regular   curriculums.
       We discussed the general lack of contlnuatlon             of corps
members' activities        with prxnclpals    of the schools to which
corps members were assigned.           One of the prlnclpals       stated
that It was dlfflcult         for the corps members to influence
regular    teachers to change their        method of lnstructlon        be-
cause these teachers viewed the interns            as novices who had
little   to offer     them. Another prlnclpal       informed us that
emphasis In his school was placed on trying              to prepare the
interns    to teach rather than on changing the techniques              of
the regular     staff    of teachers.

      According to unlverslty,     State, and LEA offlclals,
there have been no follow-on     programs lnltlated     or planned
In Florida    that would provide teacher training      ssmllar to
that provided by the federally       funded Teacher Corps program.
These offlclals    cited lack of staff     and funds as the primary
reasons that the actlvltles     lnltlated    by the corps members
were not continued after     the corps members' assignments were
completed.

                                     17
       Although the Teacher Corps goals included the obJectrve
of having LEAS carry on the successful           features of the
Teacher Corps program after Federal fundlng ceases, the
Teacher Corps guldellnes         furnrshed  to the LEAS for the thrrd
and fourth cycles covered by our review did not contarn any
provlslons     requlrrng     the LEAS to provide speclflc    plans In-
dicating    the avallablllty      of fiscal   support or other re-
sources to enable them to carry on the more effective             proJ-
ects and innovative        methods implemented under the Teacher
Corps program.

       We noted that Teacher Corps guldellnes          issued for the
sixth cycle (1971-73) included explicit          requirements     that
partlclpatlng        LEAS show how successful  features     of a Teacher
Corps program, as identified         by the LEAS, will ultimately         be
integrated       into the LEAS' regular programs.       We  consider   It
important      that this requirement    of the guidelines     be effec-
tively     implemented by Teacher Corps officials         to help
achieve the fullest        measure of benefits   reasonably    obtaln-
able from the federally        funded Teacher Corps program.




                                    18
SUPPORTOF EDUCATION-RELATED
COMMUNITYACTIVITIES

         Although the authorizing     legislation     does not specifi-
cally provide for community activities,           Teacher Corps guide-
lines encourage involvement        by corps members in community-
based education programs.         Such activities     were to be
planned and undertaken with the active participation               of par-
ents and other community members.           This requirement     was
based on the belief      of the Teacher Corps officials         that
children     learn not only from teachers in school but also
from other children      both in and out of school, from their
parents,     and from others in the neighborhood         and that each
of these areas must be strengthened          if children    from low-
income families      are to receive an education       comparable to
that of more advantaged children.

       In our review of the Miami program, we found that
corps members generally     performed teaching duties in their
assigned schools during the morning hours,,          In the after-
noons and evenings,   the corps members utilized         their   free
time to initiate   education-related    activities     for children
and adults of the communities,       These activities       included
       --organizing    an experimental  learning       center      ln which
          children  could gain experience with         various       educa-
          tion materials,

       --a cultural     arts    program and an industrial         arts     pro-
          s=,
       --teaching     English    to Spanish-speaking    adults,          and

       --sponsoring     a teacher-parent   workshop to educate par-
          ents regarding     ways that parents could assist   their
          child's   learning   process at home.

         Team leaders whom we interviewed        informed us that the
children    and adults benefited     from the projects     and stated
that,    because of the projects,      the children    had opportunities
to do and see things that would not otherwise            have been pos-
sible.     Principals    stated that corps members, during a mid-
year transfer      of teachers to achieve faculty       desegregation,
helped acquaint the community with what was taking place.

                                     19
 Also, in certain communities without parks and other recre-
 ational facilities,   the principals     stated that corps members
 helped provide after-school    activities     in the schools for
 students and parents.
         According to some of the interns, their community ac-
tivities    helped provide parents with an understanding of the
activities    their children were involved in at school and es-
tablished better rapport between white and black parents.
The interns also said that they became better teachers after
becoming aware of the needs of the families and children of
the community and that the children of working parents were
being provided with meaningful activities    after school
rather than being left unsupervised at home.
       Certain of the community projects were continued after
corps members completed their internships in the assigned
schools. According to the principal where the experimental
learning center had been initiated,    it was continued by uti-
lizlng funds authorized by title    I of the Elementary and
Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 241a).
       The principal of the school where the industrial   arts
program was introduced stated that he had employed the in-
tern responsible for the program and that it was continued.
Subsequently, the intern was transferred to another school.
The principal   stated that, although the industrial  arts proj-
ect would not be continued at his school because of a lack
of staff and resources, the intern plannedtoimplement the
project at the school to which he was transferred.
        According to a summary of program results prepared by
the director of the Miami program, the Teacher Corps teams
had pioneered many experimental programs which the schools
could not develop or continue because of a lack of time and/
or staff.    The principal at the school where the industrial
arts program had operated informed us that he did not have
sufficient   qualified staff to continue the cultural arts
program organized by Teacher Corps. The principal at an-
other school stated that a teacher-parent workshop initiated
by the interns was not continued because his teaching staff
was not large enough to continue the program.



                               20
       The director of the Mlaml program stated that, al-
though certain community actlvltles     had been contrnued after
the completion of intern assignments, It was difficult       In
many cases to obtarn other personnel capable of contmulng
the projects.    He said that fourth-cycle   community actlvitles
appeared to offer more possibilltles     with respect to contl-
nuity since the Miami program was attempting to mvolve reg-
ular teachers to a greater extent in the operation of the
projects.




                                21
RETENTION OF PROGRAMGRADUATES
AFTER TRAINING

      Of the 71 interns   who graduated during cycles one
through three,  49 were employed as teachers.     Of those em-
ployed as teachers,    39 were teaching in schools serving low-
income areas.   The remaining 22 interns,    or 31 percent, did
not pursue teaching careers.

      Of the 24 fourth-cycle   interns   in the program at the
time of our review, 18 stated that they planned to teach
after they completed their assignments,         Of the 18 interns,
nine stated that they planned to teach in low-income areas
and four stated that they planned to teach in the LEA to
which they were then assigned.       Six fourth-cycle   interns,
or 25 percent,  did not plan to teach.

      We interviewed    nine third-cycle    interns    who did not
pursue teaching careers and the six fourth-cycle           Interns
who did not plan to continue teaching.           Reasons given by
these third-    and fourth-cycle    interns   for not pursuing
teaching careers after their graduation          included

        --personality        not suited      for   teaching,

        --generally        high student-teacher    ratios which tended
           to hinder       the effectiveness    of even a well-trained
           teacher,

        --the     desire    to obtain     additional     education,   and

        --plans     for    leaving   the country.

        Most of the team leaders            who completed the program were
hired    in supervisory positions            by the LEAS.

CONCLUSION

       With regard to the Teacher Corps' legislative        objec-
tive of strengthening    educational  opportunities    available
to children    in areas having concentrations     of low-income
families,   it is our opinion that the University      of Miami
program accomplished this objective       in the classes where
corps members were assigned.

                                           22
      However, since most of the educational      services Intro-         1
duced in the schools under the Teacher Corps program were
not continued after the corps members' assignments were
completed,    the impact of the Mlaml program on the educational
opportunltles    available  to children of low-income families
was considerably    less than could have been achieved,

RECQ~DATION   To THE SECRETARY
OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

       We recommend that,      to make the Teacher Corps program
more effective,     the Secretary     of Health,    Education,   and
Welfare emphasize to Offrce of Education officials             the lm-
portance of ensuring that LEAS partlclpatlng             In the Unxver-
slty of MlamE program adopt speclfrc           procedures aimed at
Integrating     the successful    features    of the Teacher Corps
program into the LEAS' regular          school programs.



      The Assistant   Secretary, Comptroller,  HEW, commented
on a draft of this report by letter     dated February 19, 1971.
He stated that the report presented an accurate account of
the strengths    and weaknesses of the Miami program.    He
stated also that the comments on the report     included the
views of the Florrda Department of Education and the dlrec-
tor of the Miami program.

      With respect to the above recommendation,        the Assistant
Secretary   informed us that the Qfflce      of Education would
write to the Florida Department of Education and the dlrec-
to-r of the program at the Unlverslty       of Miami emphaszing
the importance      of continuing the successful   features    of the
Miami program in the partlclpating       LEAS and encouraging     the
State to promulgate      speclflc procedures   for integrating
such features     into the LFAs" regular    school programs.

       He acknowledged that early Teacher Corps guidelines
did not place enough emphasis on program continuity         and
the process for achieving    this goal,   He stated that, as
recognized   by GAO, current   guidelines  contained more expllclt
requirements   concerning program continuity.       He stated also
that the Office of Education would closely       monitor the lm-
plementation   of the current guidelines.

                                   23
                            CHAPTER
                                  4

                    DID THE PROGRAM
                                  BROADEN
   THE UNIVERSITYOF MIAMI'S TEACHERPREPARATION
                                             PROGRAM?
       The Teacher Corps program at the University of Miami
has had some degree of success in broadening the Univer-
sity's teacher preparation program. The university      initi-
ated new courses, adapted regular courses to make them more
relevant to teaching children from low-income families, and
utilized new techniques to train Teacher Corps interns.
Although changes were made in the university's    regular
teacher preparation program as a result of the university's
experience with Teacher Corps, the special curriculum devel-
oped for Teacher Corps interns was not open to students in
the university's   regular teacher preparation program.
      The university   initiated    several new courses for
Teacher Corps interns-- such as a course related to curricu-
lum and instruction    for the disadvantaged child, courses
pertaining to child growth and development, and tutorial
techniques.    In addition to these new courses, a number of
regular teacher training courses were adapted for the
Teacher Corps curriculum.        Courses relating to reading in the
elementary school and psychological and sociological        bases
of education were among the courses offered to regular stu-
dents which had been adapted for Teacher Corps use.
      Different approaches to teacher training were utilized
in the program. For example, during fourth-cycle    preser-
vice training,  an approach utilizing inquiry groups was de-
veloped by the Teacher Corps program. To familiarize     them-
selves with various aspects of the education process, these
groups inquired into various subjects pertaining to educa-
tion, such as tutoring disadvantaged children, educational
technology, and experimental education techniques,    The re-
sults of the individual group efforts were then reported to
the entire class in order for the entire group to benefit
from the information obtained.
     We asked third- and fourth-cycle interns whether the
courses provided by the university were relevant to their

                               24
needs, and more than half of those Interviewed        stated that
the courses were relevant.      According to these interns,        the
courses   had provided background on sociological      and behav-
ioral problems of the disadvantaged       child and the treatment
of such problems,     On the other hand, a few of the interns
considered   the courses unrelated     to the school populations
they were assigned to teach and stated that the professors
did not have enough experience with drsadvantaged         children
to provide adequate information      in the courses.

       According to university     officials,    the Teacher Corps
program had influenced      (1) the introduction       of video record-
ers as ateachingaid      in the School of Educatron,          (2) the In-
clusion of units concerning       disadvantaged     children     in the
regular    education courses taught by professors          who also
taught interns,     and (3) the inclusion     of a requirement        that
field   teaching experience    be obtained for three undergradu-
ate courses in the School of Education earlier             than the se-
nior year-- the period when student teaching           is normally per-
formed.

       The director    of the university's       Teacher Corps program
stated that,     during the 1970 fall        semester, the School of
Education planned to incorporate           the fourth-cycle     preser-
vice approach of using inquiry         groups into a graduate course
and planned to incorporate        materral     on disadvantaged     chll-
dren in two additlonal       undergraduate      courses.    The director
stated that these changes were consistent             with the unlver-
slty's   policy of attempting      to include elements related            to
the disadvantaged      into existing    courses rather than lnsti-
tutlng   new courses on the subject.

       According to the dean of the School of Education,        the
Teacher Corps has provided in-service       training  for faculty
members.     He said that a professor   at the university    had
made a study on how the university      curriculum   might be
changed to make it more relevant      to teaching the disadvan-
taged.    He said also that the study proposals had not been
acted upon by the university     but would probably be acted
upon at a future faculty    meeting.

     Although the various changes made            by the university  in
its regular  teacher preparation    program        appeared to be in
line with the objectives    of the Teacher         Corps program, we
noted that there were still     a number of        new courses made

                                     25
available    to Teacher     Corps interns      that   had not been made
available    to regular     students.

        The director      of the University      of Miami program and
the dean of the School of Education informed us that no for-
mal procedures had been established              for evaluatmg         the var-
ious ideas, experiments,           and techrques       that were used in
the Teacher Corps program to identify               those that would war-
rant inclusion       in the university's       regular     teacher prepara-
tion program.        Rather, they passed this information                on to
the School of Education through discussion                 with faculty       mem-
bers, through reports          presented at faculty        meetings,      and
other devices.        We believe it important          that such procedures
be established       to help achieve the fullest           measure of bene-
fits   reasonably      obtainable    from the federally        funded Teacher
Corps program.         Such action is of particular           significance
in light    of the statements made to us by the director                   of the
Miami Teacher Corps program and the dean of the School of
Education that,        if Federal funds were no longer available
for the Teacher Corps program, the universityPs                   Teacher
Corps department would be discontinued                because the univer-
sity did not have the funds to continue a program of this
nature.

       Teacher Corps guidelines        for cycle six (1971-73) state
that colleges and universities          must clearly   intend to adopt
into their regular      teacher education programs those elements
which have proved successful         in their Teacher Corps program.
The guidelines     state further     that the proposals must specify
the new approaches which will          be undertaken   in the Teacher
Corps program, the timetable         for general adoption into the
regular   teacher preparation       program of those new approaches
favorably    evaluated,    and a clear statement indicating        by
whom and by what criteria        the decision to adopt the new ap-
proaches will     be made. We consider it important           that these
requirements     of the guidelines      be effectively    implemented by
Teacher Corps officials.

CONCLUSION

      With regard to the legislative      objective of encouraging
colleges  and universities     to broaden their programs of
teacher preparation,      it is our opinion that the University
of Miami program has had some degree of success.

                                        26
       However, there were certain         new courses made available
to Teacher Corps interns        that were not made available        to
regular   students.     Fkthermore,      no formal procedures had
been established     for evaluating      the various    ideas, experi-
ments, and techniques that were used in the Miami Teacher
Corps program to identify         those that would warrant inclu-
sion in the university's        regular    teacher preparation     pro-
gram. We believe it important           that such procedures be es-
tablished    in order that the fullest         measure of benefits
reasonably obtainable       from the federally      funded Teacher
Corps program might be achieved.

RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARY
OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

        Therefore,    we recommend that the Secretary         of Health,
Education,     and Welfare promote the establishment           by the uni-
versity    of formal procedures for evaluating          the various
ideas, experiments,        and techniques used in the Miami
Teacher Corps program to identify           and incorporate     those that
warrant inclusion       in the university's     regular    teacher pre-
paration     program.



       The Assistant   Secretary    concurred in our recommenda-
tion and stated that the Office of Education would require
the university     to develop formal procedures to evaluate the
various methods used in the Miami program and incorporate
those identified     as appropriate     into the university's reg-
ular teacher preparation      program.




                                    27
                                CHAPTER 5

          ROLE OF THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION

                            IN THE PROGRAM

       The Florida Department of Education official               respon-
sible for the Teacher Corps program in that State informed
us that he coordinated        and promoted the program, provided
assistance    to universities     and LEAS in preparing         proposals
when requested,     reviewed    and  approved   proposals,      provided
assistance    to program officials,       and monitored      the progress
of programs through visits        to program sites.        In   the fall
of 1970, Teacher Corps programs an Florida were in opera-
tion at the University        of Miami, the University         of South
Florida,   and the University       of Florida.     The latter       two pro-
grams were funded for the fifth          cycle and began in the sum-
mer and fall     of 1970, respectively.

       The Florida   department's    participation        in the develop-
ment of program proposals was primarily              that of an advisor
when a university      or LEA developing a proposal desired its
services.     No assistance    was furnished       to the university    or
LEA by the department       111the development of concept papers--
documents submitted      to the Office of Education prior to the
submission of a proposal.

      The proposals were submitted concurrently            to the OffIce
of Education and to the Florida Department of Education.
Prior to approval the department reviewed proposals for com-
pliance with Teacher Corps guidelines            and determined whether
proposed courses    satisfied     teacher   certification     require-
ments in the State.       A brief    statement of the department's
evaluation   and recommendation was provided in a letter               to
the Office of Education.

      After a program became operational,       the department ob-
tained information   on its operation    through visits     to the
site,  telephone conversations,    and trip reports     prepared by
Office of Education program specialists.          We were informed
by the responsible   department official     that only about $750
a year was expended by the State for administration           of the
Teacher Corps program.

                                      28
       In commenting on the program, the department offxial
said that the Teacher Corps program had had some Impact on
the unlversltles'      teacher education programs by encouraging
more field    experience    for student teachers and by encourag-
lng the schools of education and the schools of arts and
sciences in the universities         to cooperate more closely,       We
inquired   as to whether the official         disseminated  mformatlon
about Teacher Corps activities          to areas of the State not
having such a program.         The official     stated that his dis-
semination    efforts   were limited      to presentations  made to
the State Teacher Education Advisory Committee,

CONCLUSION

      We believe that the effectiveness         of the Teacher Corps
programs in Florida      could be considerably      enhanced through
broader dissemmatron        by the Florida    Department of Education
of information     concerning experiments      and teaching methods
successfully    used in the Teacher Corps programs in the State.
In our opinion,     such information     would be of benefit    to
other universities     and LEAS in the State, particularly         those
not engaged in a Teacher Corps program.

RECOMMIZNDATIONTO THE SECRETARY
OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

       We recommend that the Secretary     of Health,    Education,
and Welfare provide for Office of Education officials           to
discuss with the Florida    Department of Education the feasi-
bility   of having the State disseminate     information    concern-
ing experiments   and teaching methods successfully        used in
Teacher Corps programs an the State to other universities
and LEAS in the State, particularly      those not engaged in the
Teacher Corps program.



       The Assistant  Secretary     stated that the Office of Edu-
cation would discuss,     m conJunction     with other pertinent
Office of Education programs, the feaslblllty           of having the
State mount an adequate information        dissemination    program
concerning   the successful     teaching methods used in the Miami
program in order to encourage all universities           and LEAS LZI
Florida   to adopt such methods ~II their      education programs.

                                   29
                                CHAPTER6

                             SCOPE OF PiEvIEW

       We revrewed the legrslatrve         hlstory     of the Teacher
Corps program and the related          policies,      procedures,   and
gurdelrnes     of the Office of Education.            We reviewed records
relating    to corps member selection,           corps member activltles
in the schools and the University             of Miami, retention      of
corps members m teaching after completion                 of their  service,
and various adminlstrative          aspects of the program.         Our re-
view was performed at the Teacher Corps headquarters                 In
Washington,     D.C,, at the Unrverslty          of Miami, and at schools
in Dade and Collier       Counties,    Florrda.       We also lntervlewed
interns,    team leaders,    teachers,      local school offrclals,
Unlverslty     of Miami officrals,      Teacher Corps offlcrals,          and
an official      of the Florrda Department of Education.

      Our fieldwork      was concerned primarily    with the actlvi-
ties of the third and fourth         cycles of the Teacher Corps
progr~s      srnce  these  were  the  cycles rn operation    at the
tune of our review.        We also obtained certain     information
on activities      of the first    and second program cycles,




                                      30
APPENDPXES




   31
                                      STATISTICAL        DATA ON UNIVERSITY

                                      OF MIAMI TEACHER CORPS PROGRAM

NULMBEROF INTERNS PARTICIPATING
IN PROGRAM

                                                      Cycle    1         Cycle     2    Cycle      3     Cycle   4    Total

Number of interns
    In program                                          32                    31           35              30          128
    Dropped out of the program                          12                    11            4               6           33
    Completed   program                                 20                    20           31                           71
    Remained In teaching                                12                    19           18              I:;          49
    Teaching   children  from low-
       income famllles                                    8                   18           13              (a)           39

NUMBER OF TEAM LEADERS PARTICIPATING
IN PROGRAM

                                                                    Number

Enrolled     (cycles    1 through 4).
      Serving more than 1 year                                           19
      Serving    1 year                                                  LO
      Serving    less than 1 year                                        1

             Total                                                       30
CHARACTERISTICS OF LEAS PARTICIPATING
IN PROGRAM

                           Cycles 1.n which             Number of schools                Total number              School
                           LEA participated                 served by                     of schools             population
         LEA                   In program                 Teacher Corps                      In LEA                of LEA
Dade County                   1 through 3                           14                            228             241,621b
Brokard County                  1 and 2                              4                            106b            102.161
Collier  County                     4                                5                             14               9;022
FEDERAL FUNDING

                                             Funds                         Funds
           Grantee                         received                       expended
University    of Mlaml                $     903,098                  $     890,483
Dade County                                 822,696                        776,312
Collier    County                           112,649                         86,910
Broward County                              176,208                        160.360

                                      $&,014.651                    $_1,914,065
aFourth-cycle     Interns were scheduled     to complete  the program by August 1971.
 There were 24 Interns     In the fourth-cycle     program at the start  of 2d year In
 service     whxh began In August 1970.
b
    Informatlon      for    Broward       County      1s for    school         year    1968-69.


                                                               33
 APPENDIXII



                              DEPARTMEN?   OF HEALTH,        EDUCATION,        AND WELFARE
                                             WASHINGTON,       D C     202OI




OFFICE   OF THE   SECRETARY


                                               FE3 19 1971




           Mr. Phllllp  Charam
           Associate Director
           United States General Accounting                Office
           Washington, D.C. 20548

            Dear Mr. Gharam

           The Secretary has asked that I reply to your letter dated December 15,
           1970, with which you forwarded the draft report of the General Account-
           xng Office review of the Teacher Corps Program at the Unlverslty   of
           Miami and Partlcipatlng  Schools In South Florida.   We appreciate the
           opportunity  to review and comment on the report, the conclusions and
           recommendations.

           The report lndzcates that a very comprehensive review was performed and
           presents an accurate account of the strengths and weaknesses of the
           Teacher Corps Miami Program. The conclusions are sound and the recom-
           mendations are sufficiently ObJective to produce required remedial action
           to make the Teacher Corps Program more effective.

           Detailed comments on the recommendations, together with the statements
           of actlons to be taken to implement them, are set forth In the enclosures
           hereto.    They are the product of review by cognizant Departmental and
           Office of Education staff of the report and the responses from the
           Florida Department of Education and the Director of the Program at the
           University   of Miami.
                                                                     Sincerely    yours,




                                                                     Assistant    Secretary,   Comptroller
           Enclosure



                                                 34
                                                              APPENDIXIL


                   Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
       Comments Pertinent    to the Draft of Report to the Congress of the
       Unlted States by the Comptroller General of the Unxted States on
           Assessing the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at the
        Unlverslty   of Mlaml and Partlcrpatlng  Schools In South Florxda



Ensure that LEA's Adopt Speclflc Procedures for Integrating Successful
Features of the Teacher Corps Programs m Regular School Programs

We recommend that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare emphasize
to the Offxe of Education offxlals     the Importance of ensuring that LEA's
partxlpatlng   In the Unlverslty  of Mlaml program adopt speclfrc procedures
armed at Integrating  the successful features of the Teacher Corps programs
in the LEAS' regular school programs

Department Comment

We concur in the recommendation

The U.S Office of Education (OE) in letters      to the Florida Department of
Education (FDE) and the Dlrector of the program at the University        of Mlaml
will emphasize the importance of continuing     the successful features of the
&am1 program in the partxlpatlng     LEA's,   In addition,    OE will encourage
the FDE to promulgate specifx    procedures for lntegratlng     such features
Into the LEAS' regular school programs.

Promote the Establxshment   of Formal Procedures   for Evaluating   the Results
of the Mraml Program

We recommend that the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare promote
the establishment  by the Unlverslty   of formal procedures for evaluating
the various Ideas, experiments,    and techniques used in the Miami Teacher
Corps program to identify  and Incorporate    those that warrant lncluslon In
the Unlverslty's  regular teacher preparation program
Department Comment

We concur In this   recommendation

OE will require the Unxverslty     to develop adequate formal procedures to
evaluate the various methods used in the Mxaml Program and incorporate
those zdentlfled    as appropriate   Into the Unlversrty's regular teacher
preparation   program




                                      35
APPENDIXII

Feaslblllty  of Having FDE Dlssemlnate Successful Teaching Methods to A11
Unlversltles  and LEA's in the State, Especially  Those Not Engaged in the
Teacher Corps Program

Department Comment

We concur m this   recommendation

OE will dxscuss in con-Junction with other pertinent   OE programs the feast-
blllty  of having the State mount an adequate lnformatlon   dxssemxnatlon
program concerning the successful teaching methods used In the Mlarnl pro-
gram, to encourage all unlversltles  and LEA's III FlorIda to adopt such
methods m thex education programs

As recognxzed in the GAO report, early Teacher Corps guidelines used to
develop the 3rd and 4th cycle programs did not place enough emphasis on
program continuaty and the process for achlevlng this goal      However, as
also recognzed In the GAO report, proJects deemed fundable under the
6th cycle program guldellnes,   for example, must describe detaxled systematic
management plans that respond directly   to the question of contlnulty.     OE
~111, of course, closely monitor the lmplementatlon    of these guldelines.




                                     36
                                                         APPENDIXIII

                        PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE
                 DEPARTMENT
                         OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,ANDWELFARE
                  HAVINGRESPONSIBILITYFORTHE ACTIVITIES
                         DISCUSSEDIN THIS REPORT

                                              Tenure of office
                                              From             -To
SECRETARY
        OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
     ANDWELFARE:
       Elliot L. Richardson                June   1970     Present
       Robert H. Finch                     Jan.   1969     June 1970
       Wilbur J. Cohen                     &r.    1968     Jan.    1969
       John W. Gardner                     Aug.   1965     Mar. 1968

ASSISTANTSECRETARY
                 (EDUCATION),
  DEPARTMENT
           OF HEALTH, EDUCA-
     TION, AND WELFARE:
       Vacant                              June   1970     Present
       James E. Allen,  Jr.                &Y     1969     June 1970
       Peter P. Muirhead (acting)          Jan.   1969     &Y      1969
       Lynn M. Bartlett                    July   1968     Jan.    1969
       Paul A. Miller                      July   1966     July    1968
        Francis Rappel                     Oct.   1965     &Y      1966

COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION:
   Sidney P. &rland,     Jr.               Dec.   1970     Present
   Terre1 H. Bell (acting)                 June   1970     Dec. 1970
   James E. Allen,   Jr.                   %Y     1969     June 1970
   Peter P. Muirhead (acting)              Jan.   1969     %Y      1969
   Harold Howe, II                         Jan.   1966     Dec. 1968
   Francis Reppel                          Dec.   1962     Jan.    1966




US   GAOWash,D     C


                                    37