oversight

Individual Action for Social Change

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-05-30.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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                                         C0"EhTCEPENT ADDRESS
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                          ELIZAEETHTOIi? COLLEGE ELIZABETHTOId" PESNSYLVAiiTIA
                                                   BY
                                            ELPER E. STAATS
!                              COFPTROUER GENEPSiL OF TEE UNITED STATES
                                               MAY 30, 1971
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                                      "INDIVIDUAL ACTION FOR SOCIAL C U K G E "
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                 I consider it a g r e a t honor t o have been i n v i t e d t o speak t o you
1
i         this afternoon on the occasion of commencement e x e r c i s e s of Elizabethtown
I
          Col1ege     .
                 T. f e e l much at home h e r e today for several reasons.                  One i s t h a t

          Z am a greduate of NcPherson College, a sister i n s t i t u t i o n .                 Another i s
     'r
          tbat we h2ve deep family t i e s h e r e i n Pennsylvania. '-The t h i r d i s a

          continuing i n t e r e s t : i n supporting, wherever p o s s i b l e , t h e deep commit-

i         ment made t o teaching and l e a r n i n g by t h e smaller educational i n s t i t u t i o n s
I
!

          which have c o n t r i b u t e d so much t o American l i f e .
I


                 We tend t o t h i n k t h e s e days i n terms of l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and

          institutions;        tr7e    g e n e r a l i z e from massive s t a t i s t i c s and broad hypotheses.

          I would l i k e t o focus more today on t h e r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l and t h e

          part which he can p l a y i n changing s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the b e t t e r -

          ment of a l l of us.

                 L e t m e s t a r t w i t h a quotation from an American p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r :

          "Almost everywhere we look, the s t o r y i s the same.                    I n L a t i n America,

          in A f r i c a , i n A s i a     * * * there   i s now renewed confidence i n o u r country

          a n d our   c o n v i c t i o n s ."

                 Your f i r s t r e a c t i o n might be t o guess t h a t t h i s w a s a speech made

          by Richard Nixon, but you would be wrong.                      Even Mr. Nixon would not
    .   dare t o be so reassuring about t h e esteem America enjoys i n t h e eyes

        of-other: peoples.
                These words were p r e p a r e d f o r d e l i v e r y i n Dallas , Texas, i n November
                           .   .
        1963 by P r e s i d e n t John F. Kennedy.                   They should make it e v i d e n t t o ' a l l

        of us t h a t we have travelled i n these few years a long, long way--most
        of i t d o m h i l l - - s i n c e t h a t highly f l a t t e r i n g and s e l f - c o n f i d e n t . d e s c r i p t i o n

        of our s t a n d i n g before world o p i n i o n .
                As former Chief J u s t i c e E a r l Warren s a i d r e c e n t l y :                   "We are         * * * in
        a crisfs.          We have had many crises i n p r i o r y e a r s , b u t none w i t h i n t h e

        memory of l i v i n g Americans which compares w i t h t h i s one."

{               The t r a d i t i o n a l commencement a d d r e s s designed t o i n s p i r e , t o con-

        g r a t u l a t e , -and t o bid bon voyage has no p l a c e i n t h i s y e a r - - t h e beginning

        of what may be the most f a t e f u l decade i n our NatSon's h i s t o r y .                                    President

        Kennedy once remarked t h a t t h i s g e n e r a t i o n - - y o u r g e n e r a t i o n - - h a s w i t h i n

        i t s power to be the            best     g e n e r a t i o n of a l l t i m e or i t can be t h e l a s t

        generation,            He was, of course, r e f e r r i n g t o t h e t o o l s we have t o create
                                                                            c



        a g r e a t s o c i e t y if we w i l l b u t f i n d t h e way and have t h e w i l l t o u s e them.

                These are p u z z l i n g , d i f f i c u l t , and s o b e r i n g days f o r a l l of u s .

        They s e e m t o d e f y e x p l a n a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , o r r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s .     Each
                                                                                                             * .

        day w e are confronted w i t h new e v i d e n c e - - c a r r i e d i n t h e p r e s s , on t h e

        r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n , and even i n t h e t h e a t e r and a r t s - - t h a t n o t a l l i s

        w e l l , t o put i t r n i l d l y .     P r o t e s t s , r i o t s , growth of crime and drug

        a d d i c t i o n , and t h e t h w a r t i n g of mores o f s o c i e t y have become f a m i l i a r

        and almost s t a n d a r d d a i l y news items, p r o v i d i n g a s u b j e c t of e n d l e s s

        debate among commentators, p s y c h o l o g i s t s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s ,
        and commencement speakers, end on end.                                                               -.-.
                       I                                                                                                    - 2 -
          *                        ,

                           It would b e s i m p l e i f we c o u l d e x p l a i n a l l of t h i s b e c a u s e of o u r

                  f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h t h e war i n Vietman.            Vietnam is c e r t a i n l y a major

                  faccck,.-but s i r a i l z ~unzcs.t among younger people has extended t o J a p a n ,

          .'      MexTco, Canada, Europe, and elsewhere--countries which are only remotely,

                  if a t a l l , i n v o l v e d w i t h Vietnam.

                           Some would say that t h e e x p l a n a t i o n l i e w w i t h concern o v e r a

                  p o s s i b l e n u c l e a r c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a t h r e a t made more real b e c a u s e of t h e

                  proposed deployment- of the a n t i b a l l i s t i c missile.                        Yet, why s h o u l d youth

          ~
                  feel that it h a s a'nonopoly on t h i s concern?                             Youth 'is j o i n e d i n t h i s
              i

      I           a u d i b l e concern b y . a n e s t i m a t e d h a l f of t h e United S t a t e s S e n a t e , led
. .               by men i n their 60's--Fulbright                       of Arkansas, Blansfield of $fontaria,

                  Symington of Flissouri, and Cooper of Kentucky.                                  And, what a b o u t t h e

                  P r e s i d e n t and faculty of E l i z a b e t h t o w n College?                And, what about your

                  parents?          And, what 2bout the deep concern of t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e

                  American p e o p l e ?

                           S t i l l o t h e r s would s a y t h a t w e are caught up i n a g e n e r a t i o n gap

                  and that t h e s o l u t i o n l i e s i n p l a c i n g s t u d e n t s on a d v i s o r y b o a r d s of

                  u n i v e r s i t i e s , p r o v i d i n g more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i a l o g u e , and f i n d i n g

      .       .   ways to d e a l w i t h t h e u n w i e l d i n e s s of b i g government, b i g u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

                  and b..-i g b u s i n e s s - - a n d   bigness i n g e n e r a l which make d e m o c r a t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s

                  slow t o respond t o change.
                                                                   _-
                           The u b i q u i t o u s atom kriows no such t h i n g as a g e n e r a t i o n gap.                      This

                  p o i n t w a s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the l a t e S e n a t o r Robert F. Kennedy i n h i s

                  m e m o i r o f . ' t h e Cuban m i s s i l e c r i s i s c a l l e d " T h i r t e e n Days    ."    He r e c a l l s




                                                                                                                                           -3-
            t h a t when P r e s i d e n t Kennedy c a l l e d t o g e t h e r a group of a d v i s e r s a t t h e

            stazG ,'oP that .crisis, G e n c r a l Shoup, t h e n Coimandai-it of t h e Marine Corps,

        .   said:       "You are i n a p r e t t y bad f i x , Nr. P r e s i d e n t . "                  P r e s i d e n t Kennedy--

            who was t h e n 45 y e a r s old--responded                     t o t h e older man:             "You are i n i t :

            with me."

                    Perhaps some would blame t o d a y ' s wide u n r e s t on t h e r o l e of t h e

            news media-especially                  television--saying               t h a t t h e problem is t h a t - t o o
                                                                                                  .   .                               . .

            much p u b l i c i t y is g f v e n t o a f r i - n e e -m i n o r i t y which, i f i g n o r e d , would

            p r o b a b l y grow t i r e d of what a p p e a r s t o a m a j o r i t y as s e n s e l e s s , j u v e n i l e
    P   '
            acts d e s i g n e d . t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n by r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y .

                    Former P r e s i d e n t James P e r k i n s O f ' C o r n e l l , who w a s one of t h e

            first c o l l e g e p r e s i d e n t s t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e . d i r e c t af f e c e s of s t u d e n t

            unrest firsthand.---commented sometime ago t h a t t o d a y ' s s t u d e n t "has
                                                                                                                           /


            grown up e y e b a l l t o e y e b a l l w i t h t h e w o r l d through TV.". . I t i s easier

            t o focus on what is happening i n Chicago,'Eerkeley,                                     Tokyo, o r P a r i s t h a n

            what is going. on i n o u r o m communities.                            It i s easier t o l i s t e n t o t h e

            p h i l o s o p h y of Martin L u t h e r King o r Eugene NcCarthy o r Abbie Hoffman

            f i r s t h a n d on t e l e v i s i o n t h a n to c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e w r i t i n g s of S o c r a t e s ,

            Rousseau, o r Thomas J e f f e r s o n .

                    James A. Nichener has r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d a n i n p o r t a n t book e n t i t l e d

            "Kent S t a t e     - that      Happened and Why"' i n which h e r e f e r s t o the r o l e of

            television.           He states t h a t "an o l d e r p e r s o n cannot b e w i t h a c r o p of

                                                                                         ,

                                                                                                                    -.-.

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I     .

                                        t
                                            .
i                         u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s long without r e a l i z i n g h e i s dealing with a new

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                          €&e o f ' i n d i v i d u a l   * * * born            and reared i n t h e shadow of the tube               **   *.I'



                          "'Taking things i n t o our own hands' h a s become a way of life, and if.it
                                                                                                                                  .
                -.   :,
                          works well on t e l e v i s i o n , it'll work just as w e l l a t Kent State."

                                  And, don't minimize t h e i n f l u e n c e s t h a t a r i s e from t h e f a c t t h a t

                      -we are m o r e and more a n urban s o c i e t y .                  This i n t e r r e a c t i o n t a k e s place

                          when groups organize o r come i n t o c o n f l i c t , f r e q u e n t l y q u i t e s e p a r a t e

                          and a p a r t from, and p o s s i b l y having f a r more i n f l u e n c e than, those

                          influences of t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of family, church, bosses, o r
      ..

           f(
                          teachers     .
                                  Some o r all of t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s may be i n o r d e r - - 1 do not o f f e r

                          a c l e a r - c u t answer.        But, of one' t h i n g we may be c e r t a i n - - t h e r e i s no

                          s o l u t i o n - i h pessimism or escapism from t h e r e a l i t i e s of t h e world i n

                          which w e l i v e .        Some-of you may recall t h e commencement address a f e w

                      years ago.by Bob Hope i n which he spoke t o a graduating. c l a s s i n these

                          terms:       "My advice t o those of you who aFe anxious t o go out i n t o t h e

                          world i s - - r e c o n s i d e r and don't do i t . "          Senator Robert F. Kennedy once
                z



                          made a p l e a t h a t Americans must avoid " t h e danger of f u t i l i t y " and guard

                          "against t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s nothing one man o r woman can do a g a i n s t

                          t h e enormous a r r a y of t h e world's i l l s , a g a i n s t m i s e r y and ignorance,

                          i n j u s t i c e , and v i o l e n c e   **   *.'I



                                  A minority would argue t h a t t h e o n l y . s o l u t i o n i s t o destroy t h e
                          system which allot.~edt h e s e problems t o develop- - t o d e s t r o y t h e e s t a b l i s h e d

                          i n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y i n t h e b l i n d b e l i e f t h a t Phoenix-like, a new and

                          b e t t e r world w i l l somehow s p r i n g from t h e ashes o f t h e o l d .
                                       -                                                                   _ _ --
                                                                                 ..

                                                                                                                                       - 5 -



I..
iI               Mor6 t h a n . o n e hundred y e a r s ago Abraham L i n c o l n , i n h i s f i r s t
i
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          i n a u g u r a l a d d r e s s , gave h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s h i s a d v i c e when he s a i d :

                          . '"Before e n t e r i n g upon .so g r a v e a matter as t h e
                 , a e s t r u c t i o n of our n a t i o n a l f a b r i c , w i t h a l l i t s b e n e f i t s ,
                . it? memories and i t s hopes, would i t n o t b e w i s e t o a s c e r -
                   t a i n p r e c i s e l y why we do it?

                       " W i l l you /&coln            asked of a n a t i o n - t h a t m s a l s o ,
                   if for d i f f e r e K t r e a s o n s , deeply d i v i d e d / h a z a r d so
                   d e s p e r a t e a s t e p w h i l e t h e r e i s any p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t any
. .                p o r t i o n of t h e i l l s you f l y from have no real e x i s t e n c e ?
                   W i l l you, while t h e c e r t a i n i l l s you f l y t o are g r e a t e r
                   t h a n a l l t h e real ones you f l y from, r i s k t h e commission
I                  of so f e a r f u l a mistake?"

                 A t - a n o t h e r c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n our. h i s t o r y , i n May 1944-, a vast- .'I1 am                    .   .
                                                                                                                 .        .       .
          an American Day" ceremony was h e l d - i n C e n t r a l P a r k i n New York C i t y .
I     .

          The thousands t h e r e i n c l u d e d many new c i t i z e n s - - e s c a p e e s from Nazi Germany.

          and Communist R u s s i a .           The speaker was J u s t i c e Learned Hand, who s e r v e d
                                                                         . .
          for 40 y e a r s on t h e F e d e r a l Bench and who cane t o be known throughout t h e

          world for h i s d e f e n s e of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of freedom and of t h e r i g h t s of

          individual citizens.                                                                                        .       .

                 Mr. J u s t i c e Hand's comments on that-'occasion need t o be r e r e a d by
          a l l p e o p l e , b u t most of a l l by t h o s e who are engaging i n t h e open d i s s e n t

          so p r e v a l e n t today.       H e said, i n part:

                           "What do w e mean when w e say t h a t f i r s t o f a l l w e seek
                 l i b e r t y ? I o f t e n wonder whether we do n o t rest o u r hopes
                 t o o much upon c o n s t i t u t i o n s , upon laws and upon c o u r t s .
                 These are false hopes; b e l i e v e m e , t h e s e are f a l s e hopes.
                 L i b e r t y l i e s i n t h e h e a r t s o f men and women; when i t d i e s
                 t h e r e , no c o n s t i t u t i o n , no law, no c o u r t ' c a n save i t ; no
                 c o n s t i t u t i o n , no law, no c o u r t can even d o much t o h e l p i t .
                 While i t l i e s t h e r e i t needs no c o n s t i t u t i o n , no law, no
                 c o u r t . t o save i t . And what i s t h i s l i b e r t y which m u s t l i e
                 i n t h e h e a r t s o f men and women? It i s n o t t h e r u t h l e s s ,
                 t h e ' u n b r i d l e d w i l l ; i t i s n o t freedom t o do as one l i k e s .
                 That i s t h e d e n i a l of l i b e r t y , and l e a d s s t r a i g h t t o i t s
                 overthrow. A s o c i e t y i n which men r e c o g n i z e no check upon
                 t h e i r freedom soon becomes a s o c i e t y where freedom is t h e
                 p o s s e s s i o n of o n l y a savage few; as w6 have l e a r n e d t o o u r
                 sorrow. ''
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    .-
                                               e
                       It &erns t o me t h a t t h e key must somehow r e s t n o t w i t h protest, b u t

              w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n through organized society--Government and nongovernment--

              if w e are t o have a r e a s o n a b l e chance of d e f i n i n g o u r o b j e c t i v e s a c c e p t a b l y
         ,.
              for    tie    d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y .    There i s .a c o r o l l a r y , and t h a t i s

              B   w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e both o f

              i n d i v i d u a l s and of groups t o work toward c o n s t r u c t i v e solut3.ons.
b


                      Alexander Hamilton s a i d i n 1794 t h a t "Government i s t h a t power by

              which i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y are k e p t from doing i n j u r y t o each o t h e r ,

              and are brought t o c o o p e r a t e t o a common end."
                                                                  . .
                                                                                              This i s equally t r u e - -

              e s p e c i a l l y true--today.

                       The-greatest.satisfactionsi n l i f e , I am c e r t a i n , come from a sense

              of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .   But, each o f us h a s a c h o i c e t o make--we c a n p a r t i c i p a t e

              fn protests and d e s t r u c t i v e a c t i o n or we can p a r t i c i p a t e i n another

              way.      L e t m e g i v e you an example--

                      On May 10 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland, there were demonstrations.

              Some 300 of t h e demonstrators lowered t h e United S t a t e s f l a g from a p o l e ,
                                                                                    c


              turned it u p s i d e down, and r a i s e d i t .                   From o u t of t h e crowd stepped

              two young men.              They, t o o , lowered the f l a g , r i g h t e d i t , r a i s e d i t a g a i n

              and s t o o d by a t the f o o t o f t h e f l a g p o l e w h i l e t h e 298 demonstrators

              j e e r e d and r e v i l e d them.

                      These two young men obviously have a n o u t l o o k or a view of t h e

              United S t a t e s t h a t does n o t embrace t u r n i n g t h e c o u n t r y , or i t s f l a g

              down-side up.             Their t h i n k i n g - - t h e i r outlook--on t h e s e m a t t e r s had made

              them q u i t e ready t o t a k e t h e i r s t a n d , and they d i d so.                     Then t h e f o r c e
                             . *

              of t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n c a r r i e d t h e day.          Outnumbered 150 t o 1 , they stood
                                                                                                                  -.-.


                                                                                                                                   - 7 -
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                                                                               e
         t h e i r ground, obsiously s t r o n g e r than t h e i r opponents who apparently

         lacked t h e c o n v i c t i o n s of t h e i r otm professed b e l i e f .

              .   Had t h e two young men decided t h a t they could do nothing about

         r i g h t i n g t h e f l a g ; i f t h e i r outlook on May 10 was t h a t somebody

         else should make the c o r r e c t i o n , t h e mob would have been v i c t o r i o u s .

         But they looked inward, toward themselves i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n and

         d o u b t l e s s thought:   What can w e do?        I s t h a t not a lesson f o r us a l l ?

         Before we look "out there" t o . f i n d t h e cause o f ' w h a t . i s wrong, had

         we b e t t e r look t o ourselves f i r s t ? A r e w e doing as well as we can
f
         i n any given s i t u a t i o n i n which we f i n d o u r s e l v e s ?   A r e we hating

         t h e Government: o r s o c i e t y o r even l i f e i t s e l f because somehow o r

         o t h e r w e &e n.ot being t r e a t e d as we t h i n k w e should be?         A r e we,

         i n short, f a i l i n g to remove t h e beam from our own eye f i r s t before
     .   looking elsewhere t o place blame?

                  Henry D. Thoreau i s one of t h e most-respected names i n American

         literature.        One of h i s biographers described him i n t h e s e t e r m s :

         ltThoreau, more than most any man, shows us t h e much and t h e l i t t l e ,

         how t o maximize the minimum."




                                                                                            _.-.
                                                                   ..
                      I
                                                                                                      - 8 -
                  ,


       -   --h..'sharp c o n t r a s t i s t h e s t o r y of Eddie, t h e n o t i c e a b l y slow-moving

    &d i p e f f i c l e n t c l e r k , i n a s i ~ ~ a l l - t o wgne n e r a l s t o r e who wasn't i n

    eviden6.e one morning.              A customer asked:             "Idhere's Eddie?          I s n ' t sick,

    is he?"       "Nope, he i s n ' t s i c k , " r e p l i e d t h e p r o p r i e t o r .   "He's j u s t

    not working h e r e any more."                "That so?" responded t h e c u r i o u s v i l l a g e r .

    "Got anybody i n mind t o f i l l t h e vacancy?"                    "Nope," s a i d t h e p r o p r i e t o r .

    "Eddie d i d n ' t l e a v e any vacancy * I '
                                                                                   .   .

            Thornas Paine, - n o t e d writer of two-hundred y e a r s ago, wrote f o r

    h i s g e n e r a t i o n on the "Rights of Man."              L i t t l e d i d h e know t h a t t h e
c   p r e s e n t independence of I n d i a i s due i n l a r g e measure t o t h i s l i t t l e

    pamphlet.         Mahatma Gandhi s a i d t h a t t h i s w r i t i n g was t h e foundation

    of h i s n o n 2 v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e movement.

            The Wright B r o t h e r s a t K i t t y Haxk on December 17, 1903, n o t very

    important persons i n t h a t day, s e n t a telegram t o bay to^ papers which

    read:     "light       s u c c e s s f u l - - i n a i r 59 seconds.      W i l l be home f o r Christmas."

    The papers,missing the importance of t h e message, published a b r i e f

    item saying,"Wright B r o t h e r s w i l l be home f o r Christmas .I1

            While v i s i t i n g a neighbor, t h e son of a wealthy Englishman went

    swimming i n t h e p r i v a t e pool.          H e began t o have t r o u b l e . and
                                                                                       .   w a s i n danger

    of drowning.         H e c r i e d f o r h e l p and h i s c r i e s were answered by a g a r d e n e r ' s

    son who came to t h e r e s c u e and p u l l e d him .almost
                                                            _
                                                                  l i f e l e s s from t h e pool.




                                                                                                              - 9 -
..
                   .
     The wealthy boy's p a r e n t s were extremely g r a t e f u l and i n q u i r e d what

     they might do f o r t h i s young man t o show t h e i r g r a t i t u d e . . They l e a r n e d
     9   .




     that h e wanted v e r y much t o be a d o c t o r , b u t t h e r e were no funds t o pay

     €or his edudation.             These t l i m k f u l pzireilts arranged f o r t h i s g a r d e n e r ' s

     son t o be e n t e r e d i n medical school and paid h i s expenses.                              The s t u d e n t

     had a good r e c o r d and u l t i m a t e l y b e c m e one o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g d o c t o r s

     of England,          I n f a c t , h i s fame spread around t h e world when h e was

     awarded the Nobel P r i z e €or medicine f o r h i s discovery of p e n i c i l l i n .

     By now, I know t h a t you r e c o g n i z e that t h i s g a r d e n e r ' s son was

     Sfr Alexander Fleming.

f            This remarkable s t o r y i s not f i n i s h e d .            This g a r d e n e r ' s son, who

     rose t o be a g r e a t p h y s i c i a n , had another memorable experience.                            During

     World War         XI, t h e youth saved from drotming, now a grown man, was
     c r i t i c a l l y ill ' w i t h pneumonia.      Dr   . Fleming w a s      c a l l e d and reached h i s

     bedside i n t i m e t o save h i s l i f e a second t i m e .                I t ' s a good t h i n g f o r

     England and t h e rest of t h e world t h a t he d i d .                    The man who twice owed
                                                                     -
     h i s life t o Dr. Fleming was t h e Prime M i n i s t e r of England, S i r Winston

     Churchill.

             No one s e r i o u s l y contends t h a t a l l men are c r e a t e d w i t h e q u a l

     a b i l i t i e s ; conversely, no one can doubt t h a t each of us h a s the r i g h t - -

     and t h e o b l i g a t i o n - - t o develop h i s p o t e n t i a l t o i t s f u l l e s t .      I n short,

     a s i n the case of Thoreau, t o maximize h i s minimums.

             The problems of our s o c i e t y can o n l y i n c r e a s e as w e become more
                                                                 5




     densely populated, more urbanized, more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d ; and, along w i t h

     these, go a need €or mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b e t t e r communication.
                                                                                                       -.-.

                   I                                                                                            -   10   -
     These, i n t u r n , c r e a t e powerful f o r c e s t h a t t e n d t o weaken t h e

     t r a d i t i o n a l roles of f a m i l y , church, and t o m h a l l as c o n s t r u c t i v e

     discZp1inar.y u n i t s i n ' s o c i e t y .

              I n 1940, n o t l o n g a f t e r I completed c o l l e g e , t h e p o p u l a t f o n of

     the United S t a t e s was a b o u t 130 m i l l i o n p e o p l e .               We are now a N a t i o n

     .-of200 m i l l i o n .          I n t h e year 2000, we w i l l have a p o p u l a t i o n of

     n e a r l y 340 m i l l i o n .

              No o n e q u e s t i o n s t h e impact of s c i e n c e and technology on o u r

     society.           F7ith 9 p e r c e n t of t h e world's p o p u l a t i o n and o n l y 15 p e r c e n t
     of t h e world's r e s o u r c e s , we h a v e a c h i e v e d t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d of
If
     l i v i n g i n t h e world--measured               i n terms of income and material t h i n g s .

     Five p e r c e n t of o u r work f o r c e , f o r example, produces more food and
                       1-


     f i b e r t h a n we can now7 u s e o r e x p o r t .

              A l f r e d North Whi.tehead, one of t h e g r e a t p h i l o s o p h e r s of o u r ' t i m e ,

     once remarked t h a t s c i e n c e and technology as we know i t could have
                I

     o r i g i n a t e d o n l y i n t h e m a t r i x of c e n t u r i 6 s of C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n ,

     s i n c e o n l y a profound f a i t h i n t h e v a l u e s of n a t u r a l o r d e r could h a v e

     provided t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r i t s d e d i c a t e d and t o t a l commitment t o t h e

     development of t h a t o r d e r .               But, t h e t e s t f o r t h e f u t u r e o f ' s c i e n c e

     and technology must b e whether i t can b e a p p l i e d t o s o l v i n g some of t h e

     problems which .it h a s - c r e a t e d - - p o l l u t i o n ,       massive c o n c e n t r a t i o n of
     p o p u l a t i o n i n urban areas, and s o on.                      ..


              So,     t h e real gap and t h e main t h e s i s of my reinarks t h i s a f t e r n o o n
     is n o t so much t h e g e n e r a t i o n gap a s i t i s a "value" gap o r an

     ' t i n s t i t u t i o n a l ' l gap.   We have n o t y e t found t h e c o u n t e r p a r t t -.
                                                                                                      o the



                                                                                                                       -     11   -
             ,


‘Salk vaccine, the t r a n s i s t o r , and t h e computer i n our s o c i a l

i n s t i t u t i o n s . R e have learned h o i ~t o t r a n s p l a n t human h e a r t s ; w e
                     . .
-haven h t l e a r n e d to t r a n s p l a n t new s o c i a l v a l u e s i n t o o b s o l e t e

governmental machinery and r i g i d s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .                              -
        The l i b e r t y t h a t M r . J u s t i c e Hand d e s c r i b e s w i l l r e q u i r e b e t t e r

management of governments than anything t h e world has known i n t h e

past.      If man can improve h i s circumstances through technological

invention,. i t is l o g i c a l t o b e l i e v e t h a t he can--if               h e wishes and

as he wishes--improve               his c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t h e a r t of government.

        Your generatTon--and              mine--must        grasp t h e meaning of s c i e n c e

and technology in t h e r e l a t i o n s between Government and a l l t h e rest

of society:          WorId wars may have produced t h e environment which gave

s c i e n c e and technology t h e s p a r k they were waiting f o r ; s c i e n c e and
             .   .                                          . .

p o l i t i c s , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l , nov go t o g e t h e r and n e i t h e r

 can f u n c t i o n without t h e other.             That i s- t h e c e n t r a l f a c t of our

 t i m e , and it can only have one meaning f o r t h e f u t u r e .

        This means t&at w e must c l o s e t h e gap between t h e two c u l t u r e s ,

as C. P. Snow d e s c r i b e s them--the              s c i e n t i f i c and t h e humanistic.
                                                                                                -.
We can no more feave s c i e n c e t o t h e s c i e n t i s t s than               5.78   can l e a v e

Government t o t h e p o l i t i c i a n s .        We m u s t comprehend t h e s c i e n t i f i c

environment.             We xmst f i n d ways t o make s c i e n c e and p u b l i c p o l i c y

compatible, not merely as t o n a t i o n a l purpose, but p a r t i c u l a r l y as

to a working c o n r p a t i t i l i t y .
                                                                      . ,
                                                                     ,’ /
                                                                     I   ,




                                                                                                -.-.         -        -
                     .                                                                                           12
                        e




                 How e l s e s h a l l we make a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h e d i f f i c u l t f i e - l d s o f           .


        weapons c o n t r o l and disarinanent?                     I n problems of e l i m i n a t i n g a i r and

        water p o l l u t i o n ?       I n h a r n e s s i n g o u r energy s o u r c e s f o r b o t h human and

         i n d u s t r i a l needs?      I n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of e d u c a t i o n and

        vocational motivation?                    I n meeting t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of a n exploding

        p o p u l a t i o n a t home and abroad?                I n p r o v i d i n g t h e r i s i n g n a t i o n s of t h e    '




        world w i t h g i f t s of technology?

                 These are' t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t f a c e you,- now and i n t h e y e a r s ahead.

        These, and q u e s t i o n s l i k e them, have been and c o n t i n u e t o b e q u e s t i o n s -

    (   of my l i f e t i m e .       But, I believe t h a t no problem i s more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d
I

         t o t h e f u t u r e of o u r d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y t h a n t h e n e c e s s i t y of a t t r a c t i n g

        - t h e b e s t t a l e n t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p u b l i c service.          That i s where you

         come in.

                 Having. been i n t h e . p u b l i c service- 30 y e a r s , I know how - n e c e s s a r y

        f t is t h a t the F e d e r a l Government b e s e r v e d by h i g h l y t r a i n e d p u b l i c

         servants.          I d o n ' t want t o s u g g e s t t h a t Vashington h a s o r s h o u l d

        a t t e m p t t o monopolize t a l e n t .            There must b e a b l e , devoted p e o p l e a t

         a l l governmental levels.

                 The problems and c h a l l e n g e s of Government are l e g i o n .                        Theyrequire

         t h e t a l e n t s of v i r t u a l l y a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s :

                 --Conducting          medical research at t h e laboratories a t t h e

                    N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s of H e a l t h , Bethesda, Naryland;

                 --Controlling           j e t a i r c r a f t n o i s e a t NASA's L e v i s Laboratory

                     i n Cleveland, Ohio;

                 --Supervising           P e a c e Corps s t a f f i n a r e m o t e p o i n t i n A f r i c a ;



                                                                                                                         -   13       -
                          ,
                      *

               -Conducting            o p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h f o r a mass t r a n s p o r t a t i o n
                 ..
                   program f o r t h e c o r r i d o r between Boston and Washington;

              -'--€&viewing         r e s e k c h grant applications f o r the National

                   S c i e n c e Foundation;

               ---Developing e x p e r i m e n t a l e d u c a t i o n programs f o r under-

                  $r i v i l e g e d c h i l d r e n ;

               --Providing          n u r s i n g care i n a v e t e r a n s ' h o s p i t a l i n Denver;

               --Teaching         i n a n I n d i a n school i n Montana; o r

               --Serving         a s a F o r e s t Ranger i n I d a h o .

               J u s t l a s t week, ' i n testimony f o r a n i m p o r t a n t committee of t h e
i
        Congress on t h e work which o u r Office h a s done i n recommending ways

        t o improve t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of w a t e r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s , I

        w a s - p l e a s e d and proud t o h e a r members of t h e conunittee, a t t h e

        c o n c l u s i o n of t h e h e a r i n g , e x t e n d h i g h complinients t o a young man

        on o u r s t a f f f o r t h e o u t s t a n d i n g work which h e had done.                    He i s j u s t

        o v e r 30 y e a r s - o f age.        H e has e a r n e d far--more s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n t h e

        amount of h i s paycheck.                  H e i s c o n t r i b u t i n g something which w i l l

        help us all.
                                                                                                            ..
               These same c h a l l e n g e s and problems exist i n S t a t e government and

        l o c a l government, and a growing number of not-f or-prof i t , v o l u n t a r y ,

    .   and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 2r;
                                                          . . concerned w i t h programs f o r m e r l y
                                                                             ..
        r e s e r v e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o Government.

               Over t h e n e x t 4 y e a r s , t h e F e d e r a l Government w i l l need thousands

        of a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s i n health, technology, and e d u c a t i o n .

                                                                                                            --.
                          8
                                                                              0
                                                                                                                     -    14   -
                      ,
                      1




                Each y e a r o v e r t h e n e x t decade, o u r N a t i o n w i l l need 200,000 new

        p u b l i c school. t e a c h e r s t o keep up w i t h t h e growing p o p u l a t i o n .

               --l&ether .we are concerned w i t h F e d e r a l Government, S t a t e government,

        l o c a l government, o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n nongovernmental a g s n c i e s , w e must

        have h i g h l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e and d e d i c a t e d p e o p l e .

                These s h o u l d b e p e o p l e who w i l l work t o improve s o c i e t y , n o t

        d e s t r o y i t ; t h e y s h o u l d be committed t o t h e change o f i n s t i t u t i o n s by

        making them better and more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e needs of p e o p l e s e r v e d

        by Governnent         .                                                                       ..

    I           T h e r e shou.ld b e even more young p e o p l e also who are w i l l i n g t o

        e n t e r an active p o l i t i c a l l i f e .          The r e a l power b a s e and t h e r e a l need

        isihere.          More younger p e o p l e are showing up i n S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s , i n
                          %



        c i t y halls, and i n t h e Congress.                    I found a hopeful. example o n l y two

        weeks ago when I a t t e n d e d a c o n f e r e n c e i n a w e s t e r n S t a t e devoted t o

        manpower t r a i n i n g and economic education--with                           s p e c i a l emphasis on
                                                                             c


        d i s a d v a n t a g e d youth.     The L i e u t e n a n t Governor had j u s t become 30 y e a r s

        o l d and t h e Governor h i m s e l f           1'18s   n o t much o l d e r .

                Those who do n o t u n d e r t a k e careers i n Government o r go i n t o

        p o l i t i c s w i l l have i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e as v o t e r s .

        The imminent a c t i o n t o amend t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o extend t h e r i g h t t o

        v o t e i n a l l e l e c t i o n s t o every American c i t i z e n o v e r 18 y e a r s of a g e

        h o l d s g r e a t promise--great            promise, t h a t is, i f younger p e o p l e t a k e

        t h e t i m e and t r o u b l e t o v o t e .        I t i s a d i s c o u r a g i n g f a c t t h a t less

I       than 60 p e r c e n t of a l l r e g i s t e r e d v o t e r s i n America               OR   t h e average
                 .
.take p a r t i n national elections.                     The a u t h o r s of a r e c e n t book e n t i t l e d
.-
"The Real M a j o r i t y " s t a t e t h a t "The c o l d f a c t i s t h a t young p e o p l e

e l i g ' i b l e t o v o t e are f a r l e s s . l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h a n t h e i r e l d e r s . "

I do n o t b e l i e v e t h i s .       It is up t o you t o prove t h a t I am r i g h t and

t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s book are wrong.

        I am c o u n t i n g on t h e women p a r t i c u l a r l y to make my p r e d i c t i o n

come t r u e .       The r e c e n t e x t e n s i v e. and
                                                        .
                                                            intensive dialogue i n t h e r o l e

o f women can b e t t e r b e e x p r e s s e d through t h e b a l l o t box t h a n b y ' r e a c l i n g

t h e works of Germaine Greer.                     Too l o n g , I fear, women have observed t h e

a d v i c e g i v e n by Thomas J e f f e r s o n t o ' a M r s . William Bingham i n 1788:

"Our good l a d i e s , I t r u s t , h a v e b e e n t o o w i s e ' t o w r i n k l e t h e i r f o r e h e a d s

with p o l i t i c s .     They a r e c o n t e n t e d t o s o o t h e and calm t h e minds of t h e i r

husbands r e t u r n i n g r u f f l e d from p o l i t i c a l - d e b a t e . "

        The meaning of what I have been t r y i n g t o s a y today i s nowhere

b e t t e r expressed t h a n by J o h n Gardner, a member of t h e Kennedy and
                                                                    c


Johnson C a b i n e t s and o r g a n i z e r o f t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n , Common Cause.

Here are h i s words from a r e c e n t commencement a d d r e s s :

                  "We now know beyond a l l doubt t h a t n a t i o n s d i e from w i t h i n ,
        and t h e y are a t t a c k e d less o f t e n by t r a i t o r s w i t h i n t h e g a t e
        t h a n by t r a i t o r s - w i t h i n t h e heart--complacency, a p a t h y , cynicism,
        i n t o l e r a n c e , s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t of
        the i n d i v i d u a l t o l e n d h i m s e l f t o any worthy common purpose."

        A p p r o p r i a t e f o r you g r a d u a t e s i s a q u o t a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o a

Frenchman named d e Grellet who d i e d more 'than one hundred y e a r s ago:


            ..
                                                                               I       .

                                                                           I       .




                                                                        ,. ..
                                                                                                     -.-.
                                                                                                            -
             c

                                                                                                                16   -
            ,
         "I shall pass through this world b u t once. If, therefore,
.   there be any kindness I can show, or any good thing I can do,
    €et me do it ROV; let me not defer it or neglect it, for I
.
    shall not pass t h i s way again."
    3   -       . .




                                                                  -    17   -