oversight

Coordinating Deep-Ocean Geophysical Surveys Would Save Money

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-12-08.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

    REPORT TO THE CONGRESS

.
‘



4




    Coordinating Deep-Ocean Geophysical
    Surveys Would Save Money                   8-133188




    National Oceanic and Atmospheric   Administration
    Department   of Commerce
    Department   of the Navy




    BY THE COMPTROLLER   GENERAL
    OF THE UNITED STATES
                    COMP’rkOLLER          GENERAL     OF      THE   UNITED    STATES
                                        WASHINGTON.    D.C.     20548
                                    .




       B-133188




       To the President   of the Senate and the
r\
‘Ll,   Speaker  of the House    of Representatives

               This is our report        on the feasibility     of coordinating                      the
       deep-ocean     geophysical       surveys     of the National    Oceanic                     and
       Atmospheric      Administration,         Department      of Commerce,                       and
       the Department      of the Navy.

              Our review  was made pursuant     to the Budget   and Account-
       ing Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C.   53), and the Accounting    and Auditing
       Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C.   67).

              Copies   of this report     are being sent to the                           Director,
       Office  of Management      and Budget;     the Secretary                           of Commerce;
       and the Secretary      of Defense.




                                                           Comptroller              General
                                                           of the United            States




                             50TH       ANNIVERSARY                 192I-    1971
GOMPTROLLER
          GENERAL'S  '                            COORDINATING DEEP-OCEAN GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS                     y
REPORT
     TO THECOJJGRESS                              WOULD SAVE MONEY
                                                / National   Oceanic and Atmos heric  Administratyon,
                                                ? Department   of Commerce     s
                                                                             3',
                                              f, Department    of the Navy   B-133188 !
                                              ",

DIGEST
------

WHYTHEREVIEWWASM4DE
         During     a survey      of Federal   oceanographic    activities,             the General  Account-
         ing Office       (GAO) noted that the National         Oceanic         and Atmospheric      Adminis-
         tration,       Department      of Commerce , and the Department              of the Navy were plan-
         ning to conduct          deep-ocean   geophysical   surveys        of the same areas.          This
         review was undertiken-by GAOtb- see whether it would be feasible                            for the
         Administration         and the Navy to coordinate       their        efforts      and to determine
         what benefits         might result.


FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
         The Federal  Government     could save $20          million     by the early     1980's  if the
         deep-ocean  geophysical     surveys    to be       conducted     by the Administration       and
         the Navy are effectively       planned     and     coordinated.         Although   both agencies
         are aware of the other's       geophysical         surveying     activities,     they do not have
         any formal  mechanism    for coordinating           the surveys.          (See p. 17.)

         The long-range    plans of       the Administration    and the Navy provide for obtain-
         ing geophysical     data in      the same areas (some 16 million    square miles)  of
         the Atlantic    and Pacific        Oceans.    (See maps on pp. 15 and 16.)

         The Navy's      geophysical     surveys   could be eliminated      in     most   cases    if   the
         Administration,       which   performs    more extensive    surveys,        would provide the
         Navy with the data it         requires.      (See p. 11.)

         The data obtained        by the Administration     would satisfy          most Navy requirements
         if    Administration     ships were provided    with additional           equipment at a cost
         of    only $360,000.       (See pp. 13 and 17.)

         Administration    and Navy officials           informed      GAO that   no formal      action  had
         been taken to implement        coordination         because    the geophysical       survey   programs
         were relatively     new.    Officials       from the Office         of Management      and Budget,
         which is responsible      for coordinating           Federal     survey  programs9      said that,
         because of the relatively          small size of the programs,             no effort      had been
         made to review    them.     (See p. 20.)




Tear   Sheet                                                              -DEC.       8,1971
RECOM'4ENDATIONS
               OR SUGGESTIONS
    The Secretary      of    Commerce     and the    Secretary       of   the    Navy    should

      --ensure     that   the plans being formulated    by their   departments      result                            I
                                                                                                                      ,
         in effective       coordination of the deep-ocean    geophysical      survey
         programs     and

      --explore      the    possibility     of   coordinating        other      marine    science   activi-           i
         ties.      (See    p. 25.)                                                                                   I
                                                                                                                      I

                                                                                                                      II
AGENCYACTIONS AND VNRESOLmDISSUES                                                                                      I
    The Administration         agreed that     there was          a need to ensure      coordination             in   I
    the planning       of surveys    and said that it             had exchanged    correspondence              with   1
    the Navy regarding         the establishment      of        liaison   officers    and staffs         for          :
                                                                                                                      I
    coordinating       geophysical    surveys.      (See        p. 23.)                                               I
                                                                                                                      I
    The Navy stated         that it strongly   endorsed    the GAO proposals      concerning
    effective     coordination      of Navy and Administration       programs.      It said
    that     the determination      of the most efficient      means of achieving      this
    coordination       had been the subject     of discussion      and correspondence       be-
    tween the Navy and the Administration             from October     1970.

    The Navy commented         that an agreement      in principle      had been reached           on the             i
    exchange    of personnel,        which would ensure maximum effective               coordination      of          ;
    the planning        and scheduling     of geophysical     surveys.       According      to the Navy               ;
    this   will  facilitate       the coordination      of marine    science     activity       of both               !
    agencies.      (See p. 24.)                                                                                       I
                                                                                                                      I
    GAO believes     that the actions           taken by the Administration        and the Navy
    are an important        first   step.       Survey specifications       and administratjve
    procedures,    however,       must be established,         evaluated,    and jointly       agreed
    upon before    effective       coordination       can be accomplished.        (See p. 24.)


MTTERS FOR CONSIDERATIONBY THE CONGRESS                                                                               ,41

    This is an example of how programs         producing              similar types of information                    I
    but conducted    by different     Federal  agencies              need to be coordinated,     to                   :
                                                                                                                      I
    avoid unnecessary     duplication     and cost.                                                                   I
                                                                                                                      I




                                                     2
                        .

                            Contents
                                                          Page

DIGEST                                                      1

CHAPTER

  1        INTRODUCTION
               National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin-
                  istration, Department of Commerce
               Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy

  2        COMPARISONOF GEOPHYSICALSURVEYPROGRAMS
              Administration   geophysical surveys
              Navy geophysical   surveys

  3        OPPORTUNITYTO REDUCECOST OF DEEP-OCEAN
           GEOBHYSICALSURVEYS                             11
              Administration  is capable of performing
                Navy geophysical  surveys                 11

  4        SAVINGS ACHIEVABLE THROUGHCOORDINATION         17

  5        REASONSCOORDINATION HAS NOT BEEN ACCOM-
           PLISHED                                        20

  6        AGENCY COMMENTS,GAO CONCLUSIONS, AND REC-
           OMMENDATIONS                                   23
              Agency comments                             23
              GAO conclusions                             24
              Recommendations to the Secretaries of
                Commerce and the Navy                     24

  7        SCOPEOF REVIEW                                 26

APPENDIX

  I        Letter dated April 9, 1971, from the Assis-
              tant Secretary of Commerce to the General
             Accounting Office                             27
APPENDIX                                                         Page

   II      Letter dated May 11, 1971, from the Assis-
              tant Secretary of the Navy to the General
             Accounting Office                                    31

  III      Principal    officials     of the Department of
              Commerce and the Department of the Navy
              responsible      for the administration   of ac-
              tivities    discussed in this report                35
    ,

        COMPTROLLER
                  GENERAL'S                   .       COORDINATING DEEP-OCEAN GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS
        REPORT
             TO THECONGRESS                           WOULD SAVE MONEY
                                                      National   Oceanic and Atmospheric  Administration,
                                                      Department   of Commerce
                                                      Department   of the Navy   B-133188


        DIGEST
        ------


        WHYTHEREVIEWWASM4DE
             During     a survey     of Federal   oceanographic    activities,            the General  Account-
             ing Office       (GAO) noted that the National        Oceanic        and Atmospheric      Adminis-
             tration,      Department     of Commerce, and the Department               of the Navy were plan-
             ning to conduct         deep-ocean   geophysical   surveys       of the same areas.          This
             review    was undertaken        by GAO to see whether      it would be feasible           for the
             Administration        and the Navy to coordinate       their       efforts      and to determine
             what benefits        might result.


        FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
             The Federal  Government     could save $20            million     by the early 1980's if the
             deep-ocean  geophysical     surveys    to be         conducted     by the Administration and
             the Navy are effectively       planned     and       coordinated.         Although   both agencies
             are aware of the other's       geophysical           surveying     activities,     they do not have
             any formal  mechanism    for coordinating             the surveys.          (See p. 17.)

             The long-range    plans of      the Administration    and the Navy provide for              obtain-
             ing geophysical     data in     the same areas (some 16 million    square miles)               of
             the Atlantic    and Pacific       Oceans.    (See maps on pp. 15 and 16.)

             The Navy's geophysical         surveys     could be eliminated     in most cases if the
             Administration,  which        performs     more extensive     surveys, would provide the
             Navy with the data it         requires.       (See p. 11.)
             The data obtained       by the Administration     would satisfy           most Navy    requirements
             if Administration       ships were provided    with additional            equipment    at a cost
             of only $360,000.         (See pp. 13 and 17.)

             Administration    and Navy officials           informed      GAO that no formal      action  had
c
             been taken to implement        coordination         because the geophysical        survey   programs
             were relatively     new.    Officials       from the Office        of Management     and Budget,
             which is responsible      for coordinating           Federal    survey  programs,     said that,
             because of the relatively          small size of the programs3           no effort      had been
             made to review    them.     (See p. 20.)




                                                              1
RECOMVENDATIONS
            OR SUGGESTIONS
   The Secretary       of    Commerce     and the    Secretary       of   the    Navy should

      --ensure     that   the plans being formulated    by their   departments      result
         in effective       coordination of the deep-ocean    geophysical      survey
         programs     and

      --explore     the     possibility     of   coordinating        other      marine   science   activi-
         ties.     (See     p. 25.)


AGENCY
     ACTIONSANDUNRESOLVED
                       ISSUES
    The Administration         agreed that     there was          a need to ensure      coordination            in
    the planning       of surveys    and said that      it        had exchanged    correspondence             with
    the Navy regarding         the establishment      of        liaison   officers    and staffs        for
    coordinating       geophysical    surveys.      (See        p. 23.)

    The Navy stated       that it strongly   endorsed    the GAO proposals      concerning
    effective    coordination     of Navy and Administration       programs.      It said
    that the determination        of the most efficient      means of achieving      this
    coordination     had been the subject     of discussion      and correspondence       be-
    tween the Navy and the Administration           from October     1970.

    The Navy commented         that    an agreement   in principle    had been reached         on the
    exchange    of personnel,        which would ensure maximum effective           coordination      of
    the planning        and scheduling     of geophysical     surveys. According        to the Navy
    this will    facilitate       the coordination      of marine  science   activity      of both
    agencies.      (See p. 24.)

    GAO believes     that the actions         taken by the Administration        and the Navy
    are an important      first   step.       Survey specifications      and administrative
    procedures,    however,     must be established,         evaluated,    and jointly      agreed
    upon before effective        coordination       can be accomplished.        (See p. 24.)


MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY THECONGRESS
    This is an example      of how programs   producing               similar types of information
    but conducted    by different    Federal  agencies               need to be coordinated,     to
    avoid unnecessary    duplication     and cost.




                                                     2
                             .

                                  CHAPTER 1

                                 INTRODUCTION

          The activities   discussed in this report are geophys-
    ical surveys conducted as part of the National             Ocxc     and
    Atmospheric Administration's      Scientific      Exploration   and Map-
    ping Program and the Navy's Antisubmarine           Warfare/Undersea
.
    Warfare Survey Project     (Antisubmarine       Warfare Survey).     The
    measurements obtained in these surveys are a source of
    valuable   information  for the scientific        community in its
    quest for understanding      the earth's     processes and at the
    same time support Navy weapon systems which must operate in
    the deep oceans.

    NATIONAL OCEANIC AND
    ATMOSPHERICADMINISTRATION
    DEPARTMENTOF COMMERCE

            The Administration   was established     on October 3, 1970,
    by consolidating      the Environmental    Science Services Admin-
    istration    with elements and programs of other Federal or-
    ganizations     that had marine science responsibilities,       in
    accordance with the provisions        of Reorganization    Plan No. 4
    of 1970. This reorganization        was in response to a recom-
    mendation made to the President         and the Congress by the
    Commission on Marine Science, Engineering,          and Resources
    in a 1969 report entitled       "Our Nation and the Sea---- A Plan
    for National     Action."

          The mission of the Administration       is to improve the un-
    derstanding  of the sea's resources and permit their        develop-
    ment, to achieve a more comprehensive understanding         of
    oceanic and atmospheric phenomena, and to facilitate         coopera-
    tion between public and private    interests.      The National
    Ocean Survey, a major component of the Administration,          con-
    ducts geophysical  surveys in support of the Administration's
    mission.

    OFFICE OF THE OCEANOGRAPHER
                              OF THE NAVY

         The Oceanographer of the Navy commands the Office            of
    the Oceanographer of the Navy, which is a shore activity


                                       3
                                                 .

under the command and support of the Chief of Naval Opera-
tions.    The Oceanographer of the Navy is the Naval Ocean-
ographic Program Director     and is responsible   for exercis-
ing centralized   authority,   direction,  and control    to ensure
an integrated   and effective   naval oceanographic    program.
Also the Oceanographer of the Navy exercises military         con-
trol over the Commander of the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Of-
fice.
                                                                               .
       The U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office,           Suitland,    Maryland,
was established       by the Congress (10 U.S.C. 7391) to provide
the Department of the Navy with oceanographic               and naviga-
tional    data and to perform or recommend related            research,
development,     testing,    and evaluation.      Also the Oceano-
graphic Office performs the operational             survey portion     of
the naval oceanographic program and exchanges oceanographic,
hydrographic,      magnetic,   geodetic,   gravity,     and cartographic
information     with other departments       and agencies of the Gov-
ernment.      The activities    of this Office are financed pri-
marily from Navy appropriations.




                                     4
                          .


                               CHAPTER2

           COMPARISONOF GEOPHYSICALSURVEYPROGRAMS

      The geophysical    surveying activities     of the Administra-
tion and the Navy are performed to meet different            needs.
The data obtained in the Administration's         Scientific    Explo-
ration and Mapping Program are intended to provide a greater
understanding    of the deep oceans and their processesp which
will eventually    lead to the economic recovery and manage-
ment of deep-ocean resources.          The Navy's program is con-
ducted primarily     for military    purposes as part of its Anti-
submarine Warfare/Undersea        Warfare Survey Project.      The pro-
grams of the two agencies are discussed below.

ADMINISTRATION GEOPHYSICALSURVEYS

      The Administration's      Scientific      Exploration      and Mapping
Program was initiated      in response to a recommendation by
the National Academy of Sciences-National             Research Council's
Committee on Oceanography.        In a 1960 report,          entitled
"Oceanography 1960 to 1970," this Committee recommended that
a new program of systematic       oceanwide surveys be ,undertaken.
The report s,uggested that the responsibility              for these sur-
veys be divided among interested           nations and that the United
States carry out about 30 percent of the overall                 program.

      The Administration      separates the s'urveys of this pro-
gram into two phases-- oceanographic and geophysical.            Dur-
ing the oceanographic phase data are obtained while a ship
is in a stationary     position    and include measurements of wa-
ter temperature    and salinity     and the collection    of core and
dredge samples.     These station     measurements are conducted
at a time other than when the geophysical          meas'urements are
obtained,   We were informed by the Administration,          however,
that the oceanographic phase of the program was not being
conducted because of insufficient         funding,

       During the geophysical   phase data are obtained that
delineate    bottom topography and describe the ocean floor
for scientific     purposes.  These data are obtained while a
ship is under way and include measurements of bathymetry,



                                     5
magnetics,    gravity,    and seismic profiles,      l (s ee illustra-
tion on p. 7.)       The measurements are run concurrently           and
continuously     on a systematic    parallel    gridline   pattern,      and
the tracklines      (survey lines) are spaced at lo-mile          inter-
vals.

       The initial   surveys for the geophysical    phase began in
1961 and have continued sporadically.        The original   area to
be covered was about 1.9 million      square miles in the North
Pacific   Ocean between Hawaii and Alaska.       In this area the
Administration     has completed geophysical   surveys covering
about 1.5 million     square miles within the 18-percent     area
discussed below.

        In 1968 the project     area was expanded for planning pur-
poses,    and it  now  includes   much of the Atlantic      and Pacific
Oceans north of the Equator,          The newly defined area covers
approximately     18 million    square miles, or 18 percent of the
world's    deep ocean; long-range      plans call for coverage of
an additional     12 percent.      The Administration     estimates that
the geophysical     s'urveys for the 18-percent       area will be com-
pleted by the early 1980's and that the entire 30-percent
area will be completed by 1988,

     The Administration     has one ship working part time on
this program.     It plans to increase this effort   to three
ships on a full-time     basis by 1979.

NAVY GEOPHYSICALSURVEYS

      The U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office conducts deep-ocean
surveys to meet the requirements       of the Antisubmarine
Warfare/Undersea     Warfare forces and to support other Navy
and Department of Defense missions.          These s'urveys are de-
signed to provide information      pertinent    to submarine and
antisubmarine    warfare,   search and rescue, strike      force,


1Bathymetry measurements are a determination        of water depth
 to depict sea floor topography;     the magnetics and gravity
 measurements provide increased knowledge about the distri-
 bution of the earth's magnetic and gravity       fields;   and
 seismic profiles  serve to identify    the structure     of the
 sea's subbottom.

                                      6
sealift   logistic    support,   and other operations.       Also the
data collected     provide insight    into the nature of the
oceans by explaining      scientific    abnormalities     and by provid-
ing preliminary     assessmt'snt of economic potential.         The mili-
tary priorities     of the mission operations        being supported
and the related time constraints         govern the survey resources
assigned and the geographic areas surveyed.

        The Antisubmarine    Warfare S,urvey was initiated    in 1967
and is the Navy effort       most related  to the Administration's
activities    discussed in this report,       Its purpose is to ob-
tain information      in strategic   areas that is required     for
operational     'use of current and projected    weapon systems.
It was planned that all the Northern Hemisphere ocean areas,
except the Arctic       Ocean, would be surveyed under this proj-
ect by the early 1980's; however, according to a Navy offi-
cial,    this target date had slipped because construction
plans had been canceled for some ships planned for this
project.

      For convenience in planning surveys, in reporting        data,
and in establishing   discrete   work units,   the Navy has
blocked the areas into a series of task areas, each being
assigned a priority   for accomplishment.      There are 40 task
areas in the North Pacific     and 34 in the North Atlantic,
amounting to about 37 million     square miles.     Each task area
is about 0.5 million    square miles in size.     As of December
1970 five task areas in the Far East and one task area in
the Gulf of Mexico, totaling     about 3 million    square miles,
had been completed,

        Antisubmarine   warfare surveys are subdivided     into three
separate phases:       geophysical,   oceanographic,  and acoustic.
Geophysical s'urveys are performed while the ship is ,under
way and involve obtaining       meas'urements of bathymetry,    mag-
netics,     gravity,  and seismic profiles,     These data are uti-
lized to plan the execution of the other survey phases,

      Oceanographic surveys, performed by a vessel on sta-
tion,  involve collecting    deep-ocean water, core and dredge
samples, bottom photographs,      salinity,  temperature, and
sound-velocity   data.    Acoustic surveys, performed with one
ship on station   and a second ship under way, include mea-
surements of reverberation      and background noise as well as

                                    9
signal strength  and distortion.        Of these three types of
surveys, only the geophysical       surveys are discussed in this
report.
       The Navy, to determine the data needed and coverage
required,    evaluates all the existing     geophysical   data avail-
able before initiating      surveying operations     in a task area.
The tracklines     run by the Navy are not run in a parallel
gridline    pattern but are conducted in whatever orientation
serves to obtain data representative        of the survey area in
the most efficient     manner.    The coverage   obtained in this
type of survey is approximately       equivalent   to running track-
lines 20 to 30 miles apart.

      The Navy has had as many as four ships conducting geo-
physical   surveys as part of its Antisubmarine      Warfare S,ur-
vey.   The projected   level,    however, is for three ships, and
all ships are time-shared      between the geophysical    s'urveys
and high-priority    operations.




                                   10
                                  CHAPTER3

                      OPPORTUNITYTO REDUCE COST OF

                     DEEP-OCEANGEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS
c

          Similar programs conducted by the individual            Federal
    agencies need to be coordinated,        to avoid unnecessary dupli-
    cation of effort     andunnecessarycosts.       We estimate that the
    Federal Government could, by the early 1980's, save about
    $20.1 million    if the deep-ocean geophysical        surveys to be
    conducted by the Administration       and the Navy are effectively
    planned and coordinated.       Although both agencies are aware
    of the otherIs     geophysical  surveying activities,       they do not
    have any formal mechanism for coordinating         these surveys.

            The long-range plans of the Administration    and the
    Navy provide for obtaining     geophysical  data in the same 16-
    million    square-mile  area of the unsurveyed area of the At-
    lantic    and Pacific  Oceans during the next two decades.
    (See illustrations     on ppe 15 and 16.)

         The Navy's geophysical   surveying activities  in this
    area could be eliminated   in most cases if the Administration,
    which performs more extensive   surveys, would provide the
    Navy with the data it requires.

    ADMINISTRATION IS CAPABLE OF
    PERFORMINGNAVY GEOPHYSICALSURVEYS

          According to an Administration      official,      the Navy's
    method of conducting its Antisubmarine         Warfare Survey does
    not provide data that meet the Administration's             program re-
    quirements because the Navy's survey coverage is neither
    dense enough nor performed in parallel         grids.,     On the other
    hand Navy officials     advised us that the Administration's
    method of conducting geophysical      surveys provides data that
    could fulfill    most requirements   of the geophysical         phase of
    the Navyus Antisubmarine      Warfare Survey.       Also  we  were  in-
    formed that data obtained by the Administration             are at
    closer intervals    than the data obtained by the Navy.

           Since the geophysical data obtained        by the Administra-
    tion   would satisfy most Navy requirements,        we examined into
the feasibility       of the Administration's       performing    surveys
and providing      the data to the Navy, We reviewed the Admin-
istration#s     program requirements,       the amount of time the
Administration       spends performing    deep-ocean geophysical
surveys9 and its equipment needs,             We reviewed also a spe-
cial cooperative       project  between the Administration         and the
Navy, which was entered into subsequent to the beginning of
our review, to determine whether the geophysical               surveying
activities     of the two agencies could be similarly           coordi-
nated.

Administration's      program requirements

       Coordination      of geophysical   surveys with the Navy would
not require a change in the method of surveying by the Ad-
ministration      or in the total     ocean area coverage.     It may
require     an alteration,    however, in the Administration's
planned order of completion         of the areas within     the geo-
graphic boundaries outlined         in its program.     There would be
very little,      if any, effect    on the Administration's      program
if its planned order of completion were altered.

        In a planning document dated September 1969, the Ad-
ministration       stated that benefits      from deep-ocean surveying
might not accrue for decades because the methods of econom-
ically    extracting      the resources from the deep ocean had not
been devised.         This plan concluded that it was essential
that these surveys be done so that an orderly utilization
of the deep-ocean resources could be made when the technol-
ogy for extracting          them is devised.     Although the Adminis-
tration     considers it necessary to complete the surveys by
1988, there is no apparent order of priority               which must be
followed to achieve the Administration's              overall   objectives.
We therefore       believe that the Administration         could alter its
program to help satisfy          the Nav's needs without affecting
its own program requirements.

Ship  time required   for
conducting   geophysical     surveys

      The Navy normally spends a total   of about 6 ship-months
in each task area conducting geophysical     surveys   and gener-
ally does two task areas a year.    Because its geophysical
surveys are more extensive,  the Administration      would require
approximately  9 ship-months  to do a Navy task area.
                                       12
       The Administration        has spent 41 ship-months on the
Scientific     Exploration      and Mapping Program since its incep-
tion in 1961 through 1969.           From 1961 through 1965 the Ad-
ministration       spent an average 7 ship-months a year on the
program,     From 1966 though 1969 it averaged less than 2 ship-
months a year on the program due to a shortage of funds.
The Administration's         current plans2 however, provide for
7 ship-months a year to be spent on its program and for fu-
ture effort      to be increased so that it can attain      its goal
of completing       30 percent of the world's     oceans by 1988. The
Administration's        long-range plans propose a total    of three
ships for this program by 1979.
Equipment     requirements

       Navy officials   stated that the geophysical       data ob-
tained from Administration       surveys would satisfy      Antisubma-
rine Warfare Survey requirements        with the exception of seis-
mic data,     This data would have to be obtained by using dif-
ferent equipment; but, according to Navy officials,             this
could be accomplished easily by replacing         one of the several
existing   transducers   (used in obtaining     bathymetric     data)
on the Administration's      ships with the transducer       needed to
meet the Navy's requirements.

       Navy officials     said that,   if coordination    with the Ad-
ministration     could be worked out, the Navy probably would
equip the Administration's        ships with the transducers        needed
at an estimated cost of about $120,000 for each of the three
ships planned for the Administration's          program.      Administra-
tion officials      advised us that, if coordination        is effected
and if the Navy wants specific         frequency seismic measure-
ments, the necessary transducers          could be installed     on the
Administration's      ships without changing its method of per-
forming the surveys.

Cooperative     geophysical   survey        proiect

      In December 1969 the Administration     and the Navy en-
tered into an agreement whereby the Administration      would be
reimbursed about $500,000 by the Navy for conducting      limited
geophysical  surveys in the Atlantic    and Pacific  Oceans. The
Navy was to provide the Administration     with equipment and
the personnel needed to operate the equipment.

                                       13
       We were informed by Navy officials       that these surveys
were intended to provide information         in support of the
Navy's POLARIS missile      program and an Air Force missile-
testing    program.    The results  of these surveys, which were
estimated to take 7-l/2 ship-months        to complete, were to be
made available      to both agencies upon completion of field
operations,.

        We were advised by Navy officials         that the Navy had
entered into this cooperative          project  to fulfill    urgent pro-
gram requirements.         They stated that the Navy ship planned
for use was not available         because it was scheduled for over-
haul.      They stated   that,  rather    than delay the survey, the
Navy laid up this ship for about one half of fiscal               year
1969 and thereby generated funds for reimbursing               the Admin-
istration.      This enabled the Navy to obtain needed surveys
in the time required and the Administration              to extend its
ship operating      period which it previously        had shortened be-
cause of a fund shortage.

       Both agencies considered this project     successful  and
beneficial.     We believe that this project    demonstrates  that
the Administration     is capable of performing   surveys for the
Navy and that similar      coordination could be accomplished in
future geophysical     survey programs of the two agencies.




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ADMINISTRATION   AND NAVY GEOPHYSICAL       SURVEY   AREAS IN THE NORTH      ATLANTIC   OCEAN




                           ADMINISTRATION      AND   NAVY   SURVEY   AREAS
                           NAVY    SURVEY    AREA
    ADMINISTRATION   AND NAVY   GEOPHYSICAL   SURVEY   AREAS   IN THE   NORTH   PACIFIC   OCEAN




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