oversight

Cost Estimates for Major Items Included in Proposed System of Universal Voter Registration

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-11-02.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

Cost Estimates For Major Items
Included In Proposed System Of
lhiversal Voter Registration
                           B-173959




Department   of Commerce




BY THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL
OF THE UNITED STATES
                       COMPTROLLER     GENERAL     OF      THE   UNITED   STATES
                                     WASHINGTON.    D.C.     20548




B-173959                    I
Dear Senator     Kennedy:

         In your letter  of August 17, 1971, you advised us                        of a bill      (S.     2457)
 which you had recently      introduced to establish a system                       of universal          voter
 registration    and requested us to prepare an estimate    of                       the s'tartup       and
-ongoing costs of the system to the Federal Government.                             This letter         trans-
 mi%‘%uch cost estimates.

        The bill   would provide a simple post-card       form by which any citizen
could register      to vote in Federal elections.        The forms would be processed
by a new agency-- the Universal       Voter Registration      Administration--to      be
created in the Bureau of the Census, Department             of Commerce. This Admin-                              7+
istration    would compile registration     lists   by voting unit and would make
the lists    available    to State and local officials       at appropriate      times be-
fore each election.

       The estimated    costs included   in this letter     are based largely     on es-
timates for specific      system components which officials          of the Bureau of
the Census developed at our request.          We furnished      the Bureau with the
principal   assumptions     to be used for estimating      purposes.      (See p. 16.)
Agreement was reached with your office          concerning    those principal    assump-
tions.    Other assumptions     relating   to the configurations       of the system
were made when necessary.

       In view of the time constraints      and because some basic factual     in-
formation    was simply not determinable--even      given more time--many    assump-
tions had to be made on the basis of personal judgment.            Also our tight
time schedule permitted      us, for the most part,     to concern ourselves   only
with the principal      cost items.  Numerous other details      conceivably  would
have to be worked out before the system could be implemented effectively.
The estimates    therefore   should not be considered     to be precise.

       The details    of the system were drawn up to implement,               as nearly as
possible,    the provisions        of Senate bill   2457 as introduced.         In some in-
stances it was necessary,           however, to introduce     alternative      methods for
accomplishing      specific     tasks because of technical       or practical      limita-
tions.    For example, the state of the art is not sufficiently                   advanced
to permit electronic          scanning of hand-addressed      registration      cards.
Similarly    computerized       geographical   coding of the type used by the Bu-
reau for tabulating         the 1970 decennial     census information       for some areas
has applicability        only where house numbers and street            names are used.
At present a manual geographical-coding             operation    would be necessary for
rural areas.

        The following   tables show the estimates   in current                      dollars  for the
major    costs associated    with establishing  and maintaining                      a system    of



                                50TH ANNIVERSARY                 1921- 1971
B-173959



universal    voter registration        along the lines of Senate bill         2457, assum-
ing a centralized       operation    and various    levels of registration       volume.
For comparative      purposes we have developed cost          estimates    for alterna-
tive methods of assigning         registrants     to voting units by means of geo-
graphical    coding.     Of the alternative       methods, method I would place the
geographical-coding       responsibility      with the Administration,        as called
for by the language of Senate bill            2457, whereas method II would place
such responsibility       at the local level--more         specifically,    with the reg-
istrants   themselves,      aided in some instances        by Postal Service employees.

        The cost estimates,     assuming both centralized                     operation    and decen-
tralized    operation   carried   out through 15 regional                     offices,    are presented
in greater    detail  in appendixes II and III.

                                                Table            I

                        Estimates     of Startup Costs to Implement
                    Universal     Voter Registration     System by Assumed
                    Volumes of Registrations--Centralized         Operation

                                                        Estimated  costs
                             Assumed volume           Method I    Method        II

                                           (000,000     omitted)

                                      40                   $275        $191
                                      70                    352         204
                                     140                    527         230

                                               Table        II

                            Estimates     of Annual Ongoing Costs of
                           Universal     Voter Registration  System to
                           End of Fifth Year by Assumed Volumes of
                            Registrations--Centralized      Operation  (note               a)

                                                          Estimated   costs
                             Assumed volume           Method I      Method II

                                            (000,000        omitted)

                                      22               $ 99             $52
                                      36                134              57
a
    Annual changes        in the inventory     during the second through fifth          years
    (resulting     from     new registrations,     name changes, deaths,     and the like)
    are assumed to        range from 22 million --based on an initial         registration     of
    40 million--to        36 million--based     on an initial   registration     of 70 million.-

                                                       2
   B-173959



          The startup   cost estimates    include a figure     of $72 million   and up-
   ward--depending     on volume-- for computer _I--equipment-purchases.      These costs
   would be nonrecurring       in subsequent years, except costs for equipment
   replacements.      Purchasing   rather   than leasing the equipment would appear
   to be more economical over a period of years.

         Bureau officials    estimated  that about 3 years would be required     to
   implement the systems discussed in this report.        The cost estimates   were
   built  on the assumption that 1 year, or 200 working days, would be re-
   quired to construct    the initial   data base of voter registrations,    assum-
   ing an even work flow, and the work load during the ongoing years would
   tend to be concentrated      in a 4-month period each year.

         We plan to make no further        distribution     of this report  unless copies
   are specifically     requested,   and then we shall make distribution         only af-
   ter your agreement has been obtained or public announcement has been
   made by you concerning       the contents      of the report.    We will be available
   to discuss     the cost estimates    with you if you desire.

                                              Sincerely   yours,




                                    pDeputy
                                        -rComptroller General
                                         of the United States

>/ The Honorable   Edward M. Kennedy
   United States   Senate
                                                             APPENDIX I

           GENERALACCOUNTINGOFFICE COST ESTIMATES

          FOR MAJOR ITEMS INCLUDED IN PROPOSEDSYSTEM

                 OF UNIVERSAL VOTERREGISTRATION

      The proposed system of universal      voter registration
would provide a simple post-card       form by which any citizen
could register    to vote in Federal elections.      The form would
be processed by a new agency-- the Universal       Voter Registra-
tion Administration--to      be created in the Bureau of the Cen-
sus, Department of Commerce. This Administration           would com-
pile registration      lists by voting units and would make the
lists available     to State and local officials    at appropriate
times before each election.

        For comparative purposes the cost estimates of the
voter registration      system were developed assuming two loca-
tional bases-- centralized       and regional     (comprising   15 re-
gional offices)--     and alternative      methods for satisfying     the
requirement of assigning        registrants    to appropriate    voting
units.     Of these alternative      methods, method I would place
the responsibility      for geographical      coding with the Admin-
istration    whereas method II would place such responsibility
at the local level--more        specifically,    with the registrants
themselves, aided in some instances by Post&l Service em-
ployees.

      As shown by the cost estimates included in appendixes
II and III,   the principal      cost variance between methods I
and II is clearly    identifiable     as that involving  the geo-
graphical   coding of registration       cards by voting unit.
The reasons for this variance are discussed in subsequent
sections of this report.
      A centralized      system might cost less than is now indi-
cated by the cost tables; however, we were not able to sup-
port this contention       within the time available.    For example,
the number of administrative        and support employees required
for a centralized      operation  probably would be less than the
total number of administrative        and support employees for
the 15 regional     offices.
                                                         APPENDIX I

      The nzrmber of regional office locations         used for esti-
mating purposes is based on Bureau proposals for regional
census operations-- recognizing     regional work loads.        The
assumption is that the geographical       distribution     of the
work load for voter registration      would approximate that of
census operations.      This might not be so, however, and
fewer locations    conceivably  could be used, which would re-
sult in savings in construction      and administrative      costs.




                                  2
                                                          APPENDIX I    :   '


GEOG$QXPHICAL
           CODING

       Both methods I and II would require the development of
area maps delineating   the boundaries of an estimated 170,000
voting units throughout    the country.   The basic information
required for this task would come from local governments.
A similar procedure was used in developing a geocoding sys-
tem for the 1970 decennial census.

        Also, under both methods, the computerized    address cod-
ing guides developed to date for 233 standard metropolitan
statistical    areas (SMSAs)--covering   about 65 percent of the
population--   would be updated to include all available     street
names and house numbers as well as the numbers of all voting
units within those areas.      Most of these addresses already
are contained in computerized     address coding guides developed
for the 1970 decennial census.       Bureau officials  estimated
that updating these coding guides would cost $6 million.

         Beyond this   point   methods I and II vary as outlined
below.

Method I

      Under method I the computerized address coding guides
would be used to assign the voting-unit  number to registrants
having addresses covered by the guides,

      The geographical    coding of registrants    having addresses
not included in the guides would have to be done manually by
the Administration     by consulting maps or perhaps even by vis-
iting local areas.      Under either a centralized     or a regional
operation,   this procedure becomes extremely expensive and
time consuming-- it is estimated by Bureau officials        to cost
an average $3.75 for each registration,

Method II

       Under method II the computerized address coding guides
would be printed and copies would be distributed           by the Ad-
ministration     to post offices   within SMSAs covered by the
guides.      Area maps delineating    voting-unit  boundaries and
containing     a unique numerical code for each voting unit also
would be prepared and distributed         to post offices,    Persons

                                     3
                                                        APPENDIX I


wishing to register  could be made aware of their voting-unit
code either by an educational  program or by an inspection     of
the maps displayed at their post offices.    The estimated ini-
tial cost of the maps and guides is $9 million.    We have not
included an estimate of the cost of an educational    program.

       Those registrants   who do not wish to visit     their local
post office and who do not know their voting-,unit         code
would deposit registration     cards in the mail--complete      ex-
cept for the voting-,unit    code numbers--and the appropriate
code numbers would be placed on the cards by Postal Service
employees.    We assumed that the Postal Service would have
to assign the code numbers for 25 percent of the registra-
tions.    We assumed also that, because of their familiarity
with a given area, Postal Service employees would be able
to assign the voting-,unit    codes in less time than would em-
ployees working at a centralized      or regional   location,   which
would reduce the costs of this operation.         The estimated
cost of services performed by Postal Service employees is
included in the item "geographical      coding and entering     data
on magnetic tape" for method II shown on pages 14 and15.

        To permit verification     of the accuracy of the coding,
the registration    card could be divided in two parts, perfo-
rated for ease of separation;        one part would be forwarded
by the local post office directly         to the Administration   and
the second part to officials        of the local voting unit.     The
part forwarded to the local voting unit would contain only
the registrant's    name, address, social security        number, and
voting unit code, Local officials           would be responsible  for
verifying    the accuracy of the coding for the address indi-
cated and for notifying        the Administration   of necessary cod-
ing changes.

      This proposed alternative    would solve some of the prob-
lems that might be encountered if the Administration        were
to assign each registrant     to a voting unit and would drasti-
cally reduce the costs of the system.      The Bureau's prelimi-
nary evaluation   of the accuracy of computerized     coding oper-
ations for the 1970 census in the large metropolitan        areas
showed that the coding error rate for census tracts before
correction   was 2.7 percent on the average and as high as
3.2 percent for some areas,      A Bureau official  informed us


                                 4
                                                         APPENDIX.1


that,the    error rate which would result  from matching ad-
dresses to voting ,units on a centralized    or regional basis
probably would be slightly   higher than that for coding cen-
sus tracts.

HANDLINGAND DATA ENTRY OF REGISTRATIONS

       Registration      cards received by the Administration
would be sorted manually in the mailroom by county, SMSA,
or similar     divisions     to facilitate    data entry into the com-
puter.    Assuming an initial          volume of 40 million  registra-
tions,   the cost for this operation would be abuut $200,000
and proportionately        higher for larger volumes.

        The cost estimates were based on the assumption that
keyboard-to-disk     equipment would be ,used to enter the regis-
tration    data into the computerized  system.   Bureau officials
informed us that the cost to lease this equipment on an as-
needed basis would be less than the cost to purchase it.
The estimates were based on the rental cost of $150 a month
for each key station.
                                                               APPENDIX I


COMPUTERREQUIREMEN

        The computer equipment estimates were based on the as-
sumption that the equipment, except the data entry equip-
ment, would be purchased.           The costs of the computer equip-
ment were based generally          on IBM system 370 technology.           Bu-
reau officials      have justified      using this equipment for es-
timating    purposes because (1) it has high-performance               pe-
ripheral    equipment, (2) it has 12 high-speed            input-output
channels, and (3) documentation was readily               available    on
price, performance,        and  other   technical   factors.      Bureau
officials    informed us that the central          processing unit on
the computer system was capable of handling up to 200 mil-
lion registrations        with only slight modifications          and some
additional     peripheral     equipment.     Actual procurement of the
hardware more than likely          would involve consideration         of
equipment available        from all qualified      vendors.

       It is assumed that registration            data for each voting
unit would be sequentially           organized and that the system
would provide random access to the data for the respective
voting units.      Lifetime     voter registration        cards, reissued
only when changes in the registration               record were neces-
sary, would be prepared on conventional                impact printers.
Voter registration        lists would be prepared on 16-miHlimeter
microfilm    and would be sent directly           to the appropriate
voting units,      Bureau officials         informed us that     present
technology would not permit quick or economical impact
printing    of registration      lists    in the allowed time frame.

       The local units would be responsible          for printing      the
microfilmed     information,   if necessary,     for use on voting
days,    It appears that this would not be expensive for the
local units since microfilm         readers and printers       should be
readily    accessible    at the local level--for       example, in
banks, utility      companies, etc .--to permit contracting          for
those services.       Local units not requiring        printed   (hard-
copy) listings      could purchase simple readers at a cost of
about $100 a unit.        A sophisticated   reader and printer
which would produce hard-copy listings           coulzost       up to
$4,000.
       The cost estimates      did not provide for       a telecommuni-
cations system to allow        -regional installations      to exchange

                                     6
                                                              APPENDIX I


data on registrants   entering regional  jurisdictions       other
than those in which they were registered      previously.       The
desirability   of such a system, in this instance,      would de-
pend on the degree of sophistication    required     in the file
maintenance program.    Assuming that rapid transmission         of
"update" data would not be necessary,     it is likely     that
slower modes of data exchange, such as mailing,        could be
used.
      Bureau officials   estimated that the costs of teleproc-
essing equipment, which would link each regional          installa-
tion to the 14 other installations     by leased wide-band tele-
communications channels, would be $5 million       initially        for
nonrecurring   equipment purchases and installation         costs and
$9 million   annually for leasing the lines.

        Bureau officials      estimated also that maintaining          a
quality    control    check would cost $63 million          more annually--
assuming a volume of 140 million          registrations--to        ensure
that the registration         records would be properly        entered into
and maintained      in the Administration's        files.     We were not
able to verify      or accept as a reasonable figure the estimate
of $63 million      because of the lack of actual cost data for
a system which is as large as that proposed and which re-
quires error-free        data outputs.    We did not include,        there-
fore, this cost estimate          in our summary of costs.         Some
costs for quality        control,   however, were included in the
estimates     for entering the data on magnetic tape.




                                     .7
                                                            APPENDIX I

OTHERCOST FACTORS

Construction      of buildings

        Construction      costs of buildings     to house computers,
tape and disk libraries,           operating   and maintenance employees,
etc., were estimated at roughly $40 a square foot, not in-
cluding land.         Approximately     30,000 square feet for each
regional     installation      would be required; 35 percent of this
space would be devoted to premium computer space,                 Computer
installation       sites of a type which would guard against de-
struction      from civil     disorders    were estimated to cost $5
more a square foot on the basis of information              furnished   by
the Department of Defense.

       Bureau officials    estimated that, 'if the system were
centralized,   construction     costs would be reduced approxi-
mately 15 percent.

Personnel      and training

      Bureau officials estimated that the employees directly
associated with each regional    installation would number
about 193, excluding keyboard operators and mailroom clerks
who probably would be employed on a temporary basis as de-
termined by the work load,     The costs for keyboard operators
and mailroom clerks are included in the item "geographical
coding and entering data on magnetic tape" in appendixes II
and III,

       A detailed   listing      of the 193 employees by grade and
function   follows.




                                      8
                                                        APPENDIX I


                                                          Number of
           Function                        Grade          employees
Site manager                                 16                1
Assistant     site manager                   15                1
Shift supervisor                             15                3        .
Assistant     shift supervisor               14                3
Computer specialist                          15                1
     Do.                                     14                1
     Do.                                     13                1
Scheduler                                    13                3
     Do.                                     12                3
     Do.                                      9               12
Work stager/dispatcher                        9                3
     Do.                                      7                3
     Do.                                      4               33
Tape/disk librarian                           9                3
     Do.                                      7                3
     Do.                                      4.              36
Lead operator                                 9                3
Console operator                              7                6
Peripheral     equipment opera-
   tor                                        3               15
Printer operator                              3               18
Stripper                                      2                6
Administrative      and support
   employee                                 (a)               35
aGeneral   Schedule (GS) grade ranges from GS-12 through       GS-3;
 average   grade approximately GS-8.
Salaries for the permanent computer installation           employees
(excluding    keyboard operators     and mailroom clerks) were
computed at step 4, on the basis of the Civil Service Com-
mission's    Salary Table dated January 1971. The initial
costs were increased appropriately         to recognize the employee
requirements,     prior to the start of registration      processing,
for setting up the system and for working with it to correct
any computer program or equipment problems that might arise,
Most of the employees would be employed 6 months before the
start of processing     the registrations.       Some of the top com-
puter employees would be employed as early as 2 years before
the start of processing,       The cost estimates also include
employee costs for recording       the initial    data base,

                                  9
                                                                 APPENDIX I

         The system costs were estimated on the assumption that
  the system would be used solely for voter registration            pur-
  poses.     Bureau officials     estimated that the work load during
  the ongoing years would tend to be concentrated           in a 4-month
  period each year so that the computer employees would have
  little   to do the rest of each year.        We have included full-
  year salaries    for the 193 employees at each installation           in
~ our cost estimates for future years.          If the Administration's
  computer installations        were permitted  to handle "service
  bureaus' work for others on a reimbursable        basis, however,
  ongoing operational       costs of the system could be reduced.

        Information      furnished     to us by the Civil Service Com-
 mission indicated        that the Commission's computer specialist
 registers     presently     contain the names of large numbers of
 computer employees classified            as eligible      for high-level   po-
 sitions,      It  might    be  possible,    therefore,     to  fill  many, if
 not all, of the high-level           positions     listed    above from this
 register.       Consequently we did not include a cost for re-
 cruiting    in the cost estimates.

        We have included in the estimates the cost of 1 week of
 orientation   training  for all employees, at $350 a week in
 excess of salaries.     This assumes that the proposed system
 would be organized quickly     and that only experienced persons
 would be hired.

       We estimated that 80 persons, in addition     to the operat-
 ing employees discussed above, would comprise the "software'"
 development group responsible   for developing procedures and
 computer instructions.   Their salaries   and related benefits--
 adjusted for the period of employment--make up the costs
 for the item "computer program" in appendixes II and III,

 PRINTING OF REGISTRATIONCARDSAND MAILING

        The cost of printing   registration  cards was estimated
 to be $2.90 for each thousand cards.       This could change,
 however, depending on a number of factors,       such as the vol-
 ume to be printed,    the size of the cards, and the printing
 detail   required.

        Mailing cost estimates were based on the number of
 mailings required to forward the registration   cards to the

                                      10
                                                            APPENDIX I

Administration     and to notify   the registrants      of their regis-
tration   under the system,      For method II cost estimates,        we.
also have estimated the cost of forwarding           the second part
of the registration     card to the local voting units.          Mailing
cost estimates for notifying       registrants     of the removal of
their names from the registration         files were not included,




                                  11
                                                 METHOD I


                                    STARTUP COST ESTIMATES FOR

                             MAJOR ITEMS INCLUDED IN PROPOSEDSYSTEM
                                 OF UNIVERSAL VOTER REGISTRATION


                                                                                                   Regional
                                                            Centralized                            (note a>
                                                                (assumed volume         in millions)

                                                     -40         -70          140        -40         -70        140

                 Cost item                                                 (000,000    omitted)

Construction     of buildings   (excluding
   land)                                                        $ 15         $ 15       $ 18         $ 18      $ 18
Transportation      of office furnishings,
   equipment,    etc.                                                  3           3           3           3      3
Computer equipment (including        mainte-
   nance)                                                         78           80          76           88       90
Computer program                                                   4            4           4            4        4
Geography mapping and updating         address
   coding guides                                                       7           7           7           7      7
Geographical     coding and entering      data                                                                        %
   on magnetic tape                                              164          329          94          164      329   ii
Personnel and training                                            72           72          72           72       72
                                                                                                                      3
Mailing    costs and printing    registra-
   tion cards                                                          9      17               5           9
                                                                                                                      i-l
     Total                                                      $352         $X         SD           $365      $540

al5 regional    offices,
                                                       METHODI


                    ONGOINGCOST ESTIMATES FOR MAJOR ITEMS INCLUDED IN

                       PROPOSEDSYSTEMOF UNIVERSAL VOTER REGISTRATION

                                                                                         Regional
                                                                 Centralized             (note a>

                                                               (assumed volume in millions)

                                                                  22           36        22         36

                   Cost item                                     -(OOO,OOO          omitted)             1

Computer equipment         (including      maintenance)          $2       $     3    $    3    $     3

Computer program                                                      2         2         2          2

Geography mapping and updating               address    cod-
  ing guide                                                           1         1         1          1

Geographical  coding        and entering        data on
  magnetic tape                                                   52           85        52         85

Personnel   and training                                          39           39        39         39

Mailing costs    and printing           registration
  cards                                                               3         4

    Total                                                        $2

a15 regional    offices.
                                                    METHODII


                          STARTUPCOST ESTIMATES FOR MAJOR ITFZMSINCLUDED IN
                                PROPOSEDSYSTEMOF UNIVERSAL VOTER REGISTRATION

                                                                                                           Regional
                                                                  Centralized                              (note a>

                                                                      (assumed volume in millions)
                                                        40             70           -140       40            70        -140

                      Cost item                                                  (000,000    omitted)
p'   Construction   of buildings   (excluding
        land)                                          $ 15           $ 15         $ 15       $       18     $ 18      $    18
     Transportation   of office  furnishings,
        equipment, etc,                                      3              3            3             3          3          3
     Computer equipment (including      mainte-
       nance)                                               75          78           80               76          88        90
     Computer program                                        4           4            4                4           4         4
     Geography mapping and updating ad-
        dress coding guides                                   9              9           9             9           9         9
     Geographical   coding and entering      data
        on magnetic tape                                     8          14           29                8          14        29   $
     Personnel and training                                 72          72           72               72          72        72
     Mailing costs and printing     registra-                                                                                    ii
        tion cards                                      5              -2           18            5           2            -LB   s
                                                                                                                                 x
          Total                                        $191           $204         $230       $195           $217

     al5 regional    offices,
                                                                MEX'HODII

                                ONGOINGCOST ESTIMATES FOR MAJOR ITEMS INCLUDED IN

                                     PROPOSEDSYSTEMOF UNIVERSAL VOTER REGISTRATION

                                                                                                     Regional
                                                                       Centralized                   (note a)

                                                                      (assumed ,volume in millions)

                                                                            22       '36         22             36
                             Cost item                                 -(OOO,OOO              omitted)
c    Computer equipment             (including      maintenance)            $2       $3         $3          $3
WI
     Computer program                                                            2        2          2              2

     Geography mapping and updating                   address
       coding guide                                                              1        1          1              1

     Geographical  coding            and entering        data on
       magnetic tape                                                             5        7          5              7

     Personnel      and training                                             39      39           39            39

     Mailing     costs    and printing           registration
       cards                                                                3        5           3              5

         Total                                                              $.g      $2         $2          $.g
     a15 regional        offices.
                                                           APPENDIX IV


         MAJORASSUMPTIONSMADE FOR ESTIMATING COSTS
            OF UNIVERSAL VOTER REGISTRATION SYSTEM


1. Assume that     the initial   registration      work load would to-
   tal:

      --40 million.
      --70 million.
      --140 million.

2. Assume that changes in the Administration's           registration
   files during the second through fifth         years of operation
   would range from 22 million--based         on an initial     regis-
   tration  of 40 million--to    36 million--based       on an ini-
   tial registration    of 70 million.      This assumption is
   based on the following     considerations:

      --Assume that the system will provide lifetime           regis-
         tration   unless changes in record information        are
         necessary.
      --Assume that the data base will change 20 percent
         annually as a result of mobility,    voting-unit     bound-
         ary changes, deaths, and persons declared ineligible
         because of criminal   convictions  or mental incompe-
         tence.   Assume that updates in the record informa-
         tion necessitated   by name changes after marriage or
         divorce would be covered by the mobility       adjustments.

      --Assume that 4 million   residents would become of age
         each year and that all would register  under the sys-
         tem.

      --Assume that 10 million     residents   would elect to reg-
         ister under the system each year (for 40 and 70 mil-
         lion levels),  in addition    to those becoming eligible
         for the first  time.

3. Assume that     data processing     installation(s)    would be:

      --Regionalized.
      --Centralized.

                                  16
                                                     APPENDIX IV


4. Assume that the assignmept of registrants      to the appro-
   priate voting units would be made by:

     --The   Administration.

     --Indiv=idual  registrants aided,   in some instances,    by
        Postal Service employees.

5. Assume that the registration    record would contain,      among
   other th%ngs, a social security     number.




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