oversight

Improved Space Criteria To Be Developed by the Department of Defense for General Academic Classrooms

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-09-13.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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Improved Space Criteria
To Be Developed By The                            . ..-   ’


Department Of Defense
For General Academic Classrooms       B- 133316




UNITED STATES
GENERAL ACCOUNTING   OFFICE
                                   UNITED STATESGMRAL ACCOUNTINGQFFKE
                                                WASHINGTON,   D.C.   20548


DEFENSE    DIVISION




                      B-133316


                      Dear   Mr.   Secretary:

                             This is our report   on improved    space        criteria    to be
                      developed   by the Department    of Defense for         general     aca-           .c’
             v-       demic class rooms.

                               This report   contains   recommendations          for develop-
                      ing improved     space criteria,     which are subject to the
                      provisions    of Section 236 of the Legislative          Reorganization
                      Act of 1970. We will appreciate           receiving    copies of the
                      statements    you furnish     the specified     committees     in accor-
                      dance with these provisions.

                               Copies of this report      are being sent to the Chairmen
                      of the House and Senate Committees            on Appropriations      and                 L, E .
                      to the Chairmen         of the House and Senate Committees        on                     .
          \ $         Government        Operations.     Copies are being sent also to the
                      Director,     Office of Management       and Budget,   and to the
                      Secretaries       of the Army,    Navy, and Air Force.

                                                                 Sincerely   yours,

                                                                                                     \
                                                                                         I P 3


                                                                 Director,   Defense      Division         d


                      The Honorable
                      The Secretary      of Defense




                                          SOTH ANNlVERSARY 1921-1971
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            I    G.kMRAL‘ACCOUNTING OFFICE                      1:4PROVEDSPACE CRITERIA TO BE DEVELOPED
                 REPORT TO THE                                  BY THE-DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FOR GENERAL
            I    SECRETARY OF DEFENSE                           ACADEMICCLASSROOMSB-133316
            I
            I
         I
         I
         I       DIGEST
                 ------
        I
        I
        I
        I        WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE
        I
        I
        I              Because    significant       amounts are appropriated       yearly  for construct&n      of
        I              militarv     traininq     facilities,       the General Accounting    Office  (GAO) examined
        I
                       into the     effectiieness         of the criteria    used by the military   departments    in
        1              planning     space requirements          for general academ ic c lassrooms.
        I
        I
        I
        I        FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
        I
        I
        I              The use of criteria  established    by the military departments             for planning
        :
                       general academic classrooms     can result in the construction             of excessive
        I              classroom  space.
        I
        I
        I              Space allowances     of 15 to 18 square feet for each student were used widely
        I              in planning and constructing      general academic classrooms       in civilian  col-
        I
                       leges and universities.      Army regulations,   however, allow up to 35 square
    1                  feet and Navy regulations     allow 30 square feet for each student for such
    I                  classrooms.     Neither department   has issued instructions      for applying    in-
    I
    I                  formation   on planned student load and training      curriculums      to these cri-
    I                  teria   in determining   the number and sizes of classrooms       to be built.
    I
    I
    I                  At several Army and Navy installations,   classrooms     which provided about
    I                  18 square feet of space for each student had been constructed.         These
    I
    I                  classrooms were considered  adequate by local officials.       (See pp. 5 to 9.)
    I
    I
    I                  Air Force instructions      allow 12 square feet of general academic classroom
    I                  space for each student included          in the total    student    load.  In determining
    I
    I
                       the number and sizes of individual          classrooms,     however, there is no re-
    I                  quirement   that consideration      be given to the number of students         to be
    I
    I
                       seated in class at any one time or to the expected number of hours of
    I                  classroom   instruction.     Thus, unless all students          attend classes simulta-
    I                  neously,  the criterion     will  result    in providing     more than 12 square feet
I                      of space for each student.
I
I
I
                       This criterion   had been followed  in constructing     classrooms   at Lackland
I                      Air Force Base, Texas.    Excessive classroom space costing        about $300,000
I                      had been constructed   but has been converted     since then to other uses.
I
I
I                      Using the same criterion , construction of additional   classrooms contain-
I
I                      ing about $750,000 worth of unneeded space had been planned at Lackland.
I                      The Air Force informed GAO that the plans would be changed in line with
I
I
                       the reduced needs for classroom space.    (See pp. 10 to 12.)
I
I
I
I
I                Tear
                 --   Sheet
                                                                1
                                                                                         SEPT. 13119           7 3_
I
I
I
I
RECOM=~ENDATIONS
             OR SUGGESTIONS
    The Secretary    of Defense    should see that improved space-planning          criteria
    are developed for general        academic classrooms.      These criteria    should. pro-
    vide reasonably     uniform   space allowances      for each student and should re-
    quire that the number of       classrooms    constructed    be based on efficient
    scheduling    and classroom    usage.     (See p. 13.)

    The military  departments    should review their  classroom construction      proj-
    ects to determine    whether it is possible   to reduce or eliminate     proposed
    construction.     (See p. 14.)


AGENCYACTIONSAND UNRESOLVED
                          ISSUES
    The Department of Defense concurred   with GAO's recommendations.              A Tri-
    Service Ad Hoc Committee to develop improved space criteria     for           general
    academic classrooms has been established.

    The military  departments  are reviewing    classroom construction         projects
    to ensure that the requirements    are valid.      (See p. 19.)                             I

    GAO believes    that the corrective      actions  being taken   are responsive  to its
    recommendations      and is requesting    that the Secretary    of Defense advise GAO
    of the results     of such actions.




                                             2
                        Contents
                                                       Page

DIGEST                                                   1

CHAPTER
  1        INTRODUCTION                                 .=
  2        NEED FOR ESTABLISHING IMPROVEDSPACECRITERIA 4
              Army procedures and practices              5
              Navy procedures and practices              7
              Air Force procedures and practices        10
              Space criteria  of civilian   educational
                 institutions                           12
              Conclusions                               13
              Recommendations                           13
              Agency comments                           14

  3        SCOPEOF REVIEW                               15

APPENDIX
  I        Letter dated March 15, 1971, from the
           Deputy Assistant   Secretary of Defense
           (Installations   and Logistics) to the
           General Accounting Office                    19
GiNERAL'ACCOlJNTING OFFICE                   IMPROVED SPACE CRITERIA TO BE DEVELOPED
REPORT TO THE                                BY THE DEPARTMENTOF DEFENSE FOR GENERAL
SECRETARY OF DEFENSE                         ACADEMIC CLASSROOMS5-133316


 DIGEST
-_----


WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE

     Because    significant      amounts are appropriated       yearly for construction     of
     military    training     facilities,       the General Accounting   Office  (GAO) examined
     into the    effectiveness         of the criteria    used by the military  departments    in
     planning     space requirements         for general academic classrooms.


FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

     The use of criteria  established    by the mil-itary departments           for planning
     general academic classrooms     can result in the construction            of excessive+
     classroom  space.

     Space allowances      of 15 to 18 square feet for each student were used widely
     in planning and constructing       general academic classrooms       in civilian    col-
     leges and universities.       Army regulations,   however, allow up to 35 square
     feet and Navy regulations      allow 30 square feet for each student           for such
     classrooms.     Neither department    has issued instructions      for applying     in-
     formation   on planned student load and training       curriculums     to these cri-
     teria   in determining    the number and sizes of classrooms       to be built.

     At several Army and Navy installations,   classrooms     which provided   about
     18 square feet of space for each student had been constructed.          These
     classrooms  were considered adequate by local officials.       (See pp. 5 to 9.)

     Air Force instructions      allow 12 square feet of general academic classroom
     space for each student      included      in the total    student load.    In determining
     the number and sizes of individual           classrooms,     however, there is no re-
     quirement   that consideration       be given to the number of students        to be
     seated in class at any one time or to the expected number of hours of
     classroom   instruction.     Thus, unless all students          attend classes simulta-
     neously,  the criterion     will   result    in providing     more than 12 square feet
     of space for each student.

     This criterion   had been followed  in constructing     classrooms   at Laccland
     Air Force Base, Texas.    Excessive classroom     space costing    about $300,000
     had been constructed   but has been converted     since then to other uses.

     Using the same criterion,    construction   of additional   classrooms contain-
     ing about $750,000 worth of unneeded space had been planned at Lackland.
     The Air Force informed    GAO that the plans would be changed in line with
     the reduced needs for classroom      space.   (See pp. 10 to 12.)




                                             1
                RECOM'e'ENDATIONS
                               OR SUGGESTIONS
                    The Secretary    of Defense    should see that improved space-planning         criteria
                    are developed for general        academic classrooms.      These criteria   should pro-
                    vide reasonably     uniform   space allowances      for each student and should re-
                    quire that the number of       classrooms    constructed   be based on efficient
                    scheduling    and classroom    usage.     (See p. 13.)

                    The military  departments    should review their  classroom construction      proj-
                    ects to determine    whether it is possible   to reduce or eliminate     proposed
                    construction.     (See p. 14.)


                AGENCYACTIONSAND UNRESOLVED
                                          ISSUES
                    The Department of Defense concurred    with GAO's recommendations.           A Tri-
                    Service Ad Hoc Committee to develop improved space criteria       for       general
                    academic classrooms has been established.

                    The military  departments  are reviewing    classroom   construction      projects
                    to ensure that the requirements    are valid.      (See p. 19.)

                    GAO believes    that the corrective     actions  being taken   are responsive  to its
                    recommendations     and is requesting    that the Secretary    of Defense advise GAO
                    of the results     of such actions.




     :_

‘,         -:
     :
          _v_
                                     CHAPTER’ 1


                                  INTRODUCTION

         Commanders of military         installations          are responsible
for developing       facility   requirements            for their     installations
on the basis of assigned          missions         and personnel        strengths.
The sizes and quantities          of facilities            generally      are com-
puted by using standard         facility         criteria      or allowance        man-
uals issued by the individual              military        departments.          Space
criteria     or allowances    for some facilities               are established
by the Office       of the Secretary         of Defense.

        The Office   of the Secretary      of Defense has not estab-
lished    space criteria      for use in planning    and constructing
general    academic classrooms.        Such criteria   have been es-
tablished     by the military     departments.

        General academic classrooms           as discussed      in this report
are those classrooms           in which students      receiving      instruction
usually    are seated at armchair-type            desks.      Such   classrooms
generally     contain     an elevated    podium with sufficient            space          . *
on at least       one side of the podium for portable              training
aids,    such as models and charts.            Also such classrooms            may
contain    television       receivers   or motion picture         screens      and
sound systems.          This report    excludes     commentary     on all
classrooms      which are specially        equipped     with large      station-
ary training       aids,    such as automotive       models or installed
X-ray machines,        or those classrooms        in which students           are
seated at seminar. tables.

        Funds appropriated       to the Department           of Defense      (DOD)
for the construction         of training       facilities       for fiscal       years
1968, 1969, and 1970 amounted to $102.4 million,                       $43.7 mil-
lion,    and $62.6 million,        respectively.          Information      was not
available    on the part of these funds applying                   to general
academic classrooms.           We estimate       that the training         facili-
ties we visited,       costing     about $28 million,           included     gen-
eral academic     classroom      space costing          about $4.2 million.
                                                         CHAPTER       2


                          NEED FOR ESTABLISHING                 IMPROVED       SPACE CRITERIA                 .

                       We believe          that    there    is a need for       the military      de-
              partments        to establish           improved     space criteria       for  use by                 .
              military       installations            to plan     and construct      general    aca-
              demic     classrooms.             Our review      showed that       use of existing
              criteria        can result         in overbuilding.

                      In discussions          with      college       and university            officials
              and campus architects,                we found        general         agreement       that
              space allowances            of 15 to 18 square                feet     for    each student
              were adequate          for    general      academic         classrooms         of most sizes
              and arrangements.              The director           of facilities            planning         for
              a state      college       and university           system        coordinating          board
              informed      us that       data which         had been compiled               on existing
              college      and university           classroom         space       in 21 States          and
              which     covered      566 educational            institutions,             revealed        that
              students      were provided           with     an average           15 square       feet      for
              each student         in general         classrooms.

                      Army space criteria             are contained        in standard        plans
              allowing      17.5     to 18.5 square         feet  for     each student        for   gen-
..            eral     academic      classrooms       constructed       in training        centers
              and in a recently             issued    technical     manual      specifying        25 to
         .c   35 net square          feet     for  each student       for    general      academic
     I
              classrooms        constructed        in service     schools.

                     Navy regulations    specify     that    a planning          figure                  of 30
              square    feet   of gross space for      each student          for     each                class-
              room will      be used and that    the planning       criteria           are               based
              on the maximum number      of students       to be accommodated                            at one
              time.

                      Air     Force    instructions         state      that     12 square         feet     of
              gross     space will         be provided        for    each student           to be trained
              in facilities           designed      for    general       academic       training.            No
              guidance        is given       on how the 12-foot             criterion         is to be
              applied       to the planned          student       load and training               curriculums
              to determine          the specific         sizes      and number        of individual
              classrooms         to be constructed.




                                                                4
         Indications     that use of the           existing    departmental
criteria      can result    in the military           departments'     overstat-
ing space requirements         for general          academic classrooms          are
discussed      below.
ARMY PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES
         The Department     of the Army has issued two distinct         sets
of space criteria       to be followed    when planning   general    aca-
demic classrooms.         One set of criteria    is to be used when
the general     academic classroom     is to be constructed      in a
training    center,   and the other set of criteria       is to be
used when the classroom        is to be constructed     in a service
school.
        The criteria for training   centers   have been issued in
the form of two standard     plans, one for company-size    class-
rooms and one for battalion-size     classrooms.    We have been
advised   that the space allowance   in these plans varies     from
17.5 to 18.5 square feet for each student.
         The classroom-space           criteria       for service      schools      are
contained      in a technical        manual issued in July 1970.                   The
manual specifies          that 25 to 35 square feet of floor                    space
for each student          be allowed       for general       lecture    classrooms.
According      to the manual,        the lower limit           of 25 square feet
is applicable        to a classroom          where only chairs         (without      tab-
let arms) are required            and the upper limit              of 35 square feet
is applicable        when there is a continuous                need for audio-
visual    presentations        and the additional            requirement        for a
working     surface     for writing,         use of reference         material,      etc.
No additional        guidance     is given on how to determine                  the
sizes and number of individual                  classrooms       to be constructed
to correspond        to the planned          student     load and the planned
training     curriculums,
        We believe      that the space requirements            for general      aca-
demic classrooms        as defined       on page 3 of this       report    should
be reasonably      uniform     for both the Army training            centers    and
the Army service        schools.        Furthermore,     on the basis of our
observations     at two Army training            centers   and on the basis
of opinions     of military       officials      at these centers,       we be-
lieve    that 15 to 18 square feet of space for each student                      is
a reasonable     space criterion           for general    academic classrooms.
         At Fort Sam Houston,    Texas,            the Army Medical     Training
Center    teaches enlisted   personnel             basic medical   training      to

                                             5
qualify   as medical      corpsmen.      Our review of nine training
buildings    constructed      in 1967 at a cost of about $390,000
revealed   that these buildings          contained     15 academic class-
rooms each measuring         approximately      1,860 square feet.      We
have been advised        by school officials        that each classroom
provides   space for an average 100 students,              or 18.6 square
feet for each student.

       At Fort Polk, Louisiana,              the Army conducts        basic com-
bat training,      advanced infantry            training,    and combat sup-
port training      for five       training      brigades.      Although    much of
Fort Polk's     real property          dates back to early World War II,
four classroom       buildings       were constructed        in 1967 at a cost
of about $1 million,           two were completed          in June 1970 at an
estimated     cost of about $607,000,               and two additional      class-
room buildings       were planned         for inclusion      in the 1972 Mili-
tary Construction         Program at an estimated            cost of $961,000.

       Our tests    of the classroom      buildings      constructed        in
1967 revealed     that each building        contained     about 15,600
square feet of classroom         space divided       into four classrooms.
Each classroom      was intended     to accommodate a maximum 250
trainees   and to provide      about 15.6 square feet of classroom
space for each.       We noted,     however,     that current      training
classes   averaged    only 220 trainees        and that this       arrange-
ment was resulting       in providing     about 17.7 square feet for
each.

      We have been advised by school officials       at Fort Polk
and Fort Sam Houston that the classroom      space averaging
about 18 square feet for each student    is entirely     adequate
for training  purposes.
        Regarding      the space allowances          of 25 to 35 square feet
for each student           for general    academic classrooms         in Army
service    schools,        the Army, in comments attached           to a letter
dated March 15, 1971, from the Deputy Assistant                     Secretary
of Defense       (Installations        and Logistics)       (see app. I),
pointed    out that Fort Polk and Fort Sam Houston were con-
sidered    training        activities    and, as such, did not qualify
for the classroom            space allowances      prescribed    for Army ser-
vice schools.

        The Army advised   us that the difference               between its
training    centers  and its service  schools     is          in the academic


                                         6
environment,    i.e.,     service     schools provide            appropriate   re-
search staffs,      laboratories,       and libraries,            whereas train-
ing centers    do not.

        A service    school is defined         in Army regulations         as a
school which presents         a curriculum       developed     and approved
by a service      to meet a military         education     and training       re-
quirement     of that service.        A training       center   is defined        in
Army regulations       as a center      either    where non-prior-service
enlisted     personnel    are qualified        in their    basic weapons and
drilled    in the fundamentals        of soldiery       or where basic
soldiers     are taught    those military        occupational      specialities
which can best be taught         to large classes          at regular      inter-
vals in a less than academic environment.

     We understand     that there are 25 Army skrvice      schools
and 13 Army training      centers.    We have been advised   by the
Army that the Military      Academy at West Point is not classi-
fied as either   a service     school or a training  center.

       We did not visit    Army service           schools    to attempt    to
determine    what effect   the cited         differences      between such
schools and Army training         activities         would have on the space
to be provided    to each student          in general      academic class-
rooms of the nature      described        on page 3 of this report.
However, since civilian        colleges        and universities,       which
have an academic environment          , provide       15 to 18 square feet
of space for each student,          the need for the Army to provide
25 to 35 square feet of space for each student                    in class-
rooms in its service      schools      is questionable.

NAVY PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES

        The Department       of the Navy has issued regulations                to
be followed       at Navy installations        in planning     for the con-
struction     of training      facilities.       Such training      facilities
include    buildings     and other facilities,          such as training
courses,    ranges,     and maneuver areas.         Training     buildings
are divided       by the Navy into two categories:              (1) buildings
for academic instruction,              composed basically     of classrooms,
and (2) buildings         for instruction      in the applied       use of
technical     equipment.

     The Navy regulations             state    that   planning       criteria for
an academic or a general            instruction       building       are based on


                                          7
                                                                                                 .
the maximum number of students              to be in class at any one
time.     The  space-planning       figure    established      for academic
or general     instruction      classrooms     is 30 square feet of
gross classroom         space for each student.           This 30-square-
foot criterion       is to provide       space for students,       instructor
stations,     and aisles.

       The regulations           state     aIso that the gross building
area will     be 75 square feet for each student.                            In addition
to providing      classroom         space,      the     75  square      feet    provide
space for administration               offices,         assembly      rooms, conference
rooms, libraries,           and lounges.            The regulations            state    fur-
ther that,     normally,         a classroom         will     not exceed 900 square
feet.     No  additional         guidance       is   provided       to determine          the
sizes and number of individual                    classrooms        to be constructed
to correspond        to the planned           student       load and curriculums.
Navy officials         told us, however,              that those factors             were
considered     in the determination                 of quantitative           requirements
for classrooms         on a case-by-case             basis.       In this        connection,
we found that,         at the Naval Training                Center,       Orlando,      Flor-
ida,   classrooms        providing       less     space     than    the    space     provided
for by Navy criteria             had been built            and that these class-
rooms, which are currently                 in use, were considered                  adequate
by Navy officials           there.

        At the Orlando           Training    Center,      the Navy is in the
process     of constructing            a number of training            facilities        to
provide     recruit       training       and primary      and advanced and/or
specialized        training       for both officers           and enlisted          person-
nel.     The facilities           already    occupied       include      the first       in-
crement to a recruit              training      school which was completed                 in
1968 at a cost of about $1.4 million                      and which contains             about
89,000 square feet of space.                   The Navy is planning               to build
a second increment             to the recruit        training       school of about
the same size as the first                 one.

       The Bureau of Naval Personnel             planned    the construction
of all training      facilities     at the training         center.       During
our review      we were told by Bureau representatives                 that the
first   increment    of the recruit       training      school had been
planned    on the basis of 60 students             for each classroom         and
30 square feet for each student.               In the comments attached
to the Deputy Assistant         Secretary      of Defense's       letter    dated
March 15, 1971, however,         the Navy informed          us that the re-
cruit   training    school had been planned            on the basis of


                                               8
60 students    for each classroom and 24.6 square feet for each
student   but that the classrooms  as actually    constructed
rontain   1,314 square feet for 60 students    for each class-
room, or about 22 square feet for each student.

        By reviewing       as-built      drawings,     we found that the
classrooms      in the first        increment      of the recruit    training
school averaged 1,257 square feet.                    During our visit      to the
training     center,     we observed        that the number of students          in
the classrooms         averaged 74 rather          than the planned      60.
This resulted        in about 17 square feet of space being pro-
vided for each student.

       During our review we were told by a Navy official            that
a cutback      in funds had caused the classrooms      to be con-
structed     in scope smaller   than was originally      planned;   the
Navy informed       us in its comments, however,    that the reduc-
tion in space for each student        had been a result      of normal
planning    and design procedures     rather  than of a lack of
funds.

         In the opinion    of officials      at the recruit      training
school,       the space provided     for each student      in the class-
rooms is entirely        adequate to meet training        needs.        We be-
lieve      from our observations       of classes   in session       that the
facilities       are adequate for the presentation           of the pro-
grammed material.         The Navy commented that 15.5 square feet
for each student       was considered       an acceptable     minimum.




                                          9
AIR FORCE PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES

         The Department            of the Air Force has issued instructions
on procedures             to be followed        by Air Force bases in computing
space requirements                and other quantitative      requirements      for
facilities.             Included     in these instructions       are space-
planning         criteria       for three types of training         facilities,
i.e.,       flying      training,      technical    training,   and basic mili-
tary and general               academic training.

         For basic mil-itary           and general           academic training              facil-
ities,     a criterion        of   12    square        feet    for    each    student       is
specified      for planning           space requirements.                 Although        the in-
structions       do not explain            how this         12-square-foot          criterion
is to be used in determining                     classroom         space to be con-
structed     in the training             facilities,          our tests        of the use of
the criterion         at one Air Force base and our discussions                                with
Air Force officials             indicate         that the 12-square-foot                 crite-
rion is intended          to be applied              to the total         planned       student
load in determining             total      classroom         space requirements.                  In
determining        the number and sizes of individual                          classrooms,
there is no requirement                that consideration               be given to the
number of students            to be seated in the room at any one time
or to the expected            number of hours of classroom                       instruction.
Thus unless       all students           attend        classes      simultaneously,            the
criterion     will     result      in providing             more than 12 square feet
of space for each student.

        As discussed     below our test of the use of this space
criterion     in the planning      and construction   of general  aca-
demic classrooms        at Lackland    Air Force Base, Texas, revealed
that excessive       classroom    space estimated   to cost about
$300,000 had been constructed.

         At Lackland    the Air Force is in the process             of con-
structing     composite    recruit     training    and housing      facilities
to replace      World War II facilities         that were used formerly.
At the time of our review at the installation,                   new composite
facilities      for approximately        8,000 trainees       had been con-
structed     and were in use and similar           facilities     for an ad-
ditional     10,900 trainees       were planned.

         The Air Force included                10 classrooms       of about 1,200
square feet in each of the                   composite    facilities.        Air Force
officials     told us that the               requirement     for total     classroom


                                                 10
space in each facility      had been computed by multiplying   the
Air Force criterion      of 12 square feet by the number of
trainees     (about 1,000) to be housed and trained    in each com-
posite   facility.

         According      to an installation             school official,        the opti-
 mum number of students               to be seated in each classroom               was
 50.     Under such a seating               arrangement,      each student       would
 be allowed        24 square feet of space in the classrooms                      con-
 structed     at Lackland.            We observed,        however,     that most of
 the classes        being held at Lackland              contained      100 men (two
 training     groups of 50 students                each),   each student       being al-
 lowed about 12 square feet of floor                      space.      We observed      also
 that the classrooms           were being used to train                a substantial
*number of trainees           still       housed in World War II facilities.
 As more new composite              facilities       are constructed,        these
 trainees     will     be trained         in the newer classrooms           and thus
 the number of students               for each classroom          will    be lessened'.

        The basic training            curriculum      at Lackland        consisted    of
6 weeks of intensive            training       which included         a total     of
64 hours of classroom             instruction.         On the basis of each re-
cruit's     receiving       64 hours of classroom             instruction       over a
6-week period,          each of the 10 classrooms               in the composites
would be used an average 2.13 hours each day (exclusive                              of
breaktime)       if the classes           had 100 students         and an average
4.26 hours each day (exclusive                  of breaktime)         if the classes
had only 50 men.            It appears to us that,              if computations       of
this    type had been made before               construction        of the facili-
ties and if classes            had been scheduled           in such a way as to
attain     maximum daily        utilization        of each room, the Air Force
might have determined             that fewer than 10 classrooms                  for each
composite      facility       was needed.

        Our review of classroom       utilization           in the four most
recently     constructed   and occupied         composite        facilities       re-
vealed    that 14 of the 40 classrooms             had been converted             to
other uses, such as officer-briefing                rooms, mail rooms, in-
structor     dayrooms,   and laundry      concession          shops.        We esti-
mate that the 14 converted         classrooms         had cost about
$300,000 to construct.         We believe        that,      if,    in the opinion
of Air Force officials,        the composite          facilities           should
contain     space for the functions         being provided             in converted
classrooms,      then such space should be justified                     on its own



                                             11
merits   and should       not be planned and constructed                in the
composites   on the       basis of classroom criteria.

         At the time of our review,      the Air Force planned       to con-
struct     10 more such composite    facilities     which would include
100 academic classrooms.        On the basis of the classroom            con-
version     in the four composites     that recently     had been con-
structed,      we estimate that excess classrooms        costing    about
$750,000 would have been included            in the proposed     composite
facilities      if the same design had been used.

       In the comments attached              to the Deputy Assistant           Secre-
tary of Defense's        letter     dated March 15, 1971, the Air Force
advised    us that the reduction             in classroom       requirements      at
Lackland    Air Force Base was being recognized                    in a new defini-
tive drawing which probably              would prescribe          seven or eight
classrooms     for each composite            building.       Also we were ad-
vised that the definitive             drawing       would incorporate        space
requirements      for support       activities         of the types now housed
in existing      converted      classrooms.

SPACE CRITERIA-OF
CIVILIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

         To compare space criteria             for general        academic class-
rooms as used by the military                 departments       with such criteria
used by civilian           educational      institutions,         we interviewed
officials       of a State college         and university          system coordi-
nating      board,     a university     system coordinating             board,   a
State university,           a junior    college       district,      and a church-
affiliated        college.      We also obtained            comments on required
classroom       space from a designer            of junior      college     campuses
and from instructors            at three college            campuses.     In addi-
tion,      we reviewed      studies    which pertained          to classroom
space and which covered about 100 colleges                        and universities,
and we visited          campuses to determine             the sizes and student-
seating      capacities      of classrooms.

        From discussions        with the above officials            and our re-
view of pertinent         studies,      we concluded      that 15 to 18 square
feet of net classroom           space for each student          was the gener-
ally    accepted    requirement       in civilian      educational      institu-
tions.      For example,      an official       of a university        system co-
ordinating      board stated       that the maximum space needed for
each student      for tiered       classrooms      with tablet-armchairs         was
16 square feet.         A junior      college     educational      consultant    who

                                          12
had designed         campus facilities           in five       States       told   us that
17 square       feet     of classroom       space for         each student         was pro-
vided    for classrooms           to accommodate           25 students          and that
16 square       feet     for   each student        was provided           in classrooms
for    30 to 50 students.             The director          of facilities          planning
for a State,college             and university           system     coordinating
board    stated      that    data which       had been compiled               on existing
college     and university          classroom        space     in 21 States          and
which    covered       566 educational         institutions           revealed       that    an
average      15 square       feet   for    each student          was the general           rule.

CONCLUSIOtiS

        We believe        that    there      is a need for           the military          de-
partments        to formulate        and issue         improved        space criteria
for   planning        and constructing            general       academic      classrooms.
We believe         that   the use of existing               departmental         criteria
can result         in military       installations’             overstating        classroom
space     requirements         and thereby          constructing          unneeded       class-
room space.

          In our opinion     general   academic      classrooms                 at military
installations        of the three     military      departments                 are similar
in nature        and should   be planned       on the basis     of              reasonably
uniform       space criteria     for  each student.

          On the basis         of our observations,             opinions     of military
officials          at the installations            visited,      and evidence         on        *
space criteria            of civilian       universities,          we believe       that    15
to 18 square          feet     for    each student          is a reasonable        space al-
lowance        for   general       academic     classrooms.          We believe       also
that,      to avoid       construction        of unneeded        classroom      space,      the
number       and sizes       of classrooms         should      be planned      with     the
intent       that    each classroom         receive       maximum utilization.

RECOMMENDATIONS

          We recommend          that   the Secretary           of Defense      have im-
proved        space-planning         criteria        developed     for    use by military
installations            in planning         and constructing          general     academic
classrooms.            Such criteria           should     (1) provide      reasonably
uniform         space allowances           for    each student       and (2) require
that      the number        of classrooms          constructed       be based      on sched-
uling       training       courses     and the corresponding              number    of hours
of classroom           use in an efficient             manner.


                                                 13
       We recommend also that the Secretary       of Defense havi:
the military     departments  review their   planned and approved
general    academic classroom     projects to determine   whether  it
is desirable     and feasible   to reduce or eliminate    programmed
classroom    construction.

AGENCY COMMENTS

       In a letter    dated March 15, 1971, the Deputy Assistant
Secretary     of Defense (Installations       and Logistics)      indicated
agreement with our conclusions          and recommendations       and ad-
vised us that DOD had established          a Tri-Service       Ad Hoc Com-
mittee    to develop   improved space criteria        for general      aca-
demic classrooms      as we had recommended.        We have been ad-
vised that such criteria,        when developed,      are to be included
in the Department      of Defense Construction        Criteria    Manual,
DOD Instruction      4270.1-M.

       The Deputy Assistant     Secretary    advised us that the mili-
tary departments     had informed    his office     that they were re-
viewing   their  planned and approved     general      academic class-
room projects    to ensure that the requirements           are valid.

      We believe    that the corrective   actions    being     taken   are
responsive    to our findings   and recommendations.

     We are requesting     the Secretary      of Defense to advise
us of the results    of the corrective       actions  in process.




                                    14
                                       CHAPTER 3


                                  SCOPE OF REVIEW

         We examined the military          departments'    policies,      proce-
dures,      and practices     relating     to space criteria       used in
planning      and constructing        general    academic classrooms       and
compared them with criteria             used by civilian      educational
institutions.

         We interviewed       installation        officials          responsible       for
initiating       requirements        for military         construction         projects
and officials        of the organizations              using the facilities.
We also examined pertinent                documents,        records,      and reports
relating      to specific       classroom      facilities          that have been            *
constructed,        were under construction,                or had been planned
for construction         at the following            installations         visited.              .

       Army Infantry       Training     Center,     Fort Polk,       Louisiana
       Army Medical      Training      Center,     Fort Sam Houston,         Texas
       Naval Training       Center,     Orlando,       Florida
       Lackland   Military       Training      Center,      Lackland   Air Force
         Base, Texas

       In addition,        we interviewed       officials       of civilian        edu-
cational    institutions         responsible      for planning         and utilizing
classroom     space, as well as instructors,                 and a consultant
who had designed         several     college    campuses (including             class-
rooms).     Also,     we visited      campuses to determine              the sizes
and student-seating          capacities      of classrooms          and we re-
viewed and extracted           pertinent     data from reports             which per-
tained    to classroom        space and which covered             institutions         of
higher    education      throughout       the United      States.

         We conferred      with internal      review  and audit      groups at
the four military          installations      visited  to determine       the
extent      of their   reviews        of the military  construction       pro-
gram requirements          for academic classroom        facilities.        No
such reviews        had been made or were being planned              at the in-
stallations       we visited.




                                               15
APPENDIX
---




 17
                                                                                               APPENDIX I


                                              ASSISTANT   SECRETARY      OF DEFENSE
                                                    WASMINGTON,   D.C.   20301




                                                                                      15.MAR 1971
INSTALl.AlIONS   AND    LOGISTICS



                 Mr.    C. M. Bailey
                 Director,   Defense Division
                 United States General    Accounting               Office
                 Washington,    D. C. 20548
                                                                                                          .
                 Dear       Mr.     Bailey:

                  Your letter     of January     11, 1971’ enclosed       for review         and comments
                 copies of draft report         (OSD Case 3229) on the need for establishing
                 improved      space criteria       for use in planning        and constructing         genera.1
                  academic     classrooms.         Your report      points out the divergence              in the
                  space criteria      used by the Military         Departments          in planning    class-
                 room space and recommends                 that the Secretary         of Defense initiate
                  action to establish       improved      space planning       criteria      that provides
                 for reasonably        uniform    per student space allowances                that reflect
                 proper     consideration      of course      scheduling    and efficient        usage of
                  classrooms.        The report      further    proposes     that the Military         Depart-
                 ments review        current    projects     to insure their       size and need are
                 justified.

                 This office agrees with the need for reasonably                    uniform     space
                 criteria    that reflects    proper    consideration         of course     scheduling
                 and efficient     use of classroom       space.      We have therefore           estab-
                 lished a Tri-Service         Ad Hoc Committee           to develop such criteria
                 as recommended          by the draft report.         When the work of this
                 Committee       is complete,      the resulting     criteria     will be included        in
                 the Department        of Defense Construction           Criteria     Manual,     DOD
                 Instruction     4270. 1 -M.     The Military       Departments         have informed
                 this office that they are reviewing            their planned and approved,              but
                 incomplete,       general   academic     classroom        projects     to insure     that
                 the requirements         are valid,

                 With regard   to your findings        at the military   installations     visited,
                 the enclosed   comments       received     from the Military       Departments     will
                 clarify  the points raised      in the draft report.       You may wish to modify
                 the draft report   to reflect     these clarifying    points.



                                                                  19
                              APPENDIX I


                                  If we may   be of further   assistance      in this   matter,   please   let us
                                  know.

                                                                               Sincerely,




                                                                                       Glenn V. Gibson
                                                                           Deputy Assistant Seosetary of Defense


                                  Enclosure
                              .




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                                                                             20
                                                                                    APPENDIX        I


  Military   Departments    f Comments    on GAO Draft Report,       “Need
for Establishing    Improved    Space Criteria   for Use in Planning      and
Constructing     General  Academic    Classrooms    lt dated January    11,197l
                             (OSD Case No. 3229)
Army Comments

The GAO survey      covered      classrooms      at Fort Polk and Fort Sam
Houston.    The activities      surveyed     are considered       training     activities
as opposed to Service        schools and as such do not qualify             for the space
allowances   published     in TM 5-843-1.         In actuality     the space allowances
for general  academic       classrooms      for training     centers     vary from 17.5
to 18.5 square feet per student for standard             classrooms,          and reduces
to 15 square feet per student for large classrooms.

Navy     Comments

 The actual history           of planning     to eventual       construction      of the Recruit
 Training       Building     at NTC Orlando         is delineated       in Tab I (attached).
 Contrary       to the statement         contained     in the GAO drsft report,               the re-
duction to 22 square feet per student station was a result                             of the normal
planning       and design procedures            rather     than a lack of funds.            In the case
 of recruits,        they are berthed        and trained       by companies        and because of
the fluctuating         loads, the size of the recruit             company      varies      from 60
men to 85 men.             Therefore,       both the berthing         and training        spaces must
provide      at least minimum            acceptable      space per recruit         when the company         9
reaches       its maximum         size.     At NTC Orlando           recruit   facilities       have been
designed        and constructed        to accomplish         this requirement.            The 22 square
foot allowance          selected    for recruits       at NTC Orlando         also was based on
furniture       requirements         of only chairs       with small tablet arms.                There
would be limited           class participation         requiring      the recruits       to circulate
within the classroom.               The only storage          problem      per recruit        would be
for their rifles         which are stacked in gun racks on the walls.                         Final con-
struction       of the Recruit       Training      Building      was accomplished           for approxi-
mately      $600,000       less than the amount authorized                 and appropriated.

The total amount of classroom        space at NTC Orlando   actually constructed
is 37,684 square feet.      Based on total recruit loading of 4000, this re-
sults in 9.4 square feet per student which compares       favorably  with the
criteria used in the civilian    sector.

Air    Force   Comments

As noted by the GAO draft report,       the criterion     of 12 square feet per
student was used to determine     classroom       requirements      in the new
composite  buildings at Lackland     AFB.     The requirement         also cor-
responded  to usage of classrooms      in Basic Military       Training    (BMT)
APPENDIX I


  at that time (1959-1964).            This usage called for a six week BMT
  course    of 96 academic         hours.       The academic       hours were later re-
  duced to 64 and this, in turn,              reduced     the total classroom       reyuire-
  ments.      The reduction        in classroom        requirements      at Lackland       AFB
  is being recognized         in a new definitive          drawing   for its future
  composite     buildings.        The definitive       will also incorporate       the space
  requirements       for support       activities     of the type now housed in exist-
  ing converted      classrooms.          The past five years of experience              will
  be incorporated       to insure      an optimum         balance between the resident
  load, the support        areas,     and classrooms          that make up a BMT com-
  plex.   It appears that seven or eight classrooms,                    containing     a total
   of 500 to 600 seats, will be. required               for each 1040 man composite
  building o




  Attachment
  (Tab I)




                                             22
                                                                                          APPENDIX     I



          PLANNING, PROGRAMMING
                             AND CONSTRUCTIONOF RECRUITTRAINING BUILDING
                      NAVALTRAINIRGCENTEB, ORLANDO,FLORIDA

1.   Summary
                                                       Total Area           Individual
                                 Price      Gross Area Classroom            Classroom Size   SF/Recruit

a.   Initial Planning          $2,177,000    96,063        SF 39,960 SF       1,480 SF          2~6
b.   Refined Estimate           1,985,OOO    87,363        SF 36,344 SF       1,344 SF          22.4
c.   Actual Construc-
      tion                      1,384,374    89,000        SF 37,684 SF        1,314 SF         22.0

2.   Actual Planning and Construction            for Recruit     Training
a.   Plan approximately        40% of recruits        in classroom at one time:
         ,!+.O$
              x 4,000 recruits      average on board = 1,600 (1,620 used)
b.   Each classroom should accommodate a company of 60 recruits.
c.   Average on board loading will vary contiruously.   Maximum company size of 85
     recruits.   This limit determined by management experience. The barracks
     capacity would limit the company size to 96 men.
d.   The type of curriculum requires 22 SF/recruit rather than a maximum of 30 SF/
     student. When company reached maximum size of 85 recruits,     the 15.5 SF/recruit
     is considered to be an acceptable minimum.
e.   The initial  plan provided approximately 24.6 SF/recruit.   During OSD review it
     was determined that this should be reduced to 22.4 SF/recruit.
f.   The scope authorized and funded by Congress was at 22.4 SF/recruit.
g.   The actual   construction provides 22 SF/recruit based on a 60 man company.
3.   Utilization
a.   Since commissioning on 1 July 1968 there have been several occasions when the
     total recruit on board level required the company size to be as high as 74
     recruits.    While this loading provides less than optimum space per recruit it
     and the maximum company size of 85 recruits will be workable.
b.   Under normal peacetime conditions the company size at Orlando will vary between
     60 and 70 men per company or a range 19 to 22 SF per recruit in the classroom.




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                                                       Y




        0.S GAO. Wash.. D.C.                               23
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1




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