oversight

Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Tulare County Serving Rural-Migrant Children

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-08-25.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

i                      .   .
          . -. .   -




    REP


    Assessment
    Teacher Cor       rogram At The
    University Of Southern California
    And Participating Schools In
    Tulare County Serving
    Rural-Migrant ChildrenB.764031(1J
    Office of Education
    Department   of Health,    Education,     and Welfare




    BY THE COMPTROLLER GENERAL
    OF THE UNITED STATES


                                            AUG.25,1971
                    COMPTROLLER     GENERAL     OF      THE   UNITED   STATES
                                  WASHINGTON.    D.C.     20548




     B- 164031(l)




     To the President  of the Senate and
I*
+    the Speaker of the House of Representatives

              This is our report     on our assessment        of the Teacher
     Corps program        at the University     of Southern     California     and
     participating     schools in Tulare      County serving      rural-migrant
     children,     This program      is authorized    by title V of the Higher
     Education     Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C.       1101) and is administered
     by the Cffice     of Education,    Department     of Health,     Education,     I--%
     and Welfare.

            Our review was made pursuant    to the Budget and Account-
     ing Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 53), and the Accounting   and Auditing
     Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 67).

             Copies of this report   are being sent to the Director,
     Office of Management       and Budget; the Secretary   of Health,
     Education,    and Welfare;   and the Commissioner    of Education,
     Department     of Health, Education,   and Nelfare.




                                                  Comptroller             General
                                                  of the United           States




                            50TH ANNIVERSARY                  1921- 1971
            I   CO&PTROLLERGENERAL'S                       ASSESSMENTOF THE-TEACHER CORPS PROGRAMAT
            I   REPORT TO THE CONGRESS                     THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND
            I
            I
                                                           PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS IN TULARE COUNTY SERVING
            I                                              RURAL-MIGRANT CHILDREiJ
            I                                              Office   of Education,  Department of Health,
            I
            I                                              Education,   and Welfare B-164031(1)
            I
            I
            I
            I   DIGESi
                _-----
            I
I           I
            I
            I
            I
                WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE
        I
        I              This is the fifth       in a series of reports    by the General Accounting      Office
        I
        I              (GAO) consitituting        a nationwide   review of the Teacher Corps program.
        I              (See app. I .)      This report    assesseS-‘%e  program at the University     of South-
        I
        I
                       ern California      (USC) and at participating      schools in Tulare County serving
        I              rural-migrant     children.      The program is referred    to as the USC rural-
        I
        I
                       migrant    program.
        I
        I              Backpound
        I

        i              The Teacher Corps was established         in the Office      of Education, Department
        I
        I
                       of Health,  Education, and Welfare        (HEW), under     the Higher Education Act
        I              of 1965.
        I
        I
                       The Teacher Corps' legislative       objectives   are to strengthen   educational
        I              opportunities      for children in areas having concentrations      of low-income
        I
                       families     and to encourage colleges    and universities   to broaden their
        I              programs of teacher preparation.                                                  f
        I

        1              The Teacher Corps recruits         and trains    qualified     teachers (team leaders)
        I              and inexperienced   teacher-interns         for service    in areas of low-income
        I
        I              families.    Members of the corps are assigned to schools in teams, each
        I              of which consists   of a team leader and several             interns.   The interns    take
        I
        I
                       courses leading to college         or university     degrees and to qualification
        I              for State teaching    certification.
    I
    I
    I                  Local educational  agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent of the
    I                  salaries of Teacher Corps members; the Office   of Education pays the re-
    I
    I                  mainder of the salaries   and the costs of the interns'  courses.  (See p. 7.)
    I
    I                  Federal appropriations  for the Teacher Corps program totaled    about $77 mil-
    I
    I                  lion from its inception   through June 1970.   Federal funds of about $1.2 mil-
    I                  lion had been expended under the USC rural-migrant     program as of June 1970.
    I
    I
                        (See p. 7.)
    I
    I
    I

    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
    I
                                                                                   AUG.25,1971
    I           Tear
                --   Sheet
    I
    I
    I
                                                                                                                          I




FINDINGS AND CONCLUSiONS                                                                                                 *I
                                                                                                                          I
        Strengthening       echeat~cna7,     opportunities

        The USC rural-migrant        program was designed to meet the special          educational                            I1
        needs of children       of low-income,  rural-migrant    families   of Tulare County,                                  I
        California.     The program strengthened       the educational    opportunities      avail-                            ;
        able to children      in the schools where corps members were assigned.              A
        large percentage      of the children   in each of the four participating           school                            i
        districts   were Mexican-.4merican     (or Spanish speaking).,      (See pp. 10, 13,                                  I
                                                                                                                              '           ,
        and 18.)                                                                                                              I

        Corps members ProvQded additional                   teaching        manpower,      enabling        the schools        I
        to                                                                                                                    I
                                                                                                                              I
*         --give      more individualized         instruction,                                                                I
                                                                                                                              I

          --provide       new or expanded        classroom         and extracurricular             activities,
             and

          --improve       the ratlo     of students         to teachers.          (See p. 18.)                                I
                                                                                                                              I
                                                                                                                              I
        Corps members introduced      teaching methods that were new to the schools                                           I
                                                                                                                              I
    *   and such subjects     as English taught as a second language and science and
        algebg?a taught in Spanish.       GAO was informed that some of the new teaching                                      i
        techi,ques and classes would be discontinued,      because of insufficient  staff                                     1
                                                                                                                              I
        and funds, after    the Teacher Corps program in Tulare County was completed                                           I
        in June 1971.     (See pp. 26 to 29.)                                                                                  I
                                                                                                                               I

        School officials       and teachers      generally   believed   that the interns    were well                             i
                                                                                                                                  I
        prepared for teaching        gqd communicated well with the children.            Some be-
        lieved    that the individual       instruction     and classes    taught in Spanish were                                 I
        especially     beneficial    in improving       the children's    educational  achievements.                              ;
         (See p. 19.)                                                                                                             I
        Corps members organized    or involved                  themselves      with     various      educational
        community activi%ies,   including
                                                                                                                                  I
          --evening    cla$ses        to teach    Spanish-speaking             adults      English        as a second             I
             language;                                                                                                            I
                                                                                                                                  I

          --a      summer re@-eation       program    for       children;

          --a      project to help high       school students   develop                 craft    skills      to help
                them qbtain jobs after        graduation;   and

          --.a youth center wit;? a paperback library                        and classes        in ceramics,
              art, and photogra?+y.  (See p. 32.)

        The interns    assigned to the two high schools                       did pot get along well             with
        the faculties.      Some interns were reassigned                      to elementary  schools,            one



                                                                                                                                      I
                                                            2                                                                         I
I
I
I
I
I
I

i
I     was dismissed,       and others resigned.      The Teacher Corps needs to assist
I     universities      in creating    an atmosphere in which corps members can ef-
I
I     fectively    participate      in training  assignments   in high schools. (See
I     p. 29.)
I
I
I     At an elementary     school having about 35 students,         the two full-time      reg-
I
I
      ular teaching    positions     were filled   by corps members.      This arrangement,
I     which lasted 2 years, was made because regular            teachers    could not be
I
I
      obtained by the school district          for the beginning of the 1969-70 school
I     year.   Thereafter     no further   attempt was made to obtain regular          teachers.
I     The arrangement    resulted     in Teacher Corps funds'      supplanting    State and local
I
I
      funds that otherwise       would have been used for regular        teacher salaries.
!      (See p. 21.)                                                                           .
I
I
t     GAO believes   that the arrangement   under which these corps members operated
I     was not authorized    under the enabling legislation   which provides that no
I
I     corps member be used to replace any teacher who is, or would otherwise       be,                            .
I     employed by a local educational     agency.
I
 I
 I    More than half of the interns   who had completed the program at the time
 I
 I
      of GAO's review had accepted teaching   positions  serving children of rural-
 I    migrant or other low-income   families.   (See p. 34.)
 I
 I
 I    Broadening           keacher-training      programs
 I
I
I
      The USC rural-migrant           program was successful           in broadening      the university's
      teacher preparation          program.       USC established        a special   curriculum       for the
      interns,     which included        existing    university       courses which were modified            to
      make them more relevant            to the needs of the          corps members and new courses
      which were designed to develop proficiency                    in the Spanish language and
      sensitivity      toward the learning          problems of       Spanish-speaking       children     of
I     rural-migrant      families.         (See p. 38.)
I
I
I     The rural-migrant   program was the university's                   first  attempt   to train  teach-
I     ers for children  of rural-migrant  families.                    As a result   of its experience
I
I
      with the program, USC developed
I
I        --a similar           teacher    internship program using Teacher Corps courses
I
I           to train         teachers     to meet the educational  needs of Suanish-speaking
I           children         in rural     schools,
I
I
I        --courses          for training  students in its        regular  teacher       preparation
I           program         to teach English to children         who speak other        languages,
I
I           and
I
I
I        --a      center     for   studies    in rural   and migrant    education.       (See p. 39.)
I
I
I
      The university also made some of the courses                     that had been developed           for
I     the Teacher Corps available to other students                     majoring in education.             (See
I
I
      p. 41.)
I
I
I
I
I
I    Tear Sheet

I
I
I
RECOikWENDATIONSOR SUGGESTIONS

     The Secretary   of HEW should clarify    for Teacher Corps officials  the intent
     of the enabling   legislation   with respect  to the use of corps members.     He                    I
     should emphasize to the Office of Education       the need.to monitor the pro-                      I
                                                                                                         I
     gram more closely    to help ensure that corps members are used in accordance                       I
     with such intent.      (See p. 36.)-                                                                I
                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                         I
     The Secretary      of HEW should also provide for the Office   of Education    to                   I
                                                                                                         I
     assist  universities     in developing approaches for creating    an atmosphere                     I
     in which corps members can efktively         participate in training    assignments                 I
     in high schools.       (See p. 36.)                                                                 I



AGENCY ACTIONS AND UNRESOLVEDISSUES                                                                      I
                                                                                                         I
                                                                                                         I
    The Assistant      Secretary,  Comptroller,  HEW, concurred with GAO's recommenda-                   i
    tions and said that they would be implemented.         He stated, however, that                      I
    HEW believed that the use of the corps members who assumedthe entire          teach-                 I
    ing responsibility       at a school was proper and in accordance with the legisla-                  I
    tive intent    of the Teacher Corps program.      (See p. 36.)

     GAO recognizes      that,   because regular  teachers   were not available,       the               I
     initial   assignment      of corps members to State or locally     allotted     teaching            I
     positions    at the school may not have been a violation         of legislation       govern-       i
     ing the Teacher Corps program.          GAO believes,   however, that the arrangement               i
     under which the team of corps members operated resulted            in a violation       of          I
     the legislation      when the Tulare County Department of Education did not con-                    ;
     tinue its search for regular        teachers   during the 2 years of the corps members'
     assignment     to the school.

    The Secretary of HEW therefore    should emphasize to the Office   of Education
    that members of the Teacher Corps are not to be used to replace any teachers
    who are, or would otherwise    be, employed by a local educational   agency.                     I
    (See p. 37.)                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
MATTERS FOR CONSIDERATION BY THE CONGRESS
                                                                                                     ;
                                                                                                     I
    This series of reports    provides   the Congress with information        on the ef-             I
                                                                                                     I
    fectiveness    of the Teacher Corps program in achieving        its legislative    ob-           I
    jectives    and on the measures needed to improve its effectiveness.            The con-         I
    tents of this report    and other reports     in the series may be of use to the                 I
                                                                                                     I
    Congress in its deliberations      on extending    the program.                                  I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I

                                                                                                     i
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                            4                                                        I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                                                                                                     I
                         Contents
                                                               Page

DIGEST                                                           1

CHAPTER

  1       INTRODUCTION                                          5
              Operation of Teacher Corps program                6
              Funding                                           7
              Program participation                             8

  2       USC RURAL-MIGRANTTEACHERCORPSPROGRAM                  10
              Selection of corps members                        14

  3       IMPACT OF PROGRAM     ON STRENGTHENING     EDUCA-
          TIONAL OPPORTUNITIESFOR CHILDREN OF LCW-
          INCOMEFAMILIES                                        18
              Work performed by corps members in
                participating     schools                      19
                  Utilization     of team leaders              20
                  Utilization     of interns                   21
                   Teaching techniques,      new classes,
                      and special projects     introduced by
                      corps members                            26
                  Need for special training         for in-
                      terns assigned to high schools           29
              Education-related     community activities       32
              Retention of corps members as regular
                teachers                                       34
              Conclusions                                      35
              Recommendations to the Secretary of
                Health, Education,      and Welfare            36
              Agency comments                                  36
  4       IMPACT OF PROGRAM      ON BROADENINGUSC's
          TEACHERPREPARATIONPROGRAM                            38
              Academic course work offered to rural-
                 migrant program interns                       38
              Influence     of rural-migrant   program on
                 the university's      regular teacher
                 preparation     program                       39
              Conclusion                                       42
CHAPTER                                                              Page

       5   ROLE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT
                                       OF EDUCA-
           TION IN THE PROGRAM                                        43
               Conclusion                                             45

       6   SCOPEOF REVIEW                                            46

APPENDIX

       I   GAO reports on reviews of the Teacher
             Corps program at selected universities
             and local educational   agencies                         49

   II      Letter dated May 20, 1971, from the Assis-
             tant Secretary,  Comptroller,  Department
             of Health, Education,  and Welfare, to the
             General Accounting Office                                50

 III       Principal   officials of the Department of
              Health, Education,  and Welfare respon-
              sible for the administration   of activi-
              ties discussed in this report                           52

                               ABBREVIATIONS

GAO        General      Accounting   Office

           Department      of Health,    Education,    and Welfare

USC        University      of Southern    California
COMPTROLLERGENERAL'S                     ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHER CORPS PROGRAMAT
REPORT TO THE CONGRESS                   THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND
                                         PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS IN TULARE COUNTY SERVING
                                         RURAL-MIGRANT CHILDREN
                                         Office   of Education,  Department of Health,
                                         Education,   and Welfare B-164031(1)


DIGEST
__----


WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE

    This is the fifth       in a series of reports    by the General Accounting     Office
    (GAO) consitituting        a nationwide   review of the Teacher Corps program.
    (See app. I.)       This report    assesses the program at the University    of South-
    ern California      (USC) and at participating     schools in Tulare County serving
    rural-migrant     children.      The program is referred   to as the USC rural-
    migrant program.

    Background

     The Teacher Corps was established         in the Office      of Education, Department
     of Health,  Education, and Welfare        (HEW), under     the Higher Education Act
     of 1965.

     The Teacher Corps' legislative       objectives   are to strengthen   educational
     opportunities     for children in areas having concentrations       of low-income
     families     and to encourage colleges    and universities   to broaden their
     programs of teacher preparation.

     The Teacher Corps recruits         and trains    qualified     teachers (team leaders)
     and inexperienced   teacher-interns         for service    in areas of low-income
     families.    Members of the corps are assigned to schools in teams, each
     of which consists   of a team leader and several             interns.   The interns    take
     courses leading to college         or university     degrees and to qualification
     for State teaching    certification.

     Local educational  agencies are expected to pay at least 10 percent     of the
     salaries of Teacher Corps members; the Office    of Education   pays the re-
     mainder of the salaries   and the costs of the interns'   courses.   (See p. 7.)

     Federal appropriations       for the Teacher Corps program totaled     about $77 mil-
     lion from its inception        through June 1970.    Federal funds of about $1.2 mil-
     lion had been expended       under the USC rural-migrant     program as of June 1970.
      (See p. 7.)
FIJDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

    Strengthening        educationa       opportunities

    The USC rural-migrant        program was designed to meet the special          educational
    needs of children       of low-income,  rural-migrant    families   of Tulare County,
    California.     The program strengthened       the educational    opportunities      avail-
    able to children      in the schools where corps members were assigned,              A
    large percentage     of the children    in each of the four participating           school
    districts   were Mexican-American      (or Spanish speaking).       (See pp. 10, 13,
    and 18.)

    Corps members provided             addit ional         teaching        manpower,      enab ing        the schools
    to

       --give      more individualized         instruction,

       --provide       new or expanded        classroom          and extracurricular              activities,
          and

       --improve       the ratio      of students          to teachers.          (See p. 18.)

    Corps members introduced     teaching  methods that were new to the schools
    and such subjects    as English taught as a second language and science and
    algebra taught in Spanish.       GAO was informed  that some of the new teaching
    techiques  and classes would be discontinued,      because of insufficient  staff
    and funds, after   the Teacher Corps program in Tulare County was completed
    in June 1971. (See pp. 26 to 29.)

    School officials      and teachers     generally   believed  that the interns    were well
    prepared for teaching       and communicated well with the children.          Some be-
    lieved that the individual        instruction     and classes taught in Spanish were
    especially    beneficial    in improving      the children's   educational  achievements.
     (See p. 19.)

    Corps members organized    or involved                     themselves      with     various      educational
    community activities,   including

      --evening    classes         to teach   Spanish-speaking                adults      English        as a second
         language;

      --a     summer recreation         program      for       children;

      --a      project to help high        school students   develop                   craft    skills      to help
            them obtain jobs after         graduation;   and

      --a      youth center with a paperback library                        and classes        in ceramics,
            art,   and photography. (See p. 32.)

    The interns       assigned to the two high schools                       did not get along well             with
    the faculties.         Some interns were reassigned                      to elementary  schools,            one




                                                           2
was dismissed,       and others resigned.      The Teacher Corps needs to assist
universities      in creating    an atmosphere in which corps members can ef-
fectively    participate      in training  assignments   in high schools. (See
p. 29.)

At an elementary      school having about 35 students,          the two full-time      reg-
ular teaching     positions     were filled    by corps members.       This arrangement,
which lasted 2 years, was made because regular              teachers    could not be
obtained   by the school district          for the beginning    of the 1969-70 school
year.    Thereafter     no further   attempt was made to obtain regular           teachers.
The arrangement     resulted     in Teacher Corps funds'       supplanting    State and local
funds that otherwise        would have been used for regular         teacher salaries.
(See p. 21.)

GAO believes   that the arrangement    under which these corps members operated
was not authorized    under the enabling legislation    which provides that no
corps member be used to replace any teacher who is, or would otherwise        be,
employed by a local educational     agency.

More than half of the interns   who had completed the program at the time
of GAO's review had acceoted teachina   positions serving children  of rural-
migrant or other low-income   families: '(See p 34.)     -

Broadening        teacher-training      propams

The USC rural-migrant           program was successful         i n broaden ing the university's
teacher preparation          program.     USC established        a special   curriculum       for the
interns,     which included existing          university      courses which were modified            to
make them more relevant            to the needs of the        corps members and new courses
which were designed to develop proficiency                  in the Spanish language and
sensitivitv      toward the learnina         Problems of      Snanish-SDeakina       children     of
rural-migrant      families.         (See b.'38.)              r          '       u

The rural-migrant  program was the university's                 first  attempt        to train   teach-
ers for children  of rural-migrant families.                  As a result   of      i ts experience
with the program, USC developed

   --a similar        teacher    internship program using Teacher Corps courses
      to train      teachers     to meet the educational  needs of Spanis h-speaking
      children      in rural     schools,

   --courses       for training  students in its        regular  teacher        preparation
      program      to teach English to children         who speak other         languages,
      and

   --a   center     for   studies    in rural   and migrant     education.       (See p. 39.)

The university also made some of the courses                   that had been developed           for
the Teacher Corps available to other students                   majoring in education.             (See
p. 41.)
RECOMMENDATIONS
             OR SUGGESTIONS
    The Secretary   of HEW should clarify    for Teacher Corps officials  the,intent
    of the enabljng   legislation   with respect   to the use of corps members.      He
    should emphasize to the Office      of Education the need to monitor  the pro-
    gram more closely    to help ensure that corps members are used in accordance
    with such intent.      (See p. 36.)

    The Secretary      of HEW should also provide for the Office   of Education     to
    assist  universities     in developing approaches for creating     an atmosphere
    in which corps members can effectively       participate in training     assignments
    in high schools.       (See p. 36.)


AGENCYACTIONSAND UNRESOLVED
                          ISSUES
    The Assistant       Secretary,  Comptroller,  HEW, concurred   with GAO's recommenda-
    tions and said that they would be implemented.           He stated,  however, that
    HEW believed      that the use of the corps members who assumed the entire       teach-
    ing responsibility        at a school was proper and in accordance with the legisla-
    tive intent     of the Teacher Corps program.      (See p. 36.)

    GAO recognizes      that,   because regular  teachers were not available,         the
    initial   assignment      of corps members to State or locally     allotted     teaching
    positions     at the school may not have been a violation        of legislation       govern-
    ing the Teacher Corps program.          GAO believes,   however, that the arrangement
    under which the team of corps members operated resulted            in a violation       of
    the legislation      when the Tulare County Department of Education did not con-
    tinue its search for regular        teachers   during the 2 years of the corps members'
    assignment     to the school.

    The Secretary of HEW therefore    should emphasize to the Office   of Education
    that members of the Teacher Corps are not to be used to replace any teachers
    who are, or would otherwise    be, employed by a local educational   agency.
    (See p. 37.)


MATTERSFOR CONSIDERATION
                       BY THE CONGRESS
    This series    of reports   provides   the Congress with information        on the ef-
    fectiveness    of the Teacher Corps program in achieving          its legislative    ob-
    jectives    and on the measures needed to improve its effectiveness.              The con-
    tents of this report      and other reports     in the series may be of use to the
    Congress in its deliberations        on extending    the program.
                                   CHAPTER1

                                INTRODUCTION

       We evaluated the effectiveness    of the rural-migrant
Teacher Corps program at the University       of Southern Cali-
fornia$ Los Angeles, California,      and at participating     schools
in Tulare County, California,      in accomplishing    the legisla-
tive objectives    of the Teacher Corps.    These objectives      are

       --to strengthen     the educational  opportunities    avail-
          able to children    in areas having concentrations       of
          low-income families    and
       --to encourage colleges and universities                  to broaden
          their programs of teacher preparation.

       To accomplish these objectives,            the Teacher Corps is
authorized    to (1) attract       and train qualified          teachers who
will be made available         to local educational.agencies               for
teaching in areas of low-income families,1                  (2) attract       and
train inexperienced        teacher-interns       who will be made avail-
able for teaching and inservice            training      to local educa-
tional agencies in such areas in teams led by an experienced
teacher, (3) attract        volunteers     to serve as part-time             tutors
or full-time     instructional      assistants      in programs carried
out by local educational         agencies and institutions             of higher
education serving such areas,           and   (4)   attract     and  train      ed-
ucational    personnel to provide training,              including     literacy
and communications skills,          for juvenile       delinquents,        youth
offenders,    and adult criminal        offenders.

       The latter   two means of achieving  the objectives were
authorized,     subsequent to the commencement of our review,
by Public Law 91-230--an      act which extended programs of

1
 The enabling legislation  permitted    experienced    teachers to.
 be assigned to local educational    agencies individually      or
 as the head of a teaching team. Public Law 90-35, approved
 June 29, 1967, amended the legislation      by permitting    ex-
 perienced teachers to be assigned only as the head of a
 teaching team.

                                         5
assistance  for elementary and secondary education--approved
April 13, 1970, and therefore  were not within the scope of
our review.
       This review was one of several made by GAO at selected
universities    and local educational agencies throughout the
Nation.

OPERATIONOF TEACHERCORPSPROGRAM

       The Teacher Corps was established         in the Office of Edu-
cation, Department of Health, Education,           and Welfare, pur-
suant to title    V, part B, of the Higher Education Act of
1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101).           The Teacher Corps is
basically   a locally   controlled    and operated program.       The
Office of Education provides funds to operate approved
Teacher Corps programs which have been conceived locally              to
meet local needs and have been approved by the applicable
State educational     agency.     To be eligible    for approval,   a
program must be designed to serve children            in areas having
high concentrations     of poverty.

        Persons eligible    to be enrolled      in the Teacher Corps
are (1) experienced teachers,           (2) persons who have baccalau-
reate degrees or the equivalent,           and (3) persons who have
completed 2 years in a program leading toward baccalaureate
degrees.     After selection,      the corps members are placed in
teams that consist of a team leader and a number of interns.
During their service the interns receive training             and in-
struction     leading to degrees from the participating         college
or university      and to qualification      for State teaching certi-
fication,      The training   consists of academic courses, work
in the classrooms of local schools, and participation              in
community-based education activities.
      While in the schools, corps members are under the direct
supervision   of officials    of the local educational    agency to
which they are assigned.       With certain   exceptions,  local
educational   agencies are authorized      to (1) assign and trans-
fer corps members within the school system, (2) determine
the subject matter to be taught, and (3) determine the
terms and continuance      of the assignment of corps members
within the system.       Corps members may not be used, however,
to replace any teacher who is or would have otherwise been
employed by the local educational       agency.
                                   6
        The Teacher Corps program operates on a cycle basis.
Generally a cycle consists of preservice      training--a    period
of no more than 3 months, during which corps members' suit-
ability    for acceptance into the program is determined--and
2 academic years with an intervening     summer. Certain pro-
grams, however, operate for a shorter period of time.           The
authorizing    legislation provides for enrollment      of corps
members for periods of up to 2 years.      A new Teacher Corps
cycle has started each year, beginning with the first          cycle
in 1966.

      The cost of the interns'     courses and the administrative
costs of the program at the college or university       and the
local educational     agencies are paid by the Office of Educa-
tion.   The local educational     agencies are expected to pay
at least 10 percent of the corps members' salaries       and re-
lated benefits    while they are in the schools; the Office of
Education pays the remainder of the salaries,

        Team leaders are to be compensated at a rate agreed to
by the local educational     agency and the Commissioner of Edu-
cation.     At the time that our review began, interns were
compensated either at a rate which was equal to the lowest
rate paid by the local educational     agency for teaching on a
full-time    basis in the school system and the grade to which
an intern was assigned or $75 a week plus $15 a week for
each dependent, whichever amount was less.       Public Law 91-230,
however, amended the compensation authorized      for interns by
providing    that an intern be paid either at a rate which did
not exceed the lowest rate paid by the local educational
agency for teaching on a full-time     basis in the school sys-
tem and the grade to which an intern was assigned or $90 a
week plus $15 a week for each dependent, whichever amount
was less.

FUNDING

      From inception  of the Teacher Corps program in fiscal
year 1966 through fiscal     year 1970, funds authorized and
appropriated   by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program,
nationwide,   were as follows:




                                  7
Fiscal     year          Authorization              Appropriation

    1966                 $ 36,100,OOO                $ 9,500,000
    1967                   64,715,OOO                 11,323,ooo
    1968                   33,000,000                 13,500,000
    1969                   46,000,OOO                 20,900,000
    1970                   80,000,000                 21,737,OOO

           Total         $259,815,000                $76,960,000

      The USC rural-migrant     program has been operational
since the second Teacher Corps cycle which began in 1967.
As of June 1970, USC and the school districts      participating
in the rural-migrant     program expended about $1,166,100 of
funds provided by the Office of Education,      as follows:
                                                           Amount
                   Grantee                                 expended

USC                                                    $     664,700
Tulare County Department of Education
  (note a)                                                    28,700
Cutler-Orosi  Unified School District                        258,300
Woodlake Union High School District
  (note b)                                                   214,400

     Total                                             $1,166,100

aFunds expended by the TMare County Department of Educa-
  tion were for the operation of the program in the Allens-
 worth School District.
b
 Woodlake was also the grantee for Stone Corral School Dis-
  trict --the expenditure of $214,400 represents the amounts
  spent by both school districts.
PROGRAMPARTICIPATION

      Certain nationwide    data relating  to Teacher Corps pro-
gram participation     from its inception  in fiscal year 1966
through fiscal     year 1970 is shown below.

            Entered    prop;ram                  Completed program              Rate of dropout
                           Team                         Team                         Team    All corps
Cycle       Interns     --leaders   Total   Interns   ---
                                                      leaders   Total   Interns    leaders    members

        I    1,279         337      1,616     627       170       797      51        50          51
   II          882         152      1,034     674       143       817      24         6          21
                           186      1,215     832       170     1,002      19        10          18
                           200
                           221      1,575
                                    1,666      --        -         -       -       ' -

aParticipants         had not completed     the program at time of GAO review.
                                CHAPTER2

             USC RURAL-MIGRANTTEACHERCORPSPROGRAM
       The USC rural-migrant        Teacher Corps program is a coop-
erative   effort    involving     USC, four school districts        in Tu-
lare County, local communities,            and the California      Depart-
ment of Education.          The program was designed to improve the
educational      opportunities     of children    of rural-migrant      fami-
lies in certain       school districts      in Tulare County.       Accord-
ing to the program proposals,           this was to be done by prepar-
ing prospective       teachers to recognize and cope with the
"timid and passive character           of the migrant community" to
bring about better communication and understanding                 between
migrant and residential         communities for the.benefit         of the
children.     Also corps members were to help expand the cur-
riculum of the schools to compensate for the lack of ade-
quate educational        experiences of these children.

       USC, which is located in Metropolitan     Los Angeles, had
a full-time    enrollment   of about 9,000 undergraduate   and
11,000 graduate and professional      school students for the
1969-70 school year.      Its School of Education, which is re-
sponsible   for teacher training,    awarded 139 undergraduate
degrees and 572 graduate degrees during that school year.

       Tulare County is located in the San Joaquin Valley about
140 miles northeast      of the university campus in Los Angeles.
The county encompasses an area of 4,935 square miles and had
an estimated population      of 194,300 in January 1969. About
one third of the county's three million      acres are rural and
agricultural      lands,  The employment opportunities    are gen-
erally    agrarian and seasonal, and migratory      labor is used
extensively.
      The rural-migrant  program is one of two Teacher Corps
programs administered   by the USC Department of Teacher Edu-
cation within the School of Education.    The other, known as
the USC urban program, is the subject of a separate GAO




                                     10
report.l   That program was designed to meet the special edu-
cational  needs of Mexican-American   and black children living
in the urban Los Angeles metropolitan    area.

      The USC rural-migrant       program operated during three
consecutive     2-year cycles-- cycle II (1967-691, cycle III
(1968-701, and cycle IV (1969-71).         In May 1971 Teacher
Corps officials      in Washington approved USC's proposal for       a
cycle VI rural-migrant       program to be conducted in Ventura
County, California,      during the 1971-73 school years.

      Interns in the USC rural-migrant     program were given
special classes in the Spanish language, in the Mexican-
American culture,     and in teaching English to children   com-
ing from homes where English was not the predominant lan-
guage. They received their training      in four phases:    (1)
preservice,   (2) f irst year-inservice,   (3) intervening  sum-
mer, and (4) second-year inservice.

      The preservice    and intervening     summer phases were con-
ducted at the university.       The primary purpose of preservice
was to (1) make the interns knowledgeable about the migrant
community and (2) after cycle II, to provide high-intensity
language training    for those who did not speak Spanish.          Dur-
ing the intervening     summer the interns enrolled      in academic
course work.    In addition,     some participated   in education-
based community activities       in Tulare County or visited     Mex-
ico to increase their knowledge of the cultural         background
of Mexican-Americans.

       During the two inservice      phases from September through
June, the interns lived in Tulare County and received on-
the-job training       at schools to which they were assigned,
participated     in education-based    community activities,    and
received academic course work and instruction.            Because the
schools were located over 140 miles from the university,            in-
structors    traveled     to Tulare County each week to provide
scheduled course instruction.         See map on page 12 for loca-
 tions ofschools      served.

1
 Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University
 of Southern California  and Participating   Schools in Los
 Angeles and Riverside  Counties (B-164031(1),   July 9, 1971).

                                  11
                'a3hiOANiS33NVlSia   aNVSl3ialSIa    iOOH3S         JO NOILV30l3lVWIXOtlddV              MOHSOlOV3              At3 a3tIVd38d   dvW
                                                                                                                                                      :310N
                                                                                AlNn03     3tlvini     do tl3a809       ~tl3~lf70~
                                                      3HlWOtlj           S3lIWOPl     Al31VWIXOtlddV---S3l3~NVSOlO1




                                                    S3lIW        El Al31VWIXO2iddV
                                                            SlVllO3      H3NI 3NO




AINn       3w1n1
   40 NOlllSOd   QNV
       3ZIS 3hllV13kl


                                                               ALNfl03                               EItlVd?flL


                                                                                                                                                              r-4
                                                                                                                                                              3


                                                                                                        3wiaooM            0
                                                                                                         lVtltlO3      3NOlS           .


                                                                                                                      Isotlo-tl3lln3        0
      Data regarding the average number of students who at-
tended the participating  schools during the 1969-70 school
year and the estimated percentages of Spanish-speaking  stu-
dents are shown below.

                                 Number of                 Mexican-American       or
                            Schools                     Spanish-speaking     students
  School   district         (note a)    Students           (estimated    percent)
Cutler-Orosi  Unified            5        2,544                      66
Woodlake Union High              1           624                     45
Stone Corral                     1           119                     65
Allensworth                      1            34                     50
aSix of the eight     schools   are elementary     schools   and the other    two are
 high schools.


Three of the school districts     participated      in each of
cycles II, III, and IV; Allensworth       participated    only in
cycle IV. The program proposals noted that these school
districts  had a scarcity   of teachers who spoke Spanish and
who had an adequate understanding       of the Mexican-American
culture.   The superintendent    of the Cutler-Orosi      Unified
School District  informed us that 66 percent of the district's
children  were Mexican-American    (or Spanish speaking),
whereas only 8 percent of the 125 teachers were Mexican-
American (or Spanish speaking).
      Joint program proposals for each cycle were prepared
by the university    and the participating      school districts.
The university    and the Cutler-Orosi     School District     re-
ceived and accounted for their grants separately.            Woodlake
received and had accounting      responsibility      for both its
funds and those for Stone Corral.         The Tulare County Depart-
ment of Education received and had accounting responsibility
for funds for the Allensworth       School District.

       The USC rural-migrant     program was administered     for the
university    by a program director     who was the director     of the
Department of Teacher Education in the university's           School
of Education.     Coordinators     in the school districts    adminis-
tered the program on behalf of the superintendents           of the
participating    school districts.



                                         13
SELECTION OF CORPSMEMBERS

       The USC rural-migrant     program's selection        process gen-
erally was effective      in providing      interns qualified     to be
trained as teachers of rural-migrant            children  from low-
income families    and in providing       team leaders qualified      to
supervise and instruct       the interns.

       Interns for the program generally        were recruited    by the
university.    After initial    screening of applications        by pro-
gram personnel at the university,        interviews   were conducted
by selection   panels.     The panels generally     consisted    of some
corps members and representatives        from the university      and
the schools.     The cycle   IV panels   also   had representatives
from the communities to be served.

      Data regarding the estimated number of persons who ap-
plied and were interviewed   for internship   positions in the
program and the numbers who were enrolled and who completed
the program or were still  participating    as of June 1970 are
shown by program cycle in the graph on page 15.

      Of the 66 interns accepted in the USC rural-migrant
program during cycles II through IV, 37 had completed the
program, 12 had dropped out, and 17 were still    participating
as of June 1970.

       According to the university's      records, the 12 interns
dropped out of the program before        completion because of the
following    reasons.
                                                            Humber

    --Dissatisfied    with teaching and/or with
         the program                                              5
    --Transferred    to another Teacher Corps
         program                                                  1
    --Became Teacher Corps recruiter      in
         southern California                                      1
    --Family problems                                             1
    --Resigned from program--not    eligible
         for teaching credential                                  1
    --Unexplained                                             3
         Total
                                   14
15
      During cycles II through IV, 12 experienced teachers
were recruited    to serve as team leaders,  As of June 1970,
three had completed the program, six had dropped out, and
three still    were participating in cycle IV,
      According to the university's records, the six team
leaders dropped out of the program because of the following
reasons.

                                                         Number
    --Accepted teaching positions      with
         local school districts                              2
    --Accepted a special teaching position
         with the university                                 1
    --Family illness                                         1
    --Returned    to college on a full-time basis            1
    --Unexplained                                            1
         Total                                               =6
        The USC rural-migrant     program proposals provided that
potential    interns were to be college graduates who either
had never taught or had not taught in recent years and who
met the university's       standards for graduate status.    Appli-
cants also were expected to have some degree of proficiency
in the Spanish language, and preference was to be given to
enrolling    Mexican-Americans.

        The program associate director    informed us that     a few
interns had had some previous teaching experience and that
some did not meet the minimum requirements         for admittance to
graduate status.     The associate director     stated that these
individuals    had been enrolled because the selection        panels
believed that they could achieve the objectives          of the pro-
gram, Teacher Corps guidelines       state that the selection
criteria    should make possible the enrollment       of outstanding
teacher prospects who have only average academic records.

      Program records showed that the number of Mexican-
Americans accepted as interns increased during the three
cycles--from  one in cycle II, to five in cycle III, to 14 in
cycle IV. In addition,     20 other interns   in the three cycles
had some degree of proficiency     in Spanish when they were

                                16
accepted into the program.    The records showed also that
almost half of the interns had experience in dealing with
the problems of rural-migrant   people prior to their accep-
tance into the program.

       A team leader was to have a master's degree and
5 years of teaching experience or 3 years of teaching ex-
perience in a disadvantaged     area.   The program associate
director    informed us that these criteria    had been waived
for five of the 12 team leaders because they were consid-
ered qualified     for the team leader function   by program offi-
cials and because a sufficient      number of teachers with the
required experience could not be recruited.




                               17
                                CHAPTER3

               IMPACT OF PROGRAMON STRENGTHENING

            EDUCATIONALOPPORTUNITIESFOR CHILDREN

                       OF LOW-INCOMEFAMILIES

        We believe that the USC rural-migrant     program strength-
ened the educational      opportunities available    to children    in
the schools where corps members had been assigned.            The par-
ticipating      schools were in areas having concentrations      of
low-income families.

        By providing    additional    teaching manpower while the
program was in operation,          the corps members enabled the
schools to give more individualized            instruction     to students,
to provide new or expanded classroom and extracurricular
activities,     and to improve the ratio of students to teach-
ers.     The corps members also introduced           teaching techniques
and initiated,       or participated     in, education-based       activi-
ties in the communities, which benefited               the children    and
their parents.        More than half of the 37 interns who com-
pleted the program as of December 1970 had accepted teach-
ing positions      serving children      of rural-migrant      or other
low-income families.

       One of the objectives     established    by the Office of Ed-
ucation for the Teacher Corps program was to bring about
changes in instructional      methods in the schools to
strengthen   the educational     opportunities     available   to chil-
dren in the program areas.        Officials    of the participating
school districts    informed us that some of the new or ex-
panded classroom activities       and teaching techniques        intro-
duced by the corps members were expected to be continued
after the rural-migrant      program in Tulare County was com-
pleted in June 1971, They stated that other worthwhile
corps member approaches to educating children            would not be
continued because the school districts          lacked the necessary
manpower and resources,




                                    18
WORKPERFORMED  BY CORPSMEMBERS
IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

      Corps members were assigned to the schools in teams
consisting  of an experienced teacher--the   team leader--and
from five to eight interns.    In some cases the interns,      un-
der the supervision   of a team leader, were assigned to, and
worked in cooperation   with, a regular teacher,     In other
cases, the interns were allowed to teach classes on their
own after minimal orientation.     Interns generally   spent the
mornings in the classrooms and used their afternoons      anti
evenings for academic course work and community activities.
       The assignment of the interns enabled the schools to
introduce new teaching techniques,          to add additional    sub-
jects to those being taught, to increase the number of
classes in some of the subjects being taught, and to provide
more individualized      instruction    through the use of team
teaching and tutoring.         Team teaching in the USC rural-
migrant program involved two or more teachers'            sharing re-
sponsibility     for teaching a group of students in a class.

      In addition,    interns expanded the educational       experiences
of the children     by taking them on cultural      and recreational
field trips;    aided in the establishment       of student newspa-
pers and governments; and, at one school, were instrumental
 in obtaining   Federal funds to establish       a 5-year program
that would provide Spanish-speaking        individuals    to serve as
teacher-aides    to help instruct   children     who were not fluent
in the use of English.

       The consensus of opinion of interns,        team leaders,
teachers,   and officials     in the participating     schools was
that the children      had benefited   from the rural-migrant        pro-
gram, particularly      through the individualized      instruction
provided by the interns.        Several school officials        that we
interviewed    expressed the view that the tutoring         and the
classes taught in Spanish had helped the children             to improve
their education achievement.         One school principal       believed
that some of the interns were better qualified           to teach a
class than some of his regular teachers because of the spe-
cial training     which the interns had received,



                                   19
      Nineteen teachers who worked with interns at schools
in the unified     school district   told us that they believed
that the program was of benefit to the children            in those
schools,    Most of these teachers believed that interns were
good teachers because they were generally          well prepared and
were able to communicate effectively         with the children,       The
superintendent     of the district   believed that the generally
favorable   reaction    of his teachers to the interns was the
result of the good working relationships          established;    the
teachers knew that they were an integral          part of the train-
ing process of the interns.

      At the schools where interns were allowed to teach
classes on their own after minimal orientation,      most of the
teachers whom we interviewed    stated that the. interns were
well prepared and brought in new and fresh ideas.        Some
stated, however, that the interns had done more harm than
good because they influenced    the children  to be more disrup-
tive in their school and community activities.        (See pp. 29
and 30 for further   discussion  of these problems.)

Utilization   of team leaders

       Team leaders were responsible     for the supervision     of
the interns constituting     the team. Their duties included
assisting   the interns in lesson planning;     demonstrating
teaching techniques to interns;      evaluating  interns'    perfor-
mances; and, in general, promoting the activities         of the
teams by acting as a liaison     between the interns and the
university,    regular teachers,  principals,   and community.
       Four of five school officials     whom we interviewed      be-
lieved that the team leaders supervised,       planned, and      coor-
dinated the interns'   activities     in a competent manner.        Fur-
ther, 27 of 42 interns whom we interviewed        rated their     team
leader's   supervision as good or excellent.       The other     15
interns rated such supervision       as fair to poor.




                                  20
Utilization    of interns

      Interns were utilized    in various ways in the partici-
pating school districts.     In the unified  school district,
which consisted of five schools, interns were assigned to
teachers whom they assisted by preparing     lesson plans, tu-
toring individuals    and small groups of children,  and teach-
ing classes.

       At the other three schools participating     in the pro-
gram, interns generally   were not assigned to assist regular
teachers but were allowed to teach classes on their own af-
ter minimal orientation    by the regular teachers in the         -
classroom.    Guidance and supervision    of these interns were
provided by the team leaders.      At one of these schools, the
interns taught subjects,such     as algebra in Spanish, physi-
ology, and mammal ecology, which previously       had not been
taught at the school,    At the second school, cycle II in-
terns were assigned to work with regular teachers;        interns
in subsequent cycles were given full responsibility         for
teaching certain grades during the morning hours.

       Teaching responsibility    assumed
       by corps members in Allensworth     school--an
       arrangement not authorized    by law

         In the third school--a   two-room building   serving about
35 children--corps       members, with the approval of Teacher
Corps officials      in Washington, D.C., assumed the responsi-
bilities     of the two full-time    regular teaching positions    for
the 1969-70 and 1970-71 school years.          In our opinion,  the
arrangement under which the team of corps members operated
was in violation       of section 517 of the Higher Education Act
of 1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 11071, which states that no
member of the Teacher Corps shall be furnished         to any local
educational     agency to replace any teacher who is, or would
otherwise be, employed.
      The school is the only one in the district,   and about
half of its children   are black and the other half are
Mexican-American.    The children's parents are migrant sea-
sonal farm workers having an average annual family income of
about $2,500.


                                  21
       During the 1968-69 school year, two regular teachers
were employed at the school.        The assistant    superintendent
of schools in Tulare County stated that, early in May 1969,
one of the school's     teachers had given notice that she in-
tended to resign at the end of that school year.              The per-
sonnel director    of the Tulare County Department of Education
stated that the department had attempted to recruit             a re-
placement teacher for the school through visits           to a number
of teacher preparation      colleges and universities       in the
State and through advertisements       in a publication       which
listed   statewide teaching vacancies and which was circulated
to schools in the State.
        The personnel director      stated that he had discussed the
vacant teaching position        with about 25 individuals     who were
interested     in teaching in Tulare County; however, all of
them declined to accept the position,          including  four who had
visited    the school before making their decision.          The Tulare
County superintendent        of schools stated that the school dis-
trict    had a long history     of being unable to attract     and re-
tain well-qualified       teachers and that the community was poor
in terms of physical       resources and community leadership.

       The superintendent    pointed out that the school's        only
other regular teacher had died on August 4, 1969, and that
the district     had been faced with the possibility       of not hav-
ing a teacher for the opening of school in September.              He
stated that discussions      had been held concerning the possi-
bility   of an adjacent school district's      having the students
attend its school for the 1969-70 year.         The assistant      super-
intendent    said that the adjacent district      believed that it
could absorb the children      without increasing      its teaching
staff but that the parents had been opposed to their chil-
dren's attending     another school.
       The superintendent     stated that the USC rural-migrant
program staff,     upon learning    of the needs of the district,
had offered to furnish a team of corps members to provide
teaching services at the school.         We were told that the
school district's     board of trustees had accepted the offer
with the understanding      that two of the team members would
be hired by the board as teachers of record under contract
to the district.      This arrangement was necessary to show
that the school district       had teachers so that it could qual-
ify for State aid to operate the school.
                                   22
       We were told by the superintendent    that, at the begin-
ning of the 1969-70 school year, two interns had signed con-
tracts at the district's   minimum teaching salary of $6,000
a year and had made application      to the State Department of
Education for teaching certificates,       These two interns
 served as teachers of record for that school year.        In May
 1970 one intern was given a teaching certificate       by the
State; however, the other was refused a certificate        because
he did not meet the State's eligibility      requirements.     The
latter  intern dropped out of the program at the end of the
1969-70 school year, and one of the team's other interns
joined the remaining teacher of record by signing a teaching
contract with the district    for the 1970-71 school year,       He
also obtained a teaching certificate,
      Tulare County Department of Education officials       in-
formed us that the interns who had been given teaching con-
tracts also had received compensation from funds provided
for the Teacher Corps program.      The interns retained this
compensation but were required to endorse the checks they
received under their teaching contracts       and return them to
the school district.      We were advised that, by following
this procedure,    the district  was provided with additional
operating   funds.

       The interns who signed teaching contracts     were paid
from Teacher Corps funds as consultants,      rather than as in-
terns.    Tulare County Department of Education officials
stated that the interns were paid as consultants        so that it
would not be necessary for the school district        to withhold
amounts for retirement     and income tax from their Teacher
Corps compensation-- such deductions were withheld from the
salaries   which the interns received under their teaching con-
tracts with the school district.      The effect of this arrange-
ment was that the interns who were paid as consultants         re-
ceived 100 percent of their Teacher Corps compensation,
whereas the other interns received the net amount of such
compensation after amounts for retirement       and income tax
were withheld.

      We examined financial     records maintained by the super-
intendent   of schools'  office    in Tulare County and ascertained
that all amounts paid to the three interns under their teach-
ing contracts,    as of November 1970, had been returned to the
school district's    general fund and had been recorded as
                                23
donations.  The superintendent   of schools stated that a
portion of the refunded salaries had been used to provide
additional supplies,  equipment, and other services for the
school.
        Teacher Corps officials  in Washington, D.C., said that
they had approved the arrangement for a team of corps mem-
bers to operate the school without considering      whether such
arrangement resulted     in the supplanting  of a teacher who
would otherwise have been hired.       They stated that, because
the school district    was unable to obtain a teacher, the as-
signment of the corps members, in their opinion, was appro-
priate.

        State Department of Education officials         advised us that,
although they were aware of the assignment of interns to the
school, they were not aware that the Teacher Corps team was
the entire teaching staff or that the interns who were des-
ignated as teachers of record were returning             their teaching
salaries     to the district.     One of the officials        stated that
these arrangements were not in violation            of the department's
policy regarding the district's        qualification       for State aid.
Another official       stated that the State Department of Educa-
tion had no procedure for aiding a school district                in re-
cruiting     teachers.

      The assistant   superintendent   of schools in Tulare County
said that he was notawareof       the provision  in the Higher
Education Act of 1965 that precludes a corps member from
supplanting   a teacher.    He stated, however, that, in view
of the effort    made by the Tulare County Department of Edu-
cation to recruit    a teacher prior to the beginning of the
1969-70 school year, he believed that the arrangement under
which the rural-migrant     program team of corps members oper-
ated was appropriate.

       The assistant superintendent    of schools informed us in
January 1971 that no further     attempts had been made to ob-
tain regular teachers for the school district       after it had
entered into the arrangement with the Teacher Corps at the
beginning of the 1969-70 school year.       He stated,that   it was
the Tulare County Department of Education's      understanding
that the Teacher Corps team was to be assigned for a 2-year
period.    He stated also that, although no commitments had

                                   24
been made as of January 1971, he believed that permanent
teaching positions would be offered to two of the corps mem-
bers when they completed their Teacher Corps assignments at
the school in June 1971.

       In our opinion,it    was not the intent of the enabling
legislation    to permit Teacher Corps funds to be used as a
substitute   for State and local funds that otherwise would
have been used for payment of regular teacher salaries.        Be-
cause the arrangement entered into by the Teacher Corps at
the school resulted      in the supplanting  of local funds by
Teacher Corps funds for the payment of regular teacher sal-
aries, this arrangement does not appear to be authorized
by the law.

      Because the Office of Education deemed it advisable
under the circumstances  to authorize the assignment of corps
members to the school, we believe that it should have en-
couraged the Tulare County Department of Education to con-
tinue its search for regular teachers during the period that
the corps members were assigned.
Teaching   techniques,    new classes, and special
projects   introduced    by corps members

      Teaching   techniques

       The majority   of interns whom we interviewed      informed
us that they were permitted to develop their own teaching
techniques when providing       instruction  to the children.      As
a result,   they introduced     several teaching methods not pre-
viously used in the schools to which they were assigned.
These methods included:

      --A visual-literacy       approach to learning  in which a
         child takes a photograph or draws a picture,         tells
         what the picture means to him (which is recorded by
         the teacher with grammatical and vocabulary         errors
         intact),     and learns to read his own story.      The
         teacher then takes the text, designs remedial lessons,
         and teaches the child to correct his own errors by
         rewriting     the story.    This allows the child to aid
         in developing reading material which is relevant           to
         him.      (See photograph on p, 27 furnished   by the uni-
         versity's     School of Education.)

     --A reading approach which stresses rules relating        to
        the sounds and pronunciation    of segments of words.
        When the student masters this approach, he is not lim-
        ited to reading books with controlled    vocabularies,
        as in standard reading approaches, and he can begin
        reading any book that interests    him and is understand-
        able.
     --An approach to reading using paperback novels and
        newspapers to stimulate    the student's   interest. The
        student is allowed to set his own pace and concen-
        trate on the material   that interests   him.
     --Use of interns and experienced    teachers to teach
        classes in teams. For example, an intern aided the
        regular teacher by teaching algebra in Spanish to the
        Mexican-American high school students who were not
        fluent in English, while the regular teacher contin-
        ued in English with the other students.    The super-
        intendent was particularly  pleased with this approach.

                                  26
                Teacher Corps intern      recording  students'
                descriptions    of pictures    they made in a
                visual-literacy    class.

        School officials      believed that only the visual-literacy
and team-teaching        techniques would be retained after the
rural-migrant     Teacher Corps program in Tulare County was
completed in June 1971. We were told that the visual-
literacy    technique would be used during the 1970-71 school
year in a first-grade         class to be taught by three interns
and a team leader; in subsequent years, it was to be provided
by regular school faculty.            We were told also that, during
the 1970-71 school year, a class comprising both seventh and
eighth graders at another school would be taught by a team
comprising a former team leader and another teacher.



                                    27
      New classes    and special       projects

      Corps members also were successful         in introducing    sub-
jects in the schools.       English as a second language was
taught at only one of the participating          schools prior to the
USC rural-migrant     program.     As of January 1971 classes in
English as a second language were available           to the children
at all participating      school districts.      (See photograph be-
low furnished     by the university's     School of Education.)




                    Teacher Corps intern    instructing
                    English as a second-language        class
                    at an elementary   school.

       An intern established     a math and science center at an
elementary school, which operated before and after school
hours and at noon.       Experiments were available  which the
students could set up and carry out with minimal aid.          In-
structional     cards for the experiments,   as well as instructor
aids, were available      in both English and Spanish.    The su-
perintendent     informed us that the center was beneficial     to,
and quite popular with, the children.

       One intern developed a class in mammal ecology           and took
children   on field trips to the zoo and other places           in

                                      28
conjunction with this class.     Some interns   supplemented their
classroom activities   by taking children    on field trips to
museums and to recreational    and sporting events.

        School officials informed us that they hoped to con-
tinue, after the corps members completed their assignments,
the classes in English as a second language and the classes
in science and algebra which were taught in Spanish.       Tl=Y
stated, however, that other courses introduced     by corps mem-
bers, as well as much of the individualized    instruqtion    and
many of the field trips9 would not be continued because of
insufficient    funds or personnel.

        Although the Teacher Corps goals included the objective
of having school districts            carry on the successful       features
of the Teacher Corps program after Federal funding ceases,
the guidelines        furnished   to the districts       for the cycles cov-
ered by our review did not contain any provisions                  reqiring
the districts      to provide specific          plans indicating    the avail-
ability     of fiscal     support or other resources to enable them
to carry on the more effective              projects   and innovative     meth-
ods implemented under the Teacher Corps program.                   In the
cycle IV proposal for the USC rural-migrant                 program, however,
the university        and participating        schools recognized the need
to obtain other funding sources for continuing                  successful
teaching concepts introduced             by corps members. The proposal
stated that efforts          would be made to seek other sources of
funding for the support of new approaches which evolved from
the Teacher Corps interns'            efforts.

       We noted that Teacher Corps guidelines       issued for the
sixth cycle (1971-73) included explicit       requirements       for
participating   districts   to show how successful       features      of
a Teacher Corps program would ultimately        be integrated        into
the districts'    regular programs.    We consider it important
that such requirements     be implemented effectively        by Teacher
Corps officials     to help achieve the fullest    measure of bene-
fits reasonably obtainable      from the federally     funded Teacher
Corps program.

Need for special training
for interns assigned to high          schools

        Interns were assigned to two high schools in the par-
ticipating     school districts,where they were allowed to teach
                                      29
classes on their own after minimal orientation          in the class-
room by the regular teachers.       The principal     at one of these
schools informed us that constructive       relations    between the
faculty   and the interns had not developed and that the con-
stant friction     between the two groups had caused the school
district    to reassign the interns to elementary schools in
that district     after their first  year of training.

       To preclude    such a problem from occurring     in the ele-
mentary schools, the school district,        the rural-migrant    team,
and the community created an advisory board to (1) familiar-
ize the elementary      school faculty   and community with the ob-
jectives   and activities     of the Teacher Corps, (2) participate
in the selection     of the interns'    community activities,   and
 (3) act as a bridge between the interns and the community,
We were informed by community and school representatives
that the board had contributed        to the acceptance of the in-
terns in the district's       elementary schools.

      At the other high school, a cycle III intern was dis-
missed in February 1970 because he had maintained reading
material   in the classroom which the school board considered
to be in bad taste.         His   dismissal       resulted   in the   resigna-
tion at that school of two other cycle III interns and a
3-week walkout by about 40 percent of the Mexican-American
students.
      Three of 10 regular teachers whom we interviewed          believed
 that the incident   might have been avoided if the interns had
been assigned to work in cooperation        with regular teachers.
The high school principal    stated that interns had not been
assigned to regular teachers because he believed that the in-
terns could get more practical     experience by having the teach-
ing responsibilities    for entire classes.       He also stated     that
the cycle IV interns at this school would be allowed to com-
plete their assignments but that, because of the problems
encountered and the resulting     attitude     of the community to-
ward the program, the high school would not participate            in
another Teacher Corps program.        Instead he was planning to
have students from a nearby college do their student teach-
ing at the high school.

     University  officials advised us that these incidents
showed them that there was a need to recruit   more mature in-
terns   for   assignments   in high     schools      and to revise    the
                                       30
preservice      training   of such interns.        We were told that, in
selecting     interns for future Teacher Corps programs, the uni-
versity    planned to look for traits           in prospective   interns
that would indicate        their ability      to cope with the maturity
of teenagers.         In addition,     during preservice     the high school
faculty    will be requested to take an active part in establish-
ing a constructive        relationship      between the faculty     and the
interns and in preparing the interns to better adjust to the
type of school community in which they will be training.




                                    31
EDUCATION-RELATEDCOM?HUNITY
                          ACTIVITIES

      Although the authorizing     legislation      does not specifi-
cally provide for community activities,           Teacher Corps guide-
lines encourage involvement by corps members in community-
based education programs.      Such activities       were to be planned
and undertaken with the active participation           of parents and
other community members,      This  requirement      was  based on the
belief of the Teacher Corps officials          that children   learn
not only in school but also from other children            both in and
out of school and from their parents and neighborhood and
that each of these three areas must be strengthened            if chil-
dren from low-income families      are to receive an education
comparable to that of the more advantaged children.
      Corps members initiated      or participated      in a number of
education-related    community activities.         Corps members or-
ganized evening classes for adults learning English as a
second language; participated       in meetings involving       the
Parent-Teacher    Association,   Girl Scouts, and Boy Scouts;
and provided a summer recreation        program for children        in
one school district.       Some of  the  other   community   activities
are discussed below.

      During the 1969-70 school year, a group of interns as-
sisted a community in establishing      a nonprofit    organization
which was operated with funds provided by the Department of
Labor to develop craft skills    (such as woodworking) that
would help high school students obtain jobs after gradua-
tion.   We were told by the project's      executive director       that
the project was successful    in providing    training     for the
high school students and that, as of June 1970, efforts             were
under way by the community to obtain loans from the Small
Business Administration   to make the project       a self-supporting
commercial operation.
        In another community, corps members, in cooperation
with the university's     School of Dentistry, made arrangements
for dental health services to be provided to children       and
adults.     A mobile dental clinic  staffed by students from the
School of Dentistry    served about 1,500 people from the rural-
migrant community during the period December 1968 through
October 1970. A team leader stated that many of those
served would not have otherwise been able to obtain neces-
sary dental care.
                                  32
        During September 1969 a group of corps members in
another community established        a youth center which was open
after school and on weekends,         The center had a paperback
library    and offered classes in ceramics, art, and photog-
raphy;      It also showed old-time movies and operated a proj-
ect for children       to borrow toys that the corps members had
collected.       In December 1970 a former Teacher Corps intern
was operating      this center as a Department of Labor project.

        One cycle II team of corps members provided teaching
assistance      to youths in a Tulare County juvenile    detention
facility.       Three interns taught or assisted   in various
classes 1 day a week for about 2 months; another intern pro-
vided assistance       for the entire school year.    The principal
of the detention       facility believed that the latter    intern's
involvement had a lasting       impact on the youths because the
intern had developed a science class and had increased the
youths'interest      in this subject through such activities       as
field trips and taxidermy projects.




                                  33
RETENTION OF CORPSKEHBERS
AS REGULARTEACHERS
            ---
      The university    records showed the status at December
1970 of 35 of the 37 interns who had completed the second
and third cycles of the USC rural-migrant      program,  Of these
35 interns,   19 (54 percent) were teaching children    of low-
income families--l6    were in rural areas and three were in
urban areas.     Data regarding  the status of the 37 interns
is summarized below.

                                            Cycle      Cycle
                                              -II       III    Total
Teaching:
    --Rural   areas                               8’      8      16
    --Other   low-income areas                    2       1       3
    --Other   than low-income areas           -          -1      -1
                                              10         10      20

Other positions    in field of education          4       5       9
Positions   in other fields                       3       3       6
Positions   unknown                           -          -2      -2
    Total                                     17         20      37
     Most of the 17 interns in the cycle IV program told          us
that they planned to teach in rural or other low-income
areas when they completed the program in June 1971.
        Of the three team leaders who completed the program,
one became principal       of the school in which he had been a
team leader, another returned to teaching in his school
district,     and the third accepted a position   as curriculum
coordinator     at schools in Los Angeles County.




                                34
CONCLUSIONS

       The Teacher Corps' legislative        objective   of strength-
ening educational    opportunities     available     to children   in
areas having concentrations        of low-income families       was ac-
complished in the schools where corps members in the USC
rural-migrant   program had been assigned.

        As a result of the program, children        were given more
individualized     instruction,     the range of classroom and ex-
tracurricular     activities    was expanded, the ratio of stu-
dents to teachers was improved, and various teaching tech-
niques were introduced.         Also children   and their parents
were provided with educational         benefits  from the community
activities     of corps members.

       Some of the new approaches to educating children were
expected to be carried on by the schools after the program
in Tulare County was completed in June 1971. Other teach-
ing approaches were not expected to be continued because
the school districts   lacked the necessary manpower and re-
sources.    More than half of the interns who had graduated
were teaching children    of rural-migrant or other low-income
families,   and most of the interns who were still   in train-
ing had plans to teach in disadvantaged    areas.

       The team of corps members that assumed the teaching
responsibility   in one school operated under an arrangement
which, we believe,    was not authorized   under the enabling
legislation.    This arrangement resulted    in corps members'
taking over teaching positions     that were intended for regu-
lar teachers and in Teacher Corps funds' being used to sup-
plant State and local funds that otherwise would have been
expended for regular teacher salaries.       We believe that HEW
should clarify   for Teacher Corps officials    the intent of
the legislation    to help ensure that corps members are used
in accordance with such intent.

       In view of the problems experienced with the interns
who were assigned to high schools in the rural-migrant             pro-
gram,    we believe   that   the Teacher  Corps should   assist   uni-
versities    in creating     an atmosphere in which corps members
can participate     effectively    in training  assignments     in high
schools.

                                   35
    RECOMMENDATIONSTO THE SECRETARY
    OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

         To make the Teacher Corps program more effective  in
    accomplishing  its legislative objectives, we recommend that
    the Secretary of HEW
          --clarify   for Teacher Corps officials  the intent of
             the enabling legislation  with respect to the use of
             corps members and emphasize to the Office of Educa-
             tion the need to monitor the program more closely   to
             help ensure that corps members are used in accor-
             dance with such intent and

          --provide      for the Office of Education to assist un-
             iversities      in developing  approaches for creating  an
             atmosphere in which corps members can effectively
             participate       in training assignments in high schools.

    AGENCYCOMMENTS

           The Assistant    Secretary,  Comptroller,    HEW, commented
    on a draft of this report by letter        dated May 20, 1971.
     (See app. II.)      He stated that the report presented an ac-
    curate account of the strengths        and weaknesses of the USC
    rural-migrant     program and that the conclusions     were sound
    and the recommendations sufficiently        objective  to produce
    action needed to make the Teacher Corps program more ef-
    fective.      He stated also that HEW's comments were the prod-
    uct of a review of the report by cognizant HEW and Office
    of Education officials       and of the responses from the Cali-
,   fornia Department of Education.
            The Assistant  Secretary     stated further  that HEW con-
    curred in our recommendation that the intent of the legis-
    lation    concerning the use of corps members needed to be
    clarified    for Teacher Corps officials.        He stated, however,
    that HEWwas of the opinion that the use of corps members
    who assumed the entire teaching responsibility           at a school
    was proper and in accordance with the legislative            intent
    of the Teacher Corps program.          He stated also that a legal
    decision would be requested of the Department's           Office of
    General Counsel to resolve       this    issue.



                                     36
      Because the school did not have a regular teacher for
the beginning of the 1969-70 school year, the initial      as-
signment of corps members to State or locally    allotted
teaching positions    at the school may not have been a viola-
tion of the legislation    governing the Teacher Corps program.
It is our opinion, however, that the arrangement under
which the team of corps members operated resulted      in a vio-
lation of the legislation    when the Tulare County Department
of Education did not continue its search for regular teachers
during the 2 years of the corps members' assignment to the
school.
        Our May 1971 report to the Congress on the Teacher
Corps program at Western Carolina University          also discussed
a situation      where corps members were employed in State or
locally    allotted    teaching positions   that were intended for
regular teachers.        We believe therefore    that the Secretary
of HEWshould emphasize to the Office of Education that mem-
bers of the Teacher Corps are not to be used to replace any
teachers who are, or would otherwise be, employed by a local
educational      agency.
       The Assistant Secretary stated that HEWconcurred also
in our recommendation regarding     the need for special ap-
proaches to help ensure that corps members were used ef-
fectively   in high schools.   He pointed out that only a
small percentage of Teacher Corps programs were in high
schools and that HEWrecognized the need for these programs
to refine their objectives    and the activities   related to
achieving   them. He said that the Teacher Corps, to the ex-
tent that resources permitted,would     help universities  to
develop approaches for preparing     secondary school teachers.




                                37
                                    CHAPTER 4

                    IMPACT OF PROGRAM ON BROADENING

                   USC's    TEACHER PREPARATION PROGRAM

        The rural-migrant         Teacher Corps program at USC was
successful       in broadening        the university's           teacher    prepara-
tion program.           The university        established        for the interns
a special      curriculum      which included          existing      courses     that
were modified         to make the course content               more relevant        to
their    needs and new courses             that were developed            to emphasize
proficiency        in the Spanish        language      and sensitivity         to the
learning      problems     of Spanish-speaking            children      of rural-
migrant     families.

       Experience       with the rural-migrant          program influenced
the university        in (1) developing         and offering    to its regu-
lar students       for the 1971-72 school year an internship                pro-
gram for preparing          students      to teach Spanish-speaking       chil-
dren in rural        areas,    (2) establishing       a center    for studies
in rural     and migrant       educ'ation,     and (3) adding certain
courses,     developed      for Teacher Corps interns,          to the univer-
sity's    curriculum       which was available        to all prospective
teachers.

ACADEMIC COURSE WORK OFFERED TO
RURAL-MIGRANT PROGRAM INTERNS

      Although    the university     has had extensive         experience
since the early      1950's in developing        and implementing           pro-
grams which combine practical          classroom      experience      with
academic training      to prepare    students      for a teaching         creden-
tial  and/or   an advanced degree,        the rural-migrant          program
was the university's       first  attempt     in preparing       individuals
to teach children      from low-income,       rural-migrant        families.

        The university       pointed  out in its proposals      that the
migrant    child    often was more fluent        in Spanish  than English
but that he seldom encountered            teachers   who spoke Spanish.
Two of the major objectives           of the rural-migrant      program
were to explore         techniques   to change the way in which teach-
ers were prepared          and to develop    new ideas in education.
The university        hoped to develop      a model that could be used

                                          38
by other universities      and colleges in their training     of
teachers to meet the special educational         needs of disadvan-
taged minority   children.     Another objective    was to develop
curriculum   materials   for use in the education of students
interested   in teaching in rural areas.

      The interns'   curriculum   included regular courses re-
quired by the university's      School of Education for a master's
degree in education and for qualification        for a State teach-
ing credential,    as well as courses that were designed to be
of value in teaching the rural-migrant      child.

       The regular courses generally   were modified to make
the classroom presentation    and course content more relevant
to the needs of the interns.      The additional   course work
included (1) existing    and specially   developed new courses
related to teaching English to speakers of other languages,
(2) a new course in high-intensity     language training     in
Spanish, and (3) a new course in Mexican-American        ethnic
studies.    Teacher Corps interns were required to take from
56 to 67 semester units of academic work, compared with a
minimum of 43 semester units required by the university         of
other graduate students without prior education courses.

      Most of the interns that we interviewed          expressed the
opinion that all or some of their Teacher Corps course work
was relevant    and would be of benefit      to students majoring
in education in their understanding        of teaching methods for
use in disadvantaged     rural-area    schools.    Some interns
stated that the courses in ethnic studies and teaching En-
glish to speakers of other languages were the most relevant
to their needs.     Other interns believed that they were given
too much course work, some of which was not particularly
relevant   to their needs.      The program director     was of the
opinion that the interns would benefit          in their future teach-
ing experiences from the knowledge which they obtained from
their Teacher Corps training        at the university.

INFLUENCE OF RURAL-MIGRANTPROGRAM
ON THE UNIVERSITY'S REGULAR
TEACHERPREPARATIONPROGRAM

      The director  of the university's     Department of Teacher
Education,   who was also the director     of the rural-migrant


                                  39
program, advised us that his staff continually           was alert for
opportunities     wherein the experiences     of the Teacher Corps
could be used in broadening the university's           regular teacher
preparation     program.   He  stated   that information    regarding
the program was disseminated within the School of Education
through discussions      between Teacher Corps instructors,         rural-
migrant program personnel,        and other faculty members. We
were informed that a number of changes had been made in the
university's     regular teacher preparation      program as a re-
sult of the university's       experience with the rural-migrant
program.      These changes are discussed below.

       The university      is developing a teacher internship           pro-
gram which will focus on training            individuals      as teachers
who will be capable of meeting the educational                 needs of
Spanish-speaking      children   in rural schools.          It will be a
39-semester-unit      graduate studies program leading to a Cali-
fornia teaching credential         and a master's degree in education.
The curriculum     will consist of a number of the courses that
were developed or modified for the rural-migrant                 program.
Individuals    will receive intensive          training   in teaching
English to Spanish-speaking         children      and will be expected       .
to have or develop fluency in speaking, reading, and writing
Spanish.

         During their internship     the interns will be employed
by a school district        in a rural area and will be paid by the
district      at a minimum rate of $6,000 a school year.          The
rural-migrant      program director     stated that the Tulare County
superintendent       of schools had agreed to help place 30 in-
dividuals      in this program in the school district        during the
1971-72 school year and that school districts            in other coun-
ties had indicated       an interest    in participating   in the pro-
gram.

       As a result of its experience with the rural-migrant
program, the university's       School of Education also developed
two new courses for preparing        students to teach English to
children     who speak other languages.      These courses emphasize
fieldwork,     readings,   and a workshop in bilingual    education,
Beginning in September 1970 the courses were offered to
students in the university's        regular teacher preparation
program.      The addition   of these new courses enabled the
university's      School of Education to expand the course work

                                     40
available   for students working toward either a certificate
or a degree in education,   which denoted specialization     in
the teaching of English to speakers of other languages.
       Officials    of the university's      School of Education,
working in cooperation        with the rural-migrant      program staff,
developed a center at the university            for coordinating      studies
relating     to rural and migrant education.         The center was
operated by the USC rural-migrant           program staff from the
time that it was established          in 1968. As of December 1970
it had been involved primarily          in accumulating materials
and documents that would be used to assist the university
in developing      an expertise     in rural and migrant education.
The director     of the Department of Teacher Education stated
that the center ultimately         was expected to assume responsi-
bility    for administering      the new teacher-training       internship
program and the special programs of preparing             students to
teach English to speakers of other languages, which were
discussed above,

       University   officials   informed us that they recognized
the need for the rural-migrant         program interns to be given
an ethnic studies course dealing with Mexican-American            his-
tory   and culture.      Such a course was developed and taught
by an instructor     who was employed on a full-time      basis by
the rural-migrant      program.    The course subsequently    was added
to the curriculum      of the university's    College of Letters,
Arts, and Sciences in 1969 and was offered to all students,
including    those majoring in education.
       As part of the training     for the rural-migrant      program
interns,   the universiv    developed a model for high-intensity
language training     in conversational   Spanish for non-Spanish
speakers.     This was a 6-week course conducted initially          dur-
ing the preservice     phase of cycle III for interns from
several Teacher Corps programs in California           and other States,
which served Spanish-speaking       communities.     The course was
also conducted for the USC rural-migrant         interns during the
preservice    phase of cycle IV.
      University   officials advised us that for the 1970-71
school year the course was made part of a program available
to candidates seeking a doctoral     degree in the School of
Education.     Also Teacher Corps officials   in Washington, D.C.,

                                      41
advised      us that reports      on the success of this high-intensity
language      training     had been shared with other educational
institutions         and that two of them had organized      similar
training      courses    for their   Teacher Corps programs.

       The university      published four booklets on migrancy and
rural poverty.       Three of these booklets were based on the
lectures   of guest speakers given to Teacher Corps interns,
and the fourth was a report on the rural-migrant              high-
intensity    language training        course that was developed for
the interns.      A rural-migrant       program official    advised us
that one of the booklets was used as reference material               in
an educational      sociology class.        Copies of the four booklets
were made available,        upon request,     to other universities
and educational      agencies throughout        the Nation,   The rural-
migrant program director          advised us that the university
had received a number of favorable            comments from the recip-
ients.    Additional     booklets on aspects of migrancy and rural
poverty were being prepared at the time of our review.
CONCLUSION

       The rural-migrant      program has been successful             in broad-
ening the university's        program of teacher         preparation.         This
was achieved     by developing       new courses     and teaching       tech-
niques   and by expanding       course work to be more relevant               to
the needs of corps members in their             training     to become teach-
ers of rural-migrant       children.

         Some of the new courses were incorporated                    into the
university's         curriculum       available      to all prospective         teach-
ers, and a center            was established         to coordinate      universiq
activities         in the field       of rural-migrant        education.       As a
result      of its experience          with the Teacher Corps, the univer-
sity     also developed         a bilingual       internship    program for pre-
paring      individuals       to teach and to meet the educational
needs of Spanish-speaking                children      in rural areas.




                                           42
                              CHAPTER5

           ROLE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION

                          IN THE PROGRAM

      Teacher Corps legislation   requires that the appropriate
State educational   agency approve program proposals submitted
by universities   and local school districts.        The Office of
Education encourages State agencies to review proposals in
the light of the State's educational      objectives    and priori-
ties,

        Officials    of the California   Department of Education in-
formed us that, because the local school districts            and ,uni-
versities      generally   developed their Teacher Corps programs
directly     with the Office of Education,      the department limited
its role to reviewing program proposals and notifying            the
Office of Education of their approval.            They stated that
representatives        from the department had made visits     to cer-
tain colleges and school districts         to encourage the submis-
sion of program proposals for cycles V and VI.

      The department officials    informed us that they would
prefer to take a more active role with respect to Teacher
Corps programs in California    but that the department did not
have the resources to participate      more extensively  in pro-
grams in which it was not directly      involved as a grantee.

       The department official  responsible      for reviewing
Teacher Corps proposals stated that he believed that the
work performed in school districts      by corps members and
graduates of the Teacher Corps program had had some impact
on education in California.     He believed that such impact
could best be demonstrated through studies or evaluations
of the effect of the corps members on the learning           abilities
of children.     He stated that he would be interested        in re-
ceiving reports on any such studies and would disseminate
such reports to other educational     institutions      in California.

      We were informed that the department had not received
copies of USC's reports on the results   of its completed cy-
cles of the rural-migrant  program.   We brought this to the

                                  43
attention     of the university's      rural-migrant   program staff
and were informed that copies of these reports would be
sent to the department.          We recognize that these reports do
not contain quantitative         evaluations    of the effect of the
program on the participating          school children.     se believe,
however, that these reports contain information             that may be
of some benefit       to the department and to other educational
institutions      in California    in learning about the specialized
training,     experiments,     and teaching techniques used in the
rural-migrant      program.

      During our review we noted that the California          Depart-
ment of Education,   pursuant to title      I of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act, as amended, had established            in
1967 a statewide program to help meet the educational           needs
of migrant children.      Under this program the department pro-
vides the resources to school districts        to employ individ-
uals who will provide special instructional         services,   as a
supplement to the districts'       regular school program, to as-
sist migrant children      in meeting their needs for attaining
adequate progress in their academic work. Three of the
school districts   participating      in the State program in Tu- '
lare County also are involved in the USC rural-migrant           pro-
gram.

       We also noted that the USC rural-migrant     program propo-
sals committed that program to support the State's migrant
program by coordinating    activities and providing     information
relating   to the education of migrant children.
        In May 1970 the State official    responsible  for the ad-
ministration    of the State's migrant program in Tulare County
learned that corps members in the USC rural-migrant        Teacher
Corps program were teaching English in classrooms of Spanish-
speaking children.      The California   Department of Education
subsequently    provided funds under its program to the school
districts    to permit continuation    of these classes after the
corps members completed their assignments.

      The State official      told us in February 1971 that he was
not aware of other classes and teaching techniques         intro-
duced by corps members in Tulare County.         He stated that he
would be interested      in learning  about such classes and ap-
proaches so that they could be considered for continuation

                                  44
under the State's program.       We brought this to the attention
of the USC rural-migrant     program staff and were informed
that arrangements would be made to provide the State offi-
cial with information    regarding   successful  approaches that
were used by corps members in educating the migrant children.

CONCLUSION

      The Teacher Corps programs in California      could be made
more effective   through broader dissemination     by the Califor-
nia Department of Education of information       concerning ex-
periments and teaching techniques    successfully    used in the
Teacher Corps programs in the State.     This information
would be of particular   benefit to educational     institutions
in the State that have not undertaken a Teacher Corps pro-
gram.



      In our recent report to the Congress on USC's urban
Teacher Corps program (B-164031(1),  July 9, 19711, we rec-
ommended that HEW encourage the California   Department of
Education to provide for broad dissemination   of successfil
approaches used in Teacher Corps programs in the State.
HEW concurred with this recommendation.




                               45
                                        CHAPTER6

                                     SCOPEOF REVIEW

                  We reviewed the legislative       history   of the Teacher
           Corps program and the related policies,           procedures,    and
           guidelines      of the Office of Education.       We reviewed records
           relating     to corps member selection,      corps member activities
           in the schools and at USC, retention           of corps members in
           teaching after completion of corps service,            and various ad-
           ministrative      aspects of the program.       Our review was per-
           formed at the Teacher Corps headquarters           in Washington,
           D.C.; at USC; and at the participating           schools in Tulare
           County, California.        We also interviewed     interns,   team
           leaders,     teachers,   and officials   of the local schools, USC,
           the California      Department of Education,      and the Teacher
           Corps.

                  Our fieldwork   was concerned primarily  with the activi-
           ties of the third and fourth cycles of the rural-migrant
           Teacher Corps program, because these were the cycles in op-
           eration at the time of our review,       We also obtained cer-
           tain information     on activities  of the second program cycle,




:
 ‘.’


       .


                                             46
.
    APPENDIXES




      47
                                                       APPENDIX I

                         GAO REPORTSON

           REVIEWSOF THE TEACHERCORPSPROGRAM

                    AT SELECTEDUNIVERSITIES

                 AND LOCAL EDUCATIONALAGENCIES


         Report title                   H-number    Date issued

Assessment of the Impact of the
  Teacher Corps Program at the
  University of Miami and Par-
  ticipating Schools in South
  Florida                             B-164031(1)   Apr.   16, 1971

Assessment of     the Teacher Cerps
  Program at    Northern Ariz~ns
  University    and Participating
  Schools on    the Navajo and
  Hopi Indian     Reservations        B-164031(1)   May    13, 1971

Assessment of the Teacher Cwps                                    a
  Program at Western Caroline
  University and Participating
  Schools in North Carolina           B-164031(1)   May    20, 1971

Assessment of the Teacher Corps
  Program at the University  Q$
  Southern California  and Par-
  ticipating Schools in Los &J-
  geles and Riverside Counti@         B-164031(1)   July    9, 1971




                                 49
         APPENDIX II



                               DEPARTMENT   OF HEALTH,       EDUCATION.         AND WELFARE
                                              WASHINGTON,        D.C.   20201



OFFICE   OF THE SECRETARY                            MAY 20 1971



                                      .


           Mr. Philip     Charam
           Associate-Director
           United States General
           Accounting     Office
           Washington,      D.C. 20548

           Dear Mr.         Charam:

            The Secretary      has asked that I reply to your letter           dated March 19,
            1971, with which you forwarded         the draft     report   of the General
            Accounting    Office   review of the Teacher Corps Program at the Univer-
          'sity   of Southern California       and Participating        Schools in Tulare County.
            We appreciate      the opportunity   to review and comment on the report,          the
            conclusions    and recommendations.

           The report     indicates    that a very comprehensive    review                   was performed
           and presents      an accurate account of the strengths       and                  weaknesses of
           the Teacher Corps University        of Southern California-Rural                        Program.
           The conclusions       are sound and the recommendations      are                  sufficiently
           objective    to produce required      remedial action to make                     the Teacher
           Corps Program more effective.

           Detailed   comments on the reco:Imendations,   together  with the statements
           of actions    to be taken to implement them, are set forth     in the enclosures
           hereto.    They are the product of review by cognizant      Departmental  and
           Office   of Education   staff of the report  and the response from the Cali-
           fornia   Department of Education.

                                                                 Sincerely      yours,




                                                                 Assistant      Secretary,      Comptroller

           Enclosure

                                                            50
      .                                                                       APPENDIX II

                       Department       of Health,   Education,      and Welfare
           Comments       Pertinent    to the Draft of Report       to the Congress    of the
            United States by the Comptroller            General    of the United States on
          Assessing     the Impact     of the Teacher       Corps Program      at the University
            of Southern     California    and Participating      Schools in Tulare    County


 We encourage         Teacher     Corps to assist    universities     in developing    approaches
 for adequately       preparing     corpsmembers       for training     assignments    in high
 schools.

 Department        Comment

 We concur       in the recommendation.

 To the extent that resources     permit    Teacher      Corps will help universities
 to develop approaches    for preparing      secondary     school teachers.       It should
 be noted that only a small percentage        of Teacher       Corps programs       are in
 high schools.   We do, however,       recognize     the need for these programs           to
 refine their objectives   and the activities     related    to achieving   them.




                                       [See GAO note.]


 We also recommend      that HEW clarify   the intent of the Teacher      Corps legis-
 lation with respect  to the use of corpsmembers       and emphasize     to the Office
 of Education  the need to monitor   the program     more closely    to help ensure
 that corpsmembers     are used in accordance     with such intent.

 Department        Comment

 We concur       in the recommendation.

 We recognize      the complexity  of this problem.      Although    we are of the
 opinion that the use of corpsmembers         as described     in the GAO report     was
 proper    and in accord with legislative   intent,   a legal decision     will be
 requested    of the Department’s    Office of the General      Counsel   to resolve
 this issue.

GAO note:         Deleted      comments relate      to material          which was
                  presented       in draft   report    but which         has been
                  omitted      from this   final    report.

                                                51
APPENDIX III

                PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE
       DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

     RESPONSIBLEFOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF ACTIVITIES

                 DISCUSSEDIN THIS REPORT


                                        Tenure of office
                                        From            -To
SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
  AND WELFARE:
    Elliot L. Richardson             June   1970     Present
    Robert H. Finch                  Jan.   1969     June 1970
    Wilbur J. Cohen                  Mar.   1968     Jan.    1969
    John W. Gardner                  Aug.   1965     Mar. 1968

ASSISTANT SECRETARY,EDUCATION:
    Vacant                           June   1970     Present
    James E. Allen, Jr.              May    1969     June 1970
    Peter P. Muirhead (acting)       Jan.   1969     May     1969
    Lynn M. Bartlett                 July   1968     Jan.    1969
    Paul A. Miller                   July   1966     July    1968
    Francis Meppel                   Oct.   1965     May     1966
COMMISSIONEROF EDUCATION:
   Sidney P. Marland, Jr.            Dec.   1970     Present
   Terre1 H. Bell (acting)           June   1970     Dec. 1970
   James E. Allen, Jr.               May    1969     June 1970
   Peter P. Muirhead (acting)        Jan.   1969     May     1969
   Harold Howe II                    Jan.   1966     Dec. 1968
   Francis Keppel                    Dec.   1962     Jan.    1966




                                                   U.S.   GAO.   Wash..   D.C.
                                52
Copies  of this report are available       from the
U. S. General   Accounting   Dffice,    Room 6417,
441 G Street, N W., Washington,      D.C., 20548.

Copies     are provided    without        charge      to Mem-
bers of Congress,         congress iona I committee
staff members,     Government        officia Is, members
of the press,     college    libraries,       faculty    mem-
bers and students.        The price to the general
public    is $1.00 a copy.       Orders should be ac-
companied     by cash or check.