oversight

Potential for Improved Effectiveness of Scientific and Technical Information Dissemination Activities

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-07-15.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

Potential For Improved
Effectiveness Of Scientific And
Technical Information
Dissemination Activities   B-165777




Atomic Energy Commission




          .




                                      4



BY THE COMPTROLLER   GENERAL
OF THE UNITED STATES
                          COMPTROLLER      GENERAL      OF      THE      UNITED    STATES
                                         WASHINGTON.     D.C.         20548




     B-165117




     ‘To the       President        of the Senate     and the
LI   Speaker         of the      House   of Representatives
/
                  This      is our report     on the potential      for                   improved       effec-
     tiveness            of scientific    and technical    information                        dissemination
     activities            by the Atomic     Energy     Commission.

                  Uur
                   review was made pursuant     to the Budget                                       and Ac-
     counting    Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C.  53), and the Accounting                                         and Au-
     diting   Act of‘1950  (31 U.S.C. 67).

                  Copies    of this report            are being   sent to the Director,
     Office        of Management        and          Budget,   and to the Chairman,
     atomic          Energy    Commission.




                                                             Comptroller                  General
                                                             of the United                States




                                   50 TH ANNIVERSARY                     1921-    1971-
I
i
I
I
I . COikPTROLLER
               GENERAL'S                     POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEDEFFECTIVENESS OF
I   REPURTTO THE CONGRESS                    SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
I                                            DISSEMINATION
                                                         ACTIVITIES
I                                         _L_Atomic Energy Commission        S-165117      743
I
I
I
I   DIGEST
    _-----
I
I
I
I   WHYTHEREVIEW'WAS
                   MADE
I
I
I         The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) supports research and development
I
I
          activities    at Government-owned, contractor-operated         laboratories    and
          at universities,    nonprofit  research institutions,      commercial organi-
          zations, and other Government agencies.         Scientific     and technical     in-
                                                            -~- --is
                                                                  . disseminated
          formation derived from this original      research                          in a
I         variety of ways, such as through articles        in scientific      journals,    re-
          ports, oral presentations     at meetings and conferences, and information
          and data centers.

          In fiscal year 1969, AEC's Division of Technical Information              spent about
          $4.6 million    to disseminate scientific        and technical  information.    In
          addition,    substantial    costs were incurred by AEC's contractor-operated
          laboratories    for similar     purposes.     The General Accounting Office (GAO)
          identified    costs of about $7.3 million        incurred by four of AEC's
          contractor-operated      laboratories     during fiscal year 1969, not including
          the costs of writing or reviewing information            documents within the lab-
          oratory divisions.       (See pp* 8 to 9.)

          In view of these substantial   efforts,   GAOdecided to examine into the
          manner in which these dissemination     activities    were be%g?%.?itiged-by
          AEC and four of its contractor-operated       laboratories.


    FINDINGSANDCONCLUSIONS
          Publication     in scientific     journals is the preferred means of information
          dissemination.      Certain material,       for reasons of length, originality,
          limited   interest,    or partial     completion of total research effort,      is not
          appropriate     for journal publication.          Generally this material is pub-
          lished by the laboratories          as "topicaltreports."

          Topical reports, written by scientists,       usually present the results of
          research efforts     on a single project.    They are distributed  to AEC of-
          fices and contractors      and other Government agencies through AEC's stan-
          dard distribution     system and to other interested   persons through supple-
          mental distribution     systems of the laboratories.     In most cases they
          are available     for purchase by the public.


    Tear Sheet




                                                 I                   JULY15J97.1
                                                                                   r       I
 Articles  submitted to scientific  journals senerallv are sub.iected to               ;   I
 critical  review and evaluation by-the sciekists'    peers--a irocedure
 commonly known as the referee process --as part of the journals'    review
 procedures.    Topical reports, however9 are not subjected to the referee
 process after they are released by the laboratory.

  Only six of the 12 laboratory divisions   included in GAO's review had
  formalized   review procedures directed toward evaluation of the technical
  content of topical reports.    The scope of these reviews varied consid-
  erably.    (See p. 12.)

 AEC has not established    standards regarding the degree of critical     eval-
 uation to be given to topical reports.       In the absence of personal knowl-
 edge of the review procedures followed by the particular       laboratory pro-
 gram division   from which a report originates,    a recipient  cannot readily
 determine the extent to which a topical report received independent crit-
 ical evaluation    prior to its publication.    (See pa 75.)
 GAO sent a questionnaire    to 568 scientists   in the laboratory    divisions
 reviewed, to solicit   their opin ions regarding the usefulness      and relia-
 bility  of topical reports.

  Most of those responding to the .questionnaire    beI ieved that the review
  and evaluation . provided was sufficient.    About 45 percent of 418 scien-
  tists respqnding to this question believed, however, that the usefulness
  of these reports,   in general 9 would be increased if they were given addi-
  tional critical   evaluation.   (See p. 15.)

 GAO believes that an opportunity      exists for AEC to improve the confidence
 of recipients    in topical reports by determining the appropriate degree to
 which topical reports should receive independent critical         evaluation prior
 to their publication     and by publishing   the evaluation   procedures so that
 recipients    of the reports may be informed of the extent to which the re-
 ports have received critical     evaluation.     (See p. 15.)

 At their own discretion,     a number of laboratory divisions     published pe-
 riodic reports reflecting     the divisions'  research activities     for the pe-
 riod covered.     GAO found that the need for a number of these reports was
 questionable,   because much of the-information     they contained either had
 been published previously     or was to be published in a journal article      or
 a topical   report.   Certain of the reports substantially      duplicated each
 other.    (See ppO 16 to 22.)
. There is a need for AEC and the laboratories

   --to evaluate     the current practices   related to the preparation   and
      distribution    of laboratory division    periodic reports>




                                      2
I   ‘.
                        --to identify  the circumstances   under which such reports       are con-
                           sidered to be necessary, and

                        --to establish   guidelines   regarding the content of periodic reports
                           with a view to eliminating    any unnecessary, duplicative  information.
                           (See p. 27.)

                 GAO found also that insufficient  patent reviews were being made at one
                 laboratory and that a weekly selected-reading   list of questionable  need
                 was being published by another laboratory.    Action was subsequently
                 taken to improve the patent reviews , and publication  of the reading list
                 was discontinued.   (See pp. 23 to 25.)

                 There were differences    in the amount of management attention         which AEC's
                .Division of Technical Information     and the various AEC program divisions
                 were directing   toward the areas reviewed by GAO. In these circumstances,
                 many decisions regarding the information         dissemination activities     dis-
                 cussed in this report rested primarily        with laboratory divisions      and in
                 some 'cases with the individual   scientists.

                 This method of operation has resulted in insufficient     management control
                 over certain information  dissemination  activities   where greater manage-
                 ment control could improve their effectiveness.

                 The process of preparing and disseminating      scientific   and technical in-
                 formation involves substantial    expenditures of Government funds, as well
                 as a great deal of effort by scientists      supported under AEC's various
                 research programs.   In view of the significant      resources invested in
                 these activities,  AEC should make every effort to ensure that the infor-
                 mation products developed for its various research programs are as in-
                 formative and useful as possible,     (See p. 26.)


         RECOMMEiiDATIOiVS
                      OR SUGGESTIOi'lS
                 AEC should:

                        --Determine the appropriate degree to which topical reports generated
                           in the various AEC programs should receive independent critical eval-
                           uation prior to publication.

                        --Publish   the evaluation procedures to be followed at various locations
                           where such procedures are deemed necessary so that recipients   may be
                           informed of the extent to which reports have received critical   eval-
                           uation.

                        --Identify   the circumstances under which division    periodic     reports   are
                           considered to be necessary and desirable.
         Tear   Sheet
                                                                                                 I

        --Establish  guidelines        regarding the content of periodic reports       with      i
           a view to eliminating        any unnecessary, duplicative  information.               I
                                                                                                 I
        --Ensure that distribution         lists   for reports   are kept current   through      1
           periodic circularization.           (See p. 27.)                                      I
                                                                                                 I
                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                 I
AGENCY
     ACTIONSANDUNRESOLVED
                       ISSUES                                                                    I


       AEC informed GAO that it would review current procedures and practices                    f
       relating     to the dissemination    of scientific   and'technical  information,          1
       particularly     those relating   to topical reports and periodic reports of              i
       laboratory divisions.        Appropriate changes would be considered, AEC said,           I
     'if it appeared that greater effectiveness           could be achieved.    {See p. 27.);
                                                                                                 i
MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY TRECONGRESS                                                              -I
     The process of disseminating      scientific     and technical information        involves:
     substantial    and increasing expenditures of funds throughbut the Federal                  I
     Government. During fiscal year 1969, Federal obligations              for these ac-         1
     tivities    amounted to $362 million.        In addition,  scientists    receiving          ;
     support under Federal research programs invest a substantial              amount of
     effort   in reparing information      on the results of their original          research.;
     (See p. 8. Y                                                                                I
                                                                                                 I

cc   GAO is reporting this matter to the Conore&ecause          of its continuing                    I
 1   interest    in federally supported research and development activities      and                 t
     because the information    contained in the report may be useful to other                       I
     Government agencies engaged in disseminating    scientific    and technical                     I
                                                                                                     I
     information.                                                                                    I




                                                                                                     I


                                                                                                     I


                                              4
                           Contents
                                                                       Page

DIGEST                                                                   1

CHAPTER

       1   INTRODUCTION                                                  5
               Organization                                              6
               Cost of scientific       and technical        infor-
                 mation activities                                       8

       2   OPPORTUNITYTO INCREASE USEFULNESSOF TOP-
           ICAL REPQRTS                                                 11
               Conclusions                                              15

       3   QUESTIONABLENEED FOR PERIODIC REPORTSBY
           INDIVIDUAL LABORATORYPROGRAMDIVISIONS                        16
                Duplication     of information    in separate
                  reports within      specific  laboratory
                  divisions                                             16
                Duplication     among division    periodic    re-
                  ports,    journal   articles,   and topical
                  reports                                               19
                Maintenance of supplemental         distribu-
                  tion lists                                            21
                Conclusions                                             21

       4   OTHER MATTERSFOR CONSIDERATION BY AEC                      . 23
               Insufficient   patent reviews--LRL                       23
               Questionable   need for"Weekly   Selected
                 Reading List"--Brookhaven                              24

       5   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                              26
              Recommendations                                           27

       6   SCOPE OF REVIEW                                              28

APPENDIX

       I   Transmittal   letter    dated   December 8, 1969,
             and questionnaire                                          33

  II       Specified  characteristics       of scieritists
             included in sample                                         38
CWTER                                                                 Page   "

 III       Percent response of all scientists              based on
             a sample of 568 scientists                                39

   IV      Tabulation     of 542 questionnaires    returned,
             arranged     by laboratory   and program divi-
             sions                                                     40

       V   Principal   management officials  of the Atomic
              Energy Commission responsible   for the ac-
              tivities  discussed in this report                      44

                              ABBREVIATIONS

AEC        Atomic     Energy Commission

DTI        Division     of Technical    Information

GAO        General    Accounting    Office

LRL        Lawrence     Radiation   Laboratory--Berkeley
COMPTROLLER
          GENERAL'S                   POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEDEFFECTIVENESS OF
REPORT
     TO THECONGRESS                   SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
                                      DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES
                                      Atomic Energy Commission B-f65117

DIGEST
------

WHYTHEREVIEWWASMADE
    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) supports research and development
    activities    at Government-owned, contractor-operated        laboratories   and
    at universities,    nonprofit research institutions,      commercial organi-
    zations, and other Government agencies.       Scientific      and technical   in-
    formation derived from this original      research is disseminated in a
    variety of ways, such as through articles       in scientific      journals,  re-
    ports, oral presentations     at meetings and conferences, and informaticn
    and data centers.

    In fiscal year 1969, AEC's Division of Technical Information              spent about
    $4.6 million    to disseminate scientific        and technical  information.    In
    addition,    substantial    costs were incurred by AEC's contractor-operated
    laboratories    for similar     purposes.     The General Accounting Office (GAO)
    identified    costs of about $7.3 million        incurred by four of AEC's
    contractor-operated      laboratories     during fiscal year 1969, not including
    the costs of writing or reviewing information            documents within the lab-
    oratory divisions.       (See pp. 8 to 9.)

    In view of these substantial   efforts,   GAO decided to examine into the
    manner in which these dissemination     activities    were being managed by
    AEC and four of its contractor-operated       laboratories.


FINDINGSANDCOX'LUSIONS
    Publication     in scientific     journals    is the preferred means of information
    dissemination,      Certain material,       for reasons of length, originality,
    limited   interest,    or partial     completion of total research effort,      is not
    appropriate     for journal publication.         Generally this material is pub-
    lished by the laboratories          as "topical    reports."

    Topical reports, written by scientists,       usually present the results of
    research efforts     on a single project.    They are distributed  to AEC of-
    fices and contractors      and other Government agencies through AEC's stan-
    dard distribution     system and to other interested   oersons through supple-
    mental distribution     systems of the laboratories.     In most cases they
    are available     for purchase by the public.
Articles  submitted to scientific  journals generally are subjected to
critical  review and evaluation by the scientists'   peers--a procedure
commonly known as the referee process --as part of the journals'    review
procedures.    Topical reports, however, are not subjected to the referee
process after they are released by the laboratory.

Only six of the 12 laboratory  divisions included in GAO's review had
formalized review procedures directed toward evaluation  of the technical
content of topical  reports.  The scope of these reviews varied consid-
erably.   (See p. 12.)

AEC has not established  standards regarding the degree of critical      eval-
uation to be given to topical reports.     In the absence of personal knowl-
edge of the review procedures followed by the particular      laboratory pro-
gram division  from which a report originates,    a recipient  cannot readily
determine the extent to which a topical report received independent crit-
ical evaluation prior to its publication.      (See pa 15.)
GAO sent a questionnaire    to 568 scientists in the laboratory        divisions
reviewed, to solicit   their opinions regarding the usefulness         and relia-
bility  of topical reports.

Most of those responding to the questionnaire   believed that the review
and evaluation provided was sufficient.    About 45 percent of 418 scien-
tists responding to this question believed, however, that the usefulness
of these reports, in general, would be increased if they were given addi-
tional critical  evaluation.  (See p. 15.)

GAO believes that an opportunity      exists for AEC to improve the confidence
of recipients    in topical reports by determining the appropriate degree to
which topical reports should receive independent critical        evaluation prior
to their publication     and by publishing   the evaluation  procedures so that
recipients    of the reports may be informed of the extent to which the re-
ports have received critical     evaluation.    (See p. 15.)
At their own discretion,      a number of laboratory    divisions   published pe-
riodic reports reflecting      the divisions'  research activities      for the pe-
riod covered.      GAO found that the need for a number of these reports was
questionable,    because much of the information     they contained either had
been published previously or was to be published in a journal article             or
a topical   report.    Certain of the reports substantially       duplicated   each
other.    (See pp. 16 to 22.)

There is a need for AEC and the laboratories

  --to evaluate     the current practices   related to the preparation      and
     distribution    of laboratory division    periodic reports,
      --to identify  the circumstances    under which such reports       are con-
         sidered to be necessary, and

      --to establish   guidelines regarding the content of periodic reports
         with a view to eliminating  any unnecessary, duplicative  information.
         (See p. 27.)

   GAO found also that insufficient  patent reviews were being made at one
   laboratory and that a weekly selected-reading   list of questionable need
   was being published by another laboratory.    Action was subsequently
   taken to improve the patent reviews , and publication  of the reading list
   was discontinued.   (See pp. 23 to 25.1

   There were differences   in the amount of management attention         which AEC's
   Division of Technical Information and the various AEC program divisions
   were directing   toward the areas reviewed by GAO. In these circumstances,
   many decisions regarding the information        dissemination activities     dis-
   cussed in this report rested primarily       with laboratory divisions      and in
   some cases with the individual   scientists.

    This method of operation has resulted in insufficient     management control
    over certain information  dissemination  activities   where greater manage-
    ment control could improve their effectiveness.

    The process of preparing and disseminating      scientific   and technical in-
    formation involves substantial   expenditures of Government funds, as well
    as a great deal of effort by scientists     supported under AK's various
    research programs.   In view of the significant      resources invested in
    these activities,  AEC should make every effort to ensure that the infor-
    mation products developed for its various research programs are as in-
    formative and useful as possible.     (See p. 26.)


RECOMMEAQATIOiVS
            OR SUGGESTIOiVS
    AEC should:

      --Determine the appropriate degree to which topical   reports generated
         in the various AEC programs should receive independent critical   eval-
         uation prior to publication.

      --Publish the evaluation  procedures to be followed at various locations
         where such procedures are deemed necessary so that recipients  may be
         informed of the extent to which reports have received critical  eval-
         uation.

      --Identify   the circumstances   under which division   periodic     reports   are
        considered to be necessary and desirable.
      --Establish  guidelines        regarding the content of periodic reports         with
         a view to eliminating        any unnecessary, duplicative  information.

      --Ensure that distribution         lists   for reports   are kept current     through
         periodic circularization.           (See p. 27.)


AGENCY
     ACTIONSANDUNRESOLVED
                       ISSUES
   AEC informed GAO that it would review current procedures and practices
   relating     to the dissemination     of scientific   and technical  information,
   particularly      those relating   to topical reports and periodic reports of
   laboratory     divisions,     Appropriate changes would be considered, AEC said,
   if it appeared that greater effectiveness           could be achieved.    (See p. 27.)


MATTERS
      FORCONSIDERATION
                    BY THECONGRESS
    The process of disseminating      scientific     and technical    information      involves
    substantial    and increasing expenditures of funds throughout the Federal
    Government. During fiscal year 7969, Federal obligations               for these ac-
    tivities    amounted to $362 million.        In addition,  scientists     receiving
    support under Federal research programs invest a substantial               amount of
    effort   in reparing information      on the results of their original           research.
     (See p. 8.7
    GAO is reporting     this matter to the Congress because of its continuing
    interest    in federally  supported research and development activities    and
    because the information     contained in the report may be useful to other
    Government agencies engaged in disseminating      scientific and technical
    information.
                                CHARTER 1

                              INTRODUCTION

      Scientific   and technical   information  generally   encom-
passes any information     in recorded or other communicable
form which presents the status,       progress, and results   of
research and development in science or technology         or which
has potential    use in advancing current and future research
and development.

      Research and development activities        supported by the
Atomic Energy Commission are carried         out at Government-
owned, contractor-operated      laboratories    and at universities,
nonprofit  research institutions,       commercial organizations,
and other Government agencies under contracts          with AEC.
        A list  of the ARC-owned, contractor-operated             laborato-
ries    included in our review follows.

        Argonne National Laboratory,     Argonne, Illinois
        Brookhaven National  Laboratory,     Upton, New York
        Lawrence Radiation  Laboratory    (LRL), Berkeley,   Cali-
          fornia
        Oak Ridge National  Laboratory,    Oak Ridge, Tennessee

      The contents of this report have been discussed with
ARC representatives,  and their comments have been incorpo-
rated in the report.

        The Atomic   Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C.        2161) provides
that:

        "It shall be the policy of the Commission to con-
        trol the dissemination         and declassification      of
        Restricted    Data in such a manner as to assure the
        common defense and security.           Consistent   with
        such policy,    the Commission shall be guided by
        the following     principles:"
             *            *           *           *           *
      "(b) The dissemination        of scientific   and techni-
      cal information      relating   to atomic energy should
      be permitted    and encouraged so as to provide that
      free interchange      of ideas and criticism     which is
      essential    to scientific     and industrial   progress
      and public understanding        and to enlarge the fund
      of technical    information."

ORGANIZATION

       AEC disseminates     scientific  and technical        information
resulting     from original    research in a variety       of ways, such
as through articles       in scientific   journals,    various types
of reports , papers presented orally         at scientific       meetings
and conferences,      and information   and data centers.          This
report deals primarily       with data disseminated        through vari-
ous types of reports published by AEC's contractor-operated
laboratories.

       The Division      of Technical Information          (DTI) at AEC
Headquarters,      in collaboration         with appropriate     AEC program
division    directors,      is responsible       for developing and ad-
ministering     AEC-wide policies,          procedures,    and guidelines
for reporting      results     of scientific       and technical   work sup-
ported by AEC. DTI carries               out a large part of its infor-
mation dissemination          activities     at the Division     of Techni-
cal Information        Extension at Oak Ridge.

      The AEC program division      directors    are responsible      for
determining    the overall   program for reporting       the results
of research work which is funded by their divisions              or which
is under their program supervision.           The directors     are re-
sponsible   also for prescribing     the frequency,      technical   con-
tent, and quality    standards of informational         products which
are to be prepared by contractors.

        The AEC program division      directors    and managers of ARC
field    offices   are responsible    for ensuring that each con-
tractor     under their administrative       supervision  is informed
of and complies with AEC policies           and procedures on the re-
porting     of research results.

     As a matter of practice,    the laboratories,           their pro-
gram divisions,  and the individual    scientists          make many of

                                      6
the decisions   affecting  publication,     such as determining
the frequency and content of the publication,        the need for
in-house review and evaluation       procedures,  and the most ap-
propriate   means of dissemination.

       Laboratory   program    divisions       do not always correspond
in name or organization        to the AEC Headquarters          program di-
visions    which fund their      activities.       Therefore,    to facili-
tate discussion     in this    report,       we have, in several cases,
classified     one or more    of the laboratory       divisions     included
in our review under the        appropriate       AEC program divisions       as
shown below.

Argonne:                                         LRL:
     Biology and Medicine                            Biology and Medicine
     Chemistry                                       Nuclear Chemistry
     Reactor (note a>                            Oak Ridge:
Brookhaven:                                          Biology and Medicine
     Biology and Medicine       (note     b)         Chemistry
     Chemistry                                       Reactor
     Reactor (note c)                                Isotopes

aIncludes     the Materials    Science     and Chemical      Engineering
 Division.
b
    Includes the Biology Department,   Medical Department,                 and
    Instrumentation  and Health Physics Department.

'Represents     the Applied    Sciences        Department.
COST OF SCIENTIFIC AND
TECHNICAL INFORMATION ACTIVITIES

       As shown in the chart below, Federal obligations               for
scientific     and technical      information    activities   increased
from about $76 million        in fiscal      year 1960 to $362 million
in fiscal     year 1969.     During the same period,        AEC obliga-
tions,     as reported to the National         Science Foundation,      in-
creased from $3 million         to about $4.6 million.

                            TRENDS IN FEDERAL OBLIGATIONS
                             FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL
     MILLIONS                   INFORMATION ACTIVITIES
                                                                     I




                1960   61      62   63   t
                                         FISCAL   YEAR



       The amounts shown in the chart present substantially
less than the full view of Federal support in this area,
since obligations      for information      dissemination     activities
incurred   directly    by research and development contractors
and grantees are not required          to be reported to the Founda-
tion,   because most agencies do not have the capability                 to
report them.      AEC's   costs    are reported   to  the  Foundation       on
the same basis as is the data by all other agencies and in-
clude only those costs funded by DTI.              In accordance with
the Foundation's     instructions,       AEC-reported    costs do not


                                              8
include costs      incurred     directly        by AEC contractor-operated
laboratories.

        To indicate   the magnitude of the activities             associated
with the dissemination         of research results       carried     out by
the laboratories      included in our review, we developed esti-
mates of the fiscal        year 1969 costs associated          with such
activities.       Because   of  differences      in laboratory     record-
keeping practices,       it was necessary in some cases to develop
these estimates,      which are shown in the following             table,    in
cooperation     with laboratory       officials.

                   Estimated Costs Associated With
               Information    Dissemination  Activities
                            Fiscal Year 1969

                                 All
                              labora-                     Brook-                   Oak
 Type of activity             tories       Argonne        haven        J&         Ridge

                                                   (000 omitted)---------------

Technical        informa-
    tion division        ac-
    tivities       (note a> $1,383         $      181     $   119 $      290 $       793
Page and reprint
    charges                     460               112           92           72      184
Printing        of scienti-
    fic and technical
    information                 711               212          141       105         253
Conferences:
        At the laboratory       118                83          (b)       -            35
        Away from labora-
           tory                 377               130          (b)       (b)         247
 Information        and data
    center activities        2,465                 79          698       235 1,453
library       operations     1,766                697          241       328   500
           Total              $7,280           $1,494     $1,291     $1,030       $3,465

aIncludes    costs of such activities      as graphic arts and re-
  production   services,   information .        .
                                          studies,              .
                                                    patent reviews,
  and photography.
b Cost information     was not available.
                                           9
The differences    in the laboratories'      costs associated      with
the operation    of their technical     information   divisions     are
attributable,    in part, to differences      in the scope of their
activities    as well as to the volume of information          generated
by each of the laboratories,        Also the foregoing      table does
not include any costs associated        with the writing      or review-
ing of information     documents within the laboratory         program
divisions,

         Although it was not possible to identify         the total
amounts being expended by AK and its contractors,               the costs
shown in the table,       in addition  to the $4.6 million        expended
directly      by AEC, provide an indication      of the magnitude of
AEC's scientific      and technical   information     dissemination    ac-
tivities.

       As a further      indication    of the magnitude of information
dissemination     activities,       a summary for fiscal    year 1969 of
the number of journal         articles   and topical   reports published,
as well as the number of conference presentations                made by
scientists    from the four laboratories         reviewed,    follows.

                   Number of Journal Articles,
                    Conference Presentations,
                      and Topical Reports--
                         Fiscal Year 1969

                             All
     Method of            labora-                  Brook-           Oak
  dissemination           tories         Argonne   haven    LRL    Ridge

Journal articles           2,215            616     569     360      670
Conference presen-
  tations                  1,942            507     286     120    1,029
Topical reports               347            89      80      34       144
    Total                  4,504          1,212     935     =514   1,843




                                    10
                                   CHAPTER2

                           OPPORTUNITY To INCREASE

                        USEFULNESSOF' TOPICAL REPORTS

       Although publication         in scientific      journals    is     the
preferred     means of dissemination          for the results      of     original
research,     certain    material,     for reasons of length,           degree of
originality,      limited    interest,      or partial    completion        of to-
tal research effort,         is not appropriate        for journal        publica-
tion.      Such material     is generally      published by the         labora-
tories     in one or more topical         reports.

        Topical reports       are written     by scientists     and generally
present the results          of research efforts      on a single project.
The reports     are distributed        to AEC offices       and contractors
and other Government agencies through ARC's standard dis-
tribution     system and to other interested            persons through the
supplemental      distribution      systems of the laboratories.            In
most cases they are available             for purchase by the public.

      Topical reports      are used in the applied research areas,
such as reactor      development,     more frequently     than in the
more basic research areas, such as biology and medicine.
During the lo-month period from January through October 1969,
about 4,400 individual        topical   reports were distributed       in
micronegative     form through AEC's standard distribution            sys-
tem. About 1,400 of the 4,400 reports were distributed                 also
in printed    form.    During this period the following          numbers
of reports were disseminated          by ARC in the programs included
in our review.       The numbers represent        those reports   dissem-
inated for all ARC and contractor           locations.

                                    Number of reports   distributed
                Programs               Printed    Micronegative

          Biology and Medi-
             cine                             71                374
          Chemistry                          141                356
          Reactor                            260                791
          Isotopes                            72                 94

                Total                        544             1,615

                                        11
       Articles    submitted to scientific      journals    are generally
 subjected to critical      review and evaluation        by the scien-
tists'    peers, a procedure commonly known as the referee
process,     as part of the journals'      review procedures.       Topical
reports,     however, are not subjected to such a referee pro-
cess after they are released by the laboratory.

       As shown in the table below, six of the 12 laboratory
divisions   included in our review had formalized        in-house
review procedures directed       toward an evaluation    of the tech-
nical content of topical     reports.    A variety    of methods was
used by the six divisions      to accomplish the reviews,      and
there were substantial    variations    in the scope of the re-
views.

                              Argonne         Brookhaven       LRL      Oak Ridge

Biology and Medi-
   cine                          Yes               No          No           Yes
Chemistry                         No               No          No           Yes
Reactor                          Yes               No                       Yes
Isotopes                         (a>               (a)                      Yes

aprogram was not carried            out at the laboratory.

        In a report published            in 1963, the President's          Science
Advisory Committee stated that, because an agency's internal
communication       system was based largely             on topical     reports,
the dissemination          and retrieval      of information        contained     in
these reports must be improved.                 It pointed out that the              '
one essential       difference        between topical      reports    and the
conventional      journal      literature     was that journal        articles,
generally      speaking, were formally            refereed but that topical
reports were not.           The Committee therefore           suggested that
each agency handling large numbers of topical                     reports     es-
tablish    resident      referees      at the major contractor          and in-
house sites to review these reports                  before they are for-
warded to the agency's information                 handling system.         No spe-
cific    action was taken by ARC to implement this recommenda-
tion,although       copies of the report were sent to the various
AEC laboratories,

      In view of this recommendation                that topical  reports         be
subjected   to a review and evaluation                process, we sent a

                                         12
questionnaire      to a random sample of 568 scientists           in the
laboratory    divisions     included in our review to solicit          their
opinions regarding       the usefulness     and reliability     of AEC top-
ical reports.       We received responses from 542, or 95 percent,
of these scientists,        although not all the questions         on each
questionnaire     were answered.        The results   presented     in this
chapter reflect      the opinions of those scientists          who re-
sponded to the specific         questions   involved,

        A copy of the questionnaire        and its accompanying trans-
mittal      letter    are included as appendix I; specified     charac-
teristics,         such as age and length of employment, of scien-
tists     included in the sample are presented as appendix II;
the percent response of all scientists            based on a sample of
568 scientists         is presented as appendix III;    and a tabula-
tion of 542 questionnairesreturned,arranged             by laboratory
and program divisions          is presented as appendix IV.

      About 80 percent of the scientists          responding to our
questionnaire     used topical    reports.    An analysis     of the
purposes for which the reports were used revealed that, of
this 80 percent,       62 percent used them in their own research,
16 percent used them for general information            purposes,    19 per-
cent used them for both those purposes, and 3 percent used
them for other purposes.         Further analysis     showed that there
was little    variation    in the extent to which the reports
were used by the scientists         at the laboratories     included
in our review; however, their use was significantly              higher
in the more applied research programs.

      We asked the scientists         to express their opinion of
the reliability     of topical     reports by indicating    whether
they were more reliable        than journals,     equally as reliable
as journals,    less reliable      than journals,    or not reliable
at all.

       For all laboratories       combined, about two thirds          of the
scientists'    replies   indicated      that topical       reports were at
least equal to journal       articles      in reliability.        At Argonne
and Brookhaven, however, about 40 percent of the scientists
responding to this question believed              that the reports were
less reliable     than journal     articles.



                                     13
       The replies of the 451 scientists                      who responded           to this
question are shown below in percentage                        terms.

   Scientists'              All                 By laboratory      of employment
  opinions of            labora-                                              Oak
topical    reports       tories        Argonne             Brookhaven   LRL Ridge



More reliable   than
  journals                       5                4                 5          -           10
Equally as reliable
  as journals                   63               55                57          75          68
Less reliable   than
  journals                      31               41                38          24          21
Not reliable                     1               -                            9L--1         1

       Total                   100              100               100         -100      -100
       We also asked the scientists  their opinion                        regarding
the adequacy of independent critical     evaluation                       given to
topical   reports prior to their dissemination,,

        The opinions of the 433 scientists   who responded                            to
this    question are shown below in percentage   terms,

 Scientists'
 opinions of            All
  critical           labora-          By laboratory of employment
 evaluation          tories      Argonne Brookhaven     LRL Oak Ridge

                                                      (percent)

Too extensive            1             2                                                 3
Adequate                61            59                    51           70             65
Insufficient            31            32                    36           24             29
Not performed            7             7                    13            6              3

       Total           100           100                   100          100           100
      We asked the scientists     whether additional    critical
evaluation  of topical    reports would increase their usefulness
to themselves and to scientists       in general.    The responses
of 463 scientists   indicated    that 31 percent believed that

                                           14
it would increase the usefulness      of the reports     to them
personally,   and responses of 418 scientists      indicated   that
45 percent believed that it would increase the usefulness
to scientists   in general,    There was little   variation     in the
responses by laboratory     or by program.

CONCLUSIONS

      Most of the scientists         who responded to our question-
naire believed    that the review and evaluation           currently pro-
vided for topical     reports was sufficient.          A sizable percent-
age of the scientists         responding,     however, believed that the
usefulness   of these reports        would be increased if they were
given additional     critical      evaluation.

      ALEChas not established        standards regarding      the degree
of critical     evaluation     to be given to topical     reports.
Therefore,    in the absence of personal knowledge of the re-
view procedures      followed by the particular       laboratory    pro-
gram division     from which a report originates,         a recipient
cannot readily      determine the extent to which any given top-
ical report received        independent critical   evaluation      prior
to its publication.

      We believe that an opportunity         exists for AEC to improve
the confidence    of recipients     in topical     reports    resulting
from AEC-supported research by determining             the appropriate
degree to which topical      reports    generated in the various AEC
programs should receive independent critical              evaluation
prior  to their publication      and by publishing         the evaluation
procedures   so that recipients       of the reports may be informed
of the extent to which they have received             such evaluation.

     Our recommendations      concerning    this   subject   can be found
in chapter 5.




                                   15
                                 CHAPTER 3

             QUESTIONABLE NEED FOR PERIODIC REPORTS

          BY INDIVIDUAL LABORATORYPROGRAMDIVISIONS

        During our review we noted that, at their             own discre-
tion,     a number of laboratory     divisions   had issued reports--
usually     annually,  semiannually,     or quarterly--reflecting           re-
search activities      during the period covered.           In addition,
the laboratories      had issued annual reports highlighting              the
activities     of the entire    laboratory.

        We examined 23 division          periodic    reports   issued by
21 laboratory      divisions      at the four laboratories         included in
our review.      The need for many of these reports appeared
questionable     to us in view of the substantial              duplication
of the information        contained      in the different      reports    issued
by individual      laboratory      divisions      and in view of the fact
that much of the information             they contained either had been
previously    published or was to be published               in a journal
article    or topical     report.

DUPLICATION OF INFORMATION IN SEPARATEREPORTS
WITHIN SPECIFIC LABORATORYDIVISIONS

     The Physics and Chemical Engineering               Divisions    at Ar-
gonne each publish two types of division               periodic   reports.

       The Physics Division       publishes a quarterly       report and
an annual report.       According to the division        director,     the
quarterly    report is prepared to disseminate         current     research
information     to scientists     at Argonne and other laboratories.
The annual report summarizes the research progress of the
division,    ensures that scientists        summarize their work annu-
ally,    and is  used  in   connection   with  the recruiting      activi-
ties of the division.

      With respect to the material   included, the foreword to
the quarterly   report for the period April to June 1967 stated
that:

      "The research presented in any one issue ** is
      only a small random sample of the work of the
                                       16
       Physics Division.    For a comprehensive overview,
       the reader is referred   to the ANL Physics Division
       Annual Review ***."

        The foreword to the "Physics          Division Annual Review"
for   the period April 1967 through           March 1968 stated that:

       "*-k-k this issue offers     a complete and systematic
       overview of what is going on [in the Physics Divi-
       sion].     Much of what is indicated       briefly    here has
       been described more fully       in earlier      issues of the
       Summary [quarterly     report].     Most of the rest will
       appear in forthcoming      issues."

       The quarterly      report   stated    also   that:

      "The issuance of these reports       is not intended to
      constitute    publication in any sense of the word,
      Final results    will be submitted for publication
      in regular professional     journals   or, in special
      cases presented in ANL Topical Reports."'

       The Chemical Engineering            Division    issues an annual re-
port and a research highlights              report.      The primary objec-
tive of the annual report            is to provide an industrial            audi-
ence with a detailed          progress report on the research activ-
ities    of the division.         The highlights      report    is a condensed
version of the annual report and is directed                   more toward a
university       audience,     Our examination       of the distribution
list   for the latest       issue of each report           showed that Argonne
had.distributed        about 1,030 copies of the annual report and
about 1,250 copies of the highlights                report.     More than one
copy was sent to a recipient             in some cases.        Of the 1,250
copies of the highlights           report,     525 copies were distributed
to Argonne personnel and 725 were distributed                   externally.
Only about 100 copies of the highlights                  report were specif-
ically     directed    to university       users, the principal       recipients
for whom the report had been prepared.

       A comparison of the recipients     on the distribution       lists
showed that approximately     600 persons had received the high-
lights   report and that about 340 of these had also received
the annual report.     Also the division      distributed   about 75
copies of its special highlights      report,      which was identical

                                       17
 to the regular highlights report except that it had an ace-
-tate cover. We noted that, of the 75 persons who had re-
 ceived the special highlights report, 44 had received also
  the regular highlights report as well as the annual report.




                               18
DUPLICATION AMONGDIVISION PERIODIC REPORTS,
JOURNAL ARTICLES, AND TOPICAL REPORTS

      The principal objectives  of division  periodic             reports,
as stated by various laboratory   program directors,              are:

      --To fulfill   either     an   AEC   program   division   or a labo-
         ratory requirement.

      --To provide a progress report on the results           of the
         divisions'    research activities  to ARC officials,
         laboratory    review committees,  and other interested
         scientists    and to provide a means for the scientist
         to periodically     summarize his work.

       To evaluate the need for these reports, we examined
 into the manner in which they were meeting their stated ob-
jectives.

       Neither DTI, nor ARC program divisions,              nor the four
laboratories     required     individual     laboratory    divisions    to
prepare division       periodic     reports.     Nevertheless,     several
laboratory    division     directors     prepared these reports with
the understanding       that they were to fulfill          such a require-
ment.

        Throughout our review, scientists           commented that the
preferred     methods of disseminating         research results    were
articles     in scientific     journals     and, in some cases, topical
reports.       In a prior report to the Joint Cormnittee on Atomic
Energy entitled      "Administration        and Management of the Biol-
ogy and Medicine Research Program" (B-165117, April 16,
19691, we mentioned that a number of scientists               maintained
awareness of current research progress by reading commercial
indexing and abstracting          services which cover the scientific
journals     and by reading ARC's "Nuclear Science Abstracts,"
which indexes both journal          articles     and topical  reports.
Another principal        method was the exchange of journal          article
preprints.

     Because of the emphasis placed on journal        articles,        and
to some extent topical   reports,    as preferred  methods of dis-
semination,  we asked the directors     of the laboratory       divi-
sions that issued division    periodic   reports  to estimate        the

                                      19
percentage of information    in their latest        report which
either had been published    or was to be published by other
means, primarily  journal   articles     or topical     reports.    About
50 percent of the information       in the 23 reports was classi-
fied into the above category.         The information      ranged from
zero to 100 percent,    as shown by the following          table.

                                                                 Percent         of Material     in LaboratorY
                                                                Mvision          Periodic    Reports   also Found
                                                              in Journal         Articles    and Topical     Reports
                                                    Material                   Material
                                                essentially                essentially
                                                identical        to        identical       to                                                  Total
                                             that previously                 that to be           Abstracts     or     Abstracts     or    material
                                                  Dublished                  published            summaries     of     sulmnaries    of   previously      Other
                                                  in journal                 in puma1                material             material        ~published    infor-
        Laboratory         and                  articles       or          articles      or        previously               to be           or to be    mation     TO-
        periodic      reDOKt                 topical      reports       topical      reDorts       published            published          published   (ma)        gg
 Argonne :
       Materials       Science                           18                          76                                         2             100                  100
       Reactor      Physics                               5                          13                    :                                   20            ii0   100
       Physics      Annual                                                                               20                   615              85            15    100
            II      Q&%rterly                                                                            35                   35               70                  100
       Radiological         Physics                      -5                          40                    1                   1               47           :"3    100
       Applied      Mathematics                                                                                                                            100     100
       Biology      and Medicine                                                     ;4                                       -3                ;7          63     100
       Chemical      Rneineerinn
          Annual        -           -                    15                          75                    1                    1               92            8    100
       Chemical      Engineering
          Highlights                                     10                          80                    1                    1               92            6    100
 Brookha~en:
       Applied      Sciences                              8                          27                   14                  28                77           23    100
 IaL: --
       Biology      and Medicine
           (note b)                                      12                          35                                                         47           53    100
       Nuclear      Chemistry
           (note b)                                                                                                             7               50           50    100
       Inorganic       Materials                                                                                              78                99            1    100
       Physics                                                                                                                13                             70    100
       Chemical
 Oak Ridge:
                     Bio-Dynamics                                                    46                                       30                El           14    100
       Isotopes                                                                      20                                                         30           70    100
       Biology                                                                                                                ::                10           90    100
       Chemistry                                                                                                              10                10           90    100
 Reactor:
       Nuclear      Safety                                                                                                      5               40           60    100
       Molton Salt          -                                                                                                                   25                 100
       Desalination                                                                                                           -5                  5         ;:     100
       Gas Cooled                                                                                                                                          100     100
       Heavy section          Steel
          Technology                                                                                                                            78           22    100
 %nerally         represents           a report     on current        research       and development       progress.
 bPercentages        for       these    two divisions         were    developed       by GAO.



        With regard to the need for division            periodic   reports
as a means for scientists         to summarize research progress,
the director     of the Biology and Medicine Division             at LRL
which published      a periodic     report stated that the report
was not of significant        value, since a scientist          who obtains
significant    results    from his work will publish those results.
Also, the director       of the Nuclear Chemistry Division            at LRL
informed us that he would prefer not to publish the report
because of the time and effort           involved and that he would
have no objection      to discontinuing       publication.


                                                                                      20
       The directors     of several laboratory          divisions      that did
not publish periodic       reports     generally     indicated      that the
information    that would be contained in such reports could
generally   be found in a variety         of other information            docu-
ments, including      journal   articles,      topical     reports,      overall
laboratory    annual reports,      budget justifications,             and cer-
tain required     reports of AEC program divisions.

        Also we noted that the scientists      were required   to
summarize their work in connection        with the preparation     of
annual budget estimates    and certain     progress reports    spe-
cifically    required by AEC Headquarters.

MAINTENANCEOF SUPPLEMENTALDISTRIBUTION LISTS

        With regard to the effectiveness          of the dissemination
of research results      which may receive no dissemination            other
than that provided by the division           periodic   report,    it ap-
pears that many laboratory       divisions     made little      or no ef-
fort to keep their supplemental         distribution      lists   current.
The Technical Publications       Department at Argonne maintained
distribution     lists for all divisions        through formal circu-
larization.      The Nuclear Chemistry Division          at LRL was the
only other division      included in our review that had such a
procedure.

       We believe that a list         of the recipients     of informa-
tion products disseminated          free of charge should be circu-
larized    periodically     to ensure that only interested          persons
are receiving      the publication.        We believe also that the
method utilized        at Argonne, which required       positive    con-
firmation     by the recipient,       should be considered       by other
laboratories.

CONCLUSIONS

        In view of the duplication             among different      division
periodic     reports    issued by individual          laboratory     divisions
and in view of the considerable                overlap in the information
contained      in division       periodic     reports with material        pub-
lished in journal         articles      and topical     reports,    we believe
that there is a need for AEC and the laboratories                      to evalu-
ate the current       practices        related    to preparation     and dis-
tribution      of periodic       reports     and to identify     the

                                        21
circumstances     under which      such reports        are considered   to
be necessary.

       Because of the variations        in the extent of records
kept by different      laboratory    divisions,      we could not de-
velop the total      cost of division      periodic     reports.      As an
indication     of the cost of these reports,          however, about
$58,000 was expended by Argonne to print              the latest      issues
of nine reports      published    at the time of our review.             This
amount does not include the costs related               to the time and
effort    associated   with writing,      reviewing,      and editing
these reports.

       We recognize that,        under certain    circumstances,        it may
be desirable      for a division      to publish a periodic        report.
Such circumstances        may exist in the case of the Applied
Sciences Department at Brookhaven, which is a multidisci-
plinary    department composed of nine divisions.               Officials
of that department indicated            that its report was prepared
to inform the scientists          in each division     of the activities
of the entire       department and that laboratory         officials       pe-
riodically     reevaluated     the need for the report.           We believe
that,    in those situations       where a periodic     report is con-
sidered necessary,        guidelines      should be developed regarding
their content,       in view of other types of dissemination               of
the information        in such reports.

       With regard to the distribution        of division          periodic
reports,   as well as other laboratory         information         products,
we believe that the applicable       distribution        lists      should be
kept current    through periodic   circularization.

     Our recommendations         concerning     this     subject   can be
found in chapter 5.




                                      22
                                  CHAPrnR 4

             OTHER HATTERS FOR COMSIDEMTION BY AEC

INSUFFICIENT PATENT REVIWS--ERL

      In fiscal       year 1969, 360 journal   articles   reflecting
the results     of     research work conducted at LRL were published,
We noted that        86 articles,   or about 24 percent,   had not re-
ceived patent        reviews contrary   to the provisions    of the con-
tract between        the laboratory   and ARC and to AEC regulations.

        An official    of LRL9s Technical        Information      Division    in-
formed us that this situation             was due' to the relatively        low
probability       of patentable     material's    being disclosed        in
articles    resulting     from work in certain         research fields      and
to a long-established         practice     of the University       of Califor-
nia, the operating        contractor,      of allowing     the researcher       to
publish on his own. We found, however,that                   approximately
81 percent of the articles            which had not received patent
reviews had originated          in laboratory      divisions    which ac-
counted for about 47 percent of the 60 patent disclosures
in fiscal     year 1969.

       U.S. patent laws provide that a patent may be filed           for
up to 1 year after disclosure,        We are aware of one case at
LRL, which occurred in 1965, where ARC was precluded from
filing   for a patent on a new class of superconducting          com-
pounds for use in electrical      applications.       MC had prepared
and was about to file    a patent application       when it was dis-
covered that information     regarding     the invention    had been
published over a year before withoutapatent            review and
clearance.

      LRL officials advised us that they had been aware of
the patent review problem for some time and agreed to re-
examine it when we brought it to their attention  in January
1970.   In October 1970 they advised us that they had identi-
fied the reasons for the lack of patent reviews and had
taken action to resolve the matter but expected some contin-
uing problems.



                                        23
       We believe that, as required       by AEC regulations,      all
journal   article   manuscripts     should receive patent reviews
prior to being released by the laboratory,            to adequately
protect   the interests    of AEC. AEC advised us that it would
work with LRL to ensure that the problem received appropri-
ate management attention        and that it would keep the situa-
tion under surveillance       until   it was satisfied    that the prob-      i
lem had been resolved.

QUESTIONABLE NEED FOR
"WEEKLY SELECTEDREADING LIST"--BROOKHAVEN

       Brookhaven has published    the "Weekly Selected Reading
List,"    a current awareness publication,    since 1948.   The
reading list was compiled by scientists       of several Brook-
haven research departments who had reviewed journal       and
technical    report literature  received by Brookhaven's   re-
search library.

      As of February 1970, approximately        2,000 copies were
being distributed   free of charge each week. Of these 2,000
copies, about 800 were distributed       within    the laboratory
and about 1,200 were distributed       to other locations.        The
estimated   costs associated   with the printing      and distribu-
tion of the reading list     in fiscal   year 1969 totaled       about
$38,000, exclusive    of the costs related      to the effort     ex-
pended by the staff members who selected references            for the
reading list.

         The research library    received a number of periodic         pub-
 lications    which could be used by scientists        to maintain cur-
rent awareness of information         being published.       Among these
was "Current Contents,"        which provides,    on a weekly basis,
reprints     of the tables of contents      from scientific     journals
 in the life,     physical,   and chemical sciences.        At the time
of our review, the physical         sciences edition     covered 700
journals.

        Also available    in the library   was AEC's semimonthly
publication,.     "Nuclear Science Abstracts,"    which provides    in-
dexing and abstracting        coverage of journal  literature,   sci-
entific     and technical   reports,   books, and conference proceed-
ings, on a worldwide basis.


                                    24
       The Biology Department did not participate      in the prep-
aration    of the reading list.   The acting chairman of that
department advised us that (1) no one person could select
references     which took into consideration  the interests   of
everyone in the Biology Department and (2) most scientists
preferred     to select their own references  from a more ex-
haustive    list.

       In 1965 Brookhaven made a survey to determine whether
publication   of the reading list should be discontinued,        A
questionnaire   was sent to about 1,100 recipients     at Brook-
haven; however, none of approximately    1,300 external    recip-
ients at that time were surveyed.     The questionnaire    stated
that:

     “It  is now proposed to discontinue    publication     of
     the WSRL and unless we receive convincing        evidence
     that it is still   worth the considerable     effort   and
     expense required   to publish it, we will be obliged
     to terminate   it six weeks from now."

        Of the approximately  1,100 questionnaires     sent out,
only 190 were returned.      The returns   represented   17 percent
of the persons surveyed and less than 8 percent of the total
recipients.     Of the 190 responses,    155 favored continued
publication    and 35 said that it should be discoutinued.        On
the basis of the survey, Brookhaven decided to continue pub-
lication.

      During our review we indicated    to Brookhaven officials
that,  in our opinion,  the decision  to continue publication
of the reading list was questionable      in view of the limited
response to the survey questionnaire.

      Shortly after the conclusion     of    our field    review,
Brookhaven discontinued   publication       of the reading list.        :
Brookhaven advised us that, although          it considered    the list
worthwhile,   it had been discontinued       because of budgetary
reasons.




                                 25
                                  CHAPTEX5

                  CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS

        As noted earlier,    DTI, in collaboration        with program
officials,     is currently    responsible     for the development of
AEC-wide policies      and procedures for reporting          on the re-
sults of scientific       and technical    research funded by AK.
The directors      of AEC program divisions        are currently   respon-
sible for determining       the overall    program for reporting
scientific     work funded under their programs, including            fre-
quency $ technical     content,    and quality     standards of infor-
mation products prepared by contractors.

       Prior to June 24, 1968, DTI was solely responsible                for
developing     AEC-wide policies      and procedures for the report-
ing of scientific       and technical    information     and the AEC op-
erations    offices,    as well as program division         officials,
were responsible      for following     contractors'     progress on re-
search and development work, to ensure that full                 reports
were promptly prepared and appropriately             disseminated.

       We found that differences       existed in the amount of man-
agement attention     which DTI and the various AEC program di-
visions   were directing     toward the areas we reviewed.            In
these circumstances,       subject to some overall        policy guid-
ance from AEC, many decisions        regarding     information     dissemi-
nation activities      rested primarily     with laboratory      divisions
and in some cases with the individual           scientists.

      In our opinion,      this method of operation     has resulted
in insufficient   management control       over certain   information
dissemination   activities      where greater management control
could improve their effectiveness.

          The process of preparing    and disseminating   scientific
and technical       information  involves substantial    expenditures
of Government funds, as well as a great deal of effort               by
scientists       supported under AEC's various research programs.
In view of the significant        resources   invested in these ac-
tivities,      we believe that AEC should make every effort          to
ensure   that   the information     products    developed    from   its   var-
ious research     programs    are as informative      and useful     as   pos-
sible,

                                      26
*.
     RECOMMENDATIONS

          We recommend that, to increase the usefulness                   of topi-
     cal reports, AEC together with laboratory officials:

           --Determine    the appropriate  degree to which topical re-
              ports generated in the various AEC programs should
              receive independent critical    evaluation  prior to
              their publication.

           --Publish   the evaluation   procedures   to be followed at
              various  locations   where such procedures are deemed
              necessary so that recipients     of the reports may be
              informed of the extent to which reports have received
              such evaluation,

           We recommend also that,          to eliminate      any unnecessary
     duplicative   reporting, AEC:

           --Identify    the circumstances  under which division peri-
              odic reports   are considered  to be necessary and de-
              sirable.

           --Establish    guidelines     regarding the content of peri-
              odic reports with a view to eliminating        any unneces-
              sary, duplicative      information.

           --Ensure that      distribution   lists       for the reports      are
              kept current     through periodic        circularization.

            AEX informed us that it would review current                  procedures
     and practices      relating      to its entire program for the dissem-
     ination     of scientific       and technical     information,     particu-
     larly    those relating       to topical    reports     and periodic     reports
     of laboratory      divisions.       Appropriate      changes would be con-
     sidered,     AEC said, if it appeared that greater effectiveness
     could be achieved.




                                            27
                                 CHAPTER 6

                             SCOPEOF REVIEW

       We conducted our review at AEC Headquarters     in German-
town, Maryland;    at AEC's DTI in Bethesda, Maryland;     at the
Division   of Technical  Information   Extension  at Oak Ridge,
Tennessee; and at the following      AEC-sponsored research lab-
oratories.

      Argonne National   Laboratory
      Brookhaven National   Laboratory
      Lawrence Radiation   Laboratory
      Oak Ridge National   Laboratory

        Our review was directed        primarily      toward evaluating     se-
lected aspects of the information             dissemination     activities
of AEC and the four laboratories            and was limited,      for the
most part,     to laboratory     divisions      carrying    out AEC's biol-
ogy and medicine,       chemistry,     reactor,     and isotopes develop-
ment programs.       It did not include an evaluation            of the
quality    of the research work performed at the laboratories.

        As part of our examination,      we reviewed applicable    leg-
islative    history   and AEC's and the laboratories'     policies
and procedures.       We also obtained the views of various AEC
and laboratory      personnel knowledgeable of and responsible
for information      dissemination   activities.

     In conducting       our review    we concentrated       on the follow-
ing areas.

      1. The effectiveness     of specific     methods used by the
         laboratories    and program divisions       in carrying out
         information    dissemination    activities.

      2. The usefulness    and reliability         of AEC laboratory
         topical  reports.

      3. The need for annual and other periodic    reports   pub-
         lished by many laboratory  program divisions     at their
         own discretion.



                                      28
     To obtain opinions qf the usefulness      and reliability
of AEC laboratory  topical  reports,   we sent a questionnaire
to 568 scientists  at the laboratories    reviewed.     A tabula-
tion of the responses is shown in appendixes III and IV.




                                 29
’ .




      APPENDIXES
                                                                                                         APPENDIXI


                                    UNITED STATES GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE
                                                   WASHINGTON,          D.C.    20548


CIVIL   DIVISION
                                                                                              DEC 8 1969


             Dear    Sir:

                      As part     of an overall           review      of AEC's practices              for disseminating
             scientific        and technical          information,           the General         Accounting          Office
             is studying        the use currently              being made of AEC laboratory                      topical      or
             technical       reports.        These reports           are similar         to journal          articles       in
             that     they are written          by the scientist,               present       the results          of research
             efforts      on a single        project,        and are disseminated                through      AEC's standard
             distribution         system as well as the laboratory's                          own system.            They should
             not be confused            with annual         or other       progress      type reports            of laboratory
             divisions       which present          the status          of many research            projects         at a given
             point      in time.        The  objective         of   our    efforts      with     regard      to    topical
             reports      is to establish          whether         improvements         can be made in their                use-
             fulness      and manner of distribution.                      We believe         that    only you, the
             scientists,        can provide         us with this            important       information,           since you
             are the people           for whom the reports                are written.

                     Accordingly,         to obtain      your opinions     on this      important        matter,      we
             are requesting          that you fill         in the enclosed      questionnaire,           answering
             each question         as completely         as possible.      Please     return       the completed
             questionnaire         within    5 working       days, using     the enclosed          envelope.         You
             will    note that       the first      section     of the questionnaire           requests       certain
             background       information.          This information       is necessary          to adequately
             evaluate      the results       of our survey,         so your careful        attention        to it
             will    be appreciated.

                     Your replies     to the questions        will   be kept strictly         confidential.
             There is a control         number in the upper right            hand corner      of your
             questionnaire       which will      be used to log in those persons              responding.
             Once your questionnaire            has been logged       in, the control       number will          be
             removed and destroyed--          thus making     it impossible        to associate        specific
             questionnaires       and respondents.         Completed      questionnaires       will     be seen
             only by employees        of the General       Accounting      Office     and the results           of
             the survey     will    be issued      in a manner which will          not permit       the replies
             of any one individual          to be identified.

                     We are sending     the enclosed       questionnaire       to a sample of scientists
             at several     AEC laboratories      to obtain        a cross section      of views.    Your
             careful    consideration      and prompt     return      of the questionnaire       are extremely
             important     and your cooperation       will     be appreciated.
APPENDIX I


        If you    have any questions      about    this   survey     or about   any   of   the
questionnaire        items, please   call

                                              Sincerely     yours,




                                              Dean K. Crowther
                                              Assistant  Director


Enclosures       - 2




                                                  34
                                                                                                                APPENDIXI

                                         AEC LABORATORY TOPICAL REPORTS
                                                  QUESTICNNAIRE
BACKGROUND INFORMATION

1.   Age

2.   Length           of employment              at       this    AEC laboratory

3.   Level           of education

                 Ph. D.                                           B.S.

                 M.S.                                             Other        - Please    specify



4.   Major           field      of research

                     Biology                                     Biochemistry

                     Medicine                                    Metallurgy

                     Chemistry                                   Physics


                                                             -em--

QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO USE MADE OF TOPICAL REPORTS

1.   Do you personally                     receive           copies       of AEC laboratory           topical     reports

     originating                from     other        AEC Laboratories?

                     Yes                              -          No

     If       yes,      how often          do you receive                 them?

                     Frequently                            Occasionally                          Infrequently

2.   If       you do not          personally               receive        these     reports,    are    you notified

     of       the availability                   of new AEC topical                 reports?

      -               Yes                             -           No

     If       yes,      how are you notified?

                     Laboratory          accessions              lists

      -              Personal          contact        from       recipient

          -          Nuclear      Science          Abstracts

                     Other      - please          specify


                                                                         3.5
APPENDIXI


3.    Do you use the                information             presented                in   AEC topical           reports?

                     Yes                             -       No

      If      yes,     how many reports                  do you estimate                   you use during                  a one-year

      period;

                     Estimated          number       used

      and which              of the       following         most         accurately           describes              the    manner      in

      which          they    are    used?

                     In connection            with       your     own research

                     General       information

                     Other     - please           specify




 4.   In your           opinion,          how reliable              is        the    information           presented            in

      the      AEC topical               reports?

                     More reliable             than      journals                             Less        reliable          than      journals

                     Equal      to journals                                                   Not reliable

 5.   To what          extent       do you believe                  AEC laboratory                   topical          reports

      receive          independent            critical          evaluation                prior      to dissemination?

                     Too extensively                                                          Insufficiently

                     Adequately                                                               Not at all

 6.   In your          ppinion,           would      additional               critical        evaluation              of A.EC

      laboratory              topical        reports        prior         to their           dissemination                 incrcnse

      their          usefulness?

           To you                                    Yes                        No

           To recipients            in     general                        -yes                        -         No




                                                                         36
                                                                                                                APPENDIXI



     If   yes,     which        of   the    following            methods        of critical         evaluation,

     in your       opinion,          is    best      suited       to topical          reports?

                 In-house       -review

                 Referee        process       similar         to journals

                 Other       - please        specify




7.   Which of          the    following           do you believe             would      increase          the   usefulness

     of AEC laboratory                topical          reports?

                  Dissemination              on a periodic             basis,        such as weekly             or monthly

                  Dissemination             in      volumes       by program          rather       than      individually

                  Other       - please        specify




8.   Do you use topical                   reports       as well        as the        scientific           journals     for

     publishing           the    results          of your        research?

                 Yes                                        No
APPENDIX II

                   SPECIFIED CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENTISTS

                                       INCLUDED IN SAMPLE

          Scientists'   Average Age and Length of Employment
              BY Laboratory   and Program in Terms of Years

                                                        By Laboratory         of Employment
                                                                                                 Oak
                 All     laboratories            Argonne      Brookhaven               LRL      Ridge

Average age                   43                       43             43                   41        43
Length of
  employment                  12                       12             12                   10        14

                         All                   By Laboratory   Program Division
                     program             Biology and
                    divisions              Medicine     Chemistry   Reactor     Isotopes

Average age                 43                   44                 43                41        43
Length of
  employment                12                   11                 14                11        15
               Scientists           Classified        by Highest      Degree Earned

                                 Degree          Number       Percent
                                 M.D.                  24            5
                                 Ph. D.               345           64
                                 M.S.                  61           11
                                 B.S.                  81           15
                                 Other                 30          - i
                                        Total     2                100

         Scientists          Classified          by Major     Field        of Research

                 Major      field       of research         Number          Percent

                  Biology                                       72             13
                  Medicine                                      23              4
                  Biology and Medicine                          13              3
                  Chemistry                                    181             34
                  Biochemistry                                  33              6
                  Physics                                       87             16
                  Chemistry and Physics                         14              3
                  Engineering                                   48              9
                  Metallurgy                                    22              4
                  Other                                         46              8

                         Total                                               100
                                                              22             p15

                                                   38
                                                                                                                                                                               APPENDIX III

                                                                                       PERCENT RESPONSE OF ALL SCIENTISTS

                                                                                      BASED ON A SAMPLE OF 568 SCIENTISTS


                                                                                                                                                            Possible                       Estimated      Sampling
                                                     Cuestions                                                                                               answers                        percent         error

1.   Do you personally                 receive   copies of ARC laboratory                                 topical              re-   Yes                                                                      3.1
     ports originating                 from other ARC laboratories7                                                                  NO                                                          2:           3.0
                                                                                                                                     No response                                                     4        1.0

     If   yes,        how often        do you        receive          them?                                                          Frequently                                                   3
                                                                                                                                     Occasionally                                                12
                                                                                                                                     Infrequently                                                10
                                                                                                                                     No response                                                 10

2. If you do not personally                          receive these reports,       are                       you        noti-         Yes                                                         45           3.0
   fied of the availability                          of new +X topical      reports7                                                 NO                                                          16           2.0

     If   yes,        how are        you    notified7                                                                                Laboratory      accessions       lists                      17           2.6
                                                                                                                                     Personal    contact      from recioient                                    .9
                                                                                                                                     Nuclear    Science     Abstracts       .                     2           1.1
                                                                                                                                     Combination      of above                                   16           2.4
                                                                                                                                     other                                                        6           1.7

3.   Do you       use      the'information              presented               in   AEC topical            reports?                 YC3                                                        77            2.2
                                                                                                                                     No                                                          18           2.1
                                                                                                                                     No response                                                      5       1.1
     If yes. which of the                    following              most      accurately          describes              the         In connection        with your         own research         49           1.0
     manner in which they                    are used?                                                                               General     information                                     12           2.2
                                                                                                                                     Combination       of above                                  14
                                                                                                                                     Other                                                                    Z-f
                                                                                                                                     No response                                               (a?            (FL

4.   In your opinion,                 how reliable             is     the       information             presented              in    More reliable     than journals                              5           1.6
     the AD.2 topical                reports7                                                                                        Equal to journals                                           51           3.2
                                                                                                                                     Less reliable     than journals                             25           2.8
                                                                                                                                     Not reliable
                                                                                                                                     Not responsive      to question                             ;9           213

5.   To what          extent   do you believe               ARC laboratory         .topical     reports                              Too extensively                                            (a)           (a)
     receive          independent    critical              evaluation     ptior.to        dfssemina-                                 Adequately                                                   49          3.1
     tion7                                                                                                                           Insufficiently                                               23         -2.7
                                                                                                                                     Not at all                                                               1.2
                                                                                                                                     NPt responsive           to question                        2;           2.4
6.   In your opinion,          would additional                         critical         evaluation               of     AEC
     laboratory       topical     reports  prior                      to their         dissemination                   in-
     crease     their    usefulness?

     To you                                                                                                                          Yes                                                         25           2.6
                                                                                                                                     NO                                                          59           3.0
                                                                                                                                     No response       or opinion                                16           2.0

     To recipients              in    general                                                                                        Yes                                                                      3.0
                                                                                                                                     NO                                                          t:           3.2
                                                                                                                                     No response       or opinion                                24           2.6

     If yes,          which of        the following                 methods   of           critical        evaluation.               In-house     review                                         18           2.5
     in your          opinion,        is best suited                 to topical              reports?                                Referee     process       similar      to journals                       2.0
                                                                                                                                     Combination       of     above                             2:            (a)
     Which of the following                        do you believe      would                  increase        ths        use-        Dissemination     on a periodic    basis,
     fulness of ARC laboratory                        topical    reports7                                                            such as weekly      or monthly                                  18       2.4
                                                                                                                                     Dissemination     in volumes    by program
                                                                                                                                     ~27       than individually                                              2.9
                                                                                                                                                                                                     E        2*8
                                                                                                                                     No response       or opinion                                28           2.8

     Do you use topical                    reports      as well             as the scientific                 journal                Yes                                                         46            2.7
     for publishing   the                  results      of your             research?                                                NO                                                          47            2.7
                                                                                                                                     No    response                                                7           1.4

%bject           to     relatively          high     sampling              error.

hmpling           error        not    computed.




                                                                                                                         39
                                                                  TABULATION           OF 542 QDESTICNNAIRSS       RETURNED, ARBANCRD BY LABORATORY AND PROGRAM DIVISIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                    ARGONNE NATIONAL            LABORATORY
                                                                                                                                                                   Biology  and                                   Resctor              L&MorY
                                                                                                                                                                    Mediane            Chemistry                 (note     a)
                                                                                                                 Possible                                          NUQl-    Per-      NUSl-     Per-            NUIU-      Per-       Ni"U-       Per-    24
                                              questions                                                          answers                                           &                  &            *            &          g&         &-          ge&
1. Do you personally          receive  copies of ARC laboratory                            topical        re-    Yes                                                19                    22           52        24         41           65
   ports  originating         from other ARC laboratories?                                                       NO                                                 29                    20           48        33         56           82
                                                                                                                 No response                                                                                      2           3            2
   If    yes.   how often      do you      receive        them?                                                  Frequently                                                                                 4                13               4
                                                                                                                 Occasio"ally                                       -a        42            ;                    1:          62
                                                                                                                 Infreqwntly                                        11        58          12           z:          6         25          2'9"
2. If you       do "ot personally    receive  these                    reports,      are    you notified         Yes                                                17        66          14                     30          91          61
   of the       availability    of new ARC topical                     reports?                                  NO                                                 12        34           6                      3           9          21
    If   yes,   how are you       notified?                                                                      Laboratory     accessions    lists                      7    41               6       43        11          37
                                                                                                                 Personal    contact     from recipient                                                                                  'i
                                                                                                                 Nuclear    Science Abstracts                                             -2           i4         i               :       4
                                                                                                                 Combination      of above                          -6        ;5                       36        11                      22
                                                                                                                 Other                                                4       24               :         7        4          ::           9
3. Do you "se       the    information         presented          in ARC topical             reports?            Yes                                                31        65          33           79         54         92         118
                                                                                                                 NO                                                 17        35           8           19                     5          28
                                                                                                                 No response                                                               1            2              ;      3            3
   If yes, which of the following                     most      accurately          describes          the       In connection      with    your    own research    15        4.9         22           67                    69          74
   manner in which they are used?                                                                                General   information                                                                            ::         22          26
                                                                                                                 Other                                                   :    Ef               t       ::              5      9          18
4. In your Opinion.           how reliable           is   the     information          presented          in     More reliable     the"      journals                                          1                       4
   the AEC topical          reports?                                                                             Rquel to journals                                  i2        46                       4:                    4:          665        4:
                                                                                                                 Less reliable     the"      journals               15        31          ::           38        :t          32          50         34
                                                                                                                 Not reliable                                                 -
                                                                                                                 No response                                        il        23          -7           i;        i0          i7           ;a        19
5. TO what       extent   do you believe            A% laboratory                 topical   reports              TOO extensively                                                                                       2
   receive       independent    critical           evaluation   prior               to dissemination?            Adequately                                         ;5        31          ;0           i8                       5;.                 4:
                                                                                                                  I"sufficie"tLy                                    11                    14            33        2;            21                  25
                                                                                                                 Not at all                                           3       '6'            3                      2                                 5
6. 1" your opinion,        would additional                 critical         evaluation          of AEC          No response                                        19        40             5         1'2        LO            1:                  23
   laboratory      topical   reports   prior              to their         dissemination              increase
   their    usefuLness?

   To you                                                                                                        Yes
                                                                                                                 No
                                                                                                                 No response
                                                                                                                                                                    12
                                                                                                                                                                    ::
                                                                                                                                                                              2;
                                                                                                                                                                              2':
                                                                                                                                                                                          15'
                                                                                                                                                                                          '2'
                                                                                                                                                                                                       36
                                                                                                                                                                                                       60
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 34
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             :'B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         46
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         84
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13
   To recipients          in general                                                                             Ye*                                                15                    19 '                   20          34
                                                                                                                 NO                                                 18                    19           4:        29          49          6':
                                                                                                                 No response                                        15                     4           LO        10          17          29
   If yes,       which of the following               methods of           critical        evaluation,           In-house      review                                    0                                        9          45          24
    in your      opinion, is best suited               to topical           reports?                             Referee     process    similar     to journals               2                        2'8       10          50          22
                                                                                                                 combination        of above                             3'   20                                  1           5
                                                                                                                 Other                                                                                      :                                 :
                                                                                                                 No response                                        -1        -7                            5                                 2
7. Which of the following                do you      believe       would      increase          the    useful-   Dissemination      on a periodic basis,
   ness of AEC Laboratory                topical      reports?                                                      such es weekly or monthly                        9        19               6       14        12          20          27         18
                                                                                                                 Dissemination      in volumes by program
                                                                                                                    rather     then individually                    12                                 31                    41          49
                                                                                                                 Other                                                        2":         :1'                    1':                     33
                                                                                                                 No response                                        :'6       33          L2           ;r;       12          ::          40
8. Do you use topical   reports                as well       as the scientific                journals           Yes                                                 8        17          13                     35                      56
   for publishing   the results                of your       research?                                           No                                                 39        81          29           it        20          ::          aa
                                                                                                                 No response                                         1         2                                  4               7       5
                                                                      TABULATION            OF 542 QUESTIONNAIRES            RETURNED, ARRANGED BY LABORATORY AND PROGRAM DIVISIONS


                                                                                                                                                                                                  BROOKHAVRN NATIONAL LABORATORY
                                                                                                                                                                              Biolow    and                                  React0t              Laboratorv
                                                                                                                                                                               Medizne.                Chemistry           (note       b)            tote1     .
                                                                                                                        Possible                                              NUIW      Per-         NUUJ-     Per-        NUIS-       Per-      Num-        Per-     .
                                                 Questions                                                              *"S"erS                                                                      ber                                         *
                                                                                                                                                                                                     -                    -ber         cent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       -                      cent.
1. Do you personally               receive  copies of ARC laboratory                             topical          re-   Yes                                                                                                22           42           46
   ports originating               from other ARC laboratories?                                                         NO                                                                            :i                   30           58           84         2:
                                                                                                                        No response
    If   yes,    how often         do you   receive          them?                                                      Frequently                                                                                    9     6           27                7     15
                                                                                                                        Occasio"ally                                                4    ;1                :               14           64                      46
                                                                                                                        Infrequently                                                9    69                7    ii          2            9           :i         39
2. If you       do "ot personally    receive these                        reports,         are    you      notified     Yes                                                     17       65           21                   23           77           61
   of the       availability    of new AK topical                         reports?                                      NO                                                       9       35            7         ::          7          23           23         ::
    If   yes,    how are     you     notified?                                                                          Laboratory     accessions    lists                          6     35          10        48                      22           21         34
                                                                                                                        Personal    contact     from recipient                                                               :           4            1           2
                                                                                                                        Nuclear    Science Abstracts                            -2        i2          -3        14                                    9        '15
                                                                                                                        Combination      of above                                 6                             33         1;           :;           25         41
                                                                                                                        Other                                                     3      2                 :     5           1               4        5           8
3. Do you       "se   me    information           presented         in AEC topical                reports7              Yes                                                    26                     30        77         43           83           99
                                                                                                                        NO                                                     13        ::            9        23          9           17           31
                                                                                                                        No response
    If yes, which of the              following        most        accurately          describes            the         In connection.with          your       own research              58                     77         27           63
    manner in which they              are used7                                                                         General   information                                            19                                 9           21           !2         E
                                                                                                                                                                                         23                     203         7           16           19         19
4. In your opinion,            how reliable           is     the    information             presented             in    More reliable     than       journals                                 3                             4                             5     4
   the AEC topical           reports?                                                                                   Equal to journals                                                                       41         26                                  49
                                                                                                                        Less reliable     than      journals                             :f;                    44         16                        :2"       32
                                                                                                                        Not reliable
                                                                                                                        No response                                                      SO                     ;5         -6                        20         15
5. To what       extent   do you believe             ARC laboratory                  topical    reports                 Too extensively
   receive       independent    critical            evaluation    prior                to dissemination?                Adequately                                             i2        il           13        ;3         ;9           ;5           ;4        42
                                                                                                                        Insufficiently                                         14        36           13                   11
                                                                                                                        Not at all                                               4                              ::           6          ::           ::        ::
                                                                                                                        No response                                              9       :"3               2    23           6          12           24        18
6. In your opinion,       would additional                     critical         evaluation           of ARC
   laboratory    topical     reports  prior                  to their         dissemination
   increase   their    usefulness7

   To you                                                                                                               Yes                                                                           11        28                      27           37
                                                                                                                        NO                                                     ::        :z           21                   :::          65
                                                                                                                        No response                                                 6    15            7        :i           4           8           :7"
   To recipients           in general                                                                                   Yes                                                              39                     44         18          35            50
                                                                                                                        NO                                                     ::        33           ::        28         24          46            48
                                                                                                                        No response                                            11        28           11        28         10          19            32
   If yes,       which of the following                methods of             critical           evaluation,            In-house     review                                                                     47         10
   in your       opinion, is best suited                to topical              reports7                                Referee    process      similar     to journals        lo"       2:                z    53          5          28"           ia
                                                                                                                        Combination       of   above                             1         6
                                                                                                                        Other                                                                                              -2          ;1             :
                                                                                                                        No response                                                                                         1            5            1
7. Which of       the following     do you believe                   would       increase           the                 Dissemination      on a periodic basis,
   usefulness        of AEC laboratory     topical                  reports7                                               such as weekly or monthly                           11        28                6    20           7          13           26
                                                                                                                        Dissemination      in volumes by program
                                                                                                                            rather    than individually                        13                                                                    42
                                                                                                                        Other                                                            :3'           :        ::         :o'         42
                                                                                                                        NO response                                            1:        26           17        44         13          25            20"
8. Do you       use topical    reports     es well              as the scientific                                       Yes                                                              10                                27          52                      32
   journals       for publishing       the results               of your research?                                      NO                                                    3;         90          :i                    25          48                      68
                                                                                                                        No response
                                                                          TABULATION          OF 542 QURSTIONNAIREs      RETURNED, ARRANGED BY LABORATORY AND PR@XAM DIVISIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                           LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY          --
                                                                                                                                                                             Bioloev   end -b                            La oratory
                                                                                                                                                                                Med&ne                 Chemistry           total
                                                                                                                         Possible                                          NUSl-        Per-       NUSI-         Per-
                                                       Questions                                                         answers                                           her          cent       ber
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -
      1. Do you personally               receive  copies of AEC laboratory                       topical           re-   Yes                                                17         40
         ports originating               from other AEC laboratories?                                                    NO                                                 26         60          :t
                                                                                                                         No response
           If   yes,   how often      do you       receive        them7                                                  Frequently                                                    12               5                      7       23
                                                                                                                         Occasionally                                            :
                                                                                                                         Infrequently                                            9     5':              :                 ::           3';
                                                                                                                                                                                 1       6                                     1         3
      2. If you do not personally                  receive these reports,        are you                   noti-         Yes                                                13         50          13                                  53
         fied of the availability                  of new AEC topical     reports?                                       NO                                                 13         50          10                                  47
           If   yes,   how are     you     notified?                                                                     Laboratory     accessions    lists                             39                    47                       42
                                                                                                                         Personal    contact     from recipient                          B              E     15                       12
                                                                                                                         Nuclear    Science Abstracts                                                   2     15                       15
                                                                                                                         Cgo$nation      of above                                       ::              3     23                       23
                                                                                                                                                                                        15                                              6
      3. Do you use        the    information          presented         in AEC topical           reports7               Yes                                                32                     34         92                       82
                                                                                                                         NO                                                 11                      3          8                       18
                                                                                                                         No response
           If yes, which if the             following         most      accurately       describes           the         In connection     with    your    own research     16                     26          76         42           64
           manner in which they             are used7                                                                    General   information                               6          :8          1           3          7           10
                                                                                                                         Other                                              10          31          7          21         17           26
      4.   In your opinion,         how reliable             is   the    information          presented            in    More reliable     then     journals
P          the ARC topical         reports?                                                                              Equal to journals                                  24          ;6                     ;3         ;1           64
t-4                                                                                                                      Less reliable     than     journals                11          25                     13         16           20
                                                                                                                         Not reliable                                                                                       1           1
                                                                                                                         No response                                        -0          ;9                     1:         12           15
      5. To what       extent   do you believe             ARC laboratory              topical    reports                Too extensively
         receive       independent    critical            evaluation    prior            to dissemination7               Adequately                                         ;3         ;3                      ;7         14           55
                                                                                                                         Insufficiently                                                19                      19         15           19
                                                                                                                         Not at all                                              t
                                                                                                                         No response                                             9     2:                     2:          1';          2:
      6.   In your opinion,          would additional               critical       evaluation        of ARC
           laboratory       topical     reports  prior            to their       dissemination          in-
           crease     their    usefulness7

           To you                                                                                                        Yes                                                :"3        23                      57
                                                                                                                                                                                                               30         21
                                                                                                                         NO                                                                        ::                                  :ti
                                                                                                                         NO response                                        10         :"3              5      13         :"5          19
           To recipients         in general                                                                              Yes
                                                                                                                         NO                                                 :z          33         ::         40
                                                                                                                                                                                                              38          ii           i:
                                                                                                                         No response                                        13          zi              B     22          21           26
           If yes,     which of the following                 methods of         critical       evaluation,              In-house     review                                     ii                12         79          17
           in your     opinion, is best suited                 to topical          reports7                              Referee    process    similar     to   journals               :f;
                                                                                                                         Combination       of above                         -1                          :       :7             i
                                                                                                                         No response                                                        7           1                      2
                                                                                                                         Other
      7. Which of the following                 do you       believe   would         increase       the useful-          Dissemination   on a periodic      basis,
         ness of ARC laboratory                 topical       reports7                                                      such es weekly or monthly                            9     21               8     22          17           21
                                                                                                                         Dissemination    in volumes by pro-
                                                                                                                            gram rather   then individually                 ::         28          12         19
                                                                                                                                                                                                              32          23
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24           30
                                                                                                                         Other                                                                                                         29
                                                                                                                         No response                                             6     :'4         1:          27         16           20
      8.    Do you use topical           reports       as well       as the scientific              journals
           for publishing    the         results       of your       research7
                                                                                                                         Yes
                                                                                                                         NO
                                                                                                                         No response
                                                                                                                                                                            22
                                                                                                                                                                            156
                                                                                                                                                                                       ::
                                                                                                                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                                                                                                   19
                                                                                                                                                                                                   153
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ":
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       :tl
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       11
                                                                                 TABULATION            OF 542 QUESTIONNAIRES         RETURNED, ARRANGED BY LABORATORY AND PROGRAM DIVISIONS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  OAK RIIXX   NATIONAL         LABORATORY                                   .
                                                                                                                                                                                      stolorr/     and                                                                Labyo;zry
                                                                                                                                                                                         Medilcine       Chemistry              Reactor            Isotopes
                                                                                                                                                                                        Num- Per-        Num- Per-            Num- Per-          Num-      per-       Num-        Per-
                                                                                                                               Possible                                                                                                                                           cent              ,
                                                           Qucsiions                                                           *"SwerS                                                  ber      cent
                                                                                                                                                                                                 -       ber
                                                                                                                                                                                                         -        cent        ber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -         Cent     ber
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -        --i&t       her

                                                                                                                                                                                          7       15      13          35        19       35        14         31       53          29           '
     1. DO you personally                 receive  copies of AEC laboratory                               top:ca1       re-    Yes                                                                                                                                    130          71
        ports originating                 from other AFX laboratories?                                                         NO                                                        40       85      24          65        35       65         31        69
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              _        -
                                                                                                                               No response
          If    yes,     how often        do you      receive           them?                                                  Frequently                                                                      1                         32             1                9          17
                                                                                                                               Occasio"ally                                                        2:          5       3:                47             7    570        24          45
                                                                                                                               Infrequently                                                        43                  46                21             5    36         18          34
                                                                                                                                                                                                               1"       8                               1     7          2           4

          If you do not persov.lly                    receive  these                 reports,       are    you      notified   yes                                                       17        42         20       83       32       91        27                   96          74
     2.
          of the availability      of               new AEC topical                  repor~sl                                  NO                                                        23        58          4       17        3        9         4        ::         34          26

          If    yes,     how are       you     notified?                                                                        Laboratory     accessions    lists                                 47                  20       16       50                  26         35          37
                                                                                                                                Personal    contact     from recipient                        F     6          t        5        1        3             :    11          6
                                                                                                                                Nuclear    Science Abstracts                                                    1       5                                                5           :
                                                                                                                                Combination     of above                                      i    2          10                -9       58        1:        4:         34          25
                                                                                                                                Other                                                         3    18           4      ::         6      19          3       11         16          17

                                                                                                                                                                                                              31               51        94        44        98        143          18
     3.   Do you use          the     information           presented           in AEC topical             reports7            Yes
                                                                                                                               NO                                                        ::        :5"         6       2        3         6         1         2         36          20
                                                                                                                                No response                                                   4      9                                                                   4           ?

                                                                                                                               I" connection      with      your       own research      10        59         22                28       55        23                   83          58
          If yes, which of the                  following             most    accurately          describes           the                                                                                                                                                           13
          manner in which they                  ere used7                                                                      ;;;~:a1   information                                      3                    3       :i        6       12         7        ::
                                                                                                                                                                                          4        :t          6       19       17       33        14         32        t:          29

     4.   In your opinion,               how reliable            is     the    information             presented        in     More reliable     than       journals                               2                            7        13                  16        15           8
          the AEC topical              reports7                                                                                Equal to journals                                         1:       28      27          73       32        59        3:        71       104          57
                                                                                                                               Less reliable     than       journals                     10       21       7          19       11        20          4        9        32          18
                                                                                                                               Not reliable                                                        2                                                 1        2                     1
P                                                                                                                              No response                                               2:       47      -3          -8       -4        -8          1        2         3:         16
Lu
     5. To what          extent   do you believe                AEC laboratory                  topical    reports             Too extensively                                                                                      3     6         1             2
        receive          independent    critical               evaluation    prior                to dissemination7            Adequately                                                ;0       ;1      ;b          ;0                           26                   9:          52
                                                                                                                               I"s"fficie"tly                                            12       26        5         14       :o"       1":       16        ::         43          2:
                                                                                                                               Not at all                                                  4        8                                                                    4
                                                                                                                               No response                                               21       45      -6          ;6        -5       -9        -2        -4         34          1;

     6. In your opinion,      would additional                            critical          evaluation        of AEC
        laboratory    topical     reports prior                         to their          disseminetio"
         increase  their    usefulness7

          To YOU                                                                                                               Yes                                                                 17                  16      10                            33                     21
                                                                                                                               NO                                                        178      36      286          I6      42                  :z        65       1::
                                                                                                                               No response                                               22       47       3             8      2                    1        2         28          1";
          To recipients             in general                                                                                 Yes                                                                                             12                  19        42         54          30
                                                                                                                               NO                                                        :(:      ?i      :t          ::       35                  22        49         07          47
                                                                                                                               No response                                               24       51           7      19        7                   4         9         42          23

          If yes, which             of the     following          methods of critical                   evalua-                In-house     review                                                69      10         LOO            8             11        58         38
          tion,  in your            opinion,       is best        suited  to topical                 reports?                  Referee    process      similar     to journals                    23                                4              7        37         14          ::
                                                                                                                               Combination       of   above                                        8                                                                    1               2
                                                                                                                               No response
                                                                                                                               Other                                                                                                              -1        -5         -1               2
          Which of        the following     do you believe                       would      increase        the                Dissemination      on a periodic basis,
          usefulness         of AEC laboratory     topical                     reports7                                           such as weekly or monthly                                         6         7       19            8             18        40         36          2n
                                                                                                                               Dissemination      in volumes by program
                                                                                                                                  rather     than individually                                                        35            9             13                   51
                                                                                                                               Other                                                              1':    :i           2i                                    ::         51          i;:
                                                                                                                               No response                                                        47          7       19      :ll                   :       13         45          24

          Do you       use topical     reports    as well                    as the scientific                                 Yes                                                                       13           35      48                  40        89        104         57
          journals        for publishing       the results                    of your research7                                NO                                                                        24           65                                     7         72         39
                                                                                                                               No response                                                                                      :                            4           7         4

     %cludes           Materials        Science      and Chemical               Engineering            Divisions.
     bApplied        Scjences        Department.
APPENDIX V


                PRINCIPAL MANAGEMENTOFFICIALS

                              OF THE

                   ATOMIC ENERGYCOMMISSION

                RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ACTIVITIES

                   DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT


                                              Tenure of office
                                               From          To
                                                             -
CHAIRMAN:
    Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg                     Mar.   1961        Present

GENERALMANAGER:
   R. E. Hollingsworth                       Aug. 1964          Present

ASSISTANT GENERALMANAGERFOR ADMIN-
  ISTRATION:
    John V. Vinciguerra                      May 1966           Evesent

DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF TECHNICAL IN-
  FORMATION:
    Edward J. Brunenkant                     Apr.   1961        Present

FIELD OFFICE MANAGERS:
     Chicago Operations  Office:
          Kenneth A. Dunbar                  Nov. 1957          Present

    New York Operations  Office:
        Wesley M. Johnson                    Jan.   1964        yresent

    Oak Ridge Operations    Office:
        S. R. Sapirie                        Feb. 1951          Present.

    San Francisco   Operations     Office:
        Ellison   C, Shute                   Dec. 1958          Present



                                                           US   GAO,   Wash., D-C.

                                   44