oversight

Assessment of the Teacher Corps Program at the University of Southern California and Participating Schools in Los Angeles and Riverside Counties

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1971-07-09.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

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               COMPTROLLER     GENERAL     OF      THE    UNITED   STATES
                             WASHINGTON.    D.C.     20548




B-164031(1)




To the President   of the Senate and the
Speaker  of the House of Representatives

         This is our report     on our assessment         of the Teacher
Corps program       at the University       of Southern     California      and
participating    schools   in Los Angeles       and Riverside         Counties.
This program      is authorized     by title V of the Higher          Education
Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C.       1101) and is administered            by the Office
of Education,    Department      of Health,    Education,     and YIelfare.                -

        Our review  was made pursuant    to the Budget                         and Ac-
counting   Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 53), and the Accounting                          and Au-
diting Act of 1950 (31 U.S.C. 67).

        Copies of this report     are being sent to the Director,    Of-
fice of Management        and Budget; the Secretary   of Health,   Educa-
tion, and Welfare:      and the Commissioner     of Education,    Department
of Health,   Education,     and Welfare.




                                            Comptroller              General
                                            of the United            States




                     50TH ANNIVERSARY                    1921 - 1971
                                              ASSESSMENTOF THE TEACHER CORPS PROGRAMAT
                                              THE UNIVERSITY OF SOiJTtiERI‘JCALIFORNIA AND
                                              PARTICIPATIh' SCtiOOLS IN LOS ANGELES AND
                                              RIVERSIDE COLNTIES
                                              Office   of Education,  Department   of Health,
                                              Education,   and Welfare B-164031(1)


DIGEST
-----_

WHY THE REVIEW WASMADE

       This   is the fourth     in a series     of rcpc*c-s by the General Accounti.ng  Of-
       fice   (GAO) comprising      a nationwide     review of the Teacher Corps program.
       (See app. III.)       This report      assesses the program at the University    of
       Southern California        (USC) and participating      schools in Los Angeles and
       Riverside    Counties    in California.       The program is referred  to as the
       USC urban program.

      Background

       The Teacher Corps was established             in the Office       of Education, Department
       of Health,  Education, and Welfare            (HEW), under      the Higher Education   Act
       of 1965.

       Its objectives    are to strengthen    educational    opportunities      for children
       in areas having concentrations       of low-income    families     and to encourage
       colleges   and universities    to broaden their    programs for training        teach-
       ers.                                                                            d

       The Teacher Corps recruits           and trains     qualified       teachers    (team leaders)
       and inexperienced       teacher-interns        for service        in areas of low-income
       families.      Members of the corps are assigned to schools in teams, each
       consisting     of a team leader and several              interns.      The interns     also en-
       gage in courses of study leading             to college        or university      degrees and
       to qua1 ification     for State teaching          pertificates.

       Local educational    agencies are expected  to pay at least 10 percent      of
       the salaries    of Teacher Corps members; the Office    of Education   pays the
       remainder    of the salaries  and the costs of the interns'   courses.     (See
       P. 8.)

       Federal appropriations    for the Teacher Corps program totaled   about
       $77 million   from its inception  through June 1970,   During this period
       Federal funds of about $2.7 million     were expended under the USC urban
       program.    (See p. 9.)

Tear Sheet




                                                                      JULY        9,19-n
    The USC urban program focused upon the special          educational   needs of
    I+lexican-American     and black children   living in the urban Los Angeles
    metropolitan     area.    The program strengthened   educational    opportunities
    available    to children     in the schools where corps members were assigned.
    (See pp- 11 and 17.)

    Corps members worked with individual,    or small groups of, children      who,
    in many cases, had language difficulties    or disciplinary   problems or
    who were slow learners.    (See p= 19.)    They also introduced    teaching
    methods not previously  used in the schools to which they were assigned,
    such as

       --having    children     read books written    by interns      that had been based
          on stories     told   by the children    about objects      which they had pho-
          tographed,

       --stimulating  children   to learn how to spell             by using   words   in which
          they had shown a particular    interest,

       --having     children    prepare   school   newspapers   as a means of developing
          writing    skills,    and

       --improving  the self-image         and confidence   of low-achieving children
          by having them participate          in plays or by having them see them-
          selves on closed-circuit         television.    (See p. 21.)

    Corps members in one of the seven school districts                 gave standardized      na-
    tional    reading    achievement     tests to 30 low-achieving       children   with whom
    they had worked.         The tests indicated       that these children      had increased
    their   reading    levels     by an average 2.4 grades during a year.            (See
    p- 22.)      A principal      in another school district      stated that the corps
    members' use of the Spanish language to teach classes had enabled
    Mexican-American        children    who spoke little    or no English to keep up in
    their   academic work.          (See p. 25.)

    Some school officials     and regular teachers     adopted corps members'             teach-
    ing techniques,    but others did not because they believed       that the            corps
    members' innovations    were not of particular      benefit.   Some stated            that
    the corps members needed to be better       prepared in basic teaching               or that
    they had been too quick to criticize      existing    teaching  methods.             (See
    pp. 21 and 25.)

    Corps members were instrumental           in the development    and operation     of
    learning    centers     that provided   elementary  school children      with labora-
    tory materials       that they could use in developing       their    knowledge in
    mathematics,     science,    and social    studies.   These centers     continued    op-
    erating   after    tlie corps members had completed their         assignments.      (See
    p. 22.)

                                           2



I
    I
    I        GA-0 was informed    that,  if Federal funding        of the Teacher Corps program
    I   *    were discontinued,      some school districts       would lack the funds to carry
    I
    I        on other corps member educational         services.      GAO believes    that the im-
    I        pact of the program will       be lessened to the extent that beneficial           corps
    I
    I        member approaches to educating        children    will   be discontinued     after Fed-
    I        era1 funding    ceases.    (See p. 23.)
    I
    I        Corps members also organized   or participated     in community activities
    I        which provided educational   opportunities     to children and their     parents,
    I        such as
    I
                 --taking       the children       on trips      to museums,          zoos,    and recreational
                    areas,

                 --attending    Parent-Teacher             Association         meetings       and visiting       chil-
                    dren's   homes,

                 --establishing          a day summer educational               program       for   improving      language
                    and reading         capabilities of children,               and

                 --developing          education      programs       for   adults.        (See p. 25.)

             Of the 88 interns  who had completed    the program at the time of GAO's
             review, 72 (82 percent)  either   were teaching   or had contracts    to teach.
             Most of these teaching  positions   were in areas serving    low-income    fam-
             ilies.  (See pm 28.)

             Broadening         teacher     preparation       progrwns

             The USC urban program had some success in broadening             the university's
             teacher  preparation    program.   The university    established     a new curric-
             ulum which was designed to be more relevant        to preparing      the Teacher
             Corps interns    to teach children   from low-income     families.      (See p. 31.)

              Interns       were given      courses       in such subjects           as

                 --Mexican-American    and black ethnic     studies    designed to provide in-
                    terns with the knowledge and cultural         awareness that they would need
                    in dealing   with and teaching  minority      students,

                 --the teaching     of English as a second                     language to meet the             needs of
                    Mexican-American    children who spoke                     little  or no English,            and

                 --family       life    in depressed        urban     areas.         (See p. 32.)

             USC developed     two teacher-training         programs that were modeled,       in some
             respects,   after    its urban Teacher Corps program.             One program was es-
             tablished   to provide     intern    positions     to individuals    who could not be
             accommodated by USC's Teacher Corps program.                 It was discontinued      after
             1 year because the participating            local school district      lacked suffi-
             cient staff    and funds.      The other program was designed to train             teachers
I
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        --   Sheet
I

                                                                 3
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
     to teach     English    to adults      who were not fluent       in the language.            (See    I
     p. 33.)                                                                                              I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
     A university       official      believed  that the urban program          had made the USC          I
                                                                                                          I
     School of Education            more aware of the need to prepare           individuals for           I
     teachins     children       from cultura lly different   low-income         families.  (See          I
                                                                                                          I
     p. 33.)"
                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                           I
     Although      the university      made some changes in its regular             teacher-              I
     training      program as a result        of its experience         with the urban program,           I
                                                                                                          I
     most of the courses which were adapted for Teacher Corps interns                          were       I
     not offered        as part of the regular         teacher-training       program.    USC offi-       I
                                                                                                          !
     cials    informed      GAO that formal procedures           had not been established        for      I
     evaluating       the specialized       courses and techniques          used in the urban             I
                                                                                                          I
     Teacher Corps program to identify               those that would warrant          i elusion     in   I
     the regular        teacher   preparation     program.       (See pp. 33 to 35-Y                      I
                                                                                                          I
                                                                                                          I
     USC plans,     in accordance       with revised     Teacher Corps guidelines,      to in-            I
     crease its emphasis on          evaluation    of the special     curriculum   and teach-             I
                                                                                                          I
     ing approaches     used in      its latest    urban Teacher Corps program for the                    I
     purpose of identifying          and retaining     those features      that are found to              I
                                                                                                           I
     be successful.       (See p.      36.)                                                                I
                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                           I
     Role   of CaZifornia      Department      of Education                                                I
                                                                                                           I
                                                                                                           I
     GAO believes        that the effectiveness         of the Teacher Corps programs in                   I
     California       could be enhanced through broader dissemination               by the Cali-           I
     fornia     Department    of Education        of information      concerning  experiments   and            I
                                                                                                               I
     teaching      techniques    successfully       used in the Teacher Corps programs in                      I
     the State,        In GAO's opinion,        such information       would be of particular                  I
                                                                                                               I
     benefit     to educational      institutions       in California      that have not under-                l
     taken Teacher Corps programs.                (See pp. 38 and 39.)                                         I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
RECOikWENDATIONS
-               OR SUGGESTIOTJS                                                                                I
                                                                                                               I
     The Secretary      of HEW should       provide   for   the Office     of Education      to                I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
       --stay    abreast    of USC's progress      in evaluating  teaching   approaches                        I
                                                                                                               I
          introduced     under its latest      urban Teacher Corps program to assure                           I
          itself   that the successful       features    of the Teacher Corps are in-                          I
          cluded in teacher      preparation      courses for other students     interested                    I
                                                                                                               I
          in teaching     in low-income     areas (see pa 36) and                                              I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
       --discuss    with the California       Department        of Education    the most ap-                   I
          propriate     means of disseminating       information      concerning    experiments                I
                                                                                                               t
          and teaching      techniques  successfully        used in Teacher Corps programs                     I
          in California       to other educational       institutions      in the State,    par-               I
                                                                                                               I
          ticularly     those not participating        in Teacher Corps programs (see                          I
          p. 39.)                                                                                              I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                               I
                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                                I
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                                                4                                                                  I
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’                I
                 I
                 I
                 I



                     AGENCYACTIONSAND UNRESOLVED
                                               ISSUES
             I
                          The Assistant      Secretary,   Comptroller,     HEW, agreed with GAO. He stated
                          that Teacher Corps headquarters          would redouble    its efforts    to stay
                          abreast     of USC's urban Teacher Corps program and would see that suc-
                          cessful     elements were incorporated       into the university's     regular
                          teacher-training       program.   (See p. 36.)

                          He said that Teacher Corps headquarters           also would encourage officials
                          in the California      Department  of Education      to make increased   efforts    to
                          disseminate    information    on successful    elements   of the Teacher Corps pro-
                          grams and other teacher-training         programs throughout     the State.      (See
                          p. 39.)
             I



                     MATTERSFOR CONSIDERATIONBY THE CONGRESS
                          This series   of    reports    provides   the Congress with information     on the ef-
                          fectiveness   of    the Teacher Corps program in achieving        its legislative
                          objectives   and    on the measures needed to improve its effectiveness.
                          The contents   of     this report     and others in the series may be of use to
                          the Congress in       its deliberations      on extending the program.




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    I                 Tear Sheet
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                         Contents
                                                            Page

DIGEST                                                        1

CHAPTER
  1       INTRODUCTION                                        6
              Operation of Teacher Corps program              7
              Funding                                         9
              Program participation                          10

          USC URBANTEACHERCORPSPROGRAM                       11
              Selection of interns                           14

          DID USC URBANTEACHERCORPSPROGRAM
          STRENGTHENEDUCATIONALOPPORTUNITIES
          AVAILABLE TO CHILDREN IN AREAS HAVING
          CONCENTRATIONS     OF LOW-INCOMEFAMILIES?          17
              Work performed by corps members in
                participating      schools                   18
              Education-related      community activities    27
              Retention     of corps members as regular
                teachers                                     28
              Conclusion                                     30

   4      DID URBANTEACHERCORPSPROGRAMRESULT
          IN BROADENINGOF TEACHERPREPARATION
          PROGRM AT USC?                                     31
              Academic course work offered to
                 Teacher Corps interns                       31
              Influence  of Teacher Corps on USC's
                 teacher preparation   program               32
              Conclusion                                     36
              Recommendation to the Secretary of
                 Health, Education,   and Welfare            36

   5      ROLE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENTOF EDU-
          CATION IN USC URBANPROGRAM                         38
              Conclusion                                     39
              Recommendation to the Secretary of
                Health, Education, and Welfare               39

   6      SCOPEOF REVIEW                                     40
APPENDIX                                                              Page

        I   General information         on interns and team
              leaders accepted        into USC urban program          43

   II       Letter dated April 29, 1971, from the
               Assistant Secretary, Comptroller,
              Department of Health, Education,   and
              Welfare, to the General Accounting
              Office                                                  44

 III        GAO reports on reviews of Teacher Corps
              program at selected universities and
              local educational  agencies                             47

   IQ       Principal     officials     of the Department of
               Health, Education,        and Welfare having
               responsibility       for the activities
               discussed in this report                               48

                                ABBREVIATIONS

GAO         General      Accounting   Office

HEW         Department      of Health,    Education,    and Welfare

USC         University      of Southern    California
.   COkFTROLLER GENXRAL‘S                     ASSESSMENT OF THE TEACHER CORPS PROGRAMAT
    REPORT TO THE CONGRESS                    THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AND
                                              PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS IN LOS ANGELES AND
                                               RIVERSIDE COUNTIES
                                               Office  of Education,        Department    of Health,
                                               Education,     and Welfare     B-164031(1)


    DIGEST
    -mm----

    WHY THE REVIEW WAS MADE

        This is the fourth     in a series     of reports   by the General Accounting  Of-
        fice (GAO) comprising      a nationwide     review of the Teacher Corps program.
        (See app. III.)     This report      assesses the program at the University    of
        Southern California      (USC) and participating      schools in Los Angeles and
        Riverside  Counties    in California.       The program is referred  to as the
        USC urban program.

        Background

        The Teacher Corps was established             in the Office       of Education, Department
        of Health,  Education, and Welfare            (HEW), under      the Higher Education   Act
        of 1965.

         Its  objectives    are to strengthen    educational    opportunities      for children
        in areas having concentrations         of low-income    families     and to encourage
        colleges     and universities    to broaden their    programs for training        teach-
        ers.

        The Teacher Corps recruits           and trains     qualified       teachers    (team leaders)
        and inexperienced       teacher-interns        for service        in areas of low-income
        families,      Members of the corps are assigned to schools in teams, each
        consisting     of a team leader and several              interns.      The interns     also en-
        gage in courses of study leading             to college        or university      degrees and
        to qualification      for State teaching          certificates.

         Local educational    agencies are expected to pay at least    10 percent    of
         the salaries    of Teacher Corps members; the Office    of Education   pays the
         remainder    of the salaries  and the costs of the interns'   courses.     (See
         P* 8.)

         Federal appropriations    for the Teacher Corps program totaled    about
         $77 million   from its inception  through June 1970.    During this period
         Federal funds of about $2.7 million      were expended under the USC urban
         program.    (See p. 9.)
FITJDINGS MD COIK'LlJSiOI%;S

    S-kengthening       educational      opportmities

    The USC urban program focused upon the special         educational   needs of
    Mexican-American      and black children   living in the urban Los Angeles
    metropolitan    area.    The program strengthened   educational    opportunities
    available    to children    in the schools where corps members were assigned.
    (See pp. 11 and 17.)

    Corps members worked with individual,    or small groups of, children      who,
    in many cases, had language difficulties    or disciplinary   problems or
    who were slow learners.    (See p. 19.)    They also introduced    teaching
    methods not previously  used in the schools to which they were assigned,
    such as

      --having    children     read books written    by interns          that had been based
         on stories     told   by the children    about objects          which they had pho-
         tographed,

      --stimulating  children   to learn how to spell                 by using   words   in which
         they had shown a particular    interest,

      --having      children   prepare     school       newspapers   as a means of developing
         writing     skills,   and

      --improving  the self-image           and confidence   of low-achieving children
         by having them participate            in plays or by having them see them-
         selves on closed-circuit           television.    (See pm 21.)

   Corps members in one of the seven school districts                gave standardized      na-
   tional    reading    achievement    tests to 30 low-achieving       children   with whom
   they had worked.         The tests indicated      that these children      had increased
   their   reading levels       by an average 2.4 grades during a year.           (See
   p. 22.)      A principal     in another school district      stated that the corps
   members' use of the Spanish language to teach classes had enabled
   Mexican-American       children    who spoke little    or no English to keep up in
   their   academic work.         (See p> 25.)

   Some school officials     and regular teachers     adopted corps members'                 teach-
   ing techniques,    but others did not because they believed       that the                corps
   members' innovations    were not of particular      benefit.   Some stated                that
   the corps members needed to be better       prepared in basic teaching                   or that
   they had been too quick to criticize      existing    teaching  methods.                 (See
   pp, 21 and 25.)

   Corps members were instrumental            in the development    and operation     of
   learning    centers      that provided   elementary   school children     with labora-
   tory materials        that they could use in developing       their    knowledge in
   mathematics,     science,     and social     studies.  These centers     continued    op-
   erating   after    t'ie corps members had completed their          assignments.      (See
   p. 22.)

                                             3
GAO was informed     that,  if Federal funding        of the Teacher Corps program
were discontinued,      some school districts       would lack the funds to carry
on other corps member educational         services.      GAO believes    that the im-
pact of the program will       be lessened to the extent        that beneficial    corps
member approaches to educating        children    will   be discontinued     after Fed-
eral funding    ceases.    (See p. 23.1

Corps members also organized   or participated     in community activities
which provided educational   opportunities     to children and their parents,
such as

  --taking       the children       on trips      to museums,          zoos,    and recreational
     areas,

  --attending    Parent-Teacher             Association         meetings       and visiting      chil-
     dren's   homes,

  --establishing          a day summer educational               program       for   improving     language
     and reading         capabilities of children,               and

  --developing          education      programs       for   adults.         (See p. 25.)

Of the 88 interns  who had completed the program at the time of GAO's
review, 72 (82 percent)  either   were teaching  or had contracts    to teach.
Most of these teaching  positions   were in areas serving   low-income    fam-
ilies.  (See p. 28.)

Broadening       teacher     preparation.      proqrams

The USC urban program had some success in broadening            the university's
teacher  preparation    program.   The university    established    a new curric-
ulum which was designed to be more relevant        to preparing     the Teacher
Corps interns    to teach children   from low-income     families.     (See p. 31.)

Interns      were given      courses     in such subjects              as

  --Mexican-American    and black ethnic     studies    designed to provide in-
     terns with the knowledge and cultural         awareness that they would need
     in dealing   with and teaching  minority      students,

  --the teaching     of English as a second                     language to meet the needs of
     Mexican-American    children who spoke                     little  or no English, and

  --family       life    in depressed       urban      areas.         (See p. 32.)

USC developed     two teacher-training         programs that were modeled,        in some
respects,   after    its urban Teacher Corps program.             One program was es-
tablished   to provide    intern     positions     to individuals    who could not be
accommodated by USC's Teacher Corps program.                  It was discontinued      after
1 year because the participating            local school district       lacked suffi-
cient staff    and funds.      The other program was designed to train              teachers



                                                  3
     to teach     English    to adults    who were not fluent         in the 1anguage.            ,(See
     p. 33.)

     A university       official     believed    that the urban program         had made the USC
     School of Education more aware of the need to prepare                      individuals for
     teaching     children       from culturally     different low-income         families.  (See
     p. 33.)

     Although      the university      made some changes in its regular             teacher-
     training      program as a result        of its experience         with the urban program
     most of the courses which were adapted for Teacher Corps interns                          were
     not offered        as part of the regular         teacher-training       program.    USC offi-
     cials    informed      GAO that formal procedures           had not been established        for
     evaluating       the specialized       courses and techniques          used in the urban
     Teacher Corps program to identify               those that would warrant          i elusion     in
     the regular        teacher   preparation     program.       (See pp. 33 to 35. r

     USC plans,     in accordance       with revised     Teacher Corps guidelines,      to in-
     crease its emphasis on          evaluation    of the special     curriculum   and teach-
     ing approaches     used in      its latest    urban Teacher Corps program for the
     purpose of identifying          and retaining     those features      that are found to
     be successful.       (See p.      36.1

     Role   of California      Depariment     of Education

     GAO believes        that the effectiveness         of the Teacher Corps programs in
     California       could be enhanced through broader dissemination               by the Cali-
     fornia     Department    of Education        of information      concerning  experiments   and
     teaching      techniques    successfully       used in the Teacher Corps programs in
     the State.        In GAO's opinion,        such information       would be of particular
     benefit     to educational      institutions       in California      that have not under-
     taken Teacher Corps programs.                (See pp. 38 and 39.)


RECOMMENDATIONSOR SUGGESTIOiVS

     The Secretary      of HEN should       provide   for   the Office     of Education      to

       --stay    abreast    of USC's progress      in evaluating  teaching   approaches
          introduced     under its latest      urban Teacher Corps program to assure
          itself   that the successful       features    of the Teacher Corps are in-
          cluded in teacher      preparation      courses for other students     interested
          in teaching     in low-income     areas (see p. 36) and

       --discuss    with the California       Department        of Education    the most ap-
          propriate     means of disseminating       information      concerning    experiments
          and teaching      techniques  successfully        used in Teacher Corps programs
          in California       to other educational       institutions      in the State,   par-
          ticularly     those not participating        in Teacher Corps programs (see
          p. 39.)
AGENCY ACTIONS   AND UNRESOLVED ISSUES

    The Assistant      Secretary,   Comptroller,     HEW, agreed with GA3. be statEi
    that Teacher Corps headquarters          would redouble    its efforts    co stal
    abreast     of USC's urban Teacher Corps program and would see that suc-
    cessful     elements were incorporated       into the university's     regular
    teacher-training       program.   (See p. 36.)

    He said that Teacher Corps headquarters            also would encotirage     officials
    in the California       Department  of Education      to make increased    efforts      tc:
    disseminate    information     on successful    elements of the Teacher Corps pro-
    grams and other teacher-training          programs throughout      the State.       (See
    p. 39.)


MATTERS   FOR CONSIDERATION      BY THE CONGRESS

    This series   of     reports    provides   the Congress with information      on the ef-
    fectiveness   of     the Teacher Corps program in achieving         its legislative
    objectives   and     on the measures needed to improve its effectiveness.
    The contents    of     this report     and others   in the series may be of tise to
    the Congress in        its deliberations      on extending  the program.
                                     CHAPTERk

                                   INTRQKXJCT‘6QN

           We evaluated   the effectiveness        of the Teacher Corps
    program in accomplishing        its legislative      objectives at the
    University    of Southern California        in Los Angeles and at
    participating     school districts      in Los Angeles and Riverside
    Counties.     These objectives      are

           --to strengthen      the educational opportunities          available
              to children     in areas having concentrations          of low-
               income fami.lies,and
i          --to encourage colleges and universities              to broaden
              their programs for training teachers.

            To accomplish these objectives,             the Teacher Corps is
     authorized   to (1) attract       and train qualified         teachers who
    will be made available         to local educational          agencies for
     teaching in areas of low-income familiesi                  (2) attract    and
     train inexperienced       teacher-interns        who will be made avail-
    able to local educational          agencies in such areas for teach-
    ing and in-service       training     in teams led by experienced
    teachers;    (3) attract     volunteers       to serve as part-time,       tu-
    tors or full-time      instructional         assistants    in programs car-
    ried out by local educational            agencies and institutions           of
    higher education      serving such areas; and (4) attract                and
    train educational      personnel to provide training,              including
    literacy    and communications        skills,     for juvenile     delinquents,
    youth offenders,     and adult criminal           offenders.     The last two

    1The enabling  legislation permitted    experienced   teachers to
     be assigned to local educational     agencies individually    or
     as the heads of teaching teams.     Public Law 90-35, approved
     June 29, 1967, amended the legislation      to permit experi-
     enced teachers to be assigned only as the heads of teach-
     ing teams.




                                          6
means of achieving   the Teacher Corps program objectives  were
authorized  subsequent to the commencement of our review by
Public Law 91-23Q--an act to extend programs of assistance
for elementary and secondary education--approved    April 13,
1970, and therefore   were not within the scope of our re-
view.

       This review was one of several made by us at selected
universities    and local educational agencies throughout  the
Nation.

OPERATIONOF TEACHERCORPSPROGRAM

      The Teacher Corps was established      in the Office of Ed-
ucation,  Department of Health, Education,       and Welfare, pur-
suant to title    V, part B, of the Higher Education Act of
1965, as amended (20 U.S.C. 1101).       The Teacher Corps is
basically  a locally   controlled   and operated program.      The
Office of Education provides funds to operate approved
Teacher Corps programs which have been locally         conceived to
meet local needs and which have been approved by the appli-
cable State educational     agency.   To be eligible    for approval,
a program must be designed to serve children         in areas having
high concentrations    of poverty.

      Persons eligible    to be enrolled   in the Teacher Corps
are (1) experienced    teachers,   (2) persons who have baccalau-
reate degrees or their equivalent,       and (3) persons who have
completed 2 years in programs leading toward baccalaureate
degrees.    The corps members9 after being selected,      are
placed in teams, each consisting       of an experienced  teacher--
the team leader-- and a number of teacher-interns.
        During their service the interns receive training        and
instruction     leading to appropriate    degrees from the par-
ticipating     college or university    and to qualification    for
State teaching certification.        The training    consists of
academic courses, work in the classrooms of local schools,
and participation      in community-based education activities.
      While in the schools, corps members are under the di-
rect supervision  of officials  of the local educational
agency to which they have been assigned.      Local educational
agencies, with certain exceptions,    are authorized  to
     (1) assign and transfer  corps members within the school
     system, (2) determine the subject matter to be taught, and
     (3) determine the terms and continuance   of the assignments
     of corps members within the system.    Corps members, however.,
     may not be used to replace any teachers who are,or other-
     wise would have been, employed by the local educational
..
     agency.

           The Teacher Corps program operates on a cycle basis.
     A cycle generally     consists of preservice training--a   period
4    of no more than 3 months during which the corps members'
     suitability    for acceptance into the program is determined--
     and 2 academic years with an intervening     summer. Certain
     programs, however, operate for a shorter period of time.
     The authorizing    legislation  provides for enrollment   of
     corps members for periods of up to 2 years.        A new Teacher
     Corps cycle started each year, beginning with the first
     cycle in 1966.

           The cost of the interns'    courses and the administrative
     costs of the college or university       and the local educational
     agencies are paid by the Office of Education.         The local
     educational   agencies are'expected    to pay at least 10 percent
     of the corps members' salaries      and related benefits   while
     they are in the schools, and the Office of Education pays
     the remainder.

           Team leaders are to be compensated at a rate agreed to
     by the local educational    agency and by the Commissioner of
     Education.    At the time that our review began, interns
     either were paid at a rate which was equal to the lowest
     rate paid by the local educational    agency for teaching full
     time in the school system and grade to which an intern was
     assigned or were paid $75 a week plus $15 a week for each
     dependent, whichever amount was less.

            Public Law 91-230, however, amended the compensation
     authorized    for interns by providing that they either be
     paid at a rate which did not exceed the lowest rate paid
     by the local educational    agency for teaching full time in
     the school system and grade to which an intern was assigned
     or be paid $90 a week plus $15 a week for each dependent,
     whichever amount was less.



                                     8
      From inception  of the Teacher Corps program in fiscal
year 1966 through fiscal    year 1970, funds authorized and
appropriated   by the Congress for the Teacher Corps program,
nationwide,   were as follows:

         Fiscal        year   Authorization   Appropriation

                1966          $ 36,100,OOO     $ 9,500,000
                1967            64,715,OOO      11,323,ooo
                1968            33,000,000      13,500,000
                1969            46,000,OOO      20,900,000
                1970            80,000,OOO      21,737,OOO

                              $259,815,000     $76,960,000

      'The USC urban program has been operational    since the
first   Teacher Corps cycle, which began in 1966. As of June
1970, USC and participating   local school districts     involved
in the urban program had expended about $2.7 million        in
funds provided by the Office of Education,     as follows:

                         Grantees
                         (note a)                      Expenditures

    USC                                                 $1,197,400
    Enterprise   City School District                       413,500
    Compton City School District                            191,600
    Compton Union High School District                       90,600
    Willowbrook   Elementary School District                257,700
    Garvey Elementary School District                       186,400
    El Monte Elementary School District                     125,100
    Jurupa Unified School District                          285,700

        Total                                           $2,748,000

aAll are in Los Angeles County except Jurupa            Unified   School
 District, which is in Riverside County.
PROGRAX PARTICIPATION

       Certain             nationwide     data relating to participation                      in
the Teacher               Corps program from its inception        in fiscal                   year
1966 through               fiscal    year 1970 is shown in the tabulation
below.

                Entered   program            Completed program               Percent   of dropout
                       Team                          Team                             Team All corps
Cycle     1n;erns     leaders    Total   Interns    leaders  Total      Interns    leaders   members

      I    1,279          337    1,616     627         170      797         51          50     51
   II         882         152    1,034     674         143       817        24           6     21
 III       1,029          186    1,215     832         170    1,002         19          10     18
   lva     1,375          200    1,575      -
     Va    1,445          221    1,666      -

aParticipants       had not comnleted    the program    at the time    of our review.




                                                 10
                               CIfiAPTER2

                 USC URBAN TEACHERCORPSPROGRAM

       The USC urban program has been a cooperative           effort
involving   USC, seven school districts       in Los Angeles and
Riverside   Counties, local communities,        and the California
Department of Education.       The goal of the program's first
four cycles was to train as teachers of economically              dis-
advantaged children    of different    cultures    individuals       who
had undergraduate    degrees in fields     other than education.
Emphasis was to be focused upon the special educational                needs
of urban Mexican-American      and black children,        For its fifth
cycle the program adjusted its goals to concentrate              on train-
ing teachers who would understand       the causes of delinquency
and who would have a special awareness of the unique educa-
tional and emotional problems of the delinquent-prone                child.

      The urban program, initiated   in 1966, has been in opera-
tion for five continuous     cycles. At the time of our review,
the program had completed three cycles--cycle    I (1966-681,
cycle II (1967-691, and cycle III (1968-70).     Cycles IV and
V were in process and were scheduled to be completed in June
1971 and 1972, respectively.

       The program for all cycles was a 2-year graduate student
program with university     course work and a teaching internship
leading to a Master of Science degree in education and a
State teaching credential.       Each cycle consisted   of a pre-
service training    phase at USC during the summer prior to the
first   school year in a cycle; 2 school years in which the
corps members spent their time in training       at local schools,
attending   USC classes,   and participating  in community activi-
ties; and an interim     summer phase in which the corps members
continued university     course work and undertook community
projects.

       USC, located in the Los Angeles metropolitan     area, had
a full-time    enrollment  of about 9,000 undergraduate    and
11,000 graduate and professional     school students for the
1969-70 school year.      The USC School of Education,   which is
responsible    for teacher training,   awarded 139 undergraduate
and 572 g,raduate degrees during that school year,
        Ihe urban progr,un is one of two 'Teac2icr Corps progr97s
administered        ty the USC Department            of Teacher Edu<:a~ion
within     the School of Education.                The other,     'known tic; the J!SC:
rural     migrant     program,       is the subject      of a separate        G.40 re-
view.      This program was designed               to improve the educational
opportunities         of children         of rural   migrant    families      in
certain      school     districts       in T'uiare County,      California.
Prospective       teachers         in the program were prepared             to recog-
nize and cope with the !!tirni.d and passive                   character      of the
migrant      comlmunity"         to bring    about better      communication       and
understanding         between migrant          and residential       communities
for the benefit          of the children.

       The urban program is modeled after                  a USC-developed
teacher-intern         program supported          by a private      foundation
during     the 19508s.        As of June 1970, IJSC was maintaining
four other graduate           internship       programs    which offered
students      (1) courses      aimedat      making the teachers         aware of
the characteristics           and problems        of the school community,
(2) internships         for teaching        students     in low-income       area
sc'hools     surrounding     USC, (3) the academic training                necessary
to meet State teacher            credential       requirements,       and (4) the
opportunity        for the completion          of studies      for a master's
degree      in education.

       Seven school districts in southern     California  partici-
pated in the urban program with USC.       Six of the districts
are located   in the urban Los Angeles metropolitan      area,
and one is located   about 60 miles   east of the city    of Los
Angeles.

        Certain    information on the school districts      which              part-
icipated      in the urban program are summarized      below.




                                          12
                                                                                          Schools partic-ipating
                                                                          in the urban program
                             Cycles L> which           Total number                        Percent or
                               districts     par-.      of schools                       pupils      from
                             ticipated      in the     in the dis-                         low-income
     School     district        -urban prop!
                                         --                ~tricts  ~Number Enrollment       families
                                                                                            -___-
Enterprise    City
   (note a)                   I,   II,    III,   IV             4                    4          2,987          27 to 51
Willowbrook
   Elementary
   (note a>                   I,   II,    III,   IV             5                    4          2,686          29 to 36
Compton City
   (note a>                        IX,    III,   IV            20                    4          2,822          '35 to 63
Compton Union
  High (note a)                            I?, IV              11                    lb            213         32
Garvey Elementary                    I,   11, IIIC             11                    4          3,208          50 to 51
El Monte
  Elementary                     II,      III,   IV             17                5             3,377          42 to 57
Jurupa Unified                1, II,      III,   IV            -12               -6             5,378          33 to 56
        Total                                                  20                2             20
                                                                                               ->-- 671

aThese districts           became the Cornpton Unified               School     District       on July    1, 1070.
t.
     This school is a continuation     high           school    serving         problem       students    referred   by the
     other 10 schools in the district.

'Withdrew         from the program midway,through              cycle     III.
      The schools    at which the interns       were trained    were
elementary   schools    except  the school     in the Compton Union
High School District      and one senior     high school     in the
Jurupa Unified    School District.        The Compton Unified       and
El Monte Elementary      School Districts      also are participating
with USC in the cycle V urban program,

         All the districts      in the program have concentrations
of children       from low-income        families,     According       to the USC
program proposals         and a study furnished         by one of the school
districts,      the residents      of the districts        presently      constitut-
ing the Compton Unified           School District       are predominantly
black,      and the Garvey Elementary            and El Monte Elementary
School Districts        have high percentages          of Mexican-American
residents.        The residents     of the Jurupa Unified           School Dis-
trict      are predominantly      white,     but some schools        in the dis-
trict      have concentrations      of Mexican-American          and black
children.

       Although      joint      program proposals   for each cycle were
prepared     by TJSC and the participating          school districts,      USC
and the school         districts       received and accounted    for their
grants     separately,
           Tihe urban program was administered      by a program director
    who was the director      of the USC Department of Teacher Educa-
    tion,     Each of ths school districts   designated a program
    coordinator     to administer  program activities    for the dis-
    trict.

    SELECTION OF INTERNS

            The urban program's selection     process was generally                ef-
    fective    in providing  interns qualified     to be trained as
    teachers of children     from low-income families.

          In cycle I     the interns were selected primarily     by USC
    from applicants      referred   to the program from the Teacher
    Corps9 national      pool of applicants    interested in working in
    the Los Angeles      area.

           Beginning with cycle II, the urban program used a two-
    step process for selecting        interns.     First,  panels of rep-
    resentatives     from the participating        schools, USC, the com-
E   munity, and former or current corps members interviewed              and
    evaluated prospective      interns,     and then USC made the final
    selection.     Prospective    interns were recruited      by the USC
    urban program staff from colleges and universities             in the
    Los Angeles area,       To be accepted into the program, interns
    were expected to have

          --bachelor's     degrees     from accredited       colleges    or univer-
             sities,

          --no more than minimal         training     in the field      of educa-
             tion,

          --grade point     averages     of 2.5 or above out of a maximum
             of 4, and

          --graduate     record   examination       scores   of at least    850.

           In the selection  of interns,    exceptions were made for
    applicants    who did not meet the desired eligibility    criteria.
    USC officials    stated that such factors as an individualIs
    ethnic background or his desire to work in low-income areas
    also were given consideration      in the final decision.



                                         14
Teacher Corps guidelines permit the enrollment of outstand-
ing teacher prospects who have only average academic records.

       USC records showed that the requirement    for a 2.5 grade
average had been waived for at least 24 of the 116 interns
selected for cycles II, III,    and IV. Only one of the 24
interns withdrew from the program,      USC records showed also
that 28 of the 152 interns    selected for cycles I through
IV had had either a significant     number of previous units
in education courses or some teaching experience.

        The urban program's recruitment       effort  for cycles III
and IV was focused on obtaining        interns    from minority   groups.
The purpose of this objective       was to train teachers of the
same ethnic backgrounds as those of the children            in the par-
ticipatingschoolsin      hopes that such teachers would provide
greater incentive     for the children     to learn and would remain
in the school districts     upon the completion of their train-
ing.

      USC records showed that, of 72 interns accepted for
cycles III and IV, 47, or 65 percent,       were from minority
groups.   Of the 42 interns   from minority     groups who had
completed the first   three cycles, 36, or 86 percent,       were
teaching or had contracts   to teach in low-income areas as of
June 30, 1970. The ethnic backgrounds of interns         and team
leaders who were enrolled   in the first     four cycles of the
urban program are shown in appendix I.

       Of the 152 interns enrolled     in the program during cycles
I through IV, 88 had completed the program and 34 were still
participating   in the fourth cycle as of June 1970. Thirty,
or 20 percent,   of the interns dropped out of the program
before completion    for the following    reasons.

      Personal or financial   problems
      Entered other educational    programs
      Dissatisfied  with program
      Removed by program administrators
      Health problems
      Obtained employment
      Transferred  to another Teacher Corps
        program                                                  1
      Reasons not recorded                                       6
           Total                                               --30
                                   15
      During cycles I through IV, 35 experienced    teachers
were recruited   as team leaders to supervise the interns.
Of these, 11 served less than 2 years, 17 completed the
program, and seven still    were participating in the fourth
cycle at the time of our review.




                              16
                                CHAPTER3

       DID USC URBANTEACHERCORPSPROGMJYSTRENGTHEN

     EDUCATIONALOPPORTUNITIESAVAI'LABLE TO CHILDREN IN

     AREAS HAVING CONCENTRATIONS
                               OF LOW-INCOMEFAMILIES?

       We believe that the USC urban program strengthened    ed-
ucational   opportunities available to children    in the schools
where corps members were assigned.    The participating    schools
were in areas having concentrations   of low-income families.

       As a result of the program, corps members provided the
children   with more individualized      and small-group    instruc-
tion and with new or expanded educational         services.     Chil-
dren also were exposed to new teachingmethodsdesigned              to
stimulate   their interest    in learning.    Tests given by corps
members in one of the seven school districts          to 30 low-
achieving   children  with whom they had worked during an aca-
demic year indicated     that these children    had increased their
reading levels by an average 2.4 grades over the period of
that year,

       The corps members participated     in activities    in the
communities which provided educational       opportunities    to the
children   and their parents.    About three fourths of the in-
terns who had completed the program as of June 30, 1970,
were teaching or had contracts      to teach in schools serving
low-income areas,

        One of the objectives        established     by the Office of Ed-
ucation for the Teacher Corps program was to bring about
changes in a schoolls         instructional      methods to strengthen
the educational       opportunities      available    to children    in the
program areas,        The urban program was successful            in stimu-
lating    some lasting     changes in methods of instruction.             Also
some educational       services introduced         by corps members were
adopted by the participating            schools after the corps members
had completed their assignments.               Some school district      of-
ficials    believe that other corps member innovations               will be
discontinued      after Federal funding of the Teacher Corps pro-
gram ceases because the school districts               will not have suf-
ficient    financial    resources to carry them on,
     WORKPERFORNEDBY CORPSMEMBERS
     IN PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS

          Corps members were organized in teams, each consisting
     of a team leader and four to seven interns,     In most cases
     the entire   team was assigned to a particular  school.  In
     some instances   the team members were assigned to more than
     one school,

             Team leaders were responsible       for the supervision    of
     interns constituting        the team,    Their  duties included   acting
     as liaisons     between the interns and school and university
     officials;     coordinating    and planning with the interns their
     individual     and team activities;      demonstrating   teaching tech-
     niques to interns;        and evaluating   the performance of interns.

              Program coordinators        in two of the participating      school
.I   districts        informed us that team leaders had worked diligently
     in performing         these functions    and generally   had been effec-
     tively     utilized.        The program coordinator    in another school
     district       stated that the performance of three team leaders
     was inconsistent          in that they had been effective       in some ar-
     eas of responsibility           but not in others.     He stated that the
     fourth team leader assigned to his district              had utilized     his
     time effectively          in meeting all the responsibilities        of a
     team leader and had initiated            a program designed to identify
     Mexican-American          students who appeared to have college po-
     tential     and t0 encourage them to develop their academic ca-
     pabilities.

           Interns generally    worked at the schools to which they
     had been assigned for 3 days a week during their first        year
     of internship     and for 4 days a week during their sec0nd year.
     The interns     spent 2 days a week attending  classes at USC
     during the first     year and 1 day a week during the second
     year,    Interns also devoted varying portions     of their time
     after school and in the evenings to participating        in
     education-related     community activities.

            The tasks undertaken by interns varied from school to
     school.    They generally    started by observing classroom in-
     struction    during the earlier     phases of their assignments to
     schools and later served as assistants         to regular teachers,
     During their 2 years of internship,        they sometimes were
assigned to work in cooperation with more than one regular
teacher and taught one or more subjects to children  in var-
ious grade levels,

       While assigned to regular teachers,      the interns worked
with individual,     or small groups of, children.       (See p, 20
for photographs furnished       by USC,> In many cases such in-
struction   was given to children     who had language difficul-
ties or disciplinary      problems or who were slow learners.
In schools in five districts,       the interns either    introduced
or expanded the teaching of English as a second language or
the teaching of regular classwork in Spanish to children
who spoke little     English or who came from homes where En-
glish was not the predominant language.




                                  19
 INTERN PROVIDING INDIVIDUALIZED   INSTRUCTION
 TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENT.




INTERN   WORKING WITH SMALL GROUP OF CHILDREN,




                        20
New teaching methods and
special educational  projects
introduced  by corps members

       In addition  to increasing   individualized      and small-
group instruction    and permitting    an expansion of education
programs, the corps members introduced          teaching methods not
previously   used in the schools to which they were assigned.
These methods included

     --using materials   more relevant     to the interests    of the
        children in reading classes,

     --having   children read books written  by interns       that
        had been based on stories  told by the children        about
        objects which they had photographed,

      --stimulating   children to learn how to spell      by using
         words in which they had shown a particular       interest,

      --having   children prepare school newspapers      as a means
         of developing writing   skills, and

      --improving    the self-image    and confidence of low-
         achieving children     by having them participate   in
         plays or by having them see themselves on closed-
         circuit  television.

       Some school officials  and regular teachers told us that
they had adopted some of the corps members' techniques of
teaching reading and creative writing      because they believed
that such methods would improve student learning.        Other
school officials   stated that they had not made any changes
in teaching approaches as a result of their experience with
the corps members because they believed that       the corps mem-
bers' innovations   were not of particular    benefit  in educat-
ing the children.

        We noted that some interns had made studies of certain
aspects of the program in conjunction       with their work to-
ward master's degrees in education.        In   the theses which
they prepared on the results      of these studies,     they con-
cluded that some children     had become more receptive      to learn-
ing as a result of their participation        in Teaching Corps
activities.

                                   21
      We were informed by an officiai    of one school district
that corps members in that district     had given standardized
national  reading achievement tests to 30 low-achieving       chil-
dren with whom they had worked during an academic year.         The
tests were given at the beginning of the school year and at
the completion of that year.     The results   of these tests
showed that the children   had increased their reading levels
by an average 2.4 grades.

       The urban program coordinators   at two school districts
told us that testing    the impact of the Teacher Corps on
children's    learning was difficult  because the interns gener-
ally did not work in self-contained     classrooms for extensive
periods of time and because the children      may have been af-
fected by other education programs operating      simultaneously
at some of the schools.

       During their assignments some of the corps members were
instrumental    in the development and operation   of learning
centers that provided elementary school children       with labo-
ratory materials     that they could use in developing    their
knowledge in mathematics,     science, and social studies of
ethnic groups and cultures.       (See p# 24 for photographs fur-
nished by USC.>

        One of the centers,    the multiethnic      learning   center,
was established     at a school as part of its social studies
curriculum     and served all classes from kindergarten           to the
sixth grade.      The center was intended to provide the chil-
dren with a means of obtaining          an understanding     of the many
social and ethnic groups in the United States.               Such knowl-
edge is transmitted      through the use of discussions,          lectures,
books, tape recordings,       artistic    representations,     and film
strips.     Parents worked with the corps members in the plan-
ning of curriculum,      the gathering     and preparation     of mater-
ials,    and the daily operation       of the center.      The school
continued operating      the center after the corps members had
completed their assignments.

       Another learning     center-- a mathematics laboratory--uses
special material,     visual aids, and measuring devices to make
number relationships      and computations more meaningful       to
children.     This center is used by all classes at the school
where it is located and by teachers for keeping abreast


                                     22
of new teaching methods in mathematics.          Ihe school princi-
pal told us that the center had helped children          understand
matheanatical abstractions.       The laboratory    has been adopted
by the school district      and is being operated under a State
program.

      Urban program corps members at another school worked
with parents and developed a library      on black history.
They gathered and cataloged books and magazine articles         and
placed them in a room that served as a library      for students
during the day and that was open to parents and members of
the community after school hours.      After the conclusion     of
the cycle II program, the library    was expanded to include
materials   beyond those dealing with black history      and the
school district   hired a part-time  librarian.

        We also found that schools in four districts           had modi-
fied their curricula       or had retained other special projects
introduced     by corps members. An official        in one of these
districts     informed us that a new mathematics curriculum           for
underachieving      students probably would be adopted by the
district    after the corps members had completed their assign-
ments.     Some school district    officials    stated that, if
Teacher Corps funding were discontinued,           the districts    prob-
ably would not be able to carry on other educational              services
and teaching methods introduced         by corps members because of
a lack of funds.

       The Teacher Corps goals have included that of having
school districts      carry on the successful        features    of the
Teacher Corps program after Federal funding ceases.                  The
guidelines    furnished    to the districts     for cycles covered in
our review, however, did not contain any provisions                requir-
ing the districts       to provide specific     plans indicating        the
availability     of fiscal    support or other resources to enable
them to carry on the more effective         projects      and innovative
methods introduced       by the corps members. The Teacher Corps
guidelines    for cycle VI (1971-73) include an explicit              re-
quirement for participating         school districts      to show how
successful    features of the program ultimately            will be inte-
grated into the districts1        regular programs.

     We consider it      important  that this requirement    be im-
plemented effectively      by Teacher Corps officials     to help


                                    23
  INTERN DISPLAYING AFRICAN    MASK TO CHILDREN
  IN ETHNIC STUDI ES CENTER.




CHILDREN PERFORMING   EXPERIMENT   IN ELEMENTARY
SCIENCE CENTER.




                        24
achieve the fullest    measure of benefits     reasonably obtain-
able from the federally    funded Teacher Corps program.       We
believe that the impact of the program will be lessened to
the extent that beneficial     corps member approaches to edu-
cating children   will be discontinued     after Federal funding
ceases.

Comments of school officials on
work performed by corps members

        During our discussions   with principals   of schools that
participated     in the urban program., we generally   were told
that the activities      of corps members at their schools had
resulted     in benefits  to the children   with whom they had
worked.      Among the benefits   cited to us were

     --increased   skill   in certain    subjects    from individual-
         ized or small-group   instruction,

     --increased    cultural     awareness   from field   trips   and
         ethnic studies,     and

     --improved     self-image of minority children from partic-
        ipation   in ethnic studies and special projects.

       The principals     of schools that had expanded their pro-
grams of teaching regular course work in Spanish and teach-
ing English as a second language spoke favorably         of such
programs.     One stated that the use of the Spanish language
to teach classes at his school had enabled Mexican-American
children   who spoke little     or no English to keep up in their
academic work.       Another principal   told us that the expanded
program of teaching English as a second language had helped
to increase the amount of English spoken by certain         Spanish-
speaking students and that the expanded understanding         of
English words and their uses had helped these children         with
their other school work.

      From our interviews  with school officials     and regular
teachers,   we learned that they were about equally divided
in their opinions as to whether the relationships       between
the interns   and regular teachers were satisfactory.       Some
stated that the interns needed to be better prepared in
basic teaching methods and skills   or that they had been too


                                   25
quick to criticize   existing   teaching methods. Others stated
that the interns!   classroom work sometimes Lad been inter-
rupted by other Teacher Corps activities        or that the interns
had not always dressed in accordance with the standards de-
sired by school officials     and some parents.

       We were informed by school officials,      regular teachers,
and corps members that the teacher-intern       relationship   gen-
erally   had improved after the teachers had learned more
about the Teacher Corps objectives.       One team leader stated
that the relationship    had improved after the interns had
realized   that they could not change the school system over-
night.
       USC officials      told us that they recognized      the need
 for improved relationships         between interns and the regular
 school staff.       During the 1969-70 school year, a course
 taken by team leaders on the supervision           of student teachers
was reorganized        to make it more relevant     to the team leaders
in exercising      their functions     at the participating    schools.
The enrollment       in the reorganized    course was expanded to
include regular teachers so that they could gain a better
understanding      of the urban program and of the ways in which
they could contribute         to the acceptance and training     of in-
terns.

        The majority     of the participants,     both team leaders
and regular       teachers,   considered the course to be helpful
in bringing       about a better understanding       of the urban pro-
gram objectives        and of the role of the corps members in the
participating        schools.    They also stated that the course
had helped them to be better prepared for effectively             as-
sisting     interns    in adjusting    to the classroom situation   and
in becoming an integral          part of the school staffs.




                                 26
EDUCATION-RELATEDC@WITY            ACTIVITIES

      Although the authorizing       legislation    does not specifi-
cally provide for community activities,           Teacher Corps guide-
lines encourage involvement by corps members in community-
based education programs.        The Teacher Corps position     was
based on the belief      that children     learned not only in school
but also from other children        both in and out of school and
from their parents and that each of these areas must be
strengthened    if children   from low-income families      are to
receive educations     comparable to those of the more advan-
taged children.

        The school districts      proposed a number of different        ob-
jectives    for the interns'      community activities,       In some
districts     the activities     were to be directed     toward increas-
ing the interns'      knowledge of the school communities,          so
that,, as future teachers,        they sould be more aware of the
experiences      and educational     needs of the disadvantaged      child.
Other school districts        proposed involving     parents in the
programs of the schools and providing           adult-parent    courses.

       During our review of the urban program, we found that
the corps members' community activities          had been directed
primarily    toward providing  extracurricular       activities     for
the children    during nonschool hours,        These included field
trips to museums, zoos, and recreational          areas; intramural
sports; and special tutoring      and reading programs.           The
corps members also participated      in Parent-Teacher          Associa-
tion meetings and visited     parents in their homes.
        Two principals   told us that, as a result        of the initia-
tion of home visits      by corps members, they had adopted a
school policy of having their regular teachers visit                chil-
dren's homes at least once during the school year,                They be-
lieved that such home visits          permitted  the teachers to get
to know the parents and the students better,              An officer      of
the Parent-Teacher      Association      at one school told us that
the interns had been able to get more parents to participate
in the association      activities      and that this increased par-
ticipation     had strengthened     the parent-teacher     relationship
so that the parents were more inclined           to visit   the school
to discuss problems relating          to their children's     educations.


                                     27
.-          The   Corps   memkjeI-s   Ve?Zr-   aIS   inStruI~l@rital   in   ~~S~~bliSk-
     ing a da:, summer educational              pr-ogrsm for improvfag        language
     and re-ading capal~ilities           of chil.d:ren,       The program was a
     cooperative      effort     !:llat ir\volved     corps member:. 'I ,? community
     action    agency,     parents      in t:he community,        and USC" instruc-
     tors.     Approximately          150 children     participated      in the pro-
     gram for a 7-week period.

            The corps members' activities        aXso inclcaded educational
     programs    for adul.ts,     In Wo of the schor? districts,        corps
     members devefope d and taught      rlourses   in En,g,,3.5sh as a second
     language    to Spanish-.speaking   adults    who were not fluent      in
     the English     language.

     RETENTION @F CORPS      MEMBERS
                       -1-_-_-~
     A§ REGULAR TEACHERS
                 -I_--

            The urban program enrolled           152 interns       during     the first
     four cycles;      LO9 of these interns        were enrolled         during   the
     first    three cycles      which had been completed           at the time of
     cur review.       Of the 109 interns,        88 completed       the program
     between 1968 and 1970 and 21 dropped out,                   As of June 30,
     1970, 72 program graduates          (82 percent)       either     were teaching
     or had contracts       to teach,     Of these 72 graduates,              63 were
     in areas serving       low-income    families     ;rlnd 3E of the 63 were
     teaching     or had contracts     to teach in the school districts
     that participated        in the urban program.          'Xhe statvs 9 as of
     June 30, 1930, of interns         ,whc participated         in the first       three
     cycles     of the urban program is shown by the graph on page 29.

             During the first       three cycles,   28 experienced         teachers
     served for varying        periods    of time as team leaders          for the
     ,urban program,       As of June 30, 1970, 21 of the former team
     leaders     were employed by participating        sch~l      districts,        in-
     cluding     three who became school. principals           and three who
     were teachers      in charge of educational       activities        which had
     been introduced      by the urban program and which had been re-
     tained    by the districts,         Of the other  seven former team
     leaders,      four were *employed by other school. districts              or USC,
     two were deceased,        and the occupational     s,Etit,:c cf one was
     ur,known,
                                  STATUS AS OF JUNE 30, 1970 OF INTERNS
                               THAT PARTlClPATED IN CYCLES I, II, III OF THE
                                   USCUFSBANTEACHERCORPSPaOGRAM

                                 I                        II                      III
    CYCLE                 (1966-1968)              ( 1967-1969)             ( 1968-1970 I        TOTAL




      90                                     (8)


      80


      70



      60



      3,


      40



      30


      20



       10


      0
NUMBER OF
INTERNS ACCEPTED
INTO PROGRAM ---------------   (36)                    (44                      (29)               (109)




                  TEACHING IN     TEACHING IN                TEACHING IN       OiHER PRO-     DID NOT
                  PARTICIPATING   OTHER LOW-INCOME             OTHER THAN      FESSION OR     COMPLETE
                  SCHOOL DISTRICT     SCHOOL                 LOW-INCOME        STATUS UNKNOWN    ? ROGRAM
                                                               SCHOOL
CONCLUSION

       The turban program strengthened            the educational   opportu-
nities    available     to children       in schools in low-income areas
where the corps members were assigned, which was in line
with the applicable         legislative      objective   of the Teacher
Corps program.        The Teacher Corps interns provided more in-
dividualized      instruction,       introduced     new approaches to ed-
ucating children,         and expanded the extracurricular         activities
available     to the children,

       Some of the teaching techniques        and experiments   intro-
duced by the corps members have been adopted by the partici-
pating schools or by individual        teachers.    The corps members
also participated       in community activities    which provided
additional     educational   benefits  to children   and their par-
ents.     Further,   63, or about three fourths of the 88 interns
who had completed the program as of June 1978, either were
teaching or had contracts       to teach in schools in low-income
areas.




                                     30
                              CHAPTER4
                              ---

           DID URBANTEACHERCORPSPROGRAMRESULT
                                           ----IN
      BROADENINGOF TEACHERPREPARATIONPROGRAM
                                           AT USC?

        The USC urban Teacher Corps program had some degree of
success in broadening USCBs teacher preparation           program.
USC established     a new curriculum    to train Teacher Corps in-
terns.     This curriculum   included new courses, existing        uni-
versity    courses that were not included previously         in the
regular teacher-training       program, and the utilization       of
new techniques     to make course content more relevant        to pre-
paring interns to teach children        from low-income families.

       Although USC developed an additional      teacher-training
program and made certain     changes in its regular teacher-
training    program as a result   of its experience with the
Teacher Corps, most of the courses that were adapted for
Teacher Corps interns were not offered as part of USC's
regular teacher-training     program.

ACADEMICCOURSEWORKOFFERED
TO TEACHERCORPSINTERNS

       Teacher Corps interns were required       to take up to 66
semester units of academic work, compared with the 43 to
48 semester units required by USC of other graduate students
without prior education coursess        The urban program curricu-
lum included a number of courses required          for a master's
degree in education and for qualification          for a State teach-
ing credential,       The classroom presentation      and content of
these courses, which normally were offered as teacher prep-
aration courses by the USC School of Education,           were modi-
fied to be more relevant       to the needs of the interns      during
their training     in the classroomso     In addition,    consultants
were used, workshops were held, and various teaching methods
were demonstrated by using children        in the classrooms at
 schools participating      in the urban program.

      USC developed for the urban program special courses in
Mexican-American   and black ethnic studies. These courses
were offered by the USC College of Letters,  Arts, and
Scienczes and were designed to provide interns with the nee-
essary knowledge and cultural       awareness that they would need
in dealing with and teaching minority        students,   The courses
consisted   of readings,  lectures,    and discussions   relating  to
the history   and culture   of Mexican-American     and black people,

       Urban program interns also were required to take a
course in the teaching of English as a second language to
meet the needs of children   from Mexican-American  families  in
which Engiish was not the predominant language.     This course
originally   was developed by USC for its rural migrant
Teacher Corps program,

      The urban program curriculum  also included an existing
course offered by the USC College of Letters,    Arts, and
Sciences that was designed to develop in interns an under-
standing of family life  in depressed urban areas.     This
course was not offered as part of USC@sregular teacher
preparation   program.

       We asked cycles III and IV interns whether they believed
that the courses provided by USC would benefit      students ma-
joring    in education in their understanding  of teaching
methods that could be used in schools in low-income areas.
Qf 26 interns who responded, all but four believed that
some of the courses ,would be of such benefit because they
offered valuable experiences which made the interns more
aware of the educational     needs of children from low-income
families,

INFLUENCE QF TEACHERCBRBS ON
USCfs TEACHERPREI'ARATIQNPROGRAM

       According to USC officials,       the urban program staff,         in
conjunction    with a local school district,          organized and
helped to administer     a teacher-training        program modeled af-
tcr the urban program.       The purpose of this program was to
provide teacher-training      opportunities      to about 30 qualified
individuals    who had applied for internship          positions    in
USC's cycle II Teacher Corps program but who could not be
enrolled    because of the limited     positions     available.      This
program, which was started in 1968, was funded by the local
school district,    and the participating        interns paid the
costs of USCBs tuition     for academic course work.             We were


                                    32                                         I
                                                        -    .   _   -   -   r-l-   I




told that the program had been discontinued         after   1 year be-
cause of a lack of staff and funds.

      The urban program staff participated   in the development
of a teacher education program that was administered     by the
USC School of Education and that was funded for the 1970-71
school year by a grant from the Office of Education,      The
program was intended to train teachers to teach English to
adults who were not fluent in the language and was modeled,
in certain   respects, after the urban program.

       USC officials    informed us that the urban program staff
had participated     in the initial     planning of a course dealing
with educational     strategies     for teaching disadvantaged
children,     This course subsequently was developed by a non-
Teacher Corps instructor        and was placed in the USC School of
Education curriculums

      The dean of the USC School of Education told us that
the urban program had made the School of Education more
aware of the need to prepare individuals       for teaching chil-
dren from culturally  different    low-income families.      He
stated that, if the Teacher Corps program at USC were dis-
continued,  the School of Education would strive to modify
the content of the courses and curriculum        that were offered
to students in its other teacher preparation         programs so
that such specialized     training   still  would be available,

       The director   of the USC Department of Teacher Educa-
tion, who is also the director      of the urban program, said
that his department recognized the need for giving students
interested    in teaching disadvantaged      children    an option to
take courses in such specialized       training      in meeting the
requirements     for a master's degree in education.          He stated
that he would give such students credit           for taking the spe-
cialized   Teacher Corps courses that were offered outside
the School of Education.       He pointed out, however, that sev-
eral other teacher-training      departments within the School of
Education did not permit such courses to count as credit
toward a master's degree in education.

      During the first  4 years of its operation,    the urban
program used the services of about 30 instructors       to teach
course work to interns.    Some of these instructors      also

                                  33
taught courses    at USC to students    who were not in the urban
program0

      We interviewed    eight instructors    and were told that
five had not changed their teaching techniques or course
content in their non-Teacher Corps courses as a result of
their experience with the urban program.         Two instructors
said that they had experimented with teaching techniques         of
their own while instructing      the interns and had applied this
experience   in working with students who were not in the ur-
ban program,     One instructor    stated that he 3ad used his
Teacher Corps experience in the development of a new under-
graduate course in education.

      We noted that, although the changes made by USC in its
regular teacher preparation       program appeared to be in line
with the objectives    of the Teacher Corps program, most of
the c0urses that had been adapted for Teacher Corps interns
had not been offered as part of the School of Education's
regular teacher preparation       program.    The director    of the
USC urban program and the dean of the School of Education
informed us that formal procedures had not been established
for evaluating    the specialized     courses and techniques used
in the Teacher Corps program to identify         those that would
warrant inclusion    in the School of Education"s        regular
teacher preparation    program.

       The director  of the urban program stated that the pro-
gram staff had relied     on the professional     judgment of the
Teacher Corps instructors       to evaluate the various aspects
of the program and to suggest any changes that would be de-
sired.    He pointed out that information      regarding the pro-
gram was disseminated     within the School of Education through
informal discussions    among Teacher Corps instructors,      urban
program personnel,    and  other   faculty  members.

       We noted that Teacher Corps guidelines   issued for the
fifth   cycle (1970-72) stated that colleges and universities
must clearly   intend to adopt into their regular teacher ed-
ucation programs those elements which had proved successful
in their Teacher Corps programs.    The guidelines    provided
that program proposals specify the new approaches which
would be undertaken in the Teacher Corps program and the


                                 34
timetable   for general adoption    should   these new approaches
be evaluated favorably.

       The urban program proposal for the fifth         cycle stated
that the specialized     curriculum    developed by USC for train-
ing corps members to teach delinquent-prone          children  in
inner city schools would be evaluated,          During the first
year of cycle V, USC submitted its timetable          for such eval-
uation and for inclusion       of successful   approaches in its
regular teacher-training       program-.




                                   35
             The urban program had some success                   in achieving       the
     Teacher     Corps'    legislative        objective     of broadening        teacher
     preparation      programs.         USC developed a special curriculum
     for the interns         which included         new courses       and existing
     courses     not previously         offered     as part of teacher         training.
     Many of the more traditional                education      courses   were modif ied,
     and new techniques           were used to better           meet the needs of the
     interns     in teaching        Mexican-American        and black children           from
     low-income      areas.      USC made certain          curriculum     changes as a
     result    of its experience           with the urban program;           however,
     most of the courses            that were adapted for the interns                 were
     not offered      as part of its regular             teacher-training         program.

             USC did not have formal              procedures     for evaluating          the
     special      features     used in the first           four cycles      of the urban
     program.         In accordance        with the revised        Teacher Corps
     guidelines,         however,     USC plans to increase            its emphasis on
     evaluation         of its cycle V program which deals with delin-
     quent children          and to include         successful     teaching      approaches
     and other        elements      in its regular       teacher     preparation       pro-
     gram.     We believe         it important       that the Office        of Education
     stay abreast         of USC's progress          in its evaluation         efforts       to
     assure     itself     that this       important     aspect of the program             is
     being implemented           effectively.

             In our opinion,      such's   broadened          program will be help-
     ful in filling        the existing    need for          more individuals       well
     trained    as teachers     of children     from         culturally    different
     low-income     families    and thereby     will         enhance the effective-
     ness of the Teacher Corps program in                    achieving   its legisla-
iI   tive objectives.

     RECOMMENDATION TO THE SECRETARY OF
     HEALTH, ED'JCATION, AND WELFARE

             We recommend that,       to make the Teacher Corps program
     more effective        in accomplishing        its legislative       objectives,
     the Secretary       of Health,     Education,      and Welfare      provide     for
     the Office      of Education     to stay abreast         of USC's progress          in
     evaluating      teaching    approaches     introduced       under its latest
     urban Teacher       Corgs program to assure itself              that the suc-
     cessful    features      of the Teacher Corps are included               in

                                                 36
teacher preparation  courses for       other   students   interested   in
teaching in low-income areas.



      The Assistant   Secretary,     Comptroller,    HEW, commented on
a draft of this report by letter        dated April 29, 1971.        (See
app. II.)    He stated that the report presented an accurate
account of the strengths      and weaknesses of the urban pro-
gram, that the conclusions       were sound, and that the recom-
mendations were sufficiently       objective     to produce action
needed to make the Teacher Corps program more effective.                He
pointed out that HEW's comments were the product of a review
of the report by cognizant HEW and Office of Education offi-
cials and of the responses from the director            of the urban
program, the dean of the USC School of Education,             and local
school officials    associated    with the program.

       The   Assistant  Secretary    said that Teacher Corps head-
quarters     would redouble its efforts      to stay abreast of the
progress     of the urban program and would see that successful
elements     were incorporated    into USC's regular teacher-
training     program.




                                     37
                              CHAPTER5

          ROLE OF CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENTOF EDUCATION

                       IN USC URBANPROGRAM
      Teacher Corps legislation      requires    that the appropriate
State educational    agency approve program proposals submitted
by universities    and local school districts.          The Office of
Education encourages State agencies to review proposals in
the light    of the State's  educational     objectives    and priori-
ties.

        Officials    of the California   Department of Education in-
formed us that, because the local school districts            and uni-
versities      generally   developed their Teacher Corps programs
directly      with the Office of Education,      the department had
limited     its role to reviewing program proposals and to noti-
fying the Office of Education of their approval.             They stated
that representatives        from the department had made visits      to
certain     colleges and school districts      to encourage the sub-
missions of program proposals for cycles V and VI.

      The department officials    informed us that they would
prefer to take a more active role with respect to Teacher
Corps programs in California    but that the department did not
have the resources to participate      more extensively   in pro-
grams in which it was not involved directly       as a grantee.

      The department official      responsible      for reviewing
Teacher Corps proposals stated that he believed that the
work done in school districts       by corps members and graduates
of the Teacher Corps program had had some impact on educa-
tion in California,      He believed that the impact could best
be demonstrated through studies or evaluations            of the effect
of the corps members on the learning         abilities    of children.
He stated that he would be interested          in receiving     reports
on any such studies and would disseminate            such reports to
other educational   institutions      in California.

      We were informed that the department had not received
copies of USC's reports on the results   of its completed cy-
cles of the urban program.   We brought this to the attention
of the urban program staff and were informed that copies of

                                  38
the reports would be sent to the department.                Although the
reports do not contain quantitative             evaluations    of the corps
members' effect on children,            they contain information     that
may be of some benefit         to the department and other educa-
tional    institutions      in California    in learning    about the
specialized       training,   experiments,     and teaching techniques
used in the urban program.

CONCLUSION

       The effectiveness  of the Teacher Corps programs in Cali-
fornia could be enhanced through broader dissemination           by the
California    Department of Education of information       concerning
experiments and teachin;     techniques   successfully   used in the
Teacher Corps programs in the State.         We believe  that such
information    would be of benefit    to other educational    insti-
tutions    in the State, particularly    those that have not un-
dertaken Teacher Corps programs.

RECOMMENDATIONTO THE SECRETARYOF
HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

      We recommend that the Secretary of Health, Education,
and Welfare provide for the Office of Education to discuss
with the California   Department of Education the most appro-
priate means of disseminating     information   concerning      experi-
ments and teaching techniques     successfully   used in Teacher
Corps programs in California     to other educational      institu-
tions in the State, particularly       those not participating       in
Teacher Corps programs.



       The Assistant    Secretary stated that Teacher Corps head-
quarters would work with USC to ensure that future reports
describing   the status of Teacher Corps programs at USC would
be disseminated      to appropriate    officials    in the California
Department of Education.         He stated also that Teacher Corps
headquarters    would encourage officials         in the California    De-
partment of Education to make increased efforts            to disseminate
information    on successful     elements of the Teacher Corps pro-
grams and other teacher-training           programs throughout     the
State.


                                     39
                              CHAPTER6

                           SCOPEOF REVIEW

        We reviewed the legislative      history    of the Teacher
Corps program and the related policies,            procedures,  and
guidelines     of the Office of Education.         We reviewed records
relating     to carp member selection,      corps member activities
in the schools and USC, retention         of corps members in teach-
ing after completion       of corps service,     and various adminis-
trative    aspects of the program.       Our review was made at the
Teacher Corps headquarters        in Washington, B.C.; at USC; and
at the seven participating        school districts      in Los hgeles
and Riverside     Counties.

      We also interviewed      interns and team leaders,       instruc-
tors and teachers at USC and local schools, USC and local
school officials,    members of the local communities, Teacher
Corps officials,    and officials      of the California     Department
of Education.     Our fieldwork     was concerned primarily       with
the activities    of the first     cycles,   since the fifth    cycle
had just started at the time of our review.




                                  40
APPENDIXES




 41
                                                                                      APPENDIX I



                    GENERALINFORMATIONON INTERNS AND TEAMLEADERS
                              ACCEPTEDINTO USC URBANPROGRAM

                                                           -.-.-2smic.w?l:e*              _    ___
                                Total           sex                            &x?can-
                              accepted     Male
                                           ----   Female   White     Black     American       --Other
INTERNS:
    Cycle :
              I   (1966-68)       36        IF,     20       22        10             2            2
           II     (1967-69)       44        22      22       27        11             2            4
         III      (1968-70)       29        14      15       13         7             8            1
           IV     (1969-71)      43         29      14       12        16         3            1

                  Total          152        $&l     71       74
                                                             -         44         26           &
TEAMLEADERS:
   Cycle:
            I (1966-68)               8         5    3           2         4          2            -
          II (1967-69)               13         7    6           3         9          1            -
        III (1968-70)                 7a        4    3           2         3          2            -
          IV (1969-71)           2          1       _1       2         3          -            1

                  Total              35     E       17       g         19
                                                                       -          2            2

aThis does not include        three team leaders who also participated            in the lat-
 ter part of cycle II.
         APPENDIX II



                                  DEPARTMENT   OF     HEALTH,          EDUCATION.         AND   WELFARE
                                                    WASHINGTON,          B.C.     20201




OFFICE   OF   THE    SECRETARY


                                                          APR 29           1971




                    Mr. Philip   Charam
                    Associate   Director
                    United States General      Accounting              Office
                    Washington,    D.C.

                    Dear Mr.     Charam:

                    The Secretary     has asked that I reply to your letter           dated February    19,
                    1971, with which you forwarded         the draft    report  of the General Account-
                    ing Office    review of "Assessing       the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program
                    at the University      of Southern California       and Participating     Schools in
                    Los Angeles and Riverside       Counties    in California".       We appreciate   the
                    opportunity     to review and comment on the report,          the conclusions    and
                    recommendations.

                    The report   indicates    that a very comprehensive      review was performed    and
                    presents   an accurate    account of the strengths    and weaknesses of the
                    Teacher Corps University       of Southern California     Program.  The conclu-
                    sions are sound and the recommendations         are sufficiently   objective   to
                    produce required      remedial  action  to make the Teacher Corps Program more
                    effective.

                    Detailed     comments on the recommendations,        together  with the statements
                    of actions      to be taken to implement    them, are set forth      in the enclosure
                    hereto,      They are the product   of a review of the report        by cognizant
                    Departmental      and Office  of Education    staff    and the responses from the
                    Director     of the Program at University      of Southern California,      the Dean
                    of the School of Education,       Department     Chairman and local school offi-
                    cials    associated   with the program.

                                                                        Sincerely         yours,



                                                                        James B. Cardwell
                                                                        Assistant Secretary,              Comptroller

                    Enclosure


                                                                  44
                                                                          APPENDIX II

                    Department   of Health,   Education,  and TJelfare
       Comments Pertinent      to the Draft    of Report to the Congress of the
       United States by the Comptroller         General of the United States on
           Assessing     the Impact of the Teacher Corps Program at the
        University     of Southern California     and Participating       Schools ig
                   Los Angeles and Riverside     Counties   in California




The GAO recommended that the Secretary            provide-for     the Office      of Education
to stay abreast       of the University's     progress .,$n evaluating       teaching-
approaches    introduced    under its latest      urban Teacher Corps program to
assure itself      that the successful    features      of Teacher Corps are included
in teacher preparation       courses for other
                                            -        students   interested      in teaching
in low-income      areas.

Department    Comment

We concur    in   the recommendation.

Teacher Corps Washington will    redouble  its efforts    to stay abreast   of the
Fifth   Cycle Teacher Corps corrections   program which has fourteen      months
left  to run at the University   of Southern California-Urban     Teacher Corps
Program.

The rural-migrant       program which was funded for the Sixth Cycle and will
operate   at University      of Southern California     will   provide   Teacher Corps
Washington with another         link with the University.        Efforts  will  be made
to see that successful        elements from both Fifth       Cycle corrections    program
and the Sixth Cycle training         program will   be incorporated      into the regular
teacher   training    program at the University.


The GAO recommended        that the Secretary         provide     for the Office       of Education
to discuss with the        California      State Department         of Education     the most
appropriate     means of     disseminating      information       concerning     experiments    and
teaching    techniques     successfully      used in California's          Teacher Corps programs
to other educational         agencies in the State,          particularly      those not partici-
pating    in a Teacher     Corps program.

Department    Comment

The Teacher Corps Washington will       work with the University       of Southern
California    to ensure that in the future       reports   describing  the status
of the Teacher Corps programs at the University            of Southern California
are disseminated     to the appropriate   officials      in the State Department
of Education.




                                              45
     APPENDIX TI
/,

     .4s G\O recognirsis,    the Teacher Corps ilashington     has no jurisdiction       over
     the activities     of the State Department    of Education      in California.      How-
     ever, it will     encourage the appropriate     officials    in the State Department
     of Education    to ?lake increased  efforts   to disseminate       successful   elements
     in the Teacher Corps programs and other teacher           training     programs through-
     Ltut the State.




                                               46
-2



                                                      APPENDIX III


         GAO REPORTSON REVIEWSOF TEACHERCORPSPROGRAMAT
        SELECTED UNIVERSITIES AND LOCAL EDUCATIONALAGENCIES


              Report   title            B-Number      Date issued
                                                      ----
     Assessment of the Impact of the
       Teacher Corps Program at the
       University  of Miami and Par-
       ticipating  Schools in South
       Florida                         B-164031(1)   Apr.   16, 1971
     Assessment of the Teacher Corps
       Program at Northern Arizona
       University  and Participating
       Schools on the Navajo and
       Hopi Indian Reservations        B-164031(1)   May    13, 1971
     Assessment of the Teacher Corps
       Program at Western Carolina
       University  and Participating
       Schools in North Carolina       B-164031(1)   May 20, 1971




                                  47
APPENDIX IV


                 PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE

       DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE

         HAVING RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE ACTIVITIES

                  DISCUSSEDIN THIS REPORT


                                        Tenure of office
                                        From            -To
SECRETARYOF HEALTH, EDUCATION,
  AND WELFARE:
    Elliot  L, Richardson            June   1970     Present
    Robert H. Finch                  Jan.   1969     June 1970
    Wilb'ur J. Cohen                 Mar.   1968     Jail.   1969
    John W. Gardner                  Aug.   1965     Mar. 1968
ASSISTANT SECRETARY(EDUCATION),
  DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH, EDUCA-
  TION, AND WELFARE:
    Vacant                           June   1970     Present
    James E. Allen, Jr.              May    1969     June 1970
    Peter P. Muirhead (acting)       Jan.   1969     May     1969
    Lynn M. Bartlett                 July   1968     Jan.    1969
    Paul A. Miller                   July   1966     July    1968
    Francis Keppel                   Oct.   1965     &Y      1966

COMMISSIONEROF EDUCATION:
   Sidney P. Marland, Jr.            Dec.   1970     Present
   Terre1 H. Bell (acting)           June   1970     Dec. 1970
   James E. Allen, Jr.               @Y     1969     June 1970
   Peter P. Muirhead (acting)        Jan.   1969     WY      1969
   Harold Howe, II                   Jan.   1966     Dec. 1968
   Francis Keppel                    Dec.   1962     Jan.    1966




                                                   U.S. GAO, Wash., D.C.
                                48