The System Assessment Framework, Version 1.1: A Guide for Reviewing Information Management and Technology Issues in the Federal Government

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-05-01.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                                 5 ?:;CJ

                         on •

        Guide o    evie g
     Info a ·o     anagement and
         hno ogy   ues     the
     Fede   (;ovenunent
                                 run electromcall u in
                                   n of n 1hous nds ·Of
                      n emen1    d Bud ct (0 , 18) cslimaie
                     taons "'ti~ h ndlcd electronic Uy.
                      l f tor in chic in efficient d

De clop1n
h     en

G 0         er. LI                                   Pref c
Second. OAO must use cons1 Lent d. di 1plin appro h for condu.ct1n au1om11ed
inform 11on y tcm hfe cle (AlSLC) re e . O 0 ' ~thodology          upon Its
 ollect1\C inform uon s stem udit e pcnen e n      a useful. dijCiplinecl nd
              pro h for identJf)' in                               udit pro   ms to      dte     them.

                                                                                   l   bfahin
                                       cialists of dh•erse b karounds. It is also seful for

                                                               on sy terns analys'ts

The   m~th   olo y      pnp d under e directaon of llliam S. Franklin. Di tor,
Infonn uon Sy terns     ethodology _n Support, ho can be reach d 11 02) 512-6408.

Oene L Oodaro
   i t nt Compuoller Gene
 ccounun1 nd lnfonnalion M             em nt 01 · ion

                                                 ii                            GAO SAF          er.   1.1
Major Contributor                 o this PubllcaUon

    c ounf n     nd Inform ti on . I n .. tmen t Divislont
\     hin ton,

                          nt 01.rtttor

    c no I dgmen

G 0 SAf er. 1.1                                              Maj<X Contributon
Table of Contents

Pre·f act .      • •....... ...... . . . . . . . . . . .. ......•. ......... · . · · · · · · · · · ·

. I jor       ont      uto       co t         ubllt ,, oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . iii

                               ................................ ....... ..... ........... . ... . iY

0 \'tr\'lt        .. .. . .... .. . .. . .. .. ... . .. .... .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ....                                1

Pl nnl       c
C n ent o e Pl n1n Ph~ . . . . . . . . . . .                           . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . :S
1.0     e Pl ning Ph      . ....... ...... ..                          . .. ... •.. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. ... . 7
    1. 1 Sttateg rRM Planning . . . • . . . • . .                      . .. .. .... ...................                            13
            1.1.l S<:ope, Definition, d Or                              _t'on Segment • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          IS
                 1.1.        Sutu     nd OpportUnity    ses      nt Se me t . • • . . . . • • . . • • • . • . •                     1
                 1.1.J       1RJ.o St . tegy Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              7
      I-         Pro        m-Le el lRM Plannin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . • 33
                  I .l       Scope. Definition. n.d Or ani ti Seament . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . JS
                         Status nd Opportunity  s ment Se           nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          l
                    .2.3 l    S te Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       47

Conten1 . of           e Co cept Ph            . . . . . . . . . . . . •. . . . . . . •. . ••. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         I
 _,o The Con ep               .Phil.Se . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • . . . . • • .   .S3
      - · l Con ept             n ProJCCl lnni ·on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           SS
                  2. l         Project lniti tion Se          nt . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     S9
                  -· ' ·2     Project Definuion nd Scope Segment . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . .                     63
                  _.I .3         ork Plan. Slalid ds, d PrQ ea Orpniz.ation Se                              t •.. •. ••. •         69
                  _.I..J                                            ppro I Se             t • • •••• •. •. •• •• •• ••             7l

  T   le of Conre 01                                                                                         C 0 SAF ,,.er. I.I
               ~·clopment,nd Dtplo ment
  ntcnt of the De 1 n, De elopmcnl, nd De lo rncnt Pha c .
        c S 1cm Design. De ·clopmcnt nd Ocplo mcnt . h c ....•
     . l ltcf311\'C De i n. De clo m nt and Dcplo ment . . . . . . . . . . . .
              I .I   ecds Jdcnr1 1c uon an De 1gn c menr ....•..•....
            . l... S · tcm Dc clo mcnt nd .~ployment Segment . . . . . . .
            .1.3 Re\ icw Sc ment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ .
          Custom Dt 1 n. De clopme , n Deployment . . . . . . . . . .                                            I
            .2, I • ccds ldcntific uon Segment . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         I07
             2.2 S tern Dtst Se mcnt . . . . . . . .         ......... ..                                        I IS
           3.2.3 Sy tem De clo men t nd Deployment Sc m nl . . • • • . • . • . • . • . • •                       121

                                                                           nl • • . • • • . • • • • • • •   ••
       •:?    S Lem • :1 intent ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .. ..... .... .. .... .                   l 9
               4. . I     tcm Con 11 ration         n gcmcnt Scgrnt:nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     I
               4.2. S tern Modi 1c11.tion Segment .              .. . .. . . . .. . . . .. •..             1.5

                                                                                                                 • ·I

 lo      ry    . •... .. . .. ... .•........ . ... •. .. ... . . ... .•.. .. .. .• • •.                          G-1

Work he ·                                                                                                          ·I

[nde     ........• . ............•...••.... .........................•. 1-1

GAO S F er. I.I                                                                               T blc of Content

 \I LC                       )'CIC
. PR
coco.      0
OP                uthority
0 0
Q , IB

         iaUOll                      G 0 SAF vcr. I.I
                          th the eli ery   all   the

Th        tem

Oo emment
m ny

     r   lfe   c   de p

G 0 S F "er. 1.1                            0 erve
1 nmn Ph

Conccp1   Ph c

                 G 0 S F \Cf. I.I
 :r cm De   1   n.     c clopmtnt, nd Oeplo mcnt Phue

                                                        cm desi n. C\clopmenr. and
                                                         th t n be l en, ( I ttcra1ive e.sign.
                                                                          ploymcn1. third

S 1em Ope uon and M inicnancc Ph

During 1h1 ph c. u rs frequently cb lC their funetfoll.l.l ope tion I re uiremen           nLil
1he olu c       1e of ch nge becomes so e ensiv lhu a ne pl'Qgrarn or m ~or
modcm1z uon initi ti e is     requi~•

 r   nl llon ot tbf           • f ethodo 017

G OS        'U .     I.I                       3                                      0 ervi

 uldtl n

0 en. te   -G 0 SAF er. . I
                    f       e Planning Ph
          nl            1
              c Plannm Ph
                                                         . . .................. ............ . .                                                                                                                                                                                        5
                                            ................•.....•... ..... .•. ....•.... 7

 I.I          1    cc   1   IR t Pl nn n . . . . • . • • . . • . . . . ..•.•.••..•....•• ..•..•....
        I . I. I
                                                                                                      • . • . • . . • . . • . • . • . . . • . . • • IS
                                                                                                                             nt              16
                                                                                                                     ent ...•.......... 17
                                                                                                                     cnl .............. 17
                                                                                                                  •       •       •       • 17    •       e       •       •       ,.       •       I       •       e           •       9       •       •       o       •       •

                                                                                                                  d m Thi Seim nt .. . .. . l
       I. l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ... 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                       egmcn1 . • .                                                                   2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           l           ••••••                                      •A!l!f

                                                                                                          . . . ,. ............. .. .                                                                                                              "
                                                                                                                          in tlus Se                                                                       nt ..... .
                                            nt • • • • • • • •   e   •   e   e   II   •   •   •   •   o   4   e       •       •       •       •       e       e       e       e        •       •       •       e       •           e       e       •       •       t       e

GOS                 er. 1.1                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pl nn n
1~    P         nm·Levcl l   Pl nn ng . . . . . . • . . . • . • . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . . . . 33

     I . ~ .L                                                            . ' ...•.. .....•........ 35


     I . ·-

                                                         nt •.•.•••••....•..•..•...••...
                                                          pe    De ·cl        in Thi      e      nt •.••. .


                                                                              In     IS           l ..... .

Pl nni n                                                                                      G OS          er. I.I
1.0 The Pla·nnlng · hase

                      Phases of t e System ife Cycle
     Phase 1               P ase 2                 Pha e3

                                                 D in
    Planning               Co cept            Oeve opment,
                                                                            alntena ce
                                               Deploy n

                               Planning hase

                                     ~        12            Se     nt3

                                     Segm    n 2                        3


           e Plan ing Ph

G 0 S F ·er. 1. 1                        1                                        Plann1n
IPJ plann1n pcrv e all le el o ,gcncy m n cmcnt. l o c le el il m .y be perceh·cd
    pr es of defining in sy tern 1ic w y th infonn Lion .ncede · to effectively complish

Pl .nnm                                                                GOS        e.r. 1.1
                      h pcd by (I) the need to rNna e pro mn-
                                               loy em of

G 0   F er. I I   9                                  Pl    iog
                                     Prog 1n'1 perfonrtW1Ce.

                 p <>grim
                 IA R

  I urt 3         ud1un in th   r

                                ni                    1n       uu   re:   IRM   por   ie,

   e u      1t     ere                                                          ould enc r   1
th proJe    t    le el o                                                         ould be

Pl n ing                                                                  GAO AF ver. I.I
                           lusi e. Th udi<         . or
                   bcn on iuon m ni r.       ori in e     1

G 0 S F \Cr. I.I                    11              Plannin
Plannin   GOS   er. I.I
1.1   Sr               Planning

                                  nan are s nchronized 10 occur
                              er    or mformauon rcsowus on business
                                              e er. the       l<> hi h IRM
                                             ·pend on ho mueh the CEO

G 0   F   \Cr.   I.I                                               Pl nn1n
 uon . ec nolo 1cal ppro he • lime ff3Jtle an other resource alloc 1ion nece       10
 u >the en · 1nfonn 11 - nee .

 udlt    1   mn

  ~n~        ron

 urlln of          m n

                                                                               oals lh

Plannm                                                               GAOS
1.1 . 1   Scop

1.J.l.l                 rn     t


          1.1. l .l.         run to   m   of   st rin cornmn

GO         ~e .   l.l                                      Pl nan
1.1 . 1.l   R I lion hip to          t tr    ~1m

   e "' r- ptrf nned 1n th   egmcnt I
     ni uonal tructure 10 CTI urc that st
               ObJeCll    e:S.

1.1.t.J        tnc:y Produc           nd Dotuments D ti red Dunne Thi

            1.1.1 .J. t                                                                  (mjs ion and


            1.1.1 .l               charter. identifyin1 mem rs of e IRM          t     eg c pl   ru     team
                                     definin C'C:$pomibdities for intt tin                       d top.down
                                 s ce ic plannin       i iti . .

            I.I.I 3.

            1.1.t. .                                    er ocumcnt 1ion cribin the
                                                        dm    cmcnt of ch poin

 .1.1.                 emtnt R po           blUtl    lse:h t   ~    in   ht   e me t

            1.1.l.4.I                               . guuantee commllmccit <o        d in o cment n the

            1.1.l.   ~2

            1.1. l.4

            1.1. l.4.4

            J.J.1 .4.5                                         he    le of pl nnin mH ton

Pl nn1n1                                               16                                 0 0 SAF er. 1.1
 1.1.1                 R ponslbiliei         Dlscbar       d In Thi      e mt•U

               1.1.l .1             nuf.          c1 1c members (high-le cl ro ram m n ers) 10
                                           ate   on che plannin team.

               1.1.l .2                                              fine irate ic program-rel ted i u · to
                                                                   nJD proc:e • incl _ ing issue of

l.J. .6       lRM R pon b litl

               .1. 1.6. l      Idenufy spec1 1c (hi h-tc el) membc                to puticip tc on the pl       nin

              1.1.1 ••2                                                          i<: program-rd   ~      ·      lO    be

1.J.1.7         udlt     Obje~lt        ur:ln Thi S              ent
                                                         eloped     busin      pl.n       hi h t

                                    core     USUlCS       mission and rogmn , issu

                               b.                                  or imp        e

                               c.   m       u~        of petform
                                            ilU ed         d

             r.                                                                         ii ronnaUy
                                                                                 fPDU.lUCllnaJ SU'U~~

                              b.                                       · plannin1 pproacla are e      bli

                              c.                      trainin i pro ded     CQ    c plannin team
                                                  in     e pl mn proceu.

G 0      AF ' 'er. l.I                                      17                                               Pt nt
         t.l .1. .J         sse       ..,.hethcr lhe                    e ic IR! pl nnin proce-1 :
                                  l   integrate              USl!lC    (m1    ion planning:
                       b. reflec:ts gcncy·              I      fR.\f polic1e •           ard an    p edu11e :

                       d.     pro idc top-do                            10         ency compo ents; and

                                      e 'fc II cly or
                              from a e ym

1.1.t.   . udl T

         1.1.1 . . 1   Fo.llo

         l.J .J.•

         1.t.t.                                                               is   may be their
                                                                              c .) (0                         r.

                                                                                        ml ions, o      •

                       b.                                                                     ncy' legislated

                       c.                                                                         J.m.incd

                       d.                                             e imp        ed              lC       and

Plmnin                                                  18                                   G 0             ver. LI
                           e.   the a enc h ldcnli 1cd perfonn nee me uru th r will be u cd
                                in scs 1n pro nun crfec1ivenes .

          L t.J.    ..a    A se the c pab11ity of the gene 's pl nmn or an1z tion. Thi c n
                           be one by obt nin infonn tion on:

                                the ompo ition and s ill or the pl.anning te m, n       hethcr
                                agcnc_ c cculi c m nagcmcnc on 1 e the rru
                                pcrs ncl ro be dcqu re nd ppropri re:

                           b.     hcther the cc m members h c prior e pcrience in performing
                                pl nning cti tti     d whether hey h e been succ sful in the

                          c.      hethcr ency e cC"uti e man ement h esr•bli hed a
                                pJ nnin effort lncludfo enior rcprescntatl cs from u er,      hey.
                                 nd IRM ora n· tion ffe(;ted by the pl n: d

                          d.      hcthcr ch. IRM pl nnln.s chancr ensure that (I) gcncy· 1d
                                mi ion go I • and objecti es a.re properly renectcd an
                                incorpo tcd Lnto the plann ng proce : (2) uba ency-level pl n
                                     uff1cicnlly comprehcn i c d complete;         suba enc ·le el
                                pl n are not rcdund nt ot o crl . ppina; and ( ) the ell('.y- ide
                                 I n, on c ppro c , i implemented         chedulcd.

                                                                                    rocedu s.

1.1.1.     udiC Products and Work Paper O _ tlop d In Thls ttm nt

         1.1 . 1.9.1      Coples of con res ion I, prior GAO, lnspcctor Oc:neraJ, intern l
                           udit. and financial Int~ 'ty er report related to the pro m or
                           cti i1y. I ent'(y problem rcas pcnincnt to th    icw.

G         er. 1.1                                                                        P Jinan
         1.1. .. l

         1. 1. •.                    umm nz1ng the u nor'

         I.I. .9 ...                 umm.Jrizin the u Hor' ~ 1e     of the   cncy's
                                    b1lity m Ju m

                                                    nd reprc nt tion of the planning t m

                       b.   the pl nnin unit ch mr. uthoricy. nd respons1bili11es.

         t.1 . 1. .    Wor papers a scum the cffccll enes of the polici      and
                                for intc r ting IRM Ian nh ency- i           bu incss

Pl nnm                                      ..o                         GAOS          er. LI
1.1.2                   nd Opportunity A

1. t.l.l      ency Obj ctl

        Underst n lhe force.s of thee terna.1 environment (Congress.
                          constituents. the pub! c, etc.) whjch m y influence or constnin   ~
                          a cncy's plannill8 process.

       Identify t c gen y"s mi sion. goals and objecti es and the
                          inform tion re.sources nee d to support them effccti ely and
                          di 1ciently.

           l.       In light of probable fu1ure cen · . etermine the trengths.
                                     , nd chang bility of mana eme:n1 and proa:ramm ic
                                      nd constituents' s tisf ction ilh o craJI ency

           J. l.1.t.4        s e the iability d c pab.UI)' of      current IR: infrastructure
                           co up 11 prob ble futu scenario .

           1.1.l.t.5       Document m Jor information technologicaJ and     nctional trends.

           1.J.2.1.6       De 1ne m jor IRM objecti. to s Lisfy information n        in support
                           of a ency m · ion, o , and objecti e .

 .1 2.l    Rd llo11 b.ip to Otbn        m~nb

T111  c ment I s the groun wor nece        to develop £RM s e             for upportin future
m1 s1on cenario • org niuuon I tru tun:s. and b iness ·proccues.

GAO S F ~er. LI                                                                          Planning
 .1.2 .         tnc Products nd Documents Otll end Durio Tbi Seiment

            t.J . .J. l       De cription of e tern J ( cto     th    t m     mfl ence or con tnin the
                               gcocy's pl ning process.

            t.t.2 . .2        Description of the      cncy's mis io s. oils, an object"ves.

            t.l.      .3                                                            ency m gemcn
                                                                                      nee in light o

                                                                                             or dcfkien i
                                                                                              d objectives.

            1.1.. .5                                                                                          e

           De.scri   t   n of m j r inform 1ion technolo y          d fun tionaJ iren

            l.l .   ..J.1     Summary of nujo IRM ob ectivcs o saisfy infonnation
                               uppon of ency mi ion, o , d objectJ es.

l.1 .2..i                 ment R po Jbl Ill        Oise ara.td io Tb          epncnt

            l.L2.4.1                                                               gcncy's prob~ e fulW'e
                                                                                    ency' mission~ o&ls.

            I. • 4.                                                         ning cam the IRM objecti es
                              th t                                   e cy'    tnle ic ision.

            1.1.      .J      Pro ide c ecu i e-lc el 'n u , gu1 u. su est.ions, an
                              consuu ·ve critiei:sm to help the pl nning tc m      current
                              con itions and iden ify opponunilies for impro e.mcn

            I l.l. .4           elp     c pl nin team fine the s
                              nee       to carry   the ge 'so e
                              obJecti cs.

Plann1n                                                                                   G 0 SAF er. I.I
               l.1. •. 4.5         Re 1ew resul of 1 1us an . o ponunuy    e menl nd pro 1de
                                    on ensu or ppro 31 bcf re chc pl nnmg te m e clop the JRM
                                       tr   IC IC   pl n.

1.1.2.          . r           pon lbltlll           DI ch r td In     hl    t ment

               l.1.2 . .. 1

               l.l .•. 2                si t the pl nning c m n cs in · the curr~nt lRM inf structure
                                       nd l potenti I c bility for          the gen y"s is.ion.        IR.1\1 R pon lbllltl                 Dl ch r td In Th         ament
               1.1 .l.6.I                 ist the pl n11in team in sessinii (I the cumni IRM
                                   .in fr ·structure and its potential c pability for supportin the ency'
                                      i ion. nd ( ) the IRM objc:cti       fot supponin the 1 ency'
                                     t 1egic vi ion.

               J.l .l.6.2          Be len 10 trends nd identify new Lechnoto ies lh            t   m y be     pll
                                   in support of the a en y's vision.

J.1.2.7          udlt         bj ell         Durln          his St ment

In Lh1s .c                    auditor' objecti c i 10 undcrst .nd how ri · orou ly md effec1i cly th
  enc h                           current condition.            pec:ifk lly, the aud.ilor   u to no    whc      r
che a ency h :

               1.l.l.7.l           clc ly identified nd un emood the cm ncls nd cons     'nts of ils
                                   e tern I en ironmcnt. nd how these may affect the ocomplish nl
                                   of mis ion nd oals:

               t .1.l.7..2         identified strengths and e nes cs in i CUIT'Cfll JRM cap bilit by
                                   an lyiing its current proce eSeS n ow of da or lnfonn tion u in
                                       u ines proces.s run neerin methods;

               l.1.2.7.J            ysccm Jic lly identi 1ed ood c:ue orized the infonnllion resooice
                                   nee ed 10 chic e its 111ted mis ons         o Is~ d

   0         F ''Cr. l .I                                                                                   Plan nm
           J. ••. 7.~   1dcnt1 1c   maJor 1c hnolo 1c I trend    ffordtng o portunrnc for
                        1mpro c     m1 s1on pe Onnilll c.

1.1. • .   \ dil        for Thi       m t
           1.1.?.8.t        cnnanc hcther the          h i cnt1fie che con traan t of I.he
                        c tern I en.,,·ir nment; re 1c   gcncy· documen uon of lhe
                        imp t or th c em I en ironmcnl on mis ion pcrfonnance.



           I. I. •..
                                                                                        l the


I. ·•·                                          De rlop     In            tot

            .l.•. 9.1   D
                                                                                        ti iLiC
                                                          en y   mimon

 lannin                                                                     GAOS        er. l.I
          J.l.l.9.l   W r pa     rs ummarmn · GAO ntl se of:

                            omp ri ot\ of t 1e mi sion ith eg.i I twc ~qu irement.s:

                      b. the rele nee of the ency's in orm tion requirem ms to o erall
                         mi ion and pro m ObJecli e .      ell thee ltmal
                         co i ronmenl;

                      c.   bud c and rel ted pl n • includin exi ting st tegic,   ctictl,
                           and ~ntion I pl:ins·

                      d.   the effccu en   of the enc 's operations, including IRM
                           mis ·on-support Ii ities; d

                      e.   1he  ency· i entifkation of op rrunities for pplyi.o
                           technolol)' and for rccngfoeering current p   es hen
                           w mn1td.

G O S F er. 1.1                                                                   Pl nnin ·
Pl   nan   6   GAO SAP er. 1.1
1.1.3       IRM Str tegy SeQment

                                            U h1 h-IC\CI fRM   I IC                n ~f

 e mcnt

1.1 .J. l       enc Objec-ll      ror Thi     e ment

             I.I. .1.1      De elop hiah-lcvel I M 1 tc reOectin (a) a S year to 7 year
                             gcncy- i e iew of how infonn llon resources    used to support
                            the ency mi ion, o Is, and objectives:     (b any bud c

             l.l.J.1.2      Produce    n lR.\1 strate ic pl n that prcsen 1 vision of how lRM
                            re ourcc   will be used 10 uppon the aency mi sion in th future.
                            includin   an 0 enll inform lion hilectural r me ortcl that
                             upporu   lhe selection, u e, and integration of mfonn 1ion resou
                            within 1h     ency.

             l. l.J. J.J    Obt in mana ement re iew nd approval of the IRM sl tc y        d
                             tr: te ic p~ n.

1.1 • .l        r   tlon hip to Other     amen

                              lhe R ult of the t tus and op ttunity ass sment e mcnt. an
            n ante r: 1ed 1r cegy and hitectural fram ork for improvin 1 ency o         uons.
            ~normed here i        rercquisite 10 producin program~le el, operari naJ tion

G 0 S F \'er. l.t                                 27                                    Planning
 I. .                                                                 tU tred Dunn     bis     nunt

              I •I . . . I                                                                              7 ye ~
                                                                                                  en y. The plan

                                            mts ion t le cnt ~ m jor functions n o rations:
                                           enc l go Is an o jectiv and how they re 10 be chic ed;
                                 c.       opcn11on J moun:e (including nformalion re outce ) rcqui
                                          10 meet th     oaJs and objectivtS:
                                             chc le for implcmen1in. propose new program n Ii ti
                                           nd       cripllon of lhe or niution l d opcnuion~ imp
                                          of these inati ti e .
                                 c.         rforman e ao        nd meas re ;
                                 f.        n rchi1ec      If       ork.:
                                           ey e tern r to          t could affect th hie ement of go
                                            d ob1ecci es; an
                                 h.         sch ute ro future program e luations and pl ning

             l.l.J.J.             umm ry of he gency' bud et, ·ncluding preli minary rovam·lcvcl
                                 IR! 1 bud ct .

1.1.    .~   \t n        em nt        t   po    blUtiH D

             I. l. . . l         Provide fin I ~eculive- le cl commcn . guidance, u e tions. and
                                  onstruc11vc ~ntici m to help 1h pl nnin team complete the 1RM
                                  1r te y      and       1   cg1c I .

             1. l   ..                                                  ic pl n i con istent ith .an linked to
                                 the       ency bu mes                    10 the budget

             u._..a.J            Re 1e         nd    1   pro e I.he                    s leg.le plan.

I. I. ·-

             I. I. .. 1                         planmn1 tum in fonnuJatin propos d fRJvf tnrc its                d
                                  evclopi           s tcg1c pl

Pl nn1n                                                          8                            G 0 S F er. I.I
           l.J.J.5.l    As sl       pl nn n team in pre 01jn lhe proposed stnHeg1es ind
                        pl n to m       cmcnt. inclu in     descripcion of the imp 1Ja1 he
                        plan 111 h e on pro         -le cl ope tions d on the
                         ccomplishmen1 of the gc y's curren1 minion ( w:h as the bility
                        to deli er rv1ces, org niulion I resttUcwrinii. rcrum on in cs1mcn1.
                           rsonnc I re u. tion . d rcen i nccrin of o prooe~

l.J.3.6    'R I RH po        bilttt

           1.1 •. 6.1        sist the pl nfog 1e  in formul lin propostd lRM     t   Le      and
                            c clop1n Lhc s te1ic plan.

           l.l.J.6.l        silt the pl nning team in ptesentin1 the proposed straLC i    d
                        plan   LO man emenl. includin a desmpdon or the imp.acts th 1 the
                        pl n will h ve on rognm-le el opentions &Od on the
                           compIi hmcnt t c gency' currcnt mW·on such as the biUty
                        10      i er     ices, org ni t'onal resuucturina. re          stment.
                        personnel reduction , .d rccnginecring of ork processes)

J. l.J.7     udit ObJtttl       Durtn1

           1.1 .7.1     De1cnnjne                              eloped n lRM. s       tegy and
                            tnite ic plan.

           l.l.J.7.l                                                    plan c      rve a
                                                                      er it .is comprch nsa cty

           l.l.3.7.J    Determine                            emcnt      appro ed th IRM
                         1ra1cgy an

1.1.J.8      udlt T     for Thh qmt11t


G 0 S F ·er. . I                                                                          Pl:mn n
         J.I. ..l

         I. .J. .J                                  c tr tc 1c IR! f pl n inc u s th folio 1n

                                                                                             tion :


                        g.                                                           chi emcn or go ls

                        h.                                pro r m e alu 11ons n plinning

         l.J J ..4

         l.J.l . .s     Determine           ether the I  1 tr tc 1c pl n 1 Im cd to the a en y's
                        bu     t'l. mcludin      rclim1nary pr r m-lc cl tR!    ud ets.

         l. t J.8.6          ctcnmne        hethcr th I t t tc 1es d qu:ucly consi er h l mu                t
                                              srnon smoo hly from tl\c ol IR! en iron cnt 10

          . J.J . .1                                                           h   re 1c cd nd ppro ed

1.1 .9     udlt Produ                  or                                  h           ent

         1.1. .9. l     The gen y' IRJ f tr tc            1c   pl n   d   01   er      mng·r r t d
                        d u cnt c1on, ncludm               r l\ue ·rurc         d rel tc bud et d

Pl nnm                                                                                   G 0 S        er. I .
        J.t.J.9.l         ork p pen            whether.

                           the a en y c 1ab.lish d 0\1emin        trate ie for 1dcntify'n and
                           m n i ng in formation resouru          ithin the ency. includin
                              cncywide IR.M o I . o     tr   ll    umpdon • Item ti e choice •
                             nd constraints:

                     b.    these cnueg:ie$ ere provided co program-le el unitS for th · ir
                           use in de . elopin th lr components of the l  Sln e ic plan:

                     c.     the strategic IR1vt plan includes all the cntic I elements.

                     d.    the plan can drfre decision-m in.g for in ettin in future
                           Inform tfon resources necdc4 to acc<>mpUsb e y mission.
                           goals, and obj c:ti es:

                     e.     the tRM stra1egic plan i linked lO the a ency's bud ct indudin
                            prclimin.ary prog:ram·le el IRM bud c ;.

                     r.     the JRJ ~ str te es adequ tely con ider h must be done to
                            transidoo smoothJy from lhc old IRM environmen1 to the new:

                            senior man ement has re ie ed and ppro ed the lRM nnue
                             nd strategic plan.

        1.1..J.9.J   Document lion of the eni c ecudve's and lhe design tcd IRM
                     offki rs re ic nd ppro I of 1 stmcgic pf •

G 0 SAF ver. LI                               )1                                          Pl nnin
3   GOS
1.2         P ogram· evel IR

Pl n       onttn

R      \I n        emen t


                      dt    u ed m   ere uue   un

G           f,cr. 1.1                               nan
         on idH I on

n(_ Pr lOI

             his                   pro 1lc to ro ..•1dc infonn t'on on L e
             ppll                     nd pr c ure • trcn      s nd    w
             1l    i.;uncn IR! 1

                                    ncemcd     1th the                         1n



                                                                             d et-ermine
                                                                                    0 lhat

                                                                      G 0 SAF er. I I
1.2.1      Scop • Definition, and Org n lzatlon Segm nt

  c     en . n«ds toe blish the pl nnin resource      d proce es necc:s ary o inte e
lR~t pl nnin     ·uh bu me or pro nm lannin . ~1 n emcnt upport. I dership. and
  ommttmcnt rt ritic I elements 10 c:nsu h t re rce are effectively irccled to
compleun the I~ f operation I plan. The ope ti c question to be m ercd n thi        gment
1 • Ho ,. should ~ t or aniz.e and ~·hat alttmari~ pproa htS should t considtr to impro t
tire informatron systtms, producu, and st us tnar suppon tli a ency's mission?.

t. .1.1        tnc Obj ctlvu :for This           t   rntnt

            Obtain pro ram man emen ' commitment• .in ol               c~nt.   on
                               .and  coun bility for the pl nning proc

            1.2. 1.1.2

            J .2.1. J .J

            1.2.1 . 1..i        Pro"·1dc necessary trainin to   cm rs o    t          plannina 1um.

            J.2.1.l..5          Plan quality su
                                 indudin ocuments.)
                                program obj ti

l.l .1.l    Rtl tlon hip to Other taments

  e wo perfonned in thi cg:mc:nt I ys         necess ry      nd o · • control en iron.men and
 r niz lion I truc:tu.re to ensure tb t IRM o           pl ns ppropri ely i entify specifo:
IR~ I proJ   o uppott pro

I. .1.J         enc        Pl'odU C   ind   ()(Umtn    Ddi tr     Dur na       . it

            1.•. 1.J.l          Charter fo    pro m pl nnin          m 1dentif in members
                                defimn respo:ns1b1hties for int              enc · IRM plan               ith
                                 ro ~ m o Is and obj nvcs.

G 0 SAF "er. I.I                                                                                       P anmn
          1.l.1.                                          nd program pl _nnin.s issues          10
                                                          the pl _nm n process.

          1.l.J .•J                                             sc edu le of pI nin rru e tol'\Cs an

l.2.1.4   ~I    n   emen Respon lblllt          Disch r    ~    f Tb     St      enl

          l.l.J .1         Communic tc nd gua1            ice to mir
                           planning p ocess.

          I, .1.4.l          ppoint I      planning team members nd di th charter an ·
                           responsib1lit'cs of tho in olvtd, particul ly the integrui of
                           pro ram o Is _ objcetives 'th IRM pl $.


          1..2-.J.4.4      Re ic      ;ind    pro e e planntni         hedulc        d - ork program.

1 .1.      '    rR pon bllhl           DI cha                            t

          l.l~ l.! . I     Identify pccific mcm r to participate on che pl ning                      IC

          1.2.l ••l                                                          level          ation     iss         lO   be
                                         unn   UU IR pon lbltlll            0 cha                         m nt
          l.        Iden 1fy pec1fic mcmbe.         lO   p                            run     ltam.

          1.l.1.6.l             0    ilb users to help define pro m·le el            o                             0   be
                                dn sed durin - the plannin process.

l.2.1.7        u It 0    1 Uv       Ourh1 T              ent

        A          w ether che   ency h                      s      Le   ·cpl n          'ch   at
                                      nufic :

                                    m1 ion n pro     mi         e.

Pl ruun                                             36                                      GAO SAF \CT. LI
                         b.          i sue     hat          or imp ct the LRM o rauon         Ian;

                         c.                  . re o perform nee for sessing whether custom r nc-e
                                               i tied and program go J     hie ed.
        s       hclher the lRM ope tion J pl .nning proc i form Hy
                         instnutton Ii d throo h ppropri tc org ni tfon I 1ructures.
                            hc1e • and procedure • ilnd ?ttlher.

                                     rt$ponsibilities re cle ly

                        b.                                                 ppro h are est bl hed ·       d
                        c.                                                     nin   t   m a.nd o

           &.l.J.1.J          se       whether the     cncy's ope tion l       pl ni n proce s:
                                is integrated 1th pro nm pla.nnin :

                        b.       reflects        ency- ide RM polides, tandard       nd pr~dures;

                        c.      h-      pro ram·le c1 man gemcn1 support:

                                     pro idc top-do n guidan e co rogram componeni,~ nd

                        c.      i effectj ely or anrzcd 10 inclu       represent ti ·es ftom pro&nm-
                                le el rmnagement, user group ,           CRM

.2.1.      • udlt Tasks ror Tbb Seam nt

           1.1.J .1     Following he a ency ptofile step • compile n document
                        i1ppropri cc bac round i.nfonn don, includin. the current st tu.s of
                        the IRM en ironment pcn.incnt to the gency pro · m. or d 'ty 10
                             udited. Cul'T¢nt slttut inform11ion ould 'nclu em ~or
                        information nows (        and rcporu bet een information · rovi
                         nd inform tion J crs and o er inform rio produ ts        sel\lice
                        upport ng program go Is nd objecti es.
           l .l.1 ..2   followin the    ency profile step • re ie the re n Hlerature 1.e..
                        con     ion , rior GAO, Inspector ~n ral. inLem.al udi
                               l'i                                                   d
                        Anand I [ntegrity Act repo . rel ted to the ro ram or
                        i ntlfy problem are pertinenl to 1 re 1ew.

G   vS   f ver. 1.1                                    7                                       Pl nnin
          1.... 1..J        sscs he     ency'   1n1   eg1c lRl r1 pl n to determin     hcth r the

                              1dent1 1cd the t ted ency m; ion • go I ,               obJCCli C
                              pertinent to the rogram lo  audite ;

                       b.      hethcr pro ram oals and obj t' es             con is1ent        ith       e
                               ency' le i J (ed mand

                       c.                                 nd program is ues th t      ill im         t

          l.l.t.       A css the c p bil11y of m ency' planrun
                       be do b ob ining inform _tion on:

                                                                                                m            of

                       b.     w etMr 1 e ltaim members h~ c prior c periencc in pcrfonnin
                               I nm     tJ 1lie  d htlher th y ha e been ua: ful in

                       c.      he the


          1.1.1 .5

Pl nn1n                                         38                                   G 0 SAF er. I.I
.• . I.   • u ii      roduc      nd \ ork     pt     Dneloped ln     hi     me-nt

          1.2.l. . I      D

          t .2.1 •.           op1e of congr"mon J, pnor GAO. tn pc tor Gene I. in1em I
                              u u. nd Finan 1 ln eglil Act ttport rel ted to the pro am or
                               u ·icy. 1dent1f in pro lcm re . pemnent o the n:vic .

          l.?.1 .9.

          1.2.J. •          or p pe      mm rizin 1he u ito          re le of the a ency'
                          planning c p bth ty in lu in

                                 ch com     1tion.   ills.   d reprc cnt lion o the plannin team:

                          b.     the c « Utt e m n c en       ch   er. m cup. uthority, nd
                                 r poru1b1lities.

          I.' .. .5

           er. I.I                                                                          Plann1n
Pl nnm   0   C 0 SAF er. I l
1.2.2                   nd Opportunity A

1.2.• 1        en       bjectJ        ror bl              tnt

           1.2.l.1.l         ndcrst d the on::es of the extern l en ironment (bud el, Con re ,
                            on tituents. the · ublic. ere.) hic:h m 'i influen e or c s n e
                             cncy's planning p

           1.2 .• 1.2      Determin the imp           t    n c u c of ny c nesses or e t 1enc1e
                            h 1 imped lh au inmcnt            or pro m go Is and objecti c .
           t.2.l. t.         s css user/ u tomcr satisr uon with c
                           sc ices, nd produ                    d es1abli h m

           1.2.• J.        I enLi y
                           goal an                                                                  rtun11ic o

            t.                                                                     ources nee         10
                                                                                          n dficu:ntl

            l.l. . .             se   ~unent   OU     t    hnic: I support ope   t   oru, le hni
                           architecture. and c p city.


            t.2.2.1.       Document and             es technology trends nd 1den11fy o po unmc                 ~   r
                           usin new technology             10   im ro e prDg rn ope tion           well
                            e~ic       delh•cry.

G 0       F \'Cr. 1.1                                     41                                              Pl nn1n
            ...... l.9       Define m JO I             ob;e<:ta cs 10 s tisfy ·nform 1ion needs in up n
                             of program go I           d    ObjCC I C •

                       the    und ·or                   to de ·clop lhe I      ope tion I plan.

1.2 ....         nt Produ          nd D          men                                bis St     tnt

            I. '.2.J. t      De~ 'ptio o the a enc · mis ion. go Is, nd objcctivCJ:                      di
                             c tern I en 1ronmen

             .1.2 .. 2
                             th l hinder th                          ency m1ss'on.

             .2.2.3                                    e ment of u er/customer    ti faction ilh
                                                                     e ices. n prod ts, including

            1.2.2 ..4                                                           to better UJe inform Lion

            1. ....3.S       De cnpt"on of infonn ii                                    • nd resources needed
                              to upport pro ram o I

            J..?.2 .6                                                          rt   o      tion . tech nic I

             .l.2 .1          D c puon n      scssmen of lRM org ni don's skills. pruticcs •
                              or szauon, and c p b1lluCJ.

            1.2.l..           0e1Cnption of m JOf inform tion technolo trends and
                              opponunities for u ing ne technology for impro ed pro ram
                              o perauon          ell            ice elivtry.

            1.l.2.J.          Defin1tJon of cnten           or est blishin prioriti       amona      ystems
                               C\•elo m nt projec

 1.2 ....                 ment Re po      lblllrle                   in Thi    tptnt

             l.l . . . 1                    le       1 le   ent of the gcrn:y' missioo. oals..          d

 Pl nntn                                                                                      GAO SAf ct. I. I
             1.2 ..2.4.l      Pro 1dc lhc plannin 1cam ith mpu from pro ri.m mam1 ers.
                              includin priority· ;C"tlin cnteri . guid net. su e tion , d
                              con tru ti e criticism.

             1.2.l ....J

             1.1.2 ..a ..a    Re iew rcsul of tu n          ponuni y       ument nd provide
                              con en u . r appro J before lhe pl.a.nnin te m be in ork on the
                              ne 1 egmcnt

l.l.2.S     L' r R pon lbllltl · Dl.sdtaraed In Thlt •1m1nt

            1.2.2.,S.J          si lhe plannin te.am in identi fying the l) 1rcngth and
                             we nc es of exi 1in tcc.hnologic I p bil de        d (2) inform uon
                             products, sy 1cm • nd sc ic neede 10 ccomplish pro m goal
                              nd ob ecd e:s nd tisfy customer needs.

            l . Z.5.l        Identify lhc e tent 10 which current yssem      function I processe
                             meet u r needs. and identify opportunil es for wo · proce s rcde ign
                              nd impro cm nt of pro ram operation .

            I. "'.l.S.           ist the pl nnin letm in   c si n the ill . p ctice , nd
                             or ni tion or user group~ to determine l) their trfecti ene in
                              ervic n cu tomm and up rtm pro ram oaJ nd objecti es d
                              • r'Cquircments for t ining · d suppon.

t.l.l.      I .\f R pon lbltllle 01 char td In Tb

            l.2.2.6.l            i 1 the pl nnin.g tum in i ncif in the current t1ttu1 o
                             po1en1i I improvements to program p llcation of information
                             lechnology, and dentify opponunitic for work process cede 1gn        d
                             improving progrtm operations.

          Be len 10 1~ nds. nd idenufy new cechnolo ies th t m y be pplied
                             in suppon of a en y ope lions.

              is1 the plllin .ng tc m to d fine m jor infonn rion tcchnolo
                             o jecu es th 1 ti fy infonn tion nee .

G 0       F er. I.I                                43                                       Pl nnin
              u .... 6A


J. •. :?.7      u ir        bj~cli

                                                                              line           e ork or
                                                                              tions by etc.arty d ntifying

             1.2.•.• I                              n Ir in    of 11 c 1cm.JJ en 1ronmcn1,           d how
                                          c   t   lhe    corn Ii lunent of issions d ao            Is~

                                 c nes c in i current I
                                                     1 inment of program o

             1.• .2.                                                                                 crvlce ,
                                  n pr                                                               d lRM
                                 sup po

             Ll .2.7.                         u    mforma1ion re ources to up       rt prognm oals
                                              nd        11 fy customc . including opporrun1ti to re-

                                                                                      e nee ed to support

             1. ..... 7.6        h                       nc c o urrcnt I M tcchnic: I sup
                                                        rch11cc1ure. an c p iry:

              .2 -·'·                                    nc c   or lhe I.RM     or   ni   Lio • sk.tlls,
                                                                    1h11e :

                                                                                 d the opponuni1ies for
                                                                                     operations          ell

             l.~ ....1.9                                      pno   IC   moog planned ystems

Pl nnin                                                                                   G 0 SAF er. I.
1.l .• .8     udit T      k                  ent

            1.2.:?• . 1                                                 lerrnine nether the
                                                                      ribed the conslr1:i nu o 1
                                                                   m y ffect the complishmcn

            1.2.2 .. l        Re ie     eney ocumenmion ·
                              a quately nd cle .ly fined e IRM c> ~ecti       to · tisfy
                              inform tion needs in support of · ro ram o $ and obj li

            l.l.2 ..J         lntc icw usen/cu.stomen. ~ iew agency document tion. n          s
                                he r the eoc.y h ( ) obt incd feed k from I.he u:ser
                              community on the sufficiency of lRM suppon. to program operations
                               nd (b cl ly identlficd d aniculllcd u.ser/custo er em111 i
                              impro ed io onn don ystems and suvices.

            l.l.2. .4         lntervie   lhe user community, re ic 1ency document tion an
                              determine the dequacy of the ency's identific. tion of bener a s
                              to e inform tion rcsou:rce co upport program o I and o jectiv •
                              inc luding opportunilies LO red i   ork v.1\.l~·:H;,>

            l •. 2. .5                                                               gcncy h

           Detemune wh ther the ency h i ent'ficd the ucngth
                              v.eakntsses of CWRnt I.RM technical uppon operations. tec:hnic I
                                · hituture, d ctp iry; and rcv.iew the documentation to temi1ne
                              the      uacy of the cncy's .        n

            1.2.l. . .1       Oeierm.inc hether the gency h i ntified lhe rren
                                e ncs . of the lRM or aniution's skHI p tic ,              iution.
                                 d cap.abilities and review die document1tion o determine the
                               dequ.acy or the aaency's S.CS.Sli\elll


                               s~5   ment.

            1.2..2••9         Determine be-ther lh a ency h documented the criteria for
                              establi hin prioriLit atnon ptanncd s stems e elopment p jCC

G 0 S f vet. I.I                                   45                                      Pl nm
                        rc"iew the           ument uo                                            re
                              qu    te   nd rclc nt o

1.•. l.9    udlt Pr    uct     nd \ o.r k P · pen Dt elop d In

           l.?.2.. 1    Docu n umm rizin e tern I n intemaJ re ie s of pro ram
                        mt  ion 3nd o erall perform cc. l~ acli•.. itie:s in support of
                         ro nm opcr Lions. n other u itie rel ted to lhe perfonnan e o
                        the         omplishmcnt of program o ls and objecti c .

     Wor        p pc    SU         ·?in                 of·

                                                                                        ith st 1ed gcncy
                               mi ion

                        b.                                                                     to overall

                               en ironmcnt:


                         d.                 n · rel tc _ pl ns, 1ncludin exis.lin mate ic.        ic I.
                                            t1on,al   plans:

                         c.                                               on cmin needs for
                                                                                d produ

                         f.      ency criten for               urin          pcrfo               the
                               effecu"cness of IR!           suppon:

                                                                       ope ·ons. includin -
                                                                       unh's skills. pncticcs.

                                                                 ncenn current proccs

                         1.        the enc ' critc                          noritics       g pl nncd
                                   y ems c tlo ment p je

 Pl run                                                                                GAO S
 1.2.3     IRM Strategy Segm nt

            1.    .l. t

            J. . .t.2

            1.2•• l .J    0 m m n ement re"' c
                          pl n.

t.2.J.2     R I tlon hip to 0th r   ~1ment1

          menc umm nze the results of the l tu and op nunlty e smenl gmcnt nd
                 1c 1r tt y nd operation I pl n for impro in program opcr: 1ions.

G 0          er. I I                          47                            Pl nnin
1..2 ••                                      nd                              bls       me t

           ....               .l

               ...,                                            y t ndlor hcmati ..·c an Jys1s for ·     h
                                                             in the o~ uon I pl .

           I. .. .J                Prchmm ry l   t u     ct for ach m jor roJect       mm · cd in the
                                   o rauon I pl n.

1.2..                                                          d In   hi

           1.2 .. I                Pro" 1 e tnal ommen1 .     id nee. ug    tion ,
                                   cn11,1sm to elp 1 e pl nnin 1c m complete
                                    r 1e y and opcr ttonaJ plan.

           l.:: . .2                                          uon I plan 1 on i cent     ith   d linked to
                                                            ency usine s pl s.

               ...        ~                                    1 im lcmcnl lion trate

I •   -               r


           I .!.              .~

I. .. .6   I     ~1       R po      bilJll        D

           1: .J ..6.1                        e pl nnm team 1n fonnul un th JRM im lemenuuon
                                               n · de clop1n   o r uon p an.

Pl nnm                                                                                 GOS          er. I.I
              1..... 3 .6~


..,   .7          udlt       bj ll\    Dur          &ment

              t. . .1.                                             cl.oped n l        implcmen1 tion

              I .. 7.            Deccnnme   tber the ency'
                                 b I t 1m lcmentinl chan     0
                                  u uie .

             J.2 .7              Detcnninc                                                 ·alb   311
                                 tin ed to 1                 gen     usi
              .2 .7.4            Oc1cnninc                                 pp ... d th IRJ
                                 m le

1... •            udit

             J ••J •. 1
                                into    rQj C
                                complete ·

             J.                                                                               ho

             t.l . .J

             l ..3...           Re ie the pl . b d et.                           10   de ermine
                                 he he'r lb lRM amp emen                                 pf     e

G 0        F vcr. 1.1                                                                       Pl nn ·n
                       equ 1ely u poned b undin inclu ed lhe in gency's bud cc:
                     determine he1hcr multi- c r funding 1 h cly t be contmuc for
                     implement t on proj    to en ure their complcuon.

         I. .J. .5   Re,,•ie   the plan n rel le doc:: men tion     interv1e     e
                     of rc:i I 10 ctermine hethcr the IRM im lcmcnt uon tr 1e
                       equ tely nd ystem 1ic II on idc w 1 must be one to
                     implement the project     1 n 1 ton moothly from the old I~ 1
                     en ironm nt Lo the new.

         l.2.J.9.l   The a enc · . lRl ope 1ion I Ian, ui ludins the imrlement•tion
                      tra1e y. budgets. co t-benefh _ndfo Item ti es .ty
                     archttectures. and other plannin ·relate documcn1 tion.

         t.l.•9.2                                   hetber:

                          the lRM operation pl n in Judcs n 1mplemcn tion st It! y
                          th 1     p and prioritizes 1 on item rn proJe<:t th t 111
                            hie e 1he IR.l objecti

                     b.    he IRM Ope tion l Pl                                nd epth of
                          imp?ement:uio details ~


                     e.   the IRM implem nt Lion st e y and oper tion I plan are
                            equ tely supported by fundin 'n luded in the gen y' bud t;
                           nd whelh r multi· e fundjn 1 hkely to       continued for
                          implem ntacion projecu to ensure their completion: and

                     f.   the IR.\1 implement tion Ir tc y dequ tely nd $)' rem u
                                     wh l must be one to implement t projects nd
                                      moo hly from the old I ~ en ironment 10 the ne

I nnin                                      0                         0 0 S F er. I. I
Con ent

C ntt                    C ncepr P         c .•.••..•...•.• , •....•...•••...••••.....••.

                    e    t   Ph c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   S
- I                 n~       ProJt t ln111 lion . . . • . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . SS

      21 I                                                                                                                    59
              ~   I 1.3                                                                                                       s
              • . I. I.~                                                                                                      59
              • . 1.1.5                                                                                                       60
              ~. I . I                                                                                                        60
              .. I.I
              - I
                                                                                                              nt .....•

      ~   I 2 ProJc          t                                                                                                63
              -·'  ~.
              • •I - 2

                                                                                                         nt ........ 65
                                                                                                            enl . . ..•. 67

      - I.                                                                                   nt . . . . . . . . • , ..•.. 69

                                                                           ··························· 6
                                                                                                  1s Se men1 .•.... 1

G 0          F er. l. l                                                                                                Con ept
   - ·I.    '.\1   Ol • • • • • . . . . • • • . • • • . . • . • • • .
           - I

                                                     nt •.....

C nccp                                         G 0 S F er. l.I

                                Phases of the System Life Cycle
            P ase 1                Ph · s 2         Phas 3

                                                    Design,        Sy em
           Plann ng                Concept                        Op ratlon
                                                 Development, -
                                                                   ain enance

                                       Concept Phase

           ~       1\11           Segm nt 2                              14

       P   o c   Int   tJOn -             d -

   urt 4. he Con pl Ph e

G 0 S F '-'e r. 1.1                                                           Concept
n cpl   G 0 S F vcr. 1.1
2.1 Concept and Projec

G 0   F er.              S5   Co cp1
our e mcnl :

                                                   e elops    or

Rt k \l n   emenl

Busintn ru . Bu ines ri                  com
    tor : nol doing one or mor p jec1 . not h in
   111 in pl e to upport the gency, or not ucce
t1     and w11h1n the Jlocated bud et. B inc
in the o I· cne 1l n I)' 1 •

Con ept                                            G OS       er. 1.1
                                                                                                       r tjme, bud ct n

                                                                                                             th   d m 1urity

                                                                                                           (e . .• c pectin

                  ' cm tructure -· mt urcd in terms of th precision used to fine      tcm
                obJecu e    n o . t Ut. the number and comp le ity of procedunl chang lb t mu t
                be made 1r. t      ency to deploy the sy tc.m.    th    itu    d comm1uncnt of
                          cment, de elope • n users of the system.

                               h. t the rojcct 1c              clop · risk management pf           for miri       un n
                                   .... uh de ·clop1n                     nd o ratm          c y tcm;

                m    m1a1n        onunu t o c      1    ht o   1he   implemc   1   tion   or the ris    m n cmcnt I n:

                upd c.e hen              n                                                                        of
                     lcm Ii c-.cyclc.

 udll   t   mn            on Ider: tlo

G 0         F   ~· er.   l.I                                         51                                                C      cpt
 he         er nd I         t 1e rn mem           W er economic an I                       cost· nefit or return
 n an' c 1men1 need o                    e lu tcd. n c onom1 1 m

                   In tr       son   t   In o

                           cm De elo mcnt Life C cle .

                   Int rm ton            stem   ecun y

                 I Con 1dcr 11on

                                                         I be detenmned to     15   enJn              of udit
                                                            ment   gcnc~lly   encomp,
                                                         ope of or . perform         of the

     en         Pro 1le

     c ud11 re   m 1h1s part rdy on tl'le ency rofile r r mform 1ion on he t:R.\i
 r     n1 uon nd pphc blc r n r . pohc1 • and procc ures. Sy tern profll          ·11 ro i
in 1   ht nto th curr nt I~ t en ironment.

Con e       1                                               s                                  G 0    AF ''er. I I
2.1.1          Project lnitl tlon Segm nt

o     ers .

2.1.J •            ency Objet"ll          ror This e m t
                l.1.l.J.            ppro e the inJtiation or        m dc\'C:lopmcm or modem1      tio

                2.t.1.1.2          elect •he projc. ~1 tc nu ith e ppro: ri te                    for
                                      e fully conductina the de clopment or tra

2.l. .          Rel tlon:shlp to         thtr    ecm   ntl

    unn 1h1       e mem       m     en   y rnn  ition fro                tutlly devclopin
1   cnu   it                tion Pl n. t is dunn tht                        1   ency pulls toge
re urcc                       111 _ needed lo perfonn the                        fo low.

•. l.L              nt Produc             nd Docum _                                     ment

                .l.I .. I         Aulh ri t1on rcqu st                for         project

               2•• l.
                                                                                     , nd gene          h

l •. 1.4       . Ian     em nt                         Di thar1td in. his q;me:nt

               2. 1.1.   .t

G 0              er I . t                                    S9                                   C n cpc
l. l.1.5         · r R po        ibm       Di ch r rd in    hi   t mtnt

                1.1.J. .1                                                   o ill ensure Lh   t

                                                                                    impro c       c

- .1. (.        lR~t     R pon ibiUt       Dist:b rg              mt,nl

                - .1.6•

 . . 1.7          ud't Obje-ctl ts     urtn   Thu eccm n
                 . 1.J •• 1

! . J. l.       . udit        ks for Tbh      m    t

                ?.1.1 .1          cnf uad document. that m        ement .              obtained to
                                rn1L1 te   ro; t.

                  1.1 ..l

Co c        1                                          60                            GAO S            ' 'er. l . l

. I.I.    _u

         2.1.l.     .t

                         o tc m membcn.
G 0 SAF   \t'f.   I.I

l . t .l . t     atnc Obj t1   for   is tJ       nt

               2.1 •.• I



G 0                                          6        Con ep
                             intc rauon. Often . m1 urc of on or more of                  c    three
                              ppro he     y    needed.

            .I. .....        E 1ma c prOJCCl inn1 uon cosl            d. 1he ost of the               ph_

           2.1.l.            Deri c                                    e hfc )' le cost
                              ell·IC                           ceplt"d estunation

           l. l.2.l.6

           ~I.     .J.7                      gc    nt, user.       lRM concurrc con the propo

           .• . 1.l.l        I cntify proje . l con.str ints .

             · I tion hip to 0th r            mm

Dunn th1

l ...                                  d      u         Otll end Durln                am       nt

             .1.        .1   Document uon on the deficicnc1es to be ddrc sed                   d the sc:ope of
                             lhe project.

           l . .2.J.2        S tcm concept            cloped from Item _' e p roat                  lh l    ere
                             con idcrc •

           l.1 ~2       .3

           l.1.2.J.          Tethn1c       fc.asibili1y stu    .

c                                                                                             G 0 SAF er. I.I
• •J • •.a       • Ian              m nt R

                     .. 1.2•. 1

                     .J•. l

.?.l. .              .    t         pon   iUt

                     .1.2.. t

 .1. -.          I       ~t ftoc:l•UUt~ibiUtl        ut

                 Pro           e u

                     .1.. 6.1                        in

                 .... 1•• ..

G 0          F   \Cf          1.1               6S        Concc    l
                                 ccms nd pl tfonns. rchue cure • nd m thodolo y t

           •. 1.l . .        Prcpann preliminary o t-btncfi r and n
                             cc hn1c I fe 1b1lity fudy, n imu taon.
                             cycle co t e um res.
           • . 1. .. 4       0    ming    lid uon rom m n gers n      II d   st of u crs for     I
                                 umcn     cntrated 1 chis mcnt

'. 1.2.7     udlt        bjttth•e Durin           meot

             udit   T                    e1ment

           l .1.2. . l

           l .1. . .2

            .. .2• .J


Con epl                                           66                           GAO SAF         er. 1.1
          2.1.2. ·"      Determine ether .i ency m     emenc h m .. ored he regress
                          nd re ic: ed the d umen1 de elo   1n this segment. c:nfy th 1
                         m       emc:nt n u      und rnand the lethn1c fc 1b1h of 1be
                         pCOJC:Cl nd ils  oc1 ted ri ks. Final! • c:rify th l na emen h
                          ppro cd 1he project's scope nd s stem concc:

          ... t.l . .s   Dc1cmf nc th l mana c:mcnt h obli ed ufficicnl funds 10 in1tt te
                         the project and ee it through 10 complc: ion.

.1.2.9      udit . ·oduc     nd                D elop d n Th        l"pnen

          l t .l.9.1     Copies of all pertinent documcnt:s tll1t pro tde      o proj 1
                           o • s tem concc:p (in h1ding c.hc a ency's anal)'ias or hem fr.. e
                         con c:prual ppro h ), co t, risk. and technical i 1b1lity.


G 0      F ·er. I.                            67                                      Cance
Con ep1   G 0   s   \C •   1.1
 2.. 3         Work Pl

2.1 .J                nc

               l ... J.l         De cl p th proJcct        i.-;   r pl n or   orlc bre down cru 11Jre.

               ... I. .l 2
                                                                  e sing
                                                    ency's m1ss1on

               2.1. .1.            dopt c 1 un s and r and c               ero   dditiontl   t   rds. 1(
                                 re uire , ~ r th proJCCl.

               .?. l. .1.        ~ .. clop n org m ation J tr\J ure for com lcun the project.

.. I ..•       ntl tlon       Ip to    t tr      t m n


l.J .               tfl     Produc      nd

               .?. I. .           'or pl n.

               •. 1             Project r nd rd

               -·I.             Or    n12    1   naJ trucrure.

   0       f   H'     11                                   69                                              Concept
2. J.J...        ~1   na.· ement        pons blJIU     Di ch . r       d In    h         ent
                 2. 1. ..u         En ure user nd IR..\1 coordin tton.
                •• J •.a.2         Re iew nd ppro · e the          o      I n. projccl
                                     aniz 1io su\lcrutc.

  .J.J.S          · tt R pon blllcJ · D             a r ed lo Thls            m nt

                2. t .J.5.1      orlc with the project t m to i enufy d ommit person cl. 1th
                               the neccs ary kill for     ign in     de elopin 1hc proj •


2.1..l. .       lR~I    R pon lb UltJ               1r1ed In Thi         e1ment

                Pro ide uppon to the project t~m fo .

                 . 1.J.6.1     De elopin che wo           plan .
                l. I ..6..2                                     for desi nin · and imple en11n th
                                                       emen1. security. 1elccomrnunicat1oru. da.
                                   rruc urcs, fc     complian c rcqu1remcn to ope:n ysterm
                                   rchitectu.tes, nd configu tion ma.na cmcnt for th projecl.

                2.1 .•J        Selecting proj t manag:ement ool for the                  vc lopment en ironment
                                nd for moni1ori.n1 th project.

                2. 1 .6.       Definin    c or niucion I tru un:. 1h l i , the compon nts 11lhin
                                he en~ that will      in olvcd in the proj 1; i _cnufying proJ t
                               Jc der; nd defining pro' t re ource requiremen .

                l.l .6.5       0    t   nin user a~cment on the or pLn. roject st ndards, d
                                                urucrure and commitmcn1 (o proceed.in into · c

Cone        t                                            70                                    G 0 SAF er. l.I
 2.l.J.1      udit ObjectJ     Durtn1      hi    ~cmeot

The u                          helhcr:


            2.J.J.7.2     the u tr re 1c ed nd grec w1 h the roject team• propo als.
           2.1.l.7.J                                        \cd the    uments de elope in this
                                                            ys1em vulnerabilities
                                                               \'CIOped. lnd th I
                                                     uisicion stan<Wds were follo

2.1.J.       udit                        rn nt
           l. l .J.. I

           2~1.J •. l


           l.l.J.8.5     lntervie
                         re                                                            nt

G 0 SAf ·er. I.I                                                                      Co
   .I . .9     udit Product   nd   or   aper D tlop   n   mrnt
             2. 1. .9. l
                                                           et 11 on che   1o1.   r
                                                           1ru ure or

             2. t. .9.2

C ncepr                                   7                G 0     AF v r. I I
 2 •• 4

                                                          c eloped in thi hase ro eterminc ~hcther the
                                                                ti fy the user's. ne ds. d hie e lhe

 .,, l.4.1                  ·bj~c th    Cot   hi    ~   m ru

    1        Ensure th l 1he pro sed project ill correct e i ting e 1ciencies 111
                               leg cy mfonn 1ion y tenu. ddition Uy, 1( improved. servkce and
                               perform n e o I h \C been ser, then m n ement mu l en urc th 1
                               the e goal can     met ith .re on be eh cc of ccess..
             2.1..i.1.2        Ensure th t the u er Jnd I           organlz..a1fons gree   ith the project
                               le m's propo I.

             2. l. . .         0    m m na e~n1 pro I of the produc and propo al c elo~
                               in uu ph c nd iLS u1ho · 1ion to be in the desi. n and
                                 eHtopmenr ph

l.l.4 ..2      el   t   on hip lo      1her

             2.. 4.2. l                  1hc in I c mcnt of the Conccp and Project rnui ion Ph
                                         ful compleuon of thi c ment mo     the project to the
                                          nd e\lelopment ph

.• . JA.       I nc P odu<'             nd Oocumrn        0 llYettd Dunn        bis · im~nt

             2.1.4 •. J

             2. .4 . .l        M n em nl'          ppro     10   proceed   ith the des i n nd     clop   n
                               ph e.

    0 S F er. l.I                                                                                    Con ept
• . 1.4.4                 m    t       R pon lbilld                                  a.rnent

            -· t.4.4. l            Re 1e     the ptoJC t te m repon. En ure th t he propo d )stem nd
                                        usmc operations 111 Jmpro e crvl c or rform nee o Is.

            2. lA.4.               Authorize procccdin          ith lhc dcs1gn nd cvclo m nt ph                  • if
                                   :i    propri te.

2.t...                                          Di ch reed in         bl    t mHl

            2.1..1.5.1             Coll bo       e    ith the project       m in 1tpann        he re     n and
                                                 project p ro l from m n emcn .

2.1.4.      JR. 1 R pon lblHll                  0 c:h r td a Tb

            Pro 1 e uppo11 10 the prOJ                   Learn (o .

            l.t..i .. 1            Pr         n the repon      do          min u c(s concurrence.

             .1....6.                   ubmuun lhe rc-pon to m              cmcru for ppro J.

2.l.4.7       udlt        bj                 urln           esrn   nt

                      e udi1orould assess hether enc m:m em1ml h CC\fte ed
                                   t   pro1ect cum· rcpon nd p ro ~ the ropo   prOJC to
                                   proceed to 1 de ign d ' 'Clo. mc-m ph

2.1.4.        udlt                 (or      his t mHt

            2.lA.. 1                                                                                   ubmilted its

            l.1.4 .l               Dctcnnmc whe1her m na emenl re 1e cd e project temn' report.
                                    pprovcd the project. n ulhoritcd the proj t ieam to proceed 10
                                   the   1 :n n cvelopment · h e. Document this 1io •

                                                                                                  G 0 SAF vcr. 1.1
Z.tA.                           \ or              nelop d In             .m nt

        l.lA.. l     C pie of he roJe     l   ac m report .ln   C\ 1   en c o m na c cnf
                        pro I o the roJ       l   nd uthont .non to procecJ.

        1.1.-l•.        or                                                       by
                      om lctin                                                        ho
                     1.1.•ell lhc

    0   F vcr. l.l                                                                     Concept
C n cpl   G 0 SAf er. 1.1
Cont nt of h .                      , Dev lopment, and
D ployment · ha


                          elopmcn        Ol ' •••.. ' . . . . . . . . . . . . .   I   •••••   •


               .. I.
              3. . 1.5
               .. l.6
               •. 1.7
              3. 1.1.
              3. 1.1 .9

      . I~                                             ..................... 93

                                                   ....................... 99

G 0          F ct. I.                         0c   I
.   t.'.   ,·!ff_~                            ..    ~""";   .......

                         Cut        n Dcplo) mcnt ...                                                         10)

                     ~   - I                                                                                  107
                                                                                               ot .           107
                                                                                 c ment                       10
                                                    ............ , ............ .                               IO
                                                                           in Thi St men •...•                 12

                                                   . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .......... .                  I S
                                                        nt .•.•.•....•..••..•...•                             115
                                                                                                              I 0

                                                                                                              I. I
                                                                      . . . . . . . . . . . ........      ~   L.I
                                                                                          Cl   nt   • •       ! ••

                                                                       . . . . ............. .        ~

                                                                           in          men .••..

                               lo m nt                                                 G 0 SAF        \-'et    I.I
3.0 The Sy t.em De lgn, Development, and
Deployment Pha e

                      Phases of the System Ufe Cycle
     Phase 1                 Phase 2                Phase 3          Phas 4

                                                   Desi n,
     ?Janning                                                       Operations
                             C<>ncept   -        Development,
                                                      nd                and       I
                                                    ployment         ainten nee   I

          System Oesignt Development a d Deployment Phase

                                            nt 2

                                            De     n '------;

.i           S tcm Dest n.      cl mcnt.     De lo. nt Ph
G 0 S f    er. I I                                Des.a • De elop     d [)e. lo imnt
                ted into the   0   eml

nt.   d De loymcri         0             G 0 SAF er. I.I

                                          ineering Le., h rd

                       mall ifOUps   o(   use        d        elo
                       minimau the number        or communic lion
                                     na in hich user-dn en
                                       desip effon nee

The 1tm111 e ppro

                                      -Hill.I   •l       2.

G 0 S F   ~er.   l.I    De i n De elopment.
OC'\Clop1n           ) tcm un   r ny o the i1erati c p,p
 c -cnt :

                                                  De1ermi e                                             enc
                                                 d identify                                             for

                                               nd IR.\1 staff re ie
                                                              the          ency' n    : or
                                                                    •ill    nccenary; or (c

             dctcnn1nin                                               to      used e clu i ely or in
                                                                cd methods·

             t        bit hin
             En 1ncenn
             un crstandin !tie e pcnmcntaJ n rure of Ch i1c                i c pp
                 1   tem may fa.ii because it does not cc u er needs. chc c periencc m y
                     ne r1 I o le c through lesso le ed):

                                                              ods for p ictin                 number of
                                                           ilh lh.c cy les;

             uncle             thi       pp                     ith con 1nu I han c in scope n
               er requirement bet

 ~ 1   n. De\tlop enc. n · Deployment                                                    G 0       AF     r. I.I
                 1 enllf m                 tm th      ts to the c unc     of 1hc propo ed y tcm.

   n m n ement pl                    hould ensure lhat none of the ollowin shoncommg               II al feet he
proJC t:

                 UOJ\I ufied or nc cr·cn in        roto1yp1ng prOJ

                in uf 1c1cnl docum nt 1 on de\'Clope for         pro
                1ntenm production en ironm n1:

                 unclear p tOt)'pe ob1ecu e :

                protol pm u           to   oi doc mcnt 1ion o control ;

                 oor dimtion of the re pon ibili11e between d 1 proccssin                 d   cu     f
                or nt tion;

                I c of proper ools or t mm on the use of the 1001 :

                         of proper consider tton of     ency·        inform lion     d   ta   uiremcnts:

                unde 1ned       rform nee me urc .

  ud    t   I   ffin      on Ider llons

                                                                                                cncr I

The e lu tor              no

                lntr uction     LO   lnfonn rion rcsou es m n gem nl

        U\lm fn1em.a11onaJ Inc. Broe ~ mlro · sPECTil • otyp1n1 • The Stand- I
~lcth    ol    •. "'600 Bo cc Ptu.a Ro . 1u r • P I 41

    0 S F        'tCf.   l.l                                         De   1   n, De"elo mcnt. nd Otplo me      1
                > rem de clop em       hfe~   ycle m n em nt

               Inf rm ll n             ccum

                \ tern milrnleniln c

      tlon I     on dtr lion

 tnc.     rom~

~ 1   n. De\clop       nl,   nd Deplo ment                     G 0 S    Cr. 1.1

 .l . l.1       enc 0 je th•t for This e1ment

             . l.1 •. 1   l cntify pccific user ccds, induding requirements ~ r pcrfonn
                              rity., reli b1lity, testin , nd da m1cgrity control .

            . . 1.1.1 .   Define ti    t   11 be eli\'erc c ..• u r screens, d ub       repcnu •
                          graphics .

             .t.1.l.J     lf con tua.I up n: i nee d to sist Wtth the ·dentifi t1on of
                          rcquircmcnu. si n.          clopmcnt~ then prepare, revi
                          rclc e rC(Jucst for propos I RfP) for com~titi c b ds.

             .1.1.l.4     En ure an en ·1ronmcnt tha.t f ilitate on- in communi on
                          bet ecn u crs nd dc,clopers. Th u e of regular echnical
                                               is        n for r ilh ting open

             . I.I.)

             .1 ..1.l.6                                  ti e ppro     to be t. en for
                                                          1cm to m et th a c y's b in

            J.     E anu c sy cm architectu        llcm .. 1 CJ th   h e   hiah potenti I
                          for ti fying the  ( nee

            .l.J .l.J.
                                                                      rments 0

GAO S        'er. l.l                             s       De.s1 • Dt\•clo mcnt.     d   ~plo   mcnt
            .1.l.1.          t bl1sh ppropn tc compuung resource       1.e.. ro ram e t'I             nt
                          ~ or bench and of1    re up rt tool .

           . t.1.1.1

          J. l.1.1.. ll                                   ~   indepcn cnr   t   stin a en1. 1f
                          nece                                e systems).


         J.1.1. t. l

           .J.J.l.         erify       ltd re
                          Re ol e open 1 ue re

           .J.1.1.JS      Dt\ clop   1nd re ie   the p   ed con .. crsion or reen m«n

          ·. l.1.l.J6     De clop nd re te polk1e             r cdures th       t   sup   rt the
                          1ransnion o lhe nc sy tern.

         ' . l.l.J .17    Obt tn m n emcnt ppro I ~ r Lhe cli er            les from      1h1

De i n. De ·elopmcn • n De lo mcn1                6                                  G 0        F er l I
 .l.1 .2        t tlon hip to Olh r           .men

            ment t n 1th the output of Ule Concc t n ProJCCl ln i1i tion. ph e for the
          c of cnhan in ;in e 1 tin S)' tcm or de elopin n one. The produc and
      umcn1. de elo~d tn du cgmcnt I y th found tion for the y rem de elopmcnt d
in   1 II t1on e mcnt ch t follow .

 . 1.1.J        tn · · roduc         •nd    ocumtn         tll ered Durln     hls

D umeru nd produc                            ifferent n mes in the encie . o matter h              l   they
· ;illc , the c documcn                        hould pro 1 e the folio in infonnation:

             .l.l . . l     hi ·IC el er requirem~n     cribin t c encnJ n ture of the
                            p blem to    ol cd o the cnhnncemcnt that i needed:

             .J. l.3.2      o erv1c        of the current ystem, includin
                                    hi1ectu and ope hon feature th 1                                     !edged
                                    em defide nci ;

             . 1. .J                                                     I tfon o user fequiremen         into
                                                                       er en dhpl y , report form ,
                            netwo          quircm n

            l.l.l .4            o     plan ( hedule. cti itie , ~rsonnel):
             .1.1..!         e ription of tem 1 e 1cchn1c: l olucions ( cc OAO/lMTEC-92-.5 1
                            for an c mplc of altem ll~c an l i );

              .1. l. .      u        IC COSl·bencfit analyses:

            3.l.1.J.7       u ted ri It 1.11 ly for cost and schedule failure. and
                            mtercon ti ity .and interoperability, in ludin&   urity          rei .     icemen

              . J. t.                                                          confip tion

              . l.J.J .     proj       t   tu rtpons:

              . J.l.J.10    records o meet n

              .l . t. .11   projc      t~u    t         mcnl a pro ·1n this         ub   uent sc         nu;

              .. t.J.U      RFP, if appropri      t .

G 0 S F er. t.I                                           1         De i n. De clopmcnL and Deploy              nt
.1.1 ..1      \1 n              m ot Re pon bllltl                                                     mt nt

              J. 1.1..i.1             ppr c the co                                                                     nd de elope

               . UA.

               . l. l.4             Re IC

              3.1. l. .4            R u1rc         1h l   I M nd u er or amz t1ons or to c er co en urc                                     lh t
                                     he i1c tion bein developed m c                                    n

                . l.1.-'.                                                                              rces in ludia soft are

                .). .4.6                                             nd ch er ble

                .1.i..a.1                                            With      lhi llC      ti O.

                . l.lA.8                                             pro res usma           t    e dined u lity                     ntrol n

.1.l.S          '      r Re pon

                . l.1 .. l                eriu       d define re uerc men t .

                .1.1.s.2              pec1f          rfonn n e. ecurit • nd 1nle ri1y rcquiremen

                . t.1.~              Ensure th       t    pc onnel       ith          pri    1e     u mess             fun ion I            ill
                                     ar          ail blc o c c ute thi                c.

                .l. l .              p n icip le wilh ppropri              tC   lR.\i SI        r IQ       ele l , p    j        ular ile U ·e
                                     m thod.

                . l.J .              P 3.Ct1     i tc with the appropn           te   I         st ff to des1                          ment
                                     the          tern .

                    . l. t.S.                                   1    1   ff 10 u          te he economic an                 fl     hn1caJ

                    . 1.1. .7             cnf      nd      lid tc        tern require ent .

           n. Oe\elopment. nd Dcplo m nt                                                                               G 0            F ,. r. 1.l
. t . I.   1 '.\ t                           Di                        mea t

            .1. 1. .1

            . I.I. ·-                                                e 1 c uon mc1h         nd develop the

            . l.1.6.

            . 1.1. .                 mc1     te   uh the ppr pn u:             to     ian    ndd    ument
                                     tem •

            . l .. .5

            . 1. 1. .6                            re en t to man ement     rcque t for ppro I to proc

            . I. .           Pr p c

            .1.1.                                   ertt c 1hc R   or 1m1I     olt It tton d u

            . l. I. .                             e u lity

.• t.        udh         bj ti   f     Durl                  nt

            .. 1.7. t

            .t.l. .2         0 cnnin

G 0          er. 1.1                                                 De 1gn. De clop ent. and        plo     nt
               • l. I.         Detemune                       h         loute                   n te
                                omp tin                      ro   Cl.

               .1.1. ·"                                                                             e 1Lc   u e
                                                                                DI   pl   J1   or mt    1   tin

.l. l.          u it                            t

               .1.1. .1

               .). ••2

                               en\ 1ronmcnt.

               .f .t.    ...                        rototype obJCCll c . Decennine lf              e protot pc

               . l.I .                                                                     I   1litic

               . Lt. .         Detenm c
                               pri r 10

               .l.1. .7        Rc\1e                       e for selecting   1 er         1    c ppro h.
                               The                          on n 1'ters1on .

               . l.1 . .

                                                                                     rin im

De   1   n.   \Cl   p en . n Deplo         nt                                                  0    AF er. I I
                    . l. I. .

                    . 1.1. .lO

                    . I .L .ll            cnfy h I the proJe<: t m n c                                 ppli
                                       :a cc led · t nd     and

                    .J.t. .U           De enninc helhc r 1h.  propn le num~c o r ff, per onncl s tll ,
                                       tr min • tools. n computin re ource are · ti bl~ 10 the roJe<:t
                                       te m.

                    . l. l. . l.}                                             c. .• on c ion or        r-eengin~nn
                                                                              111    n iuon to th new y em

                    .t.J .. 14                                         ohc1t tton d     umen     for nom lie ,

                    .1. 1.. IS                                                          nd control funcuon h ,.e

 .J . I.             udlt       rodu

\\' r      p.lpcr      ummanzrn          t   e u 1tor'

                    .l.J. .1                                                  C\.Cloped in thi      gm nt for
                                                                              c bthly lO the     CCC   tcd   CO   tpl Of

                    .1.1.9.l                                                      sis nd echn1 I ltem ti e

                    . t.l.9.J                      of the   ency' ri                   nl plan for miti Un
                                       project ris : an

                    •l .1.9.                                                                                      h.

G             F \'tr. J. I                                  91           De   1   n. Oe\tlopment.       d Deployment
De   1   n. De' cl   pmcnt~   a.n Deplo   nt   0 0   r. l I
3.1.2     Syste                                  nd OepfC'\ym                      gment

. 1.2.1                                tor        ep nt

            .l.2. l.1                                                                     futu~

            .I .1.l

            .1.1.L                                                                        t       I     using

           J. t. ...a                        imual esum   tes   for                       le el ore           rt.

            .1..2. J.                                                                     IC •• S       em to            y em

            .1.- .l.                                                                                      ull            I   fy
                             I    e

            .I .... t.                                                                                              re

            .. 2.1.          0        n                                                       1   fie     r
                             re uirc

            .I. .1.9

          ~· •. 1.       O   L'

G             r I I                                                   De   1   n. De el       enl. nd De lo                       nl
. . 1.   .z   Rel tlon hip    10   lht          men

               .1.2 ..

               .l.l .. 7      e idcnce o user an                    cccp    e:

                              re or

               . l.   .9      u    1cd     or          edulc,   uv1uc . per onncl ;

               . t.2 .10                                        n

               .1. . . 1      project tatu      fe"

               . l.l .12      recor       of m eun

              .l. l.l .. ll   reque   l   for m na emcnt pprO\ J      ll dcs1 n 1tc

               3.L .. I        RFP or 01her olicit tion

                                                      94                              G OS   er. 1.1
.J. A                                                             In   bl    t    men t

         . 1. .. ..1.1       Rccoortnn       ope   or the pro;cct
         .l.2 A. ·                                   d user o •uuzauon .          oo~ 1n 1c on   cc   t re    ult     nd

         . l.?.~             En ure th l the products from this segment               eet lhc gene ' mi ion
                                   thy ser requirem n .

         . l. ..~            .f   nnor pro ress of the proj       l.

.1.1.    . r             pon billtJ    Dl c ar td In Th             eim n&

         J.2.5.1                                                                 requircmcn for
                                                                                 ens• re th 1 such

         .1.2 .l                        at     s     cm    d 1t                                  user          d.

         . 1 .2~.                                                                     onomi       d          hn1c I

         . t.' ....          I en11f    nd inform m · emcnt of h                              er o           n1i    1100
                             th t m     re uh from u in1 che y 1cm.

.• 2.·   IR'I R pon 'b I ti

         .1. • .l
              .l.l.... .             Pre arc            rescn pro re     re       co m

. I. .          udit         bj (t           urln        hi     t m nt

               . I. •.. l                                                   has d qu cl            dn          the
                                                                            c men .

               .l. .. 1              Dec         nc i         de~elopme t   an inst ll1t ion o jecu c h   ~     n
                                     m •·

.l.l.           udit                 for    bJ          m nt

                        .t                                                                                e de !led

               .1 .     .2

               .1.l .

               . l. •..

               . I... .                                                                               pphed

               .I . . .              E aJ                                         nd re   rce   ere

                . l.l ..                                                                                             l)

                . 1. • .

De   1   n.   e clop cnt. nd Dcpto                                                              G 0           er. I. I
               . l... .         Determine hc1her a c                                               ere 01101.1.cd or
                                m 1 lltng lhe  tem                                                 urrcd 11n
                                 in1m l d1 rupoon 1

              .1.-.. 10         Ven!                                                      tcm is mcc11n           t   c
                                 gen .••

              .1.2 .. ll             n ure tn l man gcment ppro ed mo            in   into t e n     t e ment.

 .l .2.      Audit         r due          nd                         tlop ·d in .hi       mtnt
Wor p                        umm ze            s and potcnti J finding for the follo an1
                       11on :

              . l.2 .. 1         he . e cy' n ·                       m I    an p     en:

              . . .9.2          1e    t    n u1on pl      for con eni0T1      d cuto er from       e le       y
                                en 1ronm nt (i.e.• proce                 sy tcm co the replacemenr
                                en 1ronment:

              .J. .9

             ... .9.4                hc~nce to     1
                                                       tern       d oft are en tnecnn ·    nn 1ple        n
                                pr    IJCC .

G 0       F \Ct. I.I                                          1         Desi n. De elopmen         nd IXplo               cn1
1gn.   ~   elo men . nd   eplo   e t   G 0 SAf 'l<er
3.1.3     Rev iew Segment

                                                                                 menu or
                                                                              re utcc 1

. l.J.J         enc       bj th'    r.   r Thi   e m

              .I .1.J

              .l. . l.l                                           . decide hether o con11nue
                                                                     lJ e appro h (nc 1 c le .

              .J .J.        Re ic                                            to   IU l
                            c pen

              . 1. . IA     En ure th t communicimon channel to u r   tern in open .

              . I. .l.      If e tern I cndor uppon 1 tiB needed for urthcr c clopment.
                             hen re 1ew :ind ppro c the Rf? or other olic1t tion re uc l.

. J .2      R I l ion hip to       ther e men

  0       F \ 'Cr. 1.                                   Dt i. n • .De elopmcnt. nd Dt lo ment
.u ..                      Ir due                n       ument D li         tr                    hi       mtnt

  e a en                                                  hould                                          1ng infonn uon:

               .1.                                                                     ence a.med in tha       e&menl:

                          .2                                                                                  to the
              ~··                                                 e 1 ion        10   conunue rcitc
                                                                                                            , or c 1dcnce of
                                                                   e proj        I,    nd

                                    R            II   ppropn 1e

 . l. .                        nl                                                       h

               .1. . l

                . J. .    ~·

                                                                                                       le te Iler tt   method
               '.1.J ..

                .t._A ..$                                              to        p 1 e p ~cct. then uth         nze aban nm

  . LJ._
                .     r                                           In                    mr   t

                .J .S.l                                ether the entin: ) rem or                  of    e y tcm meet       LI

                    .. 3..l                 Cl         he er to proceed      ~uh                 uent atcrau .. e c de to more
                                        loscly meet their         tu al fun uon J                  per tion I requarements.

  . I .6       IR. I Rt pon b I ti

                    .1 . .1         Confirm that complete ite tion                           ct user re u1rem nt .

                    rlopment..          d        eplo mcnt                                                    G 0 S F er I 1
   C I    n
           J.t .3. .2         Con11nuc o prepare an , pre ent pro re                          rcpo    1om

            .I .6.J           I de elopmcnt i
                              fon Lion . fe tu

            .1 .6..a          0 fine and                                                cd" from th         .
                                                                                                      lrcad implemented
                              an in Laite ner1th·e

            .1.J . .5         Complete JI rclc nt ys em                             mcn1 ion or the             to
                              IO I   lled.
 .I .7       udh         bj                            bi         mtnt

            .1 .•7.1          De ermine i( man                  ement h       pro I d suffic1en o crs1ght o er lhe
                               fOJ    t.

            . l .7.l          IH1ermme                                                  dequ tcly       s.cd n           in
                              procecdm            10

3. 1.•      ud t     T        ror                 fmt       l

            .I   .. I                                                                                  1ed co a
                                                                                                 sou re ha'e been
                                                                                               1th the project.

            .I .8                                                                                               IS

            . l .8             cnf

          3. 1 •.

            . J.••            E · Iu re the RFP                               hc1       ion
                              un oon         in                           t    m r th

G 0      F Hr. I. I                                             IOI           De    1   n. De cl      nt. nd Ocplo. ment
        .)   ..                         I son le        ed· in the i e   , .. c pl'i

.1 .   . udit Produc   d Wor        t\tlop   in    hi

        .l .J .9.

                               10                                 G 0    s         \'Cf.   l.I
3.2        Custom De lgn, Developmen                                           and D ploym en
   c O\ er   II        JC ll' c of 1h1   p rt 1 10 c cnbe 1hc        11 uie nece    ry to omple~e the     1gn.
J~ cl pmcn. Jn                  plo ment o      cu 1om1zed ) tcm t one or more user ne . wtth minim I
J1 ru uon                        i c.. ;iy-10-d y o rauon . ln. ene I, c nrabute lh t        I to mo t

                                                             ing. curve:
                                                         n iii c d t :

                                                                             henomcn    u h   clcctnc I

       c   on     1   er lton in th1     rt 1 the   organi
in I   ti llOn    o(   the d i n onct     It   i   omplctc         menuone                                ic

a o               \ 'Cr.   .I                                to          Desi n. De elopment. nd De. lo mcnr
                                                    Im I f    lOr   need to be ree ... lu ted    ih

 cr-c re                                                     mcnt. n    Deplo~ment     pan:

R ·, I n

                          hould on 1<kr the ris                                                 d
                           fun er naJ                                                            10

De   1   n De' clo mcn1. nd   plo    nt       104                                G 0 SAf        \Cr.   I.I
J    tor .in 'ulnc           1huc mto       t   e   stem. The n   m n cment                   ould help en urc   1   c
the nc e       M)   controls re es1;ibh c            n cnforccd 10 mm        te     in   l   ri s nd thruts

    udlt   t   mna     on id         lion

                                                       upplc entcd by mtenSt\C training in 'o
                                                        n desi n. and tructUred            in
                                                       include G 0 o c tern

               1n r    uc11on   10   inform ion resources man        cmcn •

                                      mcnc life-cycle:      na cmcnt,

               1n rm uon             terns

               e anomic

 G 0            \Cr.   I I                                  10          De   1   n. De elopmenl         CXplo.       nt
     nc Prom

                          en y pro tic or 1 nn t1on re r in the urrent IR. 1 or an1zJt1on
 n                lu;:1e nd procedure . P t re 1c • ud11 . r tudie m direct c udit
1 .im to de 1 1cn te m lht y rem c elopmem proce s. S tern rofilc ro 1de insight mto
1he umnt IRM en ·uonment.


De   1   n.   c\clopm nt.   d De loymcnt    106                         G 0 S      'tier. I I
3.2.1                                                  ent


     . 1. l           nc Ob                            menl

               .1.1.1. 1



               ..:.1.1.                                                    cdu    lh     ill     ppon the
                                 rr n mon    10

               ..!. I. I J       0                       pro l f r the u er n:quircmen

~ .... l.2    Rtlalion hip       t

 .2.1.               nc:    P   du      an   0 cumen      tll end Durl I         I St     mt

              .l. l ..           H1 h-levet u er requirernen descn in the genera.I narure of the
                                     roblem 10    ol cd or the en                t   i needed.

              .2.J.J.             n o eo 1e of he cunent or propo
                                de n tion of the   httectura.1 nd ope

G 0 SAF       \Cr.    I.I                              107          De i                            pt·o menc
                .?.t ..        Sys em fun tion require en 1.c • tran I uo · of u r require                      nl
                                    pees u:   ttm fu ctioru. u h         di pr y • repo
                                        t •   cornmuru uon n.:l

                .l . l. ..&     ?rojcc        WU     rcpo

                •• 1•           Rcco          o          tin s bet

                   •J                                                                ep t.

                .• 1.J.'7            sohci non                           cu I uppon i required.

) .. 1.4                    tmmt Rnpo             blHU     t>    bar

                .l.1 .. 1         uth riz.c p            ecdin

                   .tA.l                tdc re.sources 1.e. pc onne ,     r c1l1t1   •       funds fo lhi
                                 e      en

                .. 1.4.J                           ri m       emcnt pl .      1f one &lrudy e 1      • update   it
                                us in             mon I 1'1fortnation collected in this e enL

                   .1..a.                                                                d on mission OT

                 .l.I .

                 .2.1 ..

                 .2. l.-4


 De   1    n. De' cl      mcnt. nd De lo                         10                             G OS        er. I I
           .2. 1.-'.9       En ure th r prO.}CCl alcstoncs are bein                     JUS         1f neccs
                            En ure th l project co                              Sign- 0-COSI    0    S
                            en I hcct Ensure throu peer re" 1e ·            t    at ptodu ts are         curale.
                             o pie c. nd rcprc en h1 h qu rty.

. 2.l.5    ' r R pon ibilitlH Disc.bar ed in.

          3.2~1.5.J          Pan1 ip te ith lhe IRM oup to de lop                     pre emL e p posed
                             fun lion I and ope uonaJ ~u11lJme                         emcnt {or ppro" I.

                             Specify performance. ecunty.
                             requ1rcmen .

           l.l.l~                                                           usme1s       d fun tional s ills

            .?. t.S .~

  .1.6     IR. 1         ponslbilit             ar ed In This      m   Dl

            .. 1.6.1                                                                            in1tion of         e

            .2.L6 .•

            .l.l. .                                                                     lcris   C$       d

                                                                r partica       on.
            .l.1. ·"

            .?..                                                                       y etwor in              d

            .. t.6.                   II h.   tth er p 1c1 tion. p Ul.•;c~ulJ~ for rruanu                d
                                        tcd proccs es (c.. on-line           ch processi.n

            .2.1 ..                                                         reports tom

G 0       F \er. I.I                                  109        Des 1 , De\i elopmen an De lo.                    e   t
          .l.1.6.            De clop                     um nt (c      • Rf P f r contr              1 uppon tf
                                                                        the u e .                    he

·-·1·     udil        bj ell ·

          .l .l. .1                                                I requir         cnt ha c    en

          .. 1.7.l           De ermine                                                       elopmen1 team
                                                                                               tll .

                                                                       lloc te the                  ate resource
          ·"·•· .J

          .1.1 .    ..a       Dercnn1ne 1ha1 lhe          thor u hly            1   cn11fied. efine .       d
                              d umentcd It re uircments .

. 2. t.   \udll           s s for   hi    f   mt

          .l.l .. 1                                      un uon I nd            per t1on I r
                                                    \Cd   u   in   c   O\Cnll    nal   tC(
                               usmc s a

          .. l.     .z                                                                       un m    1   uou.
                                                                                            cc able
                                                                                        or the     crm

De i n. Dc,·elopmcnt. n DeplO)tnenl                110                                       0 OS           C'f.   I.I
      b    Complete:             1remcnts pecific: non or u 1n s
           n I s1                i complete 1f it h    c: folio

                                                            nts.   hclher m

                                                          ) cl ses of inp t
                                                      1     Judm ex ep ion :

                                                 of I fiiure • t ble • an
                                                 d finition of II nns

                    ocum nt ")


      d.                                                                         or
                                                                            l C:T e:t


                                                                      tth    t    le

G 0                        I I         Desi   • De c:I       nt. n De lo) enc
                                 r.                                                                            d onJ •

            . 't.

            .2.1 . ....

           J.2.J.8                           e tn iti'vi             for ppro im te        c u nd sc eduJcs.
                                                                                       cnteri in meeun the

            .2.L .1

            .".1. .                                                                           0     pu                  s

            .2. 1•.                                                                        pro al be ore

              .I. .10            Eval           sot cltatJon                   nom h , in on i te         Cl      nd
                                 ~a.son      bleoe s. ( ee 0                   t.6.)

.2.1.       udlt Pr             UC      nd                                in                 l'Dt

\'                                    th e                              of:

            ·-1.9.t                  he u er·       ·v uon of                          0   rauon     rt' Ul    en1 ;

De   1   De elo           n1.    d De lo           nt          11-                                G 0          \:Cf'.   I.I
          .• t.9.        the con   1   tenc   n Ir ceabiht of the u er rcqu1rcmen             t~m
                         fun uon :

      ~   .... l " · ~

          .2.l. ....     the   enc · ri       m n:i ement I n for miti un project ris s; nd

          . •1.9.

G 0       er I.I                                 11       De i n. Development.      d   Otplo mcnc
De 1gn. Dc'clopment. rid Deplo ment   114   G 0   er. I.I

.2.l .1         nc Objctl      for         m n

           .2.2.l.1      0 inc It of                                    system.

           .2.2. l.2     De 1ne p      ing fun uons      t   will nunipul te th da.

           .2.. 1

           .l.l. l.                      ,·clop    oli u 10         ocument to
                                                   ent appro    1    oft     lic1


           ........, .                                         re .

          J ....2.1.                              ould   fi cl 1 c                    ni

           .l . . .

           . .". l.                                                            pro

           . . . I.I                                                                       l   n

           .•.. t .11    I cnt1                                            d the
                         rcq rre to

          ~tr    I I                                                                       Ocplo.   nt
              ... 1.t           E 1im te
                                      i   n.

             Rel tion hip to Ocher                    mtots

             J.2.2.... 1

              .... ? ....

..2                         Pro<luc                                      D rin1

             l.2.l .l                 tcm       s11n

              .l .2 .2          ProJet:t t.     tu

                                               or              eld b   JI pl   ers in ol ed   ilh   e system


                 . .J                 sohca     on


De   1   n De cl pment.          d De lo.            nt       1J                              G 0 S       er. 1.1
          .. l .7       Tclecommun1c t1ons nctwor t polo y in ludin                          nct\l.Or    •
                        m trO Ii n re net ·or . and w1 m net


          • .2 .9                                                                                       n•

          . .2.J. lO                                                                 ope tion I             m nt R pon I illti      01             In    b      eam   l

          ..l.4.1         ppro e
                                                                                   itcrui e
                                                                                    cd ystem {i.e.•

          .2. 2.4.2     En un: u e o :a ency c ted policie . methods. standards.                d   tool
                        for 1he de ..·elopmenl of u er e ian peci 1c on.

          .l.2.4.       Pro i e the re                                        to e clop the y tern
                        de i   .

          .2.l.4.4                                         II y tcm desi "·           in10      oun1

          .2.•4.S        • tonator pro re   o the proJ«t

          . , .4.6

          .2.iA.1                                     pp        h for s urity, d    inte rity. n

 .2..5    ' trR                                       hi    earn nt


G OS       er. I.                                11         De    1   n. De clo ment. nd Dcplo mcnt
            1.:u.. 2        Re' 1cw an     on ur     ~ Hh       l c • tern e 1gn s              i 1cauon .

              ..?.2 ••         inc require      ) tern pertorm n e nd

             ' .,···"·"'
                  ., -
              .•.•..                     l mc    lu Un          t   hn1cal arch1le ture o lion           nd tr eof

              . .2.5.6         1 t   lRM an dcfinin             11 inter! c    ( 1 c ..   hum n an           ther AlS) to

.•.•..,      I . I R pon lb title DI ch r            d in T I

                                                 to refine pec1fic tions r ecurity, d ta
                                                tern ~rl' nn i;c. nd )Stem n:h b1hty

              .... 2.6.2    Pc rm •                                 , 'event maly i • tudies to detect
                            m1 in

               .2.~.6.      Re me:.      nh u er p   rt1    1p uon. u er pr c              tn   n

                                              uppon 1 r qusre • or ~ ith lhe u m o                              clop   t
                                              ument nd a t 1n m nJ ement pprovaJ.

                                             re cnt pro re           reports   t    m n ement

                               n urc the   UHC nt     Of    the                                              hrou h peer
                             re lC \lo


              ) .... 2.6.                  uran e r intern I uditor fun ho        in pl c. then
                               1 in concurrence from Q       d in em 1 Lditor on the consistency
                             and compl tcnc s o the tran 1t1on from the user fun onaJ d
                             ope tion.a.1 requ1rcmenu to the                pe ilic tJon i.e.,
                             requircm nts        e bility).
                               rep     the tcchnic I rchitecture pcc1fic tio11.

De    1   n. Oe,·clo ment, n Deploy cnt                    11                                        G 0 SAF er. 1 I
          .l• •6. 10    De ennine 1he 1clc ommumcai ion ne                  ork topolo       and                c
                        net     '0   .

          •2• •• ll     De 1 n the lo 1 J n          p                        tru turcs.

          .2.2•• I      De 1gn th        pphc lion rognms in ludin
                        f n uon .

          • ..2. .13             te the n                      into                  nnbu            of the

          .2.1 . . l                                           b     on )' tem             jgn spe ifi        tio
                                               ope       aon   requ1n:mcnts.

. .2.1    udlt Obj



            ....        ~1ermin                                                                       on i 1en1
                            uh the

          .2.1.7            ·cnf th t                                                      unuu of
                                                                                             for y
                                                                                           CS)                set

           ud t T       r   r

         l.'.      .l

G 0 S F er. I.!                                  11            De     1   n. De el   men         d       lo mcnr
               . ....29'                                                                                                  si n
                                                                                                                    prognm or

               .• J . .4                                         :.;mpli ce      ith pphc ble poh ies. prn«d                 d

               .2.2. .5                                               •c   t   e quality of e so ic1 t1on OOJmcn

                                                                                 nkal   h11.cetUJe     C:On.au•"""

                .2 .... ·'


3.2 9            udit Pr           UC      nd            0   k             D

 or:        pers umm nrin                       e.. LI                               of:

                            .l                                                                 me odolo        . ttt-hni

                 .2.l..2                                                                             reQ U1MICD       0

                 ,;?_      .9                                                                                 ic:     inte

                 ...l.9.                 e 1echm

                 .2.l.9                 he re

                           9.           then                      mcnt Ian          any su porun riik      ~

De     1   n. De elo             en and         plo ment                                                    G 0 . AF ver. 1.1
3.2.3                                                                         men

.l .. l        en                                   nt

           .l .. 1.1

           .2.J ..       Est bli hand 1mplcmen1                                              llC'ti n.

           .2.3. t.3     De elop         d implc cn1 unit, intc   tion,

           .2.J.l.4       n re 1h t n independent erifi tion nd vali t10 of the                          cm

           ~    .. J.!   Emure th    t   user   cc l               con uc-ttd.

           .2. . 1.                                                       i   1c~tion   ,   pl icrmon
                                                                      u tion con rot.

           .l.J.t.7       nsure th   t   lh     stem i till ffordablc n _ cost effecth•e .

          . . .J.l.

           .l.3.1.       De •clop d imp1 ment in tall tion plans ~              IOC nd full scale
                          eplo menL

           .l .1.lO                                          rt is required. lf so. d vclop
                         ob in mant cmcn1                          ol dtati n       ment (i.e., RFP
                         and lFB.

          . .2 . l.11     Develop   d imp le . m q. i ilion pt  for the procuremcnl or
                         required computer equi mcnt. tclccommuni (on equipm nt. and
                         com~rci J oftw       p u t     hich   often refened to
                         commcrti off·lh · hclf COT produc .

G              er. I.I                             1 1       De i , Devel pmcnt, and Dcplo ment
.:U.l          R I uon h p to        cher      mtnl

               - ·-· .2.1                                                                               d

                                                                                                    wor in

                 .l .......

 . 2.l.            en
                                                                                       enc)'. pro      o fice. nd
                3. . . • 1      0

                                Pohc1cs. p      c urc • nd         t   nd
                                                                                              1ruc1ure) with human
                  .2 .••

                  . .J.J ..l                         pcc1fic tion      1     ludin :

                                                                                              m • ill\ computer


                                    c. input/oucp    t   an    re n fonn c

                                      prog:r    development                 test ti my.

                    .2. .J.

                                                                                                      G 0      AF er. I.
          1   n. Oc'clop~nt. nd Dcplo           nl            12
       J.2 .3.7                   lib      of rodu ion quality apphc Hon oft arc                               h
                             pl cc                    r uon ontrol •

          . .J .

       3.2• .J.              Train in                                                                                      d

          .l       .10            tr      allon plan inc:ludin conve ion from the lei 'i en ronment
                             to   t    c re I c e I sy tcm.

          .l.J.. 11          Tclccommuni tion net ·ork man cment plan, 11 ppli blc.

          ..) .J.1                deployment plan inc:Juding itc s r'\'e s, tte
                             in1 all t1on sc       ulc. u er           cpunce.

       J.2.3 .t

          ....J .I                                                                         rcr re o ery

          .2.. J.1           Pe orman e                    tfi   I   lin    10            u en' o      nio

.lJ.                     I   Rt p n I                    ., td nT                                  t

          .2 .                                                                                                ~d     rin

          .2.3.4.•           u                                                                                             m.

          .•.J ..a                                                   or                   e to         cot nd       ulc
                                                                                          nts th       m     re uirc

G 0 SAF        r. 1.1                                 l-                   0c    I   n.                             pl •mt      I
        J.     . .4

         .l . .5        Re .. te    nd                               o ) sfcm requ 1re    ts .


         •2 •.a.1                           pprovc   c   re

         .1..; .4.                                             a1i   io o

             .J.4.      Re ·1c                                s of the sys em.

        J.2 .. ao         nuretht                                      rin en iro    nt as n
                        pl e or

         .l .. 1

        J. J. I                                                                          fo      ite

        3.2 .... u

         .2 .4. 4

         ....a.ts         CVIC          d

.l.J.        tr R pon lbi ltJ       D

                              plo       ent                                  G 0          ~r.    I.
          .2.J.~.2            Pan1 1p tc 1                        hd t1 n o    ·s cm un uon .

        3.1. ·-·                                                      re u er put1c1p uon unn


        3.l •.•. 5

          .2.                                                                                 t   resul

          .2 .                                                                                II t        1tion

          . 2.
                                             n~   rec     nt.

          .. .s.              P rt1 1p tc           r in cpt n e c tin of ny computer r
                              rclc ommun1c uon c u1pmcn1 1h l will be ins lied in u er

          ..... J .. I           SI l                   m colic tm mform lion on S)' em co l
                              mcurr     nd              re hz d

        IR~       R      pon lbilitl                       hi   e ment

        J.l .. 6.l                                                                                 o c clop the

          .l . .6.                                                                            comput r
                                                                                              commumc uon

          .2. .               Develop t c a pit t1on o "'are i e., cod , umt ten. unit and
                               ub > cm le ·cl mtc uon)

G. 0   F vcr. I. I                                  125         De i n. 0e.. elop   1   nt,          Deplo            nt
            Tc   the ro ram module 1ndi, 1dually nd in o 1n c me
            rcsol m     m ny compu er pro m lo 1c. 1 fimt1on
            rcprc cnl uon. n compu1er pro                m 1ntcrf c pro lem
            posstble .
. .3.       De'clop •he tc        t     n   on ers1on

            ln       11   > rem   oft

. . .6.7                                                           pcc1fic uon • c
                                                                   'unn      e re 11n of

..J ..                                                                   e y u in
                                                                          ram pec1fi         ion •

    .6.     lnfonn                                                               nd
                                                                                 r     cdulc.

                                                        reuuhz.auo · r

.2•.• 1

·"· .6.12                                                                             in •   and

                                                                          nl th t 1muJ te

                                            ,_                             G 0        F      er. l I
                                                                     >' tem                       cnficauon

          .2 .. l                                                                       pen en1 te m

          . . .6.l                                                                  el pmc11t (i.e , de le
                                                                                        tcm       men1a11 n)

          .2 . . l                                                                        fort       stem
                                                                                                 ny ben tits
                                                                                           this Lime.


          .2 ..22                De inc the re              t   111 be   ~   u1rc            ions
                                 m anu:na.n c o

   .7          dt      bj   LI


              udit           ror                  l

                                 0   t   en u          auuon

G. 0          er. Lt                                  I:?          ~ i       n. De el pment nd De lo           nr
          .2 .•              If      ropn tc e ·alu e lhe qu•hty of the solici uon ocumenr.

          . .J..                                    stem e 1rn d ument•
                                  tern.       rem. module, omputer proaram. or
                                   1 1c ion • 1f required .


          1l        I   I

         J...           .1                                           ce   ilh the tc   t   pl

          .. 3.. !1

1   n.   e cl pmcnt, n Deployment                    12                          G          AF .. c . I.I
                                                               cosu    d
                                                                u   of tool •
                                                                    echmque ).

          . .J.. l


         .2    .1     Obt ·n      copy of   OU   te t

         .l .. J7                                                          of

         ..3 .

         .2 .8. 9

                      E   II IC                         pl

GAO . F er. I I                                              nc. nd Dept
           .2 ..ll
                                                                            acm.       so focu on c

          J . .J•. 22


      apers   ~umrr           c c aluation    r.e&m'         ysi of:

                            c pro       0    proj                      pl

                        t   c revised cconom.i                              ule csti

                   .9                                             any supporon


          3.2.J.9.S                         of the s.oftw sc de elo men qu ity             su
                                                        nt. d in pen nt ·cnfi

           •.? -                                       est

           .l                                       mon      d cuto er p

           ..J. .           en      deployment plans          d

           . .3••       t e      dequacy of m                       ons.

[)c In.                     Deplo        t          130                                  G 0 SAf   \Cf.   u
 Content of the Operation                                       and Maint n nee Ph

 Content            f he Ope lion      nd M imcn nee Ph c .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . t J

 .i 0 The          ) ttm 0       tion lllld • tain1en:in c Ph     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I3

 .i. 1
           .I I                                                                                                        139
                                                                                                                       I I
                                                                                                                       I 2

         .i.1 ..                                                                                                       14
                                                                                                                       I 5
                                                                                                                    I S
                   4. 1 .                                                                                           145
                   -'. 1.... A                                                                  nt . . . . . . 1"'6
                   4.1     .s                                                                                       146
                   4 L • .6                                                        cnt •.....•...... I
                    . I. .                                                                                          147
                                                                                                                    I 7

-'·-        ; 1cm ~t 1n1cnan e •• .. ...•.•.•..•......•.•.•.•••...•...•.•.•••

         4.. I                                                                                                     151
                                                                                                                   I 2

G 0            F \'Cr. 1.1                              I I                       Ope tio           d 1: incenancc

Ope uon   nd . f mtcn n e   132   GAO SAF 'er 1.1
4.0 The Sy em Oper

                             Phases of the System Ufe Cycle
        Phase 1                        Ph s 2           Phase 3           Ph .s 4

                                                                       Oper lion
        Planning       _______,        Cone pt   - - D velopm nt,
                                                      Deploy      nt

                   System Operations and               aintenance Pha e

                      Segm nt 1

fl ur     . The   ~   1cm Oper    t1                 c Ph e

G 0       F   r. I l                                                           intc11   e
                                                                                          ti on


                     n m incen n e of the computer      telecommunicatio    equ1pmen

          m "ntrn              ific tfon of pph . on software.

                                                  d benefi :

                                                         &h post    lo     Ill

                                                     sy tem h       e.d the e d    or i

                                                                                 cq ipmenL

Ope uon     d       ntcn n e                                             G 0          \et.      1.l
               Pce\CQl1\e. fa1mcngocc - 1h1       ctw11     cu   -...hen ch n e 10 the soft
               ne I.Jed to 1mpro'c m   tnt   in b1ht • reh b1lny, or 10 p 1de       lter
               i:h..in emcnt .

Thee                             nhin the conrc t of > tem configu uon man cment n
 > tcm m                         1 1 pl ced on the opcr tion, m intcnaoce. a11d modi 1c uon of
     tw   re

GA             ·er. I ..I                                                0    ration and      ;f   mtcn rn:c

    0 0 SAF   \'Cf.   .t
.1    Sys e       Operation

      cont in lhe folio in t o se   nts:

                      • the gen y mus1 man et   folio in

          m nl

G 0   F e   I I                        13                  0   nu1ons   d . 1 1n co n e
                    I o ensure h l l1 ese                                                                  ly
                   I ly communtc te

Pcrfonn1n                    s.e     ment in    th     ration    e" .. 1ro" ment              c follo in

                                                med pe onncl:

                unreJ..11 CJC opemjn schedul              nd

                tncfftcU\! [ llba.c:k procedures for ope U aJ di rupuons                             n      used     y
                m JOr d1           tcrs;

                incfftctiv             sicaJ.    ministratJ e, or echmc..t         cess conuols to       e s stem:

                   tern pcrl'onnancc hortfall su h u ( 1 exec i e do ntunc (.. ) lo
                time. and (3) Jon s seem res    tion pcnods.

 atoc Profi

               on the en y pro ile or infonn tion reg in                1 ion
        t   . pol 1e n procedure . P t re"ie s. udits s 'e ma da~t the u u
c:un to c 1 1cn 1es rel red to s em   ratio . S ttm profiles a igbt 1nro e
um t IR.! 1 en 1ronmcnl.

Opcr t1on                                                       13                               GOS            1tcr. I.I
.1.1 .l               nc        bj~ctl   e for Thi          ti t t

             .a .Lt. .I                                                                 1mplcmented effecth•cly d
                                                                                       )'·te>-d y pcntion • 1n ludln

             .a.1.1. I.            En urc th    l   poli ic       nd r    edurc for input n output              be in

                  .J.l.1           • fan ge    1hty ope 1ioru in cenl                                             in
                                   ccntc • 1n ludin. man ment of                         c                        I
                                    cnten. d custo er u po.n ente

                  .1.1.lA                                                      t     o updare or repl e
                                   ~source     com     ii   n     (i.e. computer equipment.          tern
                                                                uip     no,.       n require .

                 ·1.1.1 . l.5      0       e        man c clcc mmunic uon re ourcc .

                 ~ .l.1.   .

G 0       s. F     er.   I I                                      I 9                        Ope~oons       d I ntenlfl e
            4.l.1.l. 7                     d implement sceunty po icies md p                      edu

            .i.1. 1.1.      Pro   1   c    f   1   1ent   t    ming for ope uo         person I.

... 1.1.2   Rel &Ion hip to Other                  m

In d11      menl. ch

.a.1.1                                nd D um                      Deliver   Durln T               m      I

            4.1.t . I       ~ p<bted       n       urren ope                  d roe         Ure

            .a.1. 1.J.l                                lyses.

            .i.1.1.         Periodic                                           pent on.a.I perfonn

            ..... 1.3..&    Pen       IC                      c indi

.&.l. ...

            .a.J. l.   .I   Ensure that uf 1c1en1 resource                                                    the s · tern.

            4. 1. ......

            . ... ·"'·                                                       awillttf~~ ~   pro    m
                                                                                            ned in matte
                                                                                                                         ion I
                                                                                                                         tin to

            ... 1.1 .•4      n ure         t in e         I control                               folio

            .u.1.                                             to                                                         u    of

              .1. t.                           he lit!         un ·, i

            ·'-1 .1.4.

0    rauo                                                                                           GAO              f       er. I.
             J.. I •• 4                                       eu     tc
                                                              edutt .

             J..1.1 ..              En re                                                            r le

               . l.1 .J..,

...... .s           r      e- pon

             ..... l .. l

             .&. 1. I. .l

             .a.1.1.s.              Uuhu re ourtc < rd                 re. of
                                    cffec   1    c. tconomt
                                     bJC    II   C.

             4.l .t ..a                                                           t   sup           coc 's mis ion,

             -4.t .t ••

              .a . 1.1 .....         ubmat input                                                he ulc :rn
                                    c ( bh htd 0         ~

              .a.1.1 •. 7             enfy       1    re u    of proce~ in

              4.1 . l. .                                                             n ~·10.U   C           d   re n
                                                                                min str.ior•

.&. l . l.

              .u.1.. 1

              .u .1        .•

 G                er I 1                                         I I
               .1.1.6.                                               inform uon produc            d erv1c            to

              ·U.1.6.4                    n re ol ·e en ironment 11ro lerru e ., humu:hty.                      ir
                                on monin • S)<>\liCr) Lh   t   ffect operallo       and communicate              ~    c to

                t.1.6           Control th medi libruy n 1 e mo ement                     du      e of tor gc
                                 edt .

              ... . 1.6.                          a1labilu • ~hlb1hty. re pon iven , et .                   lso.           c
                                                lions to ensure conunuuy of      r tion .

               .1.l. .7                                                                      be     plied   t
                                                                                i   t   m naacmcnl 1n i

4.1. J.         udll 0 j ct '         Durio Thi      am nt
                1.l.7.1         De ermine

              4.1• .1.1.

              ... t.J. .

... 1.1.        ud11 T          for Thi        tat

              .... 1. .1

           uon an          en     c                                                            G 0              ~er.       I1

      J .1.1. .J

      .i.1.1. .                                   c   ii   m ould bccter

       4. 1.1 ..S

        .I.I .

       .a.1.1 .•


       .u.i. .                       nun uy of             pl         p-l~te
                                 I   11)'
                                        te ed .

        .l.l .                                u tel • mamu.in    'JI le el for

       .a.I.I. .I                                                           an

G 0   F er I I                 143                 Ope     1on   d • inten ce
.1.t.1.     . udit       rodu        nd \ or   P per      \'tlopt<I In   hi      mtnl

            .1.1.1. .t                                         ro 1d more ct ls th n the on m I

            ~ . l . 1.9.l                              zin the ope tion       is e 1denuficd by t c

Operation     nd     ~   tn{en nee                                                    G 0       1.t •   I. I
  .1.2          Sy                                                                       ment

                                                                               11 y tcm pcrfonnan c from       er I
                                                                                II y tem re pon 1 enc s 10 the en

  • l.2. l             nc       bj    lhe     ror             1m    I

                 .i . . 2.1.l

                 4.1. • . 1.2                                                      that qu tit   ti~ely     u es user

                 -4. l. . I.             n#ure 1h t there    1     rocc   th   l   penod1 II me       lU~    y tcm co 1
                                     e e u enc s.

                 4. L!.1._.          En ure th I ency r onnel a.re                                             ifi   10
                                     pcnodic lly mea urc nd monatot

J . J. • . .?    Rel lion hip to Other t1m n

Our n tht                                              re     .in e • u 1e ho\ll effe<:u cly. c 1c1ently, and
                                                nn    10    iupport th users needs n the ency' nu ion.

, , l.2.3              nc Produc              nd     ocumu         0 lhurd Durtns Th                mmt

                 .u.2.. 1                        pec1 l monitorin repo
                                     produ c for users ffilUll emcnt, and
                                     limited to:


                                     c.     computer and communr uon equipment till 1ion t1ust1cs:
                                     r.     c p tty plannin updlles.

G 0             F Hr I 1                                                                  Oper uon                        c
4. 1.2..I                                                                     cment

            J .J ..... I                                                    n gc m nt n nci or
                                                                                   11t1d oncuonm

            .a.1.2..i.z      En ure lh    t   en
                             me ure )' tcm pc onn

            ~ . l.l.   J

            .u ...                                              o    nwi   cmcnt. co\•aron ent • and
                                                                     n e ccu1ed.

              .I ..

              .1.1.. 6                                                                                 an

   .l.       U u R pon bUit

                                                                               f\'I c requirement    bein

             .a.1 .......            1th IR.: t t ff    t    plan nd e        te    le   o system o trols

               .• 2.'".                             personnel to pcnod1cally
                                                     em ope 1ng en iroruncn
                                                   • p wcr lo )

  .a .••6                                                             1me t

                .J.l . . 1                                  emunc     he h r user infonnat on md f\'ice
                                                             met 0      n feed      from    rs on required

                                                                                          G OS         ·er. l.1
               J .J.?.6.

               " · 1. ... 6•                                                                             d rc h 1lity

               .... .2.6.4                                                                                       1in 10

               .a .• •6.5           Tc t d1
                 .1.                Perform qu iry         n e o en un: th 1 inf            rm   u n produ ts n
                                     crv1ce . el vered are of high ual1t .

  .1.1.1         udll          bj ell

               -1.t.l.7. l          E                                       cmtnts          tween u         nd llU t

               ... 1.2•• 2              erif th 1 perfonn n e t                 'C   bcin met.

                .l ..7              Venfy th t co Lrol           im lcmcntc 10                                     nd
                                    rnfonn t1on resourc           am l un thon                                   • r.IU
                                    "' ·1e, and abu c.

               ......7.4                enf the operauon s b1h of lh              Lem by c Ju trn s 1cm
                                                       a.al bility, rclt b1hty, etc.

... 1.2.       Audit                for Tb      s~   m nt

               .U.2.. I                                                                            JRl      up    n

               ·U.2. .                                               of ys cm re pon 1vc
                                                                      d comptcce.
               4.l.l..3                 e fy l.h l. the re ults of a ency tes        for on inuny of o        11ons
                                         u te n      complete.

G 0        AF vcr. I . I                                     147                        0    11ons nd 1 ·n1cn n e
           ~ .I.   ..

                          m1 m n gcmcnt

             .l.? .         ctcmiinc     ther an dfecli\e ccuri1
                              rJ ion I d th t en y pe onnel a.re p                          ners
                          relating to ecuricy .

           .J.1•.8.6                                                                          'tb

.&.1.Z.9     ud    c Produc       d

             .l.?.9.      The follo in produ t       hould be coll   ed from the a ncy:

                                                                       nt utihz.auon   ti lies:
                          (   .
           .u ..9 •.:

                                              l..S                            G 0         \er. I.I

 o oc ur. they
maria emcnt.

                                  needed to m af
                                    sy tern.

G        F er I 1   149   Ope oon 111d   inten cc

The n   m:1n      gcmcnt pl:1n hould iden lify ob1ecu ·c      d    u11e its th t c be u d to
m1mm12c the      n k of r ilurc durin the m men nee proce         s. fore ample, e or
m intcn nee      ould be n 1mpon nt objecti c ror        ystc:m   th 1 i e pected co re<:e1 c .. lot of
  h n c O\~ tr   ii rel u cly hort period of time.    ~ys1em      h 1 must ruct co th ngcs m the t x
I. could be        n c mple of th1 1tua1ion.

There hould e

                                                                                         use o

L r development o loc J pplic 1ion.s should not occur ilh t lhe no led e n ppruval
of m n cmeni.    er chan   10 tandard plications and COTS soft iate should be
 i OU Cd.

      nc_ Prom ,

     1s p relies on the ency profile for infonn lion
an     1ndards. policic~. nd procedure . P t revfc s.
tc4m to c 1 1encic rel cd to y em ma.tntcn n e. S
 u·rrcnt I~ I en ·1ronmeru..

Ope uon      n M 1nten nee                        ISO                              0 0           ver I.

G. 0    F 'er. I . I   ISi   0   ration   d Mun1en   c
...l. l.l                               th er       men

,., thl                                                      l SI    f   fC Cl C •            cl       1fic • e lu tcs, and

....... I .J         nc Produc                         tn    Del vued Durln                                      m nt

               .... I     .t                                                                        trouble reporu .                       y
                                     enc te                                                        ue  L

                                                            rcqucs        from ope                 0      r      rs.

                                    b. Sy tern chan         ~quest       log that compiles                               1fic the

                                    c. Re                                         cmcnt commuruc tin the st tus of

... 2..4                                pon bllltl                            In Tb


               ... 2.1 .... 1       Re,·1cw nd pp                                                       ts uni     thi     u1hon1y h
                                        n ~1  ted to

                 .i.t..a.                       nont1e to en ure th           t         e. ar-e ton istent

               ... 2.1.                                                   0       f 1lit      IC        r tn ol ·cmcnt        d
                                                                                   ntic .

               ... 2.1.                                                             0          lyze nd enirmce ah              ffo of

...2.l             er           p   'bill tit DI char1 d In                                   nt

               .$.2 •.• 1                                                 enc unre                     in u in1 he ystem            IC.,

               4.2.1. .•                                                                ire        r requ1       fu HO l or
                                                                         • lem          ( 1 e.•         tern en n e re ue ts) .

 0 r t1on         nd • 1am1en n c                            IS.                                                  G 0         F er. I
            .-.2.1 • .J            mcul 1c the ur     y o ccq       ted   or re   u1~     •stem

            .a.l. I.    ·-'                                   e marn1cn:in e and ope           10         ~   i   in

.a.2. t.6   IR. IR pon 'biUU                Dlsdutr    lo Thi         mrnr

            4.. 1.• I                                                                                     on a
                                                                                                          e S)Slem

            "· .us                            tem chm c: reque       ~c ·    ed fro             e~nt.                  r
                                            d y lcm opeuo       .
            ..... l.6         ~     n ain      chan e rcque t log.

            ... l.J . ...                                                    y em ch         e requcsu o u en.
                              S)    tem o

            J .l.I. .                                               is for                           t.


            \udh Obje th               Dunn This       m nt

            4.l.l.7.1             en            nc    td policles                                   emchm e
                              ontrol e

            .&.l.1. .l                                                                       In pphcd to
                                                                                              for cons1s1' cy

             .• 1.7                                                                                                  d

            .a.2 1.7 .        E · u te lh integri

            .a.2.1.           E Ju te the nority· uin p              cs    or rcdi      le    d coa -i        tc t
                              resu l .

G.\O S        er. 1.1                                 153                         0     lions :in    M~n          en
              .cu ..         E lu te he en 1\cn o ommumc ion ~tween us.c •
                             m n cmcm. nd t m nten n c ff.

.. l.           ud t           for Thl         ne
               . . I. . 1

                                                                               th ch n e co trol
              "'· . I. .                                                intern ly co s1 ent


                •• •1.   5
                                                                  • for co p etc          ,t i    lC     of


               .i . •1. .

               "'· .1..

                 .! l . "       E                        of nonti   .
                 .2.1.                                               y          ti ficd     1th
                                                         ere ue

                 .. I. .10
                                                                                          tonal e      my.

..a .... I.         d't Prod            nd                   d

                                c       1e 0   IC                           p        un: .

                                    e               IS                             G OS                er. l . l
    .i .• • l. ...

    4.2.1. .             l   t

G                    L
G 0   I I

.a••.z..t           nc 0 J«tl    ror
             .i.                                                       ilh the

.-.1.2.2     R I tJon h p to    th r

                                                hangc needed to m ify or enh n c the
                                           on       ucm, nd -.sc    c sy tem

                    nc Pr        nd    m   D I    r~   Ourln Thi

             .a.2.1.•.                                                        of    u c

             4 2.     .l                                                 u    td

                .l                                                 of          (1 .e .•

G 0         F er I I                                          Oper uo
             •                            ..                          -   • ·-·. •   ";~- .• :('!_~.,. -~   -

                   4.2.2 .. 6         pd te      s.cr       umen1 Hon 1n lu 1ng r                           cdurc

.a.2.l ...                                                                                             m nt

                   .J.2.l.4. J                     ne c s ry rt ource 10 up
                                                  elo mcnt. n deplo meot o


                                                                                                 obj cu ·c .

                   4.2.2.. 4

. ...              1   •   u· R pon I lltl                 ar ed In Thi          m nl


...J.2.            JR~t       R pon lblllt     DI ch           d in

                   .i.? •. . J       De clop test ta.. test               I. nd ocumcnt
                                     cc 1in    requued.


                                                                                                                           r to

                       4 . . . .4     n ure th    t   ch                                    confi                ration   or
                                     communic tion                                    u hly t                   led pno to full
                                        lo mcnt.

                       4.2..•        Docu
                                     h                                                                                              re .

 0           non       llJld . 1 nten n                          15                                                    G    0     er. . I
           .-.: . .6.6                                  u n         ppropnate nd en ure ah       t       •stem

           "· ..6.                                                          th      may c use del y         in

           ...l ..?••

                          in c

 .l .2.7   Aud l          u      D rln      hi    eame t
           Detennme hether the           ency:

            .L .7.1       com leced the     dct~I   d     sign;

           .a.     1mplcm nted n

           .$.l.2. 7.

           .a.1.2.1.              y   tem and sof are t:n i eeting          tic     includan techm
                                         nd tools in the sy tem modifi       ion:

           .a.1 . •7.     used pru em mAJla cment p               uus to rrumm1z.e s stem mam1cn                 e.

.a.2. .        d lt                          mt

           ... .l . . 1                                                                 di       111 n of 1he
                                                                                       Detemune the role

           4.2,1 .l                                                 cm n oftw      en1inttnn
                                                                      ppro ed h.anae .

           .i.2.1.8                                                                          n       d
                                                                          lion manaacmcnt tool .
                                                                           l man c nt an     y tem
                                                                            e quality of e y tern

G 0 S        er l . l                               159                                                           e
            4.~. . ...   Re 1c the u r docu~n uon procedures. manu.tl • on-hnc help.
                         etc ) o ctcnnine \>. ether th1 document on lcarly    urately
                         retlcc1 e c n c rcque -t•

            .a.l .- .5                                              cnfy th   h

            4.l.l •.

4.l.2.9       udlt Produc     and    or · Papu            oped I

            4.1..... l       0
                            c i n.

            4. ·-·9·                                                                  used in

                         essment      or lhe modiliution c.o 1 and sch   le -

0   r uon                    e                   160                              G 0 SAF er. I.I
Appendix A - Profll

~U   loa

                              , To un   rst   d
                                   e its
                                   o ledge of lhe

G 0 SAf    \Cr .   1.1   ·l                       1le
                                                                                                           le   1   lwon.

Info         ton   t        0    incd

             Cop1c          pcntncn1 bill •    ts title • or I            perumin to t

                                                  ry 1h   t   1 nccc aJY to c pl ·n ho             th      en         1       to

                                              h1 h the gen y h                    tcd ndlor rnterpn:lc          ITU       I   n,

                       re                                     on         en y p      ram . d

                       pu                                                p mp le .                       letters, etc.

             C pies of he proposed bud cl, the urrcn1 Ud Cl, nJ th                                  fr the I          I ) )'C
             fo r m JO pro nm n auto 1ed y terns that up rt the

               . pie o pl nnin                                 the suatc ic IR..\.1 pl                    rcn th
             de clopment. nd                              JOr a en inform uon stems.

       tic                                                         ...                                  G 0 S                 ,·er. 1.1
. en

                        lin   e

Inform uon


             er.   .3   P file
Once org ninuon clemcn                 ntificd.. the au itor hould re ac               pertinent   rin1... in!M"1\rc.   th t
 e~ribc cti itie . utho ·ti                pons1b11i • of IRM s

In~   rm uon to

          t\ op) of posrllo dcscnption for               tc       1n1n    e no led     c.
          nee ed o   «>mph    llL\.1     ll\ sti        (c g .•   S)<items      clop   nt).

                                 p file (po        IU         filled
                              ' ptio .

 I ndard

St tutory              Computer S«uri1                    Broo s         ct   r 196 • P perw        R ct1on               ct.

Profile                                                                                        GOS                  er. I.I
                       Office of M gcimn1 an Bud et Circul . G 0 St nd rd for
                       lntem Control . Fe c I In orm t1on c ourc
                       Re ulation. et .

                                                                               lion Sccunty
                                                                              Tel ommun · uon

Discret1onary   ~

In orm 1ion 10 be Obc ined

       Copic of peninent 1an          th t ffect the     ency's m J r    ro   ms   d utom cc

       Copic of pcnincn1 polici    ffec in chc   1     ency' m ~or pro        and utom ted
       CopiCJ of pertinent pr edu ·     ffectin the gen y' maJor pro               d u1om ted

0 0      F \'Cr. I.I                                                                      P file
[nl                                             It    , nd     tudl

                                                                        for      c   <litor. Th y pro 1
                                                                              pplic blc: to t current udit.

h1f rm uon r               0   1n

                p1   of incema l u   it!ii   complett
                                             rin the I                  l   3   )C                ith inf nn u n or
           1n rm t1on re urce mana emen1 problem .

                                                                            e hn       ilh inform r'o or
           inf rm uon re

                                                                                                                      I C

           Co 1e of   conu1mor                          rudi   of the                 in~ rm    ion   re- ourc   or
           in   onn uon re rce                 emen       ti m .

           Cop1e     or     on re ionaJ te tim ny o repon                            ion   he               hich th
             en           nfonn tion re ourc m nagemcnt u ui                         e been e

f>ro 1le                                                                                          GOSFerll
     1       m Profil

    II   I                                                                                  n n·m 1or s 1em
                                                                                           ers1on o( 0 ifB
                                       y                                            umen            nd n · etc ly
              • it 1 \cry import nt                                                  nuf in     t   o A1S th t
              nt 1gn1fic;m1 enc

In onn tton           1    be Ob inc

              Cop1c o                                                info    1Jon m n cmcnt pl

                                                                     for    h

              List    or COnl                                          no led e in            identifi

                                            U rclc nt pplica110n       le       in ludin      tcrf       10         r

                1 t    nd de                ll relc

                                           cc   t t   e en of th1   p~ndi   for     m                         or


G                F        r. I I                              .;                                                   Pro Jlc
Pr tile:   G O   \Cf.   I. I
                                                                             Sy t•m Profile Work h••l
                           s,.,.,,,       ~
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                                                                  Ena 411• ltould                    Ht.fll•ltl
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                                                                 · COfllllOl •CIOn of Cit~~- IU ""
                                                                  0 t _tloprlleN pariC)f'ln(ll
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                       x    x           )(

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G 0   er. l.l   C-5                             Cn n
p lie blc Cntcri   G 0
                  A   Quick    eference

                          to   eci 1c S   p    and its se men . On c h p
                          srcm hfe   cl   1   me nd lhe en y's

GAO S F er. I.I                0.1                            Quick Refc~ncc
I· er I I   .l   Rec nc.:
GA   A·   r.   I.I   I. Pr •r m·   v I Pl n   in   Qui Ii. Rctcrcn

G       A   er. I.I   2.1   lion   R fc:rcocc
GAO A ·   er. U   . I Jc   Ii C   igo•   De I ymcn1   u1c R er   c
G   ver. I.I   . I Sy lcm   R ·i rcncc
A   /\F er. I.I   42   )'Im   mtrn   cM   ulc   Qui ·l. R ·I ·r nee
Appendix E • Submitting Comments

Feedba     on thi m nu      i encouraged. Pie         use the following fonns or their equ1 llent.

         S F h ngc Rcque.st - for specific changes.

            F Comment Form - for general com.menu

         Po t-A ignme nl Survey - (0 describe ho        SAF       u cd durio :m ss1 mcnt

G 0 DC       u er will be    le   10   cdir electronic c ions of the~ form •

Wriuen: ommcn        hou ld be sent ·to 1he following      re :

          .S. Gene I ccountin Offkc
          ccountin itnd Information .fan cmcni Di is1on
         Room JSlO
      .WI G St
      \   h1n ton. D.C.      OS

          un: P ul ii crman, Project Manager

Comment m y lso be sent by cm ii co the following             drcs :

         11 cnn np. imd @ o. ov

G 0 S F "'er. LI                                                                         Comments
                              SAF Chang.



 Ch g1 Otsc: •P ion (• sptc1
  ers on u btr. d t, nd sourc.a)

                                           . 0 tt:

Comment                               £.             GAO SAF   \Cf.   1.1
                     SAF Comment

                                        •   1
                                        I       ,.._...__..


  Eu o        use·

  Ot      r


GAO S F \·er. I.I                                Comment

                                         nt Survey

                                                     Oa e:

                                                             Job Cod

                              use tuI?

          $AF?   0 Too ltchnic.4.1     0 About

Action·                                              0•

ommcn                            E-4                         0 0 SAF ver. I.I
G ossa ry

                       fonn l e\• Ju rion pcrfonned by customer ro ' 'crify th t
                    the m nuf crwer h met lhe gm:d·upon pecifications an
                    th t de ice 1s fun tionmg      intended.
                    The bility a.nd the m ans nec:~sa.ry to appro h, input~ or
                    rctrie c d r or software, nd/or communica~e ith. or m c
                    u of ny resource of an utom tcd infonnation y tc
 \ Ct     onlro     Ensurina th I the re ourc.c of an AIS can be accessed only
                    by uchoriz.e u crs in uthoriz.ed way .
, cce    ontro      H dwuc or software features opentina procedures,
  (ech nl m         m     cment rooedurts, nd various combinations of these
                    designed to dctccc and pre cnt un ulborlz.ed   and to
                    pcnrut authorized acccs to an utomatcd ~t.a pn>cc$ ing
  cce    Metho      The technique used to cccs data on        physical file de ice.
                    T pcs of c:cess methods include   ucntill, in it sequential
                    hie hical stru ture, nctwo tl'\I turc. n relational

  CCC'   ~f tthod   A method or nsferring dat bet een            computer's main
                    s10 ge a.nd n 1n utlourput de ice.
  ccounl biUt       The bilicy to hold indi .iduals r pons1blc for their actions.
   er dil lion      The managcriLll uthori tion a.nd approval. granted 10 an
                    AJS sys tem or network, to proccs ~nsitive d
                    operat on al en ironmcnt, m e on lhe b i of tnific ·Lion
                    by       ign ted tcchnic.a1 · rsonncl of the e ~nt to hicb
                         i         mplemcn tion or th ystc.m meet pre-specified
                    tcchnic requirements i           hie in1 dequ c data securi ly .
                        an aemenl can accredit sy tcm. t hig rllo er c el
                    th.an lh ccrtifi lion. If man.a emen1 ace diu th sy tern
                      t a tiighcT le cl than it is certified. management is acce tins
                    the re.sidual risk (difference between the le els of
                     ccreditation and c rufication).
 \c un              Information that is free of cJTOr. [Sm acc~p ble em> in
                        AIS can · till be con idercd c.curate.) Synonymous ilh

G 0 S F \'Cr. l.I                  G-                                         Glos
 cqu icion                     The ob1aining. b cont t w1lh ppropria.ced fun . o(
                               supphc or el'\'1cc mcludm con truction) by                  c
                               u c of the fed r I o cmment through purch         or Jc e.
                                    thcr the upplie or services :ire aJready ·n e i tc    or
                               must be er~ led.. developed. demonstrated. and evaluate
                               Acquisition     m t the point        n ency needs
                               established nd in ludes the description of requifcmcn to
                               s tisfy ency nee . soli itation and selection of so l'C •
                                ward or con :cts. cont      fin cin -, con l perf<>nnan e,
                               cont ct dmim t tion. and those technical d man
                               function dfrectJy related Lo the p        o fulfiUi
                               needs b)' :ontracL
 c ui lllon PJ nol             The proc: s by hicb the efforts of n personnel tuponsible
                               for n cqu1$ilfon       coordiruted and intc     throuab
                                omp~hensi e plan for fulfill 'n the g      need in a timeJy
                               manner d al reasonable cost. ll includes         eloping the
                               o crall strttcS)' for man ing the quisicion.
 dm nf tr ti •e Pro      ~ur                            process ble operating instructioru
                               required to ccomplis      specific proceu within sub-
                               sys1em. · dminmrat ve procedures detail manu tcp
                               a.loo   ith e planatioru an e amples. Procedu        used for
                               'uch things    perfonnin rouune or c crical as ignme.nts.
                               m in decisions. rcpon distribution. input p p Lion. or
                               ~ r usin wo ice utomallon related equipment.

 dm n Ir Un            rcu t
( ontl'"ol }

  DP                             bbre iation for tutom tcd        process n
      en       rocurtment         re u t by fede I gen y i the Genera.I Services
Rtqu t             R             gcncy to cquire infomu.t on pmcessfo resources or
                               dclcg te 1 ulhority to 1LCquin: th   resources.
. I                              bbrevi Lion for utom ted info              ysicm

                               Th compo enu o! an Al
                               d • and people.
  I or     t   m               A rescnbe set of well         fined rules for the olu ·on of
                               problem in a anue number of SLep . Genenlly, a comple
                               forrnul fi r ol ing _ pccific m th m ti problc
                                             e of be )' tems life   eye!~   synon    us   uh

                                              G--                             G 0 SAF er. I.I
  pplic tlon                    computer pro m e 1gned 10 help pco le perform
                              ccnain type or ork. Dcpcndln on the ork or ~hich it
                              w designc . an pplic rion c n mampul re tc i. num
                                 phics. or a combinauon of these clements.
  ppllc tlon     ntrol        Methods                      i ne for c ch p lie tion
                                                         oftwuc) co ensure the uthon1y       or

  ppllc tion    oft    re     Compu1:er programs th l ptrfonn d    t   proc:cssin funcuons
                                her th n control Functions.
  ppllc tlon     oft     re   Then:       two type of software: ap lie hons of1w
                                  terns softw . Both a.re wrincn in computer I ngu g
                              and c be c Jled pro :rams. Applicauons soft are 1
                              so(c       ch t d   so cthing for the user. nybody who
                                    the computer is called user.
  r hltecturt                    descriptio-n of all function l tivnics 10     pcrfo     ro
                               chic c th desired mission, the sys1em elements nee cd to
                              perform the fu tions, d the de i&n 1ion of performance
                              te (!f of tho sy tern clements. An lfthitccrurc J
                              in lud.cs infonnation on I.he technolo 1c , interf c • n
                              toe t1on of functlon1 and is co idered n e ol ing
                              description of      appro h 10 chi vin      desired mission.
  rllncl l [ntetll tnct ( I   The

. udlt Tr ll                  The chronolo 'cal set of reco     th t pro.vi s e td nee of
                              system 1 vity. Th c records c~ be used to reconstruct.
                              re iew, and e amine trans tions from inception to tH 1.11 of
                              fin · results. The ttto   can also be use to          > tern
                              u~ e     d dccect and identify inuude .
  udit [ ecvdty-rel ted       To record indepcn ntly n later ex mine (selcctc sccunty
 use or term)                 rclc an1) sy tcm la acy.

G 0 S F \'Cr. I.I                           G·3                                       Glossary
    udit bllll             Relate to the production n retention, by an AIS, of
                           record of ignifica.tu proccs in c cnts I.hat feet ecurity
                             on    ith the ability to loca c nd reconstruct ho e e •en
                             udit b1lity I o cncomp scs the sy tcm of internal eornrols
                           Lh t ensure the mte .·ry of process in an the protection of
                           the udit records.
    uthentic tion          I.       enfi.cation of the identity of          u er or the u ts
                                  eligibility to ccs       AIS.

                                  Verification that a me sa e h            not been llered or
    uthorlz don              c ri ht ~Ced to                 indi iduaJ to use th s stem   d the
                           d ta torcd. on 1
    uthorlz 11on           1.     A user's ri ht 10 comm nic te with or m e use of
                                  com 1.uec s stem.

                           2.          n   CCC S   right..

                           3.           process of gnntina au either complete or
                                  restricted cc     to an AlS resource or function.
                    tlon     n utom 1c · ystem for the or aniud ctlll ti
                           pr c sing, m intcnance. transmission, d di min tfon of
                           1nfonruuion 1n   ordance 1th defined roccdurcs.

                           Infonn. t1on proce                                so used to refer to
                           com uter rcsoutecs.
                           ADP equipment is equipment u . in uppon of
Proce In                   o ani tion's inform lion cnvironm nt. co istin o
' OPE                      computer nd 1elecommuni tio s hud             their ttl tcd
\      ii bll t               um.in onsi ration for pccifyina            nd      n     is
                           collected from anous outt:       ilhin an cnt.crp ·
                           A\I 11 bahcy ans~ers c question, ·1 t         1a there  hen 1
                           need 11 M   o     L is .rn de v I b c ·    funcuon of input

                                                                                 G 0 SAF er. U
      rtn     T..-alnin    fan cory penodic rrninina      uircd b the Computer
                          Securi1y Ac1 ·O 1987 for 11 cmplo ees o           invol cd
                            uh the m n emcnt. u or o ration of fcderal com. u1cr
                           ystems.      arenes train.in creates a ensiti iry 10 hrc ts
                           nd    lnerab1liti  nd the recognition or the need to protea
                          d ~ infon:n lion. n lhe means of proceuin them.
 B ckup                      dupJic. te ·Copy of pro tam, disk, 0 d t m      either for
                          an:hiving purposes or for afcguardin     lu le file from
                          loss should th c1ive copy be damaged or      tro ed.
 B c: up Proc. _dur       1.     The provision nude in contin en y pl n for the
                                 recovery of d L d for re:s:rart or rcpl cement of
                                 computer hardw   and .s.oft are after     stem f: ii
                                 or dis.asttt.

                                 Copying of cb1          o   mcd·um from
                                                                       h" the
                                 WI be re.no d         if c origin J d   II is
                                 co .p-romised. Full     upi opy all d in the
                                 sy tem. f ncremcntaJ b kups copy only du lh t'
                                 been ch.n cd since the I t fulJ     kup.     ouo
                                 b     p pl invol es kecpin bac p medi off.site
                                   :d de eloping procedu.ra for repl ·n s tem
                                 components, if       uy, aft.er a sy tem flilu~ .
B ellne                      specification or roduct th t h been fonnalty re ·c
                           nd         upon th t thcruftu SU\'es     c b - is for fu
                          dc..,clop nt and th t c n be chan     onl lhrou b formal
                               c control procedures.
B     line   rcblt tun                                                           starting
                                                                                 ro   ss.
Ben    mar                                                                             · co

Benchmark Test                  th t   u   a represent.au c       tof programs d <la
                          cs1gncd to cvalu te the perform          c of compucer h 1o1o
                          nd oft are in          1   en confi u tJon.

G 0      F er. I I                                                                    Gia s
B t a nd 11111 Offer             tn  1 opponumry for offerers in the compct1t1 c r ngc ro
                              re tSe propo al .
Blu rprintin                  The process of producin    on      1   tent er o cod blc,
                              phy k l I n for construction.
Boll om.u p    ro r mmln        pro mming techn ique in hi h lo cr·lc ·cl fu n uons
                               c eloped nd te ted fim; higher-le cl funcuons e 1 en
                              built u 1ng the lower-level function  d so on.
Bottom·l:p Orsi n             Formm n fa ering             of innruc11on \equcncc
~hrh od                       together. sta.rt1n - t m c 1ne instrucuon le cl n
                              workin up to a com lete solutton.
Bru k E t n P Int               point in 1ime here co ts 1ng m tch              um ul tc
                                 clo      cnt expense .
           trco mmunic lion
        ~f tlho<I (BT M

Budg tin a nd Co tt na

                                 pricin     tratc    in which
                               in ludes ll produc      u   hMd               • s rv icc , tninm
                              etc .. in     inglc pnce.

Glo   ry                                       G-6                             G OS         er.   1.1
Bu lne                       n   ai   tion pl n th   t l   c enterpri e
                                                                    follow on
                            and/or long.term b is. t spcc·fi the c tc ic n t c,tic I
                            ob·:cti e,s or the compi.11 over pcnod or time. The pl
                            therefore. i time depcn cnt: it will chan e ith the
                            enterprise. Allhough · lllinecs.s plan i usually ncten in
                             ryle unique o specific enterprise. it hould con i el
                            descnbe h t i pl nn • why it i:s pl       ed. wh n it ill
                            implcmcnte • by ho, . nd how it ill be augtd. The
                               hitects 0£ the pl n UC typi Jly lhc pri i I of I e

 u In~ Pron R •                                         of the fun lion performed in
 n inre in (8PR             carryin out an org i tion' mi ion, win d anoed
                                            lll enabler. The       i tac le      lcms in
                               · y's   in      proce ses: {l too muc.b time     mo y
                            spent coordin.ating and communicatin and 100 little time
                            doin wo that bcnefi customers d 2} boundaries
                            bctwce.n dtp,an.mcn repre n1ln buriers to ch
   Of       M               Compurer· i ed Desi n/Computer· i                   Manur tunn .
                              wron -h         ed      sumption bout so          ubject.
  p blllC        Ud lion    The t.cchni     erific tion or e dity of    roposed s stem
                            ccnfiguntiort, rep! cement com ncnt. r the re turcs ot
                            functions of its soft ve. to usfy fu ion&I requirements.
                            Th intent is ·o en.sure th t the propo~ re ource can
                            pro 'de the required functions.
  p cit                                                                                   h.ed   d~   ·ice

  p cit      M   na em nt

C p dt . fan        emmt    Ind
 ~I   ILi                                                                                             nd

                            comparison to
                              compriehcnsi e I ~I f
                             ompute.rs in all ph   of computer

            F er l.t                          G·
                          ded    Autom ted tool th t pro ide upport for soft
                                 en inccrin    t1 ities. They ould not be confu ed as ools
                                  or y tc    En inccnng; lhe1r pcrspce:ti c is on oft are
                                 cngi ccring only.
          tools                  Computer- idcd Soft         En incering (C SE tools.
  trt!fk lion                    I.          wnucn    u, tee th t sy tcm or compon nt
                                        complies ith its s ificd requircmcn       d is
                                          cc ble ror o       cional use. For eumple.
                                        written aulhoriution lh t a computet system is secure
                                        and is pcrmiuc to ope te in a fined en ironmcn

                                           f ormaJ cmonstntion th t    yttcm or compo mt
                                        complies ith its specified requiremcn    nd is
                                         cce table for opcraoonal use.

                                        Th proces of con 1rmin1 th a system or
                                        component complies with its specific requircm(n
                                         nd i cccp le for opera1i      u .
  trtinc lion      nd               e techn'cal e alu tion pcrl'ormed as part of, din upport
 ccr~ltatlon                         the    red1t tion p css th esubli            extent to
                                   hich panicul computers em or nefW              desi      d
                                  mple entation mccc 1 prespccificd set of security
                                 requue cnts.
 h tf lnrorm lion         mcer   An c ccuth•e-lc el offi er ho rep    ts    chief
c 10                             infomuuon bro er/ h1l«llstrategi to . compuy. Th
                                 CIO repo to the Chief Executi\'e Officer (CEO and
                                 m2inu.ms lat            rn rel · ship ith     Ch'cf
                                 Opcraun Officer (COO) d Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

  lien     trvtr   rcbit lure    An unn
                                 oC ·d1stn

  to td     rchltecture                              escnbe any compule:r d     ho
                                 s                    not freely v 'I ble.

Glos                                            G·                            G OS       er. l.l
  lo d hop                     The oper3tion of computer r 11ity here pro mmi
                                ervke lo the u er i the re pons1b1liry of group of
                                peci lis . lhertby e (cci'vely eparating the ph . of t
                                ormul 1ion rom th t of computer implemcni uon. The
                               pro m~            not allo ed in (he computer room to run or
                               o c~ the runnin o their progranu. Cont ed with Open
 C BOL                         Common Bu inc Oriented L ngu gc.           · t proces in
                               I ngu e for computtr programmin lh t m e use of
                               En lish I ngu ge 1 tcments. ll 1 c pecially adapce to
                                usiness md commerci I problems.
   de                              ystcm of ymbols nd rules for      e in reprc cnting
  od    . on\'   Ion           The con ersion of    t   from one code to    other.
 odln                          Crc tina: the softw re used by lhe computer from progmn
                               no   h
 oht ion                       The me ure of the inner tten th or rel tcdnes of the
                                   'ous elemcnu of am ule. Fun 1ional modules h e the
                               higl'tcst coh ion.
 otd    It                       n altem ti e (computer or communications     1lity wilh
                               1he equipment necenary to uppon lhc in wla.tion nd
                               ope . don of a computer center in the c ent of dilmsttr u h
                                  nood oc fire.    sully docs n inc.tu e        y com uter
                               equipment.) Con     t with hot site.

 omm nd.    ontrol, od         CCC i a tenn used prim _rily in the defense indusuy to
 ommunlc: tlons ( CC           represtnt n infom11tfon system.
 ommerce Bu lne        Daily      daily public don th t Ii tS the g<>vemmcnt's procurement
                               in it tioiu,. contraC"t 1.w  , subcontrtctin I ds.   e .
                               surptu propcny, and foreign u inus opponunities.
 ommunlc tlon rotocol               of rules lhat o cm commun ·c. ti ns among com            tcr
                               y cems. Standard prot ol • wt.en implemented. llo
                               different manuf turers' computer sy terns   10   communi te.
 ommunkallon                   The U'allsmi ion of dat or inform tion from one pl o
                               piece or c uipment- com uter, for e ample-to nothcr.
 omp r<m nt                       non-hie hie.al si :n 1ion applied to sensiti e
                               inform tion in one or more cate -orie.s to denote peci .
                               h ndling d cccss control restrkt1ons.

G 0     F vcr. 1.1                          G-9                                        Go ary
 omp tihllit)                                  rocc 1n equipment by 1,,1•, hic
                          c haractc:nstic of d 1
                        one m hme m y lcccpt and roces di prep d by
                         n thcr m hinc 11hou con ers ion or od~ modific tion.
 omp tib1l l • Im ltd   A t te enl of re uirermnt e res c in cnns that requi
R  u remtnl             1t ms to       comp uble withe 1stin inform uon p                        in

    mp tithe              c group o o ero                         ftcr t«hnic 1 d c
                        C\'alu 1ion. to whom                      contract is reason ble
                        po s1bilicy.
    mp1 ten       h«k       Uf"\'CY 10   de ermine th   l   all      requirtd in    ·record i
                        pre rn.
'ompo      nl

                        com     ncnas.
    omproml                           he sccunty s tern uch th. t n un•uthorized
                        d1 closure, m Hie: Lion. or de true i n of sen.sui ·e
                        rnfonn ti n m y h ve occuncd or th l dcni or rv1cc
                        cond11ion h     n induced.

    omputer                                                                to      i1t   in th

    o mputer,   l td       computer in wb1ch the sequ nee or in tructioru are
Pro r                    penn ncndy tore or ired in       perf'onn autom 11 _ally
                          nd       n     subj   t to h nge c1      er by   e c.omputer           the
                         pro mmer e cept b rcwirin or ch n                 'na th to        ge
                         in , Ul.

Glo ary                                   0-10                                  0 0 SAF er. I.I
  omput r fr ud         com uter cnmc th l an olves deli      cc rnisrepn: nL tion
                      or lttnu.ion of d t and/or sofr an: in order to o t in
                       omcllung of aJue, usu lly for moncwy g an.

  omputu Pro r m

  omputet     ('Uri

  omputer oft . rt    , 1 chine process blc in tro tion !or ope tin a specific
                      computer. Thc1e        t o     pects to computer software:
                                         wh cb is e<>n     ed 'lh the b ic open-
                      t' on o          uued to o rate computer h              (i.e.,
                      operar1n sy t(nu, communk ti utilitic • pcrfonnance
                      monitors, edito • compliers. etc.). an      ·plication sof are,
                         hich is con enled ith ha ing 'the c:o       tcr rform
                        pcci Uzod     ks to   'sr users 1n their effon.
 Computer,    lored            computer dut under control of its own instru tions.
 Pro rm               can s nt esize. alter. .mnd core i uuction   thou h     y
                        c~ da:    d can sub cquently e ccute th    n
                      iru auctions.
  oncurrenc                                          ·~ t   o or more actions or d ta
Concurrmt                  term. applied to a omputer o ration in      bi h l o or
                      mo p       sses {proaruns> h e             to the
                      mic.ropro esso s lime and are erefi        carried out more
                      les.s th- same ume.
ConOdtntl llty        Th         rty      infornuu i n m
                      drsclo~d   to un   thorized iodiY1du.als. enuti            scs..

G 0 S F er. l.I                       0-11                                      Gloss.uy
 onn -         1Jon               A roup     or m   dun s th t   ilfC   intC1'Connc ted
                                  ro    mrnc to ope tc           il   s ste
 onn uralion           ontrol

 onn ur t on          lt~m

                                                                                          1ting of all

Mn    em nt

Co    i   t~nc:                             ey to etermine lh t Jtems of data
                                             • bounds. d other p       terS

Con ruct on

Cont null of OperatJo

  ontractJn1          mcer (CO)                                                                      d/or
                                  tcrmin te con                                     enrunations
                                   fi din     .

Glo       ry                                                                                   SAF er. 1.1
  on tra l n    m er'
 T chnl I Repr       n ri                                                                   ues.
   0 Rl
  onlrol ObJectl e          The intern J control go I or I gets 1h m n
                              h1e1te or nea tJ\'C e fee t th 1 miln gemcnt
                            for c   h t pe of cran
  on trol P ro ram
                                                                               ·ng pnontie •

  ontrollln                 Controltina c n       considered the function desi cd to clo
                            the m&n    erncru loo • • f   y control.s    d 1gned to:

                            I.      provide umely      ~   back on how    ·en o g nintmn.
                                      I n         in    eJtecurcd;

                            2.      1dermfy roblc:ms. th ir si nific ce, and c         ; and

                                      i e mana cmcnt b is i r establishing pnoritie to
                                    correct problem     th t ope 1ion.s     p      ti e,
                                    run econom1caJly. cfficien ly, nd effectively. nd
                                     upport organiz ional mis io • oals. nd obJectaves.
  on r on                   I.      The proce s of chan in infonn ton r      one fonn
                                    of n: res.entat1on 10  et, such as from the
                                    t ngua e of one rype o m chine to th of &nothcr or
                                    from m ct1c Lape to the printed a c. Synonymoui
                                      1lh      con~crs1on.

                            2.                     of h 1n from one dat proces an
                                    meth          n ther, or from one cypc of oqu~ pmenr    10
                                    another: e g., coer ion from         n h ca.td equipment
                                    to m nctic t pc equip ent
  o t/B nel l                  n nal s1 of th cost or eitpcnses in um:d by project 1n
                            c mpari on co the bcne its nvcd from tmplemcnting th
                            proje . Thi an lysi i lso u cd to       nnfoe the alue of
                            i nfonna.ti on.

G 0 SAF \er I.I                             -13                                       Glossary
 ost-Re mbur ment
 ontract                                                                                        ats

  ntr I Pro       in     nit       The he

 ri ic t P th                                                                                       to

 r tJc llt                         The irnpo        of the mfonn     on to en    e an ency to
                                   C(:Omplisb i mmion. lnclu           th   imporu.nc or the
                                   mis io itself.
 r plo rapby                       The princ1pl , mean . and       cthods for c     tin plaintext
                                    nd decry tin ciphme
                  re                                                                                to

 u tomer       n&ineer         )                                                    c of com        t.er

 ustom r-pro Id~                            pplie to equipment o ed by e customer or le
 quip tilt  PE )                            en ors omcr than the te!cpho e compan •

    ·b rn tk


D                                     represc:nl tion 0 f   COhCC , OT 'nnruction,s n
                                   form iicd manner sutt&ble f r co nmunic ·on. intcrprewi n,
                                   or processinr, any represenwion,     as chanc      10
                                     h1cl't meanin m y be assi n
          c«     rr n ement             e ice th t provi s direct elec:tn a.I co   eeuon or
                                    cuslomero ncd n mamt ·                eqwp      nt 10 the
                                     wit hed elecommuni lions nc •ork.

Glos ry                                           G-l                              G 0   s      \U.        u
            cqui itlon                                                              thcr     urcc.   l   pie II)

            n lo                                  h) 1 I rcprc cnt uon of inform 11on such th t Lhe
                                              represent rion be    n c t rel t1on hip o the on in
                                              inform lion. The clecrncal s1 n Is on u:lcphonc h nncl
                                               re       Jo data rep en a ion of he on in I 01cc.

Data Ban

                 t      dmln       t   tlon   The u uon ilhin dAta mana emcnt th t i used co de •Jll.
                                              maint in and implc nl the cnterpri c physical <bt b e
                                              mode l and pphcac10 phy 1cal d t b e m 1.
Oat    B         t      n io erln

                                              en inurin
0      b•    t       \1 n• emtnl                         oftware used to store and retrie"e data based on
    ) ttm            8~1                                    tru tu~     ormaHy, the oft are i limuc in
                                              u c 10 irect    css de 1c s. DB S p k s usu ly
                                              employ either hicf'WChical structure, network suucrurc, r
                                              relation      ture.
D l         la         flcation               To identify nd c1te1onte ta cording      10   their degree or
                                              le cl of cnslli 1ty 111d criticality.

G 0                  \.Cr.   !.I                           G-1.S                                          Glo      ry
        oil ctlon                     The      t   of brin in data from on<: or more poin      10   central
                                      point.         y be in-pl na or out-pl t.

 alll   ommu nicatlon                 Th movement of e coded inform ·on by an eleccricaJ
                                      trnrunussion system. The           ml'S lOn   of   ~   from one
                                      point to not.her.
 ID                                   Abbre i tlon or the design. e elopment.            d deploymenr
 , at Dlctlo      ry    lrtttory

 a      El mt t

         lement D finltlon
  at Element.          ie:ld
  ecord, U ·

         ncrypt on             ndat                 e key encryption I onlhm

                                                                                         G 0        F er. I .I
Oto$                                                     G-16
D ta       nl                  The process of inp ung new da                      into computer memory,
                               typ1c ly from ke board.
Oat Ent            nit              unit th  tnu1smns d ta into a computer. For c                     mple.
                               tcnrun     or key-1o-disc uniL
Oat Flo          DI 1r m           i 'i tam th ls o      ch line repre~nlin     d ta element
(. ou rdo                      or roup of d      clcmetlts and each circle represenung the
                               processing of da
D•ta fusion                    The in1e       ion of        t.a.
D ta Int rlt                   l.        The St tc lh   t   c ·s            hen         enteml in the AlS
                                         the s me as th r in source docurncn                  1te h    led
                                         intended.   m not exposed to acx·dent ' or
                                         m Ii 1ou moclificat1on. dutruction. or d1 los re.

                                         The prcsttV tion of d1               !or      eit intended we.


                               4.        In . dat1 b
                                         upd&te    ere t ·o eoocurrcf'ltJy c CCU 'ng                rnnoc::H''
                                         each correc in us.elf. may mte:rfere                                        r so
                                            to produce 1ncO!'l'CCt ttsults.

                               See system inte ·ry                 d sofr         integnty.
D•t• ;\f n        emeot        The o rty        d directed control of data from                     uis1t1on and
                               input throu      processin . output. and stcn
D         . tanipulaUon
D ta . ltdium                       c phy ial m teriaJ on              h1ch            from   com      1cr i
O         Proc    fn     DP)   The c:rcecution of s stem t"c cquen of opcranons
                               pctfo       upon data. Synonymous ith infonnlllon

    •ta     le                                                                                      ·es        ta.

D•La       tductJon            The                                                da   anro   more omp t,
                               more strucru.rc                        1   mo useful form by scaJ in •
                                moolhin • o                            er editin p edu~ .

G 0 SAF ·er. l.I                                                                                           Glo
0 la "

         h rln               The use of 1n le d file by more lhan one person or
                             computer. D t h ·ng c rn be one by physic lly
                             tr n fe m n 1lc from ne computer or indMdua.I to anathcr.
                             or it can be done clectron1 ly by en lin two or more
                             compu1crs 10 communic tc ith e h other or with rc:mo e
                             computer on hich file        to d.
          ur                 The origin 1or of computer d
         tructur             The loai al relationship      m na       t   uni   and d     np on or
                              uributc or fe turc of        piece of         (e.a .. type, I ngth.

         tructut 01     m                     1rucrun: dj gnm i cntifie: the rel lions.hip
                                         t   m cfinin rcpe tin or Item ti groups or

0        truccund              design p CS in hich the SUU rurc or the S)' tcm
                             proces rrurro the strucrure of he data on which 11 o
         r n ml Ion             e scnd1n of d      t   from one p     of a sy tern to      other
                             p rt. See also D      t   Communi tion.
D p
                             Distri u cd 0     t   Proces in .
Debug                          ith oft                              nd correct lo 1c I or
                                                   in C>omputer ro         . With hardw         , 10
                             detect. locate. d colTCCt m fun lion or to fix
                             inopentble y tern. The term 1roubltsltoo1 is m              commonly
                             used in h      ue conte
Dec ntrallnd Proc:     In    The di tribution or computer-processing f ac11itie5
                             o    tions in mo th on loc tion.
    ttlslon                  An ntcm     ompu1cr operauon o p           d proccdu
                             th t comp    t o p1tees or inform uon or vetifi
                             of sin le piece of in orm tion d then t es a
    ed ion/ ontrol    sttm       ystem Lh r est blish      feedb 1c C>Ontrol for th function

Olo                                                                              G 0      AF   ~er.   I.I
 Deel on       u pporr . tern       et of rel te rograms and the d t required to help v.1 h
                                 n l)'si :ind eci ion m king ithin m or i tion . . OS
                                1 imi la.r lo m na emen1 inform 1ion s s1em ( US) but
                                pro i e I.he ~r nh m        help in formur ting u1em ti e
                                d cis ton    d choosin the mosl vproprial course.
 0 gr d 1lon

                                  u onty to ,eq in: infonn 11on proc in rtsources up ·o
                nl    uthor t    pc:c1 ied hmtt. t ucd by the Ge11ml Se ic
                                  d ini tn.rion in respon t0 an agency procurement rtqu t
 D I n                             major ph     of th sy te life cycl . It indu  the
                                lo ic nd physical Jc 1gn of the system. producin
                                detai led y terns bl rint.
0'      n• O· 0 t                  me1h to -.;cntrol cost inert    by muin1
                                o cost o Is      important as hie in perform
                                 chedule o Is. The pnnc1p .e$ call for continuous an J
                                of n e-offs among cosu. schedule •       perform oe
                                   1.urcments and app pn e dee. ions to k p th ro ram
                                 rom e cccd1n preset cost 10 .
       ktop    omput r          A compu er th t fi    conv   icntly on the urfac of a
                                bu mes des •
D~ktop        Publl   In        The use or computer md specialize · ofNfare to com inc
                                ce    nd 1raph1cs to ere t a document th l can be pnnted on
                                c ilh~ I r pnn ter or a typcscmn m hi .
De le                           The untr or p of m hine th translates da as input co
                                or ourput from a computer, ·.e.. stora device, anl
                                re der (input), or a pnnter output).
                                  c   t   11   nan isolation of malfunction or mi         in a
                                 ommu 1c tions device. netwc>tk, or ystem.
01 It I       om putu             diguaJ c   puter i ·One in whkh     lio
                                r o or mon: di ere t 1es. Binary dj i al com utcrs are
                                based on o tatcs - to ·eat on doff - am.n emenu of
                                  h1 h   u cd 10 rep~ nt all type of info lion.
0 it I SI n turt                En rypted dau. appen
                                en bles   reclp1ent 10 p vc lhc ldtntiry of               d
                                rcce1\'er nd re ol e y aulhenfcation issu
                                 en r .

GAO       F er. I.I                            G-19                                     Glos
D,{     t   r r«on        pla.11    See Conungcncy plan. cold sue. hoc: . ue.
Dilcrtt onary cce                     m       or restriclin      ce     to files. ireccories. or de ices.
control t    )                       cces controls arc a ~ ion.ary in the ense th t user               1th
                                      panicul . ces right c n p s th I        .ri h1 to ny
                                    other user. Con   t 1th m     rory oeu control.


DI           ton e)

DI          Operalin          tt    , fo t microcompute u     disk operaf n1 system (DOS).
                                    ahbou it may not be alled DOS.        e DOS · respom1b c:
                                    for re d n    d ritin d ca from and to the di : it tells th
                                    re dJ rite .    ro mo e to     propri te tracWsector and
                                    reports any crro th t m y occur unn        es ·.
     i pla                          The representation of       in is1b1 f onn: i. .• ca ray
                                    rube. ll ts. or in 'c rors on the co ole of computer
                                     • rioted report,
      I tributfll D                  D             in lh   t   i performed by connected co pwer
      roe l1t                                    ~      than o        locatao
 Olstribl.U d          atab                                                        in   hic:h the
                                                                                         ·ous nodes

 D tri uted Proc              Inc        ~  of information p     in in which orlt is
                                     pcrfonncd by sep        compute th tare linked lhrouJh a

                                                                                         G 0 S        vcr.
          nt tJon                 The roup of techniques      c 541")' ro the orderfy pre n-
                                  l ion. o n1i non. d commumc tion or record d
                                   pcci Ji cd kno led e in order to maintain complete reco
                                  of re ons for chan es in         ble .
   m In

 P. I                                         c mg ifana · em nt     soci ti    .
 dit    htc                            category of controls built into an AJS   10   detect
                                  un      ep hie dat v Jues.
                                  Produc:ins          d rcsul      ere efficiency is
                                  with ho              k is performed, cffecti cmcs.s
                                    e nc t Jity of   e wk itself. Effectrvcncss ns c
                                  question. Are 'IAie doin th ri ht things?·
Emel enc.                         Producin        ired result ilhout waste. Efficiency is
                                  concerned with how well t..sk is performed. EffectJ cncs
                                  de ts with the necessity of the k itself. Efficicn y s ers
                                  the que ri • "Are e oin thin riaht?
                                  The a. 11ity to transfer inform ti S1Kh                     d
                                  in oice , from one compu er to another o er
                                  communk Lions net ork,
                                  Thi is an a.ll·in lwive tcnn n is liberally interpre1e 10
                                  mean the o e ll cien e of converting ta by clectroni
                                  means to any :Sired fonn. S nonymous ith automatic
                                  data proc ing.
                        Tr   fer DeKnbe:s various eomputerized electron c communic. uon
                                 systems th t tnnskT finecia1 information from one point 10
                                    ot: er. Computer technolol)' is used to expedite the
                                 trarufer of money ithout soci led p per p ymcot
 ltctronlc l ndu trl              Se indUslC}' tand          uch    interlaces u        in d t
· so lation EIA                   communicalions.
Et CriJnic • I I'                 The tran mis ion of        e over comm nicarioru
                                  ne rt.. Elce:cron'c mail. or E· aiJ, is comp ter-to-
                                  compuc~r ( r tcmunaJ-lo-tcnninaJ) ersion of interoffice m al
                                  o      post    rvi

0 0           er. l.l                            G-21                                             Glos ry
 mul ton                 A tcch.n1que 10 permit a computm y tcm 10 c ecute
                         programs      ten or o her y 1em.. This form of 1m1 tio
                         1 primanly l"nC vi hard       . Emul :tion i enenlly used
                         to minimize the imp t or c con c ion or programs from
                         one compu er sy tern to no er.
 ncr)pllon               The process or transfonmn d              l into n unintelligib c form
                         i such            y th       the ori mal      cit . r c nnot be o oed
                         or can t>e        Uli~       only by wmg . d~puon process.
End ' er                 T    itionally.  rec 'pient of computer output; uh
                         microcomputen. acrm use an refcrence to the people v. ho
                         use ( oppo      10     1gn or ro     ) computers d
                          ompu.ter ppli
 · nttrprlu En lnttrin

[nterpri lnformat·on        plan to sausfy the inform tion needs of an cntcrpri     The
 tr It   El )            pl    li ts the obj ti es d projects, in prionty n.nk.Jng. th t
                         arc required o tisry e b in s plan of the enterpnse.
                         An EJS i 1i in                        o tan lye ol in        d
                              y1ng in
Enterpr e . lanacement
                              d ph SIC

Endt     la nm              chan c sho s thm
                         tranSaetJons th 1 occur
                         an   O't'Ctall   co    Cpt   of
 r onomics

Gto uy                                         G·--                          GAO SAF er. 1.1
    !"ror                            ny d1 rtp n y bcl~ccn      ompule                                 ured
                                      nttl)'   tbe true, speciahzcd. or
                                  a.Jue or cond111on.
Error         onlrol

    rror      o rr~ctlo n

    rror         le

        lu t on

    · ecu e                        o perform \pec1fied ope       · n Ii   t   d in     ro ram or lo
                                 run the ent1~ pro ram•
    . p rt        cem

    e   lbllil        tud

                                 The rttul uon th 1 codifie uniform          qui Ilion poltc1e an
                                 p     e re fore        uti e a encie     O"Vemment     c.
                 ommunlc tio

                                                                                                  nd p cdurc
        ourc ~1 n cemtnt                                                       .............,.... u ed lO
        ul t on I MR
            •Prl e     o tne:t                                                 e, or in ap ropn cc
                                                                                JU unents.

G                                               G· ..
 lt I lllt                           ffort requi.Rd to mod1f      nope tiontl pro          m.
       R •                          FORmula TR     slauon L n u ge.    common Jan e
                                     rimanly w.c to e p~ss computer ro ms by anlhmctic
                                    formul . h i .     t ly d pied to m     u t ienufic.
                                    and en i      rin problems.
             tner tlon                 enn ipplied to langu:a e                i inte un Hh the
                                    proamnmcr. Su h I ngu                   step up from standard
                                    hagh-Jc\icl r   mmin I n                u h     c. Pasci.J,
  ront· nd Prat'.          r           cdic ed communic tions compu r 11              front end of
                                    host computer. It m y perform line control. m   c
                                    ha.ndJ n code c'On enion, enor conuol, and ppli lions
                                    function ucb the control and ope ion of special·
                                    purpo tmrunals.
Full c It Ot\tlopment                           th t m lu        clop1n • cnginceria , i nc 1n ,
                                                                      for   stem up        rt.
  unction                              1mplc mappin or set of mpu onto an outpuL
function      odt                                            t   pec1fi m chin functions (e.g.•

  unc:t on          I n             The pec1fi uon of the rel ion hap bct\lteen orkin pans
                                    of compulcr stem. in ludan det ·1s of lo ·c
                                    components ~d thew y hey ork to         er.
  unction I Flo                         tcp in the requirements de ini ion ph  that inclu
                                    c t bli hing the main lin in tcnns of 1nfomwion flow wing
                                     sembty lin di 2 -·""'~
 Funct n I R qulrtment                requirement th t specific function lh t           yst.em ot
                                    system compone.~t must be able to pcrfonn.
function a      p dOcatlon             desaip ion of lhe scope. obJeetives. and t   o
                                    opcnli     tG con i ere in tbe         el mcnt o
                                    inform ·on·hlllldJing y tcm.
  unct on I trln          or Code      eri      of softw    modules that pcrfonns      p        'culu
  uuy Loi

Glo   ry                                            G· 4                             GOS                er. . I
  me      hfll               m them 1 J process of lectin an opumum trtleey in
                          the c c of an opponent ho al 0 h            cgy. e r e
                          of n ture might be th '"opponent· in 1 planned sp c sh
                          The cra1egy to overcome      e m1 ht be '"play ~on
                          computer      10    c . 'n an opumum l.IW\Ch d
 rn ral     ontrol        The controls    t apply too enll com uter proccssm
                          carried out t   f. 1lity., bu:t these arc n n:l ed 10 control
                          o er specific applicatiom.
  ne I urpo               A comp ter th t           perfonn y computation        k: ilh
 omputer                  so            To ch nae     e ma<:h1nc' tas different soft a.re i

                          the ncx

 rap bl

Hand -On:                                               nctic~   ex.puien              10

Kud art                           hani     nd eleccronic equipment com m d "''1th
                          software (programs. insttuetions. etc.) o  te  clcc me
                          mfonnation proc sin y cm.
H url tk De elopmHt        . bihty to                                       0.

Hltnfi lcal        b rt
IHl 0

tlltrarch c.I Datlb

G 0 S F     \Cf.   t.I                       G-25                                    Gl       uy
                     Input                                                : Hiel'lrChicaJ
                      IPO                                                   PO des1 n

Hf r rchl   I lruc lu re     Rcfcn to how        i tructure in               strucum:.
                              lie i organized into hierarchy of re ords uh
                              upcrior/subordin tc rd don hips.     h level h only one
                             "p nt• but       h e multiple "ctnldren ...
HI rarch                     The rel tionship between set. it
                                 lru tured hie      hy requires lh
                             the clements of any I vel must be cquencc.
                             repetition, re.cursio11. or concurrency.

Ho t Com puter                  e primary or controllio computer in a multiple comput t
                             net ork ope uon. Thi computer n           lly provi  high-
                             tc el services, uch       omp talion. d 1 b e cc s, or
                             spec·al pro1ramj or pro mmin& I RU e for other
                             computers in I.he ncl o • computer u ed to pre a.re
                             pro nu for use on nolher computer or on another d t
                               roe sin& sy tcm: for e ample computer U$Cd compile,
                             link. edit. ot 1c t programs to be use on Other sy cm.
Hot lt                        . fully equipped computer ccm(er lh t pro ·      tern ti\·e
                             computing cap biliry for we n the ,e cnt of dis ter, such
                                       o fire. Con t ith cold site.
 Hou. kee pln                Operations or routine that do n t contribute directly 10
                             solution of th pro lem but do contnbul directly t the
                             open.t"on of th computer.
                                 c de i&ning or machine                          10 SUll
 Hum n      n lnetrln
                              the needs of human .
 Ht.men      fe-t.            Freedom from tho e conditions th t c n c use death or
                              injury, or m ge o or lo of d t h . are. or oft arc.

                                           Q. 6                           G 0 S         vcr. 1.1
Glo   ry
Hum n·.          chine ln tufac       The bo ndary t which. people make contact with and u c
                                      m cnines, more yp1 ally nOIAr'TI the U5Cr tnterf c hen
                                       pphc to programs. and ope ting y •ems.
    0                                 lnput/outpu
r       n in   tfo                    The procc s of celling ys1em the i    · iy of a us.er or
                                      :molhcr y rem.      ually p f lhe login p       s. See also

lmpl mcnl tion                        A m ~or phase of the system life c;ycle. It invol cs puttin
                                        c:on tructcd sy tem into erfect in a piltticul       phy iw
                                      en ironmcnL
Inform                   n   t mcnt                                                         S ttm and
   tern                               BT     ro allo                                           the remote
                                      tcmunal ystem.
Jn· ut          1r m                       scd to d      mcm       flo     fro                 standpoint..
lncrcmcn                              To mere          lbe value of      number. usually by o •
Jndtp ndtnl \'rrlnt tlon              Vcnfic tion         d vali tion pcrf                         tion th c
 nd \' lid on (l      )               i lechnic.iJly, mu aeri ly. and fin                     pen nt of
                                      th de elopm nt or aniulion.
Jnrorm tton                           I.        The me riina th t is currcntJy i      to dtiu by
                                                m    of the conventions applied to that

In ormatlon          o                The costs incu~ in quirin and/ producin1 inform uon.
                                      This Lnclu     the co lo the n:sow:oes used to         e
                                      inform uon and olher rel led c         incurred in ias
                                        roduction. sto e.      dmem1n

                                      This producuon of infomation. from an aa:ountin
                                         n poirH. is similar to the prod won (m uf cturc) of
                                      c:ommodiry. Both in ol e convcrtin omethlng ra
                                      (unfini ed) to finished product y 1pplyin1 rcsoortces such
                                         d.uttt I r people , equ1 pment. _ o erh
C form Uon                lnurin           n mce      led el of formal techriiqu    for pla.nn,in • analysi •
                                       esign.  d construction of inform1uon systems from a
                                      e11terpn • 1dc perspective.

G 0             er. l.I                                  G- 7                                        Glo sary
 Inform lion Flo                e     qucnce. Limin •     d d1recuon of how info       1ion
                                    ttds  rough n o       n1Z, ion.

 lnronn tlon ift        cit   De cnbes the st c of inform tion proo sing beginnin
                              with ere rjon o collection nd proc.« mg through finaJ
                              d1spos tion.
 lnfonoa1lon • lana ement                                     control of inform tion..


 Inform tlon Proc       In    fhc      u1s-1uon, sto e, m nipul Lion. n di play of da
                              pankul     y by clcc:ttoni meaiu.            ·

Jnform Uon     equirement       user need ~ spec 'fi<: infonn lion an order to perfonn
                              duLies and respons1bihti .
 Inform Lion RHOurc
~Ian   tmrnt (IRM)


 Inform Lion RtUi             The proce of findin ~ orpruz.ang,     cli pl ying
                              informioon p icul ly by elcc.cron 'c me
 Inform don clence            The tudy of                  uon as col ected. or amud.
                              handl          d co munic
 Information tcu.rJt          Gene     ly onsidered to      e o crall m · a cmcnc.
                               roc~rcs        conuols ncccss ry to ens re con 1dcnu i ,
                              intt 'ry, and continu'ry or ope tion. for     inform lion
                               y tcm.
 Information       tt                                                    tion hfe cyde th   1
                                                                    ti    • procc in .

Gto    ry                                     G-                               GOS Fvcr. 1.1
Inform t n           · tern
    n inu ring

Inform lion         tchnology
 I )                                                                                      ideo in

lnltl ti.on , Proj ct                 e proces of inhi tin       project whe.n    work   ~quest   h
                                been ppro
Input                           •  ttri entered into . d   or word procel 1n y &em for
                                proccssin . I o. the t nsfer of da co     processed from
                                 cyboa.rd or an e Lem I st   c    ice to   internal sco c
                                dC'll lCC.

Inpu t/ utput De ke                piec.c of h d uc ·th is used for both providina
                                inform tion ro lhe computer and rcccivin infonn tion from

Input· utput II ,                     general term for the equipment u     to cornmunic tc ith
                                      om . tcr an the cb in'llolved in t.hc communic.atiol\S.
Input· roce · Output               chart lh show th input n output to each func11on
    h rt l HIP                  :md the proo sc c h funcnon Pfrf'omu with those mpu
                                :ind outputs.
Int      ltd      of'tw rt              tegory of    applieujon pro ram th t con tinues c enJ
                                computer      t     s, such a.s word proces. in1. t base
                                                       d prcai hec • in . ingle pack e.
lnte r t on                     The sharing of d       t   o information among subsy terns a.nd
                                    y tcms.
lntegrlt                        The complercm ss d accu y of d                   torcd in compuler,
                                   icul y after it h been manipul                 in some w 'I·
f nt t lll ent    ermin•I             1ermin.al ith i o n memory, p~ or. and finn are
                                th     t c.an ptrform cen i.n fun tions indepen en t of iu. ho t
                                proce sor.

0                er. 1.1                          Q. 9
Int r    ti                 Oper tm in b - nd-forth, o ten on ers non l m ncr.
                             \ ~hen a user en ers que . t1on or comm nd nd the y em
                            1mmed1 ely rcspon .

Int rconn        t   it     Th btl 11y to link equ ipment electronic ly. c. , to n b 10
                              net"'Of       end an recei e ta.
lnlerf c

                                                  lhe computer.

Int rm lt nl         rr r   i\n err r that      urs   t   unprcdic blc ti

I nterop r bility                       of s terns to wort together. to cod ud intctprel
                                        ha.re data.       Ct •

lnltro        r~b11ity
                                                                    from other re ourcc .
lnltrop r te                                 crv1 e to or        cept service from other
                                    ems. or compo cnu              d to u    e e change
                              re ti\cl y.
 In II lion for             The sohc1t tion ocumenl us                 en cone c1in by ealed
                            bid m.
                                orm of da.ta   u ed m c pen y terns th t conuuns the
                              ccumu l red body f no ledge of hum n pecialists in
                             p nicul 1cl .

                                              G-30                               G 0 S F ·er. I . I
 l r&      c ft       omputu           e-sc le compute pro ide complex and powerful
                                  pro ramm ble logic to    c comple problem h1 h
                                  ~uirc hi hly ccntrahzcd compuran po r.        mpJe
                                  ioclude, CDC 600. CRAY.       fDAHL 70. ILUAC JV, an
                                  others. So e operate at pccds of 100 minion 'n uucr1oll
                                  pcr ond
  Jte      •dt                    See synems life cycle.
  lfe      cl                     The cost lo d .sign. evelop, deploy.                1e, and m mtain
                                  system throughout i dts1 n · cd life.
  f·ne                               line of inform tion m computer pro
 Lin or         ode                   in3le computer pro m command.       Ian on. or
                                          ion. Program siu i often measured in lin or code.
  iquid led Dam                   Compens tion      10   the 01o:emment for        conU11etor'    r ilure to
                                  perform in timely manner.
Ustln                                report prin ou
  o al rea , et or                  communication              tem esr nc for intrl-buddin cl.ua
                                   ommunic tiot1 .
           rt     , et ork

                                  Jin th   l   en ble any de
                                  nerwo .
 0    ic                             e sy cm lie scheme.            hich d fines      int        ions of
                                   1,gn    in th de      1   n of a pro     • s stem, etc.
 o r hart                 ap n.   First used as      ctin tool to 1d in the                 do     ent of
 hart                              tructured programs.
 o le DI eram                        schematic th 1 hows     conneetion.s be                  n compucer
                                  to c c1rcui    pccif an thee pccted outpu                 from specific
                                  set o inpu: .
Lo le 'I Bans Hes (               Lo ·ca1 file of en1itiC'~ rel u ships. cycles hown                    'th
                                  their    ropri te d.at clcmen . The minimal data
                                  require nts.
                      tructure       logic' I d1. hie     en ·ed from e lo cal ou t
                                   tructure (LOS of an oui ut. less y comput , rcduncwu.
                                   ml Ii C'n.J d elemcnu. sometimes ilh suucrural
                                  infoma(on d

G 0             ver. Lt                           G-31                                               Glos
Lo le l Dec ion                     n dccmon th          t   c n h ve one of two OtJt ome (truclfalsc.
                                   }evno,     d so on).
               utpuc tructure      All e d ta elements for 1 pJ.JticuJ
                                   onto LL . hierarcht 1 tru re.
               roe      rructure   The lo ical hierarchy of a proce

Lo k I et                                         ion or d proc~                        e same number of umes
                                                        c condition or              l   the same pl ce.
                   ttm D nnl lon   The pl nin of an tomated information                 to its
                                   deunl d cngineerin desi      This ould inclu e the
                                   synthesis of a nct-..o of Jo ic.al elcmcn    pcrfonn
                                    pccific function .
Lo cal Too                         Tools tlu.t   ~   indepen ent of cor ,pu                   nd computer
                                   I gua
  o       ·lt~tl   L n ua1e

      1                              . rge sc le ante ration.
.I C                                     re · tion for

                                   l.       me-ssm e authentication cod and

                                            man      tory      cc   control.
M chine                                                 for equipment t 4l an sto                  nd proo
                                                     lphabctic infomutio
~1    chine- lndtptndeut                proaram or piece of h           lh can     used o more
                                   thm one computu        ilh little or no modificanon.
 ~bchi t       L ngu    c          The iruenul bin   1 n ua e into hich m                                 ed
                                   programming Janau      must be con c ed before
                                   c p ss omputer program.
 . !achlnt R d bl                             ion presented in a      ro       th       t   computer can interptcl
                                        due      inpuL

Glos ary                                             G-3..                                       GAO SAF er. I.I
.M ichl n~·Dt pen dtn t        n djecztivc escribm.     ro     or pi              e lh~t
                             is hn ed to p nicut computer because it m         use of
                             spec1 tc or unique feature o the equipment th t cannot
                             c ily, if 1 11. be u ed uh nothcr computer.
~I    cro                    ~                                                              ~


• f lnr     m                               computer.

                             I.        The central processor of th comp ter ) stt'm. It
                                       contains the nwn 10 g , arithme 'c nit.     pcci
                                       re isrer aroups. Someti   c led central roeeuina
                                       unit (CP ).

                             2.          II that ponfon of computer e cl i"e      or the iop    t.
                                       output. perip eraJ. and. in some instanc     1ora.
: J inf me Compurer               hi

. f ln1 In      1111         nu: e     ·th hich m imcnance of ~ nctional unit can. be
                             puformed in co      e ith     cribed requtre~a .
M inttn nc

~I    na em nt Inrorm lion

G0           \.Cf   I. I                        O·                                     Ofossuy
. t ppin
                              ou pu1 through
                              of m ppin ~= one
                              m ny tom y.
~I     r     I   Uf"'t

~1          r Fl                                       file of inform tion used en  omputer
                                           It pro i       infonn tio 10 be used by the
                                                      cd d m intained to n:       t

 ~btrl                          n        y o quantiti      in a prcscn
 '.\I di                         collteu c otd for the phy ·a.1                       ch asp per.
                              dis      d pc used for stonn c                           i nfonnat1on.
 '.\ledium                    The material on · lli h
                              c • ma etic pe. etc.).

                              It •S SO....,...,"',.                                               D

 ~ti       roproc        or

                              microcomputer is m                                           inte       ted
                               1rcuit to microproccuor.
 . In comput r                                  cG'l"llmn1•ble      ral-purpose computer cyp1eally
                                                          appli tio s.      in"compu er often n:fers
                                                          proces 1n     nit. Usually, H L panJJel
                                                       tth 8-. 12-. 6-. 4-, or 36- n          en th
                                                                              etic co
 \ll                            ron m !or millions of i trocuons per                 nd.
                              measure of p essor s

Glos ;iry                                                                          GOS                er 1 I
            em n Inform      on              cmcnt Jnform tion S) rem, a processing                         stem
                 II >                        d 1 ncd furnish m n cment nd uperv1so
                                  per onnel ""tth current 1nfonn uon to d in the performance
                                  of m na cm nt funcnon . D l 1s recorded and roce d
                                  ~ r opcr t1on I purpo CJ •   blems re tsol ed nd referrc
                                  1 upper man gemena for d is1on-makmg. and infonnauon 1s
                                  fc:d      to rcOc t pro re s m a hie in lllAjo objecti es.
                                                                     in   bin       mode. lphameric mod •

 ~1odel                                n b   1   ction from real situation h             t   nu.kc predictions in
                                                   rl possible .
 • lo em

 :'\ odinc fol\/                  The ti i1 require 10 chanae or cnh ce an ex.1stin
 Imp o m nt (. 10011. f P)        produ t. For mo t IRJ 1 or anizauons. tJu will rcprcsenr 85
                                    rcenl 10 90 percent o their work effon.
  fodular Pro r m                       ro        rha c n       ch        tenud
                                  I.         1mptemcn1in         angle indepen           nt function.

                                             perform in      single logic       t   k.

                                             ha mg        ingle entry 111d e it point. nd

                                  ~.         being scp      tcly tes blc.
 -"lodul r              ar        Sof"'    that i in elf-<:on ined. logical sceiion or
                                  modules. ~·h1ch cury ou1 ""ell fined processing      ·ons.
 :'\fodul                          n m ercha.n e ble plug-in unit o                 comp uble add-on umt.

G. 0        F   \Cr.   l I                         G-35                                                  Glossary
. I -DO ,    P • 1. '. IX,
   ppte 0

:\tultlle el e urlty

                                            computers hooked to. ether to         mplish
                                               ms, di   or infonn tion.
~lullJpr         or                                                  d lo     «: uni   for

. Suhlpro r mminc                1c hnique (or htndlin num           ti       or progranu
                             simul neously by means o an interwc ving proc
. f lllt                         mode of opcratio offi red by    operai ng system in
                                 h1ch  omputcr wo      on more th&n o e w      t t1

. 'atlon1 lnrorm tloo
lnfr tructure (.. II
                                                                     network. cnv ·s1oncd
                                                                      , government

. ' rtd-to·kno

. ·e or                        senes of ints int.ercon ted by communic tion
                             ch nne s. The switched. telephone t ork co sis of public
                             telephone tines nonnally used i dial :telep ne calls.
                             priva enc o is a confi       ti    or
                                                                communic 'on
                             channels reserved r      us of
. rt ork    rchllectun       The un crl in uucture of a comp tcr net
                             h        , functi aJ I yen. intcrl'ac and
                             u ed 10 establish commun · Lion and en u .
                             rnnsfer or infonn uo .

Clo a.                                     G-36                              G 0 SAF er. l.l
 •• t   or       urit      echn1quc

                          I.       hm1t   rt

                                                                          unauth       ud

                                                                                    mu hi pie

. ' ur I • tt ork
                                                                    oos     s~   cm n
                                                         in         br in           esses.
                                               , and tcmcmbers.
• od                        ny ra1ion, tcnnin in t 11 uon. communic tion compu~•
                          or communic 1ion com u er inst II tion of computer
.'od                           yncm {or wor    t   tion) conn ted o n   t    or .
  bj    ct   Pro r m           m chine langu c pro   m re dy for e ecucion .. u u lly th
                          OUF Ul or   ·Coding y tem. Contrasle    llh sou e projnm .

  rr-1.h~     htU                               gc      e crm c..n refer to h rd are r

  ffict      UIOm tJon


  n- · nt

G O                 I I
p n    r hit clure                                                              c ign

 p n Shop

 pen   ' t m

 per in         tem 0

                                                                             ountin .

 p ration ( ompuUr)       The clcc roni        ction r ultm from n instruction. ln
                           cncral. at   1   a computer mmmpul tion requm:d to ecure
                          re ult .
 per tlon I Inform lion   The type f an omu 1on required to conduct the fun      mental
                          bu inc   f the cnm·pn~.
 ptlmlut on

                             n n. m for Tru tcd Compucing Sy tern E..,aJu tion Cntcri .

                                                                         G OS         \'C(.   1.1
Glo    ~                                     G-'
Or    nlzin             Or anitin

 rl ht   Equipme t
;\ anuf clurer ( £. f                                            f rum. F.re.quently.
                                                                  are inte rated into

 u1puc                  Information ltln1fcrrcd from the computer to the outS
                          ortd.    a.n dcc•i •e, pcnaining «> c de ices b.ich
                        brin ini rm tion out of c comp1.!ter.
  utput Ori nt                 th   1 swu   ilh the oui-put            b      mi

P ck         d   of't   A softw    program ol throu h         retail distnb tor
                        op      to custom soft
Pac      In             The prous of groupins lo ieal      and action uucture.s
                        into machine or human proc    ble units.
                          method of proce         run only on a type of
                        com ter conwnin l o or mo~ proc sors Nnnin
                         imultan   ly.
P    nll~I   Run         Runnin of ne ly de cl         ystem in da PfOCCSsin
                         are in conjunction ilh lhe conhnued opera ·on of the
                         current sy tern.

G 0 S F 'er. IJ                                                                   Gf o
p th                           A route   from one poin o ario r. tn communi lions.
                               p th is    r n c ween t o n          in a ne o . ln a
                               da:     sc. a path i     s.clcclton of b        nd nodes lO be
                                   ·ersed 1n tree struerure in o. er to progress from the root
                               n c o th~ tree to any other node. In prosrarmnin • 1 path
                               1s the seq encc of insuuctio        computer carries out in
                               exec in       routine. ln file s10 e. path is th route
                               follo c by         operalina sy tcm in andin st0rin        d
                               retrievin, files on 1 dis
P     out                      P:t)OUt (or P yoCO Period. The timt it for an
                               investment (c. , in ne m hine) to p y for 1 If.
P~u    Re\'lt                    qu Jicy    urance method in wruch peers re e
                               pro rammel's w    for           y Ind for consistency   ith the
                               ocher p&rt.s of system.
Pnform nu M n          tmcnt   Th proc      of nalyzlo
                                ystem co detennine how              are currently   uuli~   d
                               how ch utiliza       can be improv     C.pacity plannin1
                                  ists in forte tin computer rtSOUtce     irements to
                               ensure th c p lry exists     en needed.
Perform nee V lid tlon         The 1ec nical verifi      of lhe ilicy of a propos.ed system
                               con .1guratioo or repl "Cment c.omponent lO h le agct\C •
                                            klo d olumes present d ex·pected) within
                                           ermined perfonn      time constrain .
Ph                                                                      nomally per·
                                                                       lit.. 0 co more
                                                                __ •.,_by hid1

Ph          ID i   D              dding ph sical co tmnts restric:ti    • and vol mes to
                                logi al sys ems e ign.
 Ph iul «Urity                  Security m     l'C$ taken to protect auto
                                sys m and related buddin
                                olher n1cural den iron.men
                                mttUSion, delibe te ltx •                                  ty
                                     h1evcd through the use o locks. ards,        es. fcnoes.
                                      dmioi     i ·e control . (FlPS 41 Sec. 1.3 and 3)

                                                                             GAO SAF er. LI
Projtct Pl n

Plannin                     A maJor pha c o                                c idcntifkation
                                f ro lcms to                   y tem.
Pl tfol'm                                                         mputcr system.
Pr d lo                     Th c. tent or det ti used in up in number. Precision
                            ind1 r d re of 111; accura y indic teS correcm s.
Pre enlh e . I lntcn ancc                                    10 keep u1 p nl runntn in
fP~f                                                           le nin , replemshment of

Prl" c                      le isl 11on th t r quires a cncies to strict the coll t on
                             nd use of pcrs n l inform hon bout indi vidual U.S.
                                itiz.tns co offic1 use only n rt uirc     afcgu&rd.s   10
                                rotect I.he inrc n )' o the inform uon.
Proc durt                                nption o   ct of cuons to accomplish                t
                            A procedure m y be implemented ustn either manual               01

Proc:ts D      riplloo       structured En Ii h n rn.tt ·c e pl 1ning ho      the dau is
f\'ourdon)                  m ipul tcd in c h ubblc m mucrure d             •an
                            mcthodolo         .
Pro e in                    1   fan1pul tin       1 w11h1n   omp cer y tcm.
Proct Ing . f tthod           n uprcss1on u~d 10 c n~ the ppro h t en for the
                            e ccuuon of in onnation system includins: uch methods
                            intcracu e, an-line re l·ttme. trus tJon. atch, dau and
                            time dnvcn. The method elected depends upon the d nved
                            logi  proces e      1 b ed upon the an ysis of um.in
                             n economrcs require 10 eet the inform rion needs.

GAO SAF     \Cr.   I.I                        G-4l                                      GICIUtry
 Proce or                      computer cap blc of rece1. 1ng <Ut • m mpul un 1t. and
                           upplying resul .
 Procurfmtnl              The ctual proce s of         quiring the product or crvices.
 Produc:thity             Produc1n resul1 • It is measured b effectt enc:        c
                          doing the right thin s·:n and cffi iency C   we doin
                          thin right?'"). produ uvil}' ~ cffecuvcn + efficiency.
 Proficifnc               Refers o the le cl of kno led e or skill of particul
                          wo er. lt i u cd to me urea o er' o era.ti proficiency.
                           re urcc· c\Jrrent job proficiency. a.nd the pecific s dis of

 P ogr m                  Th el of instructions a computer follow to proces illd
                          dch er 1t answer or infonn tion ~quested.
 Pro ram      nal •

Pl'O r m D I n            Struc1urcd de 1gn         th005 includtn1:
                          1.                        ompo ition

                          2.         t   no   c.sign.

                          3.        ill structUre       ign, and

                                   ptoanmming c       culu~.

 Proar m 01      r m        pro ~ m di lraJl1 prov 'de      I   method   Of defin'n   the loaic
 W rnitr· rr)             of proc;e s.
 Pro r m Maintenance      The rocc~ . of supponin • dcbu gin • and up ing a
                          proenm in ttspo~ 10 t b k from individual or co                      IC
                          u ers or the marketplace in ene .
 Pro ram M      n1    u   The c ma.n gcment official bo rtpresenu. th program
                          o. fice in forrnul tin resource rcquiremen and man ing
                          pre olici cion ti iti . ln o        o anizauons. I.he p
                          m n er or another man gemcnt offic' is design ttd
                             qumuon m gcr for a pecafic acquisition.

Glo   31)                                G                                   GOS           ·er. I.I
 Pro ramm I                    Desi mn . wntmg. and te ung computer p rams.
                               Depe ing upon the ph1lo op y of   p cular 1n ti uuon.
                               pro      ming    n include su   t    ui.l a.moun    of y       i.em.s
                                 alys1 •
 Pr    r mmin        L n1u11

 Projut                        A   sco  of erk eoruistin of on or more ph
                               project i an pli Jon of the matenal and human rcSOUICU
                               to specific objective throu h thee ccution o! p        bed
                               sequence of eve       ll proj   ha\le stru ture that usually
                               consisu of .     gannioa   middle.           end.
Proj c           lu ton          SU 1y the I ph   0   project
                               esum led crsu atnal co u
                                nd opention.
Proj er        ire    d

Projttt    ~f    n• mtnt

ProprltC ry          on   re   A program o n or copyn&tncd by         indi id
                               butinesi and avail ble or se onJy thtou
                               permissio of      own .
Prot                           A written objection by     interested party to l)         oli it.a ·on
                               for   propo$Cd eoncnct. ( ) a roposed         a.rd. or   (3)
                               a ard of contnct.
Protot p

PubUc·Dom in · ott an            program donated for public u e by i o ncr or                  doper
                               and freely aii ble for co yang d distnb tl .

G 0    s   F   \Cf. . I                       G-43                                             Glo uy
u lit '      ur nc

 ueuln       h or                                                                    d la         or

                                                                                 be Ct'n pc            1fi   d
Ran '
                                                                                n importlllt
                                                                                ppli ion.

R pl      rotot pin           type of p ot)'pin tn h1ch cmph is 1 pl        on
                             cvelop1ng pro101 ·pe c y in th     clopment proccs
                            pcnmt c ly feedback atid analysi in up n of lhc
                            Jc,elop cnt procc .
R      0 t                  D   I    th   h                 rocc ccL Such d 1 m y or m

R I imt
                            re ponsc to input 1                    ub equcnt mpu
                             n or u1de the proces control system or computcr-
                             sststcd 1 lN uon sys cm.
Rt        Im Proc     Ina   Operauon performed on computer
                            ph)' 1    recess or ta 1l)' su h lhlt
                            throu h the computer ope tio
                             C I tl)'.

Realiza tion                    p 1cular phy i I 1mplcm nt uon of                                 n.
Rtto rd                             roup of rel tcd f ac    or fiel   of info

Record         ·out         The or        nt   uon of      1 fields   1thin     reco .

Re o ery                    The t1on nee.es ary to res1orc     y tern              d tt d     t    tics
                             ter sy tern f&Jlurc or intru ion.

                                                                                         OS            ·er. I I
Glo                                            G
 Rtcur lo                                                                                     proces or
                                                                               c mmon.
 Rt>dund n                       Th  l portion of the toraJ infonn lion contained m mess ge
                                 th r c       elim.in red wnhout the lo of        nu J
                                 information, such ch         lCrs used only for ch 1ng. l o
                                 used to · cnbe computer or communic tlon.s fac1lh in
                                   hkh there i spare          up de ice for     h important
                                 component of the sy tcm.
                                    rype o d t       or da b     mtna,gemenl system that
                                 stores infonn tion in tables-rows nd columns of d.11.1--and
                                 con ucts search by u in data 1n pecified columns of ooe
                                 table to find dditional ck         in another ta.bl
   ff 1lon        truccur        Refcn 10 ho d         is structu~ i file. Jn thi UUCtUTe
                                 fiJe or btc i n organized by o           · d pointers as in the
                                 hiervchical and nelwort tructu~. ut thet data i
                                 org niz.e · into ~.conis o columns ilh primary and foreign
                                   ey th t ate used ro m c up relationship       ·cen dA
 Rel lion h ip                    n intermcdi te       t    that r ol es      many-to-many m .ppin •
                                 such as in. oice, r.naru      t10 , etc.

 Rellab Ucy                      The extent o         hich system or program can bee pected to
                                 perform   tts   intend function "th required preci ion.
 Remote                           ot in the immedi         le   icumy.      n adject1ve u cd to descnbe
                                    computer or ocher de: ic.c: lex 1ed in another pl c that i
                                   c~e.mble through ome type o c blc or communi rions
 Remot       cc                                                                                cc   10

  eque t tor       omment          n announcement i·n the Co .eru BusiMSI Daily or odter
                                 publlc1tion requestin mduscry commen1 on draft
                                  peci fie lions (or re recs.
                                 The olidtation document used in ncgoti ted prc.xurcmen ro
                                 communicate go,•cmment requiremcnu d to oltc1l
                                 propos    .
 Rtquir m nt          nnltJon:      major phase of 1he ysccms de etopment life cycle. It
                                 in ol es the ioenufic tion. of ys1em ourput nd infonna11on
                                 and the functional n lysis of t rcquirem nt.s for the
                                 proposed system.

G 0 SAF 'er. I.I                                 G S                                            Glossary
R ource                 ttu blc ource of upply to produ c so~lhm . Ex.·
                      mple in lude human. fin nci l. matcri I, and inform hon
                     rt ources. To m 1miz.c the efficient     effectJ e use of
                     re ourcc . they mu t be cl sifie in order to s     them
                     chmin tc unw 1ed redundtncy d co uol ed in ord r to
                     receive. tore and di mbute them properly.
R pone Tlmt          The time S ttm Wee to ruc:t lO &ivcn                 intern.I
                     between completion of an input me ge . nd receipt o an
                     outpuc re pon1C. ln eta c..ommunic lions. ponsc time
                     inclu c tran miu 'on time to the computer. proce:ss'ng rime
                      t the computer (in uding        ' or file records). and
                     ran m1ss1on time back. 10 the tennina.1.
R poruibiUt          Specific cj 1h t must be perfonned to fu lfil         fu tion.
                       funcuon is groupin or r'C$pons bilitic .
Re rn on In stmcn&   The ratio of ptoJ«tcd cost     in
Rln    'tl ork         local

RI k                 The po1ent1al effect if threat e ploi      pa.nicul
                     vulnerability of a y tern.
RI k   n l) s

                                                             sment         not

 Rl k M na emeot      . m.m.1 ement ppro h 10 bal cina the costs nd benefits
                     of lS security 10 ,ensure th t AJS's are rotected by cost·
                     effective m1 or secuncy fcgu rds and control
                     commensu te with lh ri        to    AJS and th mi ion 1t
 RP                  Request for nee quotation.

GI                                                                 GOS           er. I.I
     re   u rd                 S nonym for ecurity control .
 (h m

 t    urlt                     Pre rv don of the authenticity, inte riry, confi enuality. nd
                               en urcd crvice of ilnY ensitive r nonsensiti e system·
                               v lue function ndlor infonn tion cl'c cnt.
     curit     · onlrol ·      Any action. d ice, p~durc. technique or other m ure
                               that ll e es cfftcti c computer ·d lnfonna1ion secunt .
                                 ecurity con1rol       ubset of intern I conuol .
      urh Go Is                The thm: oats of AIS eeuri ty           e to chic e n   cc     ble
      ~ecti t )                de     of

                               I.     d    t   nd sof1w       in1cgrity (   ~u   y):

                                           ta confi enli    1i1y: n

                               3.          stem and d   t

      ur   t   ~I   n   ment   Mui a cment c;ti tties in . Jud.in plannin • bud cting,
                               organmn trainin . conlJollin • and project .m n cmcnt th             t
                                re implemented to ensure cos1 effective AIS security.
 tcurit Plan                    cc y tem security plan.
     curi t Polle              The I s. rul • and p ticts th t regul te ho      n
                               orp.niz.adon mat\a es. protects. and djstribute en iti c
                               inform tlon.
 tcurlt Tt Hoa                    process u ed to determine th t the
                                ystcm are implemented des1 ncd n.
                               ope don.
 tn Ill e JnCormation            ny information for hlch I.he lo , misu or un uthorize
                               access to, or modification or. coul 1.d ersely ffect the
                               nHionAl interest or th conduce of ftdertJ pro rams 01' the
                               pri y to hich indi idua.ls          entitled under the Pri c
                                 c;t. · ut whic:h is not onsidered    cl s1fied information.

G 0 S F er. t.I                                G-47                                         Glo ary
                         r rn                             o~rator    c n olc) )' terns v.herc e
                                                          t   e   ord proccs m

                    re                                                    th t is u cd by mo      th n one

. lmul     f   on                    I.

                                     2.         In co puccr progr31Tlmin . the 1echn1que o! scnin up
                                                  rouu e for one computer to m e 1t ope
                                                 ne rly       pos 1ble Ii c omc other omputer.
     imul anto      Pr          In   The term 1 encr Jly u ed to refer lo concurrent operauon
                                     in  hich more than one l~s 1 proces       y di idin
                                                    mon thetas •
 ·     II In en or

     ort   rt                             c to lit of ro              rouunes used lo cend I.he
                                            b1li1tes of computers. such as compilers. scmblers,
                                     n    rT   to • routrn s, nd sub-routines. Con         te     1th

Glo :a                                                    G                              GOS            \•er. 1.1
 ort       re          n lnnrin

 oft       r       HoU-                Rc(cn o comp ny th offc so     re up:    set\lice to
                                       usen. Thi support c n ge from imply supplying
                                       m nuals and other infonn lion to          counseling
                                                                                        co        pl~le
                                       com uter pan-t]me programming service (jobs op or body
                                        h p).
 on                                    0 r_a. pro              is1ancc pro ·ded by  end r d
                                       usually at le 1 pan.iaUy modJr. for th user's com uttr
                                        y terns c,onfi   uon.
 on        l'"f    Tool                Pro     ms. utilities. librane .             d ocher ids th c c · be used
                                       to de ·elop programs more efficiently.
 olicit tlon                            n offici      o cm cnr req,u            l   for ids/pro
                                        ubliciz.c · i.n the Co~rct Busintss D                                       c
                                        llh re e regulimons.
 ourc:             ta                  The original da      on which          com u1cr              pllc   on i b       d:
                                       for c.i:amplc, employee job pplic tions nd performance
                                       rcpo mi ht be the              ree d          for         company' cmplo ec
                                         t b_ .

 ouru          Docum~nt                      ori ini.I record of so        aype th         t ·    10 be con encd into
                                       machine re       btc Ci nn.
                                          e O\•cmment of 1ci in ch e or selecting the ource                             ~
                                        n acquisition.     o t often the title is used hen
                                        election p      s is fonn and e o · 1ci I is other than
                                               tln officC'r.
 ourcc            ~~    t   on                 rd om     sed   or f   hnrc • c traC. informatio
E      luat on Bo rd t            B)   resources mana. ers, nd        Ol   ct          cm          nt personnel whose
                                       pnm     function 1s 10 e alu tc pro                       aJ rec i cd in
                                       re pon c to requc5l for propos I.

G 0    s       F   \C(.     1.1                        G 9                                                        Glo
 ourc' tltction Pl n              umcnl lh     c nbes the enure process for      anhn
                           cont t··pr pos I e itlu ion criteri c lu rion
                           mclhodolo • c uator rcspon tbtliu       nd final     ~lcct1on
                           procedure .
 pad ti. Re(ereoctd         n fomi tton Lh t c;in be
lnform lion                1he eanh's surf ce. such        cc act
                           1 c. road. or stand of uees.
 pttinc ~1 e and . 1odet
 p cmc don

 p IOC*tloo

 tand· Ion                 An djectJ e descnb1n
                           not re uue upport from
 tand lone      ttm           y tem tlw d        n                   s1n1 po er or
                           central computer.
 t nd rd                   ln computin • set     or  tailed t hnica.I guideli es used
                             cans of est blishing urufonruty m an        of hard are or
                            of1         e elo ment.
 r r . 'et or                com u1cr network 1th penp entl n     all c nnec            to
                           one or more compute t c-entrally located ( "lity.
  I ltment of\ 'or                hn1    descnphon of re     recs. prepared for inclus100    lJl
t 0\                         soliciution document.
  l   nin C mmittee

Glo                                       G-50                           GAO SAf \tt. 1.1
     lr 1       le Pl o

    ~ ltuclur     I nal i   A method of 411 I st 1h         t    ddresses:

                            l.       c     -le ..·el,

                            2.       module lc\•el,

                            3.       ort
    tructur                 The 4ITilJ1 em nt or intcrrel 1ion or part.s             dominate by th
                            gene J charact r of the whole.
    tructure-d Ors 11       A mer.hod of          I n that employ  nly 1hc tructure
                            con tructs.: sc-qucn c, repetition, altem 1ion, hiervchy.
                            concurrency, nd r'CC'Ursion.
    1ruc1ured Pro r mmlna         cnml term refemn to prog                   in that p      es
                             ro   ms id de              flo • de     desi        d    de ~ o f
                            modu t . ty or hi           h1cal   strucru .
    ub'     t   m

    u tt

    up re- mputer


G                 tr I 1                   G                                                 G
        t n"1     I                                                                       ppro    I of

•)            m De'       lopm~nt         The p cs of ~fimn c 1 mng, c cl pin • le un , an '
                                          1mplcm nun   ne S)stem.
                      \ lop      nt   r                        stem hfc c cle th t in ol es

                          lopm    t   r

    ~   ttm       ur                        projection of the time ptriod th t begins
                                          m t I tion of the re ource d ends wh n e
                                          fo I t tt OUr'CC h tcrmiMlC
                                          The three i cnufi le phases of an AIS including initiation,
                                          de ·elopment. and o nuon. See y t .ns vcJ         tnl life
    ~s      rm Par mrter                                        hose value detennin      ch      teru1ic:
    '   t     m        urlt. Plan
                                                               uon s stem and tltt:

    ~    ttm          R    r                                                           e up an rel e

         rem          n


G                                                      Q. •                           GOS            er. 1.1
   ste                            A fun ion that s         Ji   po ibl
                                  modtficatio . 1mpro ·cmcnt,.
                                    siems 1thin an cnterp · e.       h, rr i    mu emeot
                                  funcuon. n an dtrun.islnli e           fu~tion.
                                                                           lt i co~emcd with
                                  de cl . ina inJormau n sy tenu th t asfy e       uillm\Cnts
                                  of the enterprise.
                                  Refen   10   IB

 y ltcmi           bjtttJ tS
               Pro        mmln1

TactJcal P •n

  r.chni       I lnr ri           Thcch                              in p per output n:5ponsc   ~

T hnk I                  t.Un                                            propo:ul up to the le el of
                                                                         i c unds of disc:uuion. u h
                                                                            ultin from the offeror's

   c,hn    ~   I     b

                                                                                          o enhi.nce

G 0 S f        \Cr.      U                          G-53                                     Glos
 elecommunir tion        The rccep1ion ndlor t n m1 s1on of inform 11 n of
                         n ture by 1elephone. 1ele ph.   io. or other stems.
                             oft      protocol hich control the trarulcr o( m s e
                    •f   bet'>'cen the phc ion pro ram and lhc remote terminal
                          nd pro ide the high-le ct me gc ontrol I n         e.
                         TC      • m ro tn IN II M c be
                         pro rams f r controllin mes
                          t 11ons. or between rcmo c
     I proce In          The proce sing of 1 th t 1 recci cd from or nt to
                         remote loc ti ns by way of telecommunication Ii . Such
                         system      c scnti l to hoo up remote tcmun s r connect
                         geog phic lly sep tcd computers.
     LIP                    government program th t prcvcn the ompromising o
                         cle trical   elect m gnetic ign&l th . t eman e from
                         computers an rel . ed equipment from be'n mterc p cd
     t                             program. y tcm. or routin for th purpose of
                          1  o enng f t1lure r potentiaJ failure or program.
                         p cdure. or clement nd to temunc iu l uon or
                         pottnti loc •ion.
     c     ta            A ct of d.at C'<Cloped pecifica.lly 10 t t the          ~uacy
                         com uter run or y cm.
     l   Plan                 plan prepared b the government th   t   d   t    l the pec1 1c
                         te   l1 n p     ed s 10 be followed..
T tab lit                Effort required to tc t   pro    to en urc n perfonn tts
                         i ntcnded function.
Third·Gener tion           ny of the computerS reduced from. the mid-l 960s              the
 omputer                 1970s th were b ed on intc ted ci:rcui      I.her th            o.n
                         separately ire t:ransi to •
 hre t                   Any circumst.An , c cnt, or pers n ith c potenu
                         c.aus.c h rm to · ystcm in th form of uuction. di lo ure,
                         moditic . tion of data dlor sof ve, or dcni or c cc.
                         See al so IL k.
 hrou hput               The totJ me ure o u eful infonn don procc                  or
                         communic ted during pe ificd time period.
 .lme b r-lna            The u of a computer ystcm by more th                 one individual   t
                         the me time.

lo                                     G- 4                                   G 0 S :     er. l.l
                            A con crs lion l or ~que tl~ipon e cypc of inte      tion
                            betwttn the y tcm d lhc indiv1du l tennin ls.
  o rn                         umque suu turcd dat obj c::t or m sa e th t circul
                            contmuously amo g the n        s of cokcn nn     dd
                            the current s· ·e of I.he net ork. Btfore any node c n sen a
                            me ge, it mu t first ain control of the tole.en.
Tool                        lo ical aids to help in c::   w ting solu ion to problcrn5.
Top·       n De   n                                                            fining

  op·Do~    D lcn • hlhod                  omposition of a problem; th t is,    uaJ
                            pro   ssion to le els of peai er and   ter de il in the
                            de clopment d ~finement of propam or y ttm.
Top· o o Pro rarnmin&        n app     cit to pro1 mmina that implemenu pro mn in
                            to~own     fuhion. Typical y. th ' i d,. ne by wntin    ma.in
                            body wnh calls to s.evc major routin (implemc.nted
                            stubs). Each rout:lne i then coded. c lin         lo er-Jc el,
                            routines (abo one initially    nub ).
Topolo                      The confi     rion fonn by the connections between
                            devices on a local are network.
                               discre c activity ithin ~mputer )' tem-u.su ly
                               oc:i t.ed 1th datab     man cmen~ order-entry. d other
                            onlin system . By dcfimtfon. ho e er making deletion o
                             re tin     fa copy on microp       or could e aly be
                            consideted a t:ranUCtion:.
  r                             t trUCture eori 'niog Kro or more node lh tare
                            hn ed to1ether in hicrarchi fashion. The top-mo l n
                            i called the root. The roo< is the parent node to its children.
                                  h child can in rum h e 'tro or m     cruldrcn of its o
                            Every node in i free has exact.I)' one      nt node an all
                            n       in the uee    descen     ts of the root n   - These
                            rel tiomhips en.sure th t thete is aJ ys           only one
                            p _th from the root node 10 y Olbct node in th tree.
  rusttd Compucu y 1 m         standard of the U.s.•Go cmrnent for the evaluation of
   alu1tJon Crlte-rl        classified compultr s s1cms. ynonymo with 0r.n e
   CSEC                     Book.

GAO SA.F \'er. 1.1                         G-SS                                     Glowy
                                                 ht h the manuf tu r takes full respon 1b1hly
                                                 ystem      tgn nd in llll uon nd up lie ll
                                                    r'C, o tware. nd ocumetu uon clements.
'nbundltd                        ot   inclu      a part of     comp ete hard an:J oft are
                                pc ge.
' nbundl                          pricin st      egy in      h1ch the     ices. pro        _. trumng.
                                etc .• are ld in ependently of the com utcr hard are by the
                                computer hard :rem ufac:rurcr.
'nlCorm      on lract   orm1t   Th fonn 1 require by t e F              for prep      tion of a
                                 olicit ·on.

'n nt Hupli It Po er
uppl tt:P )

' pd e
 'p - dt                        As

 'p1ime                         The amount or percent e of t     computer systc or
                                  oc1 cd h         i fun tioning   a ail le for e.

                                      major p      o the system· life cycle.           e ys m is put
                                 into service.
                                    y person or proces inte ctin
                                   stem i ' nfonn tion. and/or i

 ' tt     r1t>ndl                                      in& easy to l               easy to use .

 ' r Int rf c                                       . program      ilh. hich   use.r    intenc .
                                                            pecific    r         scr
                                                           ts c aJuuc.s ork. and panicip
                                                     ti ifC$ . The       is normally
                                 a project who assu     th~ cos of _project.
                                 S)•nonym for user i client.
      r   .Prom                    computcr-b sed rcco mainwned                      tan     thori.1.ed
                                 u er of a multiu.scr computer stem.

                                                  G-56                                 G 0 S         vcr. 1.1
    • r R uir men             The func1ion to    perform            em. dcqu tel ·
                              de med nd t hnic II fc 1blc u er requirements re
                              import nt for ucce ful oft   de elopment.
'\' lid t on                  The proc       of c alu tin    s stem o com neni durin r
                                t the end of the de elopmenl proccs to detcnnine v.hcthcr
                              It    ti fie specified requirements.
'    lldity                      re 1.ti e m  re of   in soun · correct.
                                lidity chec on d t    ccrta.ins the de rec of a cu

     lldlc     htckln         The process of analyzing     to de1emune '-"hc1her u
                              con omu co cena.In predefined panmetcrs o( completcne s
                                d consi ten y.
\ lu          dd   , et ork     comm nic ion nctw
                              be i  communi tion connection
                              T pe of                                      e rouun •
                              resoun:e management, illld convenion f 1Jit1es for compute
                              communic ting t iffcn:nt peed.$ or usrn different codes or
                              protocol .
\ rtnc lion                   ( I) The procen of c ant in    system or omponcnt to
                              determine wheth t the producu or gi en de ·clopmenl
                              phase ti f y the con itions impo cd l the 1 of th t
                              ph e, d (2) fo        proof of p       correc ion .
Verir                         To certain either th t result is comet or th   1   proc ure
                              or sequen e of operations h been pe:rfonned.
     rs Ion                      c ere in the c olufon of sy tern,    ew e ion result
                              from clu.n     in u.scr rcqu · ~mcn .
    lrtu I

Vlrtu l
TeJ communications
 cce , r tbod T f

G 0 SAF \•er. LI                           G-57                                      Glo    ry
\'ulntr bili t                                in secunl

\ ' I hrou h                       peer group review of produ t or    ian. A ·mu red'"
                                      th ugh i      lkth u h eon ucted accord.in to
                                  pccific rul .
\\' rnltrl rr Dl         r m

\\'urni r ·    rr                 A tuerarchicaJ, nru cured sy terns alysi    thodolC>IY th
                                            structure di grams. proamn d _ms, in"OUt
                                             nd      mbly line d' gmns. The SlNCtW'ed      'an
                                          beams t the end or output and orX.s b - k ard.
                                    communication net o       that conncc         phk&JI)'
                                  ep ntcd
                                       crvke provi      by telephone compani     hich perntiu a
                                   u tomer by use of n cccs Ii e. to make calls to or rccci c
                                  c I ls from te lephonc an speci c z      on a di b is fi
                                  Oat monthJy ch e.
\ 'Id    n          l~pbone                           y crv1cc that permits. amomer to dial
    'tic ( \        S)                                I   an       s line to specific zone for
                                            thly ch   or co recei e coll t call in specified
                                            r n t monthly c:h era        than on a ~I

 \ ord Proc              (   P)   The tn.nsiclon of wnuen. ctb . or au rded ord ro
                                  vcrt> l, typewntten, or rintcd fonn through ome fonn f
                                  stora e mcdlum that permi the inlonnation to be
                                  m nipuJ ted con ..1enicotl before it is commined to final

GI   ary                                       G-5                            G 0 SAF er. LI
\\'or   Lo d                c ma o t s ypic lly run on a 1 en compu1cr • s1cm.
                         . 1 JOr ch n 1cn trc . 1 ludc inpul/ou1 ut requirements.
                         amoun n . mds of computauon. 3Jld compu1er resou ~
                         re •.ur~ .
\ 'ourdon                   method o structured s terns al i      d design
                         fonm1hzcd tn 1978. The fin t product of Yourdon ~   tu   tured
                          n lym. th structured pctific uon, co '    of lhrcc rcla cd
                         components: d ta flo d1 gnms, p
                         d.lt dkuonary.

0 0 S       \Cf.   1.1                G-S9                                        Gloss ry
Glo ary   0-60   G 0 SAF ,.er. 1.1
Workshe 't

T e follo 1n p ge cont        in   mple   o        th t could. be u ed to 1 th progres of AF
Ju It 1 ~ E h t ble list the                         gment. along ith column for     rief
 ummary of the ttsuh   thor                         and    column to indic   1c   ho   the   ults

                 11\ t the    mplc        u cd a tan.in       int for lhe develop nt of more pec1. ic
\\Or sheet       o do 1hi • o t.iin the elecLrOnic crs on or th e wor shce . Tho audn          th t
 r no      in   pcrfonncd c n then be e ily remo e<J from the          I .

           v r. 1.1                                -1
vcr. l.l   w.
         .·.·.1 ·a,~   •

r. I.I

\'er LI   w   hcct

                     s   •

A   SA   ~   . 1.1
. . 'llf'llliKl

G         SA      r. I . I   W-7
                   I   •

A   er. 1.1   W-
              fl I ll   l419p    I


er. LI   w.
                              •• •   • "   •



r. I. I

er. 1.1
      . ..   •


er. . I   w. J
                In •

r. . I   W- 1

                                                                                                                       . I 6

                      l4S. I
                      I. 2. l 2 • I 9

                  I proccn 150. U2, IS
              t   t    • 12.5. 14 . Ul·IH. IH. 15 •

                                                                                9),9-4, 104, 12'·127. I 9, 1.57· 15
                       l. .S, 99. 107. 10 • 124, I                                    t 70. 1.59

                                   • •• • 14             «o~mJC                                     • 1, 10 • 1 O. 127.
                            6l. 6S, 96. 119. 120. Ill.   cl tro      data   t                  63
                                                         cnor 10.S
                                                         est.Ima 64, 66, ll 6. 1Sl· l
                                                         cwrNun1 l. 16, I 9, 160
                                                         c oluuon

                                                                    , S6, 1, 103, 1 ll.        I~
  Oll c, umauna 6. 129
                                                                      )), 47,   63.            • 67,        .   '°'·   115.

 cost ciununon 112                                                     .& , ~ 70.          ,    I, 116, I       146. I 9.

                                                 • 7,

Ullom des1 n 3. 63.           • I, 103. 104
ustomer 10. I) . 15.J7. 37. 41-4 , 1)9, 143. 10

G 0 S F       \'Cr.   1.1                                                                                              ln
                 10                                                          .5, 63, 0. I , 6.       . IS

                                  .   1~6.   ,_ . IJ.i.                     7. 10. IU. lt7. 119. 12J. B . I

                                1• .5. I . f4 • ISi
                                        0. 12 1. 1)0                                  nt l. 0. lo.I , 146
                                                                                      • 6, B4. ISi
                                                                                      re 66
                                                                                        "' 13
                                 . 141, lilS , I

                                                                                       • l 6.

                                 • 1 I . 1l4, 139
                                 •I . 0         I, 33.                                                         • 14S.

                                                                                                            • 9.

                                                                                aJ 60,     1•.
                                                                                II. 6, 101, 109
                                                                          mM~:r.cmcn_ I 0, 2. , 91. 96, l       .1 •

                                              . 99.

        l~J                                                     QA      • .5 . • IOS. 11 , 160
                                                                q Jacy I. 2. 2 • 3S. J • ' • • I.        91. JOI . IOS.
        n                                                       109. I I ·124, 126, 128. 130. 14.5, I 7, l • l.S
me urc cnt lll . I . I 7. t.is. I 7
me 1arcs o fXTiormll<c I ·17. 37. I

lni..                                                     l-2                                    G 0 SAf       ·er. I.I
  q ;ih1   uru e •. • . 35. 36, 5 •
  101. 10. 11 • 11 . I .I. I .a. 1:6. I

                                              • 49,   • I

                                              , SI , • S •
                                             • 122. I)I.
                                                                            9. 109. 11       •.

                    I.        • 99-10 1. I     , 110, 1 I

                                             • .l ,

                                                                   6.  • 90, 91. I , ll2. II •
                                                                   U9, 160

                                                             • 100, 103, 104. I I. I
                                                                I     1
                                                               11. S3. 5, 87. 93, 9S. 100,
                                        I • I l , 126.

                                                              , 96. 10..   I. 124, U . 121.

                                     2. I I, 12J, I 4


0 0 S F ver. I.I
In   I .   G 0 SAF er. LI