oversight

Budget Issues: Comparison of Discretionary Outlays Under Alternative Spending Paths

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-09-30.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

     GAOAccountability   Integrity *Reliability

United States General Accounting Office                                                   Accounting and Information
Washington, DC .20548                                                                          Management Division


          B-283728


          September 30, 1999

          The Honorable John M. Spratt, Jr.
          Ranking Minority Member
          Committee on the Budget
          House of Representatives

          Subject: Budget Issues: Comparison of Discretionary Outlays Under Alternative
                   Spending Paths

          Dear Mr. Spratt:

          You asked us to illustrate defense, nondefense, and total discretionary spending
          under a number of alternative assumptions for the current budget projection period-
          fiscal years 1999 through 2009. On September 7, 1999, we briefed your staff on this
          analysis. The enclosure contains the illustrations you requested.

          As you know, we do not develop cost estimates for legislation or the congressional
          budget resolution. Nor do we prepare economic or budget forecasts. Therefore, to
          respond to your request, we used budget outlay projections prepared by the
          Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and the Office of Management and Budget
           1OMViB)i we did not audit these-data. As agreed with your staff, we presented, in
          varibus figures, five discretionary spending paths: (1) the CBO estimates for the
          congressional budget resolution for fiscal year 2000, 3 (2) the CBO baseline assuming
          that discretionary spending complies with the statutory caps through 2002 and grows
          with inflation thereafter ("CBO capped baseline"), (3) an alternative CBO baseline
          assuming that discretionary spending grows with inflation after 1999 and with no
          projection for emergencies ("CBO inflated baseline"), (4) the OMB Mid-Session
          Review estimate of discretionary spending under the President's budget without the

          'The Economic and Budget Outlook: An Update, CBO, July 1, 1999; Statement of CBO Director Dan L.
          Crippen on the Mid-Session Review of the Fiscal Year 2000 Budget prepared for the Senate Committee
          on the Budget, July 21, 1999; and Sequestration Update Report for Fiscal Year 2000, CBO, August 15,
          1999.

          'Mid-Session Review of the Budget: Fiscal Year 2000, June 28, 1999, unpublished Mid-Session Review
           data updated by OMB as of September 1999, and OMB Sequestration Update Report to the President
           and Congress for Fiscal Year 2000, August 25, 1999.
           3Concurrent       Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2000, H. Con. Res. 68, adopted on April 15, 1999.



                                                                    GAO/AIMD-99-303R Discretionary Spending
B-283728

Social Security and Medicare reforms proposed ("OMB Mid-Session Review path")4
and (5) the OMB baseline assuming that discretionary spending complies with the
statutory caps through 2002 and grows with inflation thereafter ("OMB -capped
baseline"). For the congressional budget resolution and the OMB Mid-Session
Review path, we also break down the defense and nondefense spending. As agreed
with your staff, the nondefense category excludes separate categories for violent
crime reduction, highway, and mass transit spending 5

Figure 1 shows the allocation of defense and nondefense spending consistent with
total discretionary outlays under the congressional budget resolution. Over the
period shown, defense discretionary spending grows through 2004, levels off through
2007, and then gradually increases in 2008 and 2009. In contrast, nondefense
discretionary outlays would :all sharply through 2002, increase in 2003, and then level
off for the rest of the period.

As requested by your staff, figure 2 shows what would happen to nondefense
discretionary spending over the next 10 years if defense spending grows with
inflation and total discretionary spending is consistent with the congressional budget
resolution.6 Under this scenario, nondefense discretionary spending would fall
through 2002, increase in 2003, level out for 2 years, and then steadily fall throughout
the rest of the period.

Figure 3 shows the allocation of defense and nondefense spending under the OMB
Mid-Session Review path without the Social Security and Medicare proposals.
Defense discretionary spending drops in 2000 and then grows over the rest of the
period. In contrast, nondefense discretionary outlays would increase slightly in 2000,
then drop through 2002, increase in 2003, level off through 2007, and then increase
again in 2008 and 2009.

Figure 4 compares, in terms of nominal dollars, the paths for defense and nondefense
discretionary spending under the congressional budget resolution (also shown in
figure 1) with the OMB Mid-Session Review path (also shown in figure 3). In both
paths defense discretionary spending is greater than nondefense discretionary
spending from 2001 through 2009. Defense spending under the OMB Mid-Session
Review path largely mirrors the congressional budget resolution defense spending
through 2004. From 2004 through 2009 defense spending under the OMB Mid-Session
Review path is greater than under the congressional budget resolution. Nondefense
4 ThePresident's budget also included other policy proposals for mandatory spending and revenue
offsets to finance discretionary spending. For this reason, the OMB Mid-Session Review path without
the Social Security and Medicare proposals is higher than the OMB capped baseline.

SThese other spending categories account for 5.6 percent of total discretionary spending under the
congressional budget resolution and 5.5 percent under the OMB Mid-Session Review path. As a result,
through 2002, defense and nondefense spending do not equal the discretionary spending totals under
the two paths.
6 CBOand OMB economic projections assumed the Consumer Price Index inflation rate would be 2.5
percent in the out years.



Page 2                                         GAO/AIMD-99-303R Discretionary Spending
B-283728

spending under the OMB Mid-Session Review path is greater than under the
congressional budget resolution throughout most of the period.

We also compared alternative discretionary spending paths in a way that seeks to
illustrate real rather than nominal outlays. As agreed with your staff, we derived this
analysis assuming that the CBO inflated baseline without emergencies projected
represented no real growth over the 1999 level of resources. Figure 5 compares, in
terms of outlays associated with constant real resources, total discretionary spending
anticipated under the congressional budget resolution and under the OMB Mid-
Session Review path with three baselines-CBO inflated, CBO capped, and OMB
capped. By definition the CBO inflated baseline with no emergencies projected
shows constant real resources throughout the period.7 The CBO and OMB capped
baselines show declining spending through 2002 when the statutory budget caps
expire and then represent a steady-albeit lower than the CBO inflated baseline-level
of resources. 8 The congressional budget resolution follows the CBO capped baseline
through the expiration of the statutory caps, is higher in 2003 and 2004, but then
represents a decline in real resources. The OMB Mid-Session Review path parallels-
but is higher than-the CBO and OMB capped baselines. Throughout the period, the
OMB Mid-Session Review path represents a lower level of resources than the CBO
inflated baseline.

Figure 6 compares defense and nondefense discretionary spending under the
congressional budget resolution and the OMB Mid-Session Review path in terms of
outlays associated with constant real resources. Under the congressional budget
resolution, defense spending after 1999 exceeds nondefense spending, but both
defense and nondefense discretionary spending fall in real terms over the period.
While it is higher than under the congressional budget resolution, nondefense
spending under the OMB Mid-Session Review path also falls in real terms over the
period. Defense spending under the OMB Mid-Session Review path is fairly similar to
that of the congressional budget resolution from 2000 until 2004, after which point
defense spending under the OMB Mid-Session Review path grows in real terms.



We will send copies of this letter to Representative JohnKasich, the Chairman of
your committee; Senators Pete Domenici and Frank Lautenberg, in their respective
capacities as Chairman and Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on the Budget;
and the Honorable Jacob Lew, Director, Office of Management and Budget. Copies
will be made available to others on request.




'The deflator was calculated as the percentage change in the CBO inflated baseline relative to total
discretionary spending in 1999.
8 According
          to OMB, the OMB capped baseline differs from the CBO capped baseline largely because
OMB includes anticipated end-of-year adjustments in the statutory caps.


Page 3                                           GAO/AIMD-99-303R Discretionary Spending
B-283728

Please contact me at (202) 5:12-9142 if you or your staff have any questions
concerning this letter. This letter was prepared under the direction of Christine E.
Bonham. Other key contributors were MaryLynn Sergent and Toni J. Wehman.

Sincerely yours,




Associate Dlrector,udget Issues

Enclosure




Page 4                                  GAO/AIMD-99-303R Discretionary Spending
CD                                                                                               Bilions of dollars
 '11
            cn          -.    z                           ro
                                                          IO
                                                           0           I'N
                                                                       h3        r    o
                                                                                      .~
                                                                                                     3
                                                                                                   POP             c     o        a.         Co.)
                                                                                                                                             (,3
            oC                0
                        0.0-IIII
                                                          0            0                   0       o         0                    0o                 0
                      --
                       0a



            :          0>        o                                                                                                (:~                o
                            CD CD




                             mo
                              {P                    ro
            O               =~g                     oO
                             Wa,
                            CD  (D                  o
                     2.     0D
                            oDCD
            o               e        o
            Q                                       -
                            0        0m,            0
            0               (D(
                            ov,                                                                            .i(D

            c               (DO                     0=(
            (a       {33    Q.-o
                                                               C   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~a,~~~~~~~~U
            _5              o) .-                                                                                            :3

                                                                     ~~~~~~~0
                            '-C
                            5LO(A
                            0.
                                           ~c, oo=C

                                                                        (0                       ~~0.~                                          w0

                            0(D
                            -                                                    C)~~~~~~~~~~)                                                           0
                                                                                                                                                         ,.e
                            'O (D0                  0                                                                                                     0
                            o~
                            0 )                                                                                                                          00.
                                                                                                                                                         00
                                 CDqn
                             CD                     0                                                                                                    CD




                            =o,
                              (D7
                                                    o
                                                    a)CD            0~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                                                                                         a
            O                                  -=                                                     0.
                                                                                                                  CDD0                                   c'<
                            Q. o                    oC
        0                      0                    0
                            CA)
                             0 >=
                                     0(1            0                                 0
I::)                        co                      o          oo    o~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                      a,               O~C
       "ICD
                                 C                  0
>.                                                                                                                                      C
CO                          =        DeU
                                                    0),3



                                                                                     ru~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r'
CD0                                  a~    ~        ~~~~~~~~~~~a
                                                     ~    ~                                                              *

                 *              '0
(0                                                                                                                                                             (
       -I   ~                                                                                                                                                  O
00                                   -              N
co
Cn                                                                                                                                                             C
                                                                                                                                                               M'
'0
 CD

 Co                                                                           Billions of dollars
                                                C)               rumN)       Iu             PM            C.)   Ca   CO)
          co                                     0
                                                ,z       I       ,N)
                                                                 .,          0,)            D        co    o)        0)co
          o0          CD                             0       0           0          0            0   0          a0    0
          o           (D *-
          CD          C/).


          D             aID


                         Co
                      oD C-D              O
                                                                                        o
          ).         2. E


                      -0                  0
          Cn               'D


          .            CD
          o
                                vo                                                                                               o
                                0)C
               OD(




                     oa                                                            Io


                        O-
                      0)0                                                               o                                    ,


                     C :o        '0


                             CDO)
                     -.0              -


                             Co0                                                                                            C)



                     '- '0                                                                                                  0~i~
                     C, 00                o


                      oo                                                                                                    -C
                      cocO




                           0

00'                        o0                                                                                                    r+

      0                    CD
                           o                                           W
SD                           CD                                      Z                                    CD
CA)                               3                               CD0
                                                                    DC

                           CD             C)                           CD                                 CD
                           o              o-                                                              CD                          oDI


                           'CD
                           Co             Do
                                          o
                           W              o
"3                         'd             ((D
                           CDDa.




co                                                                                                                                    CD
CD                                                                                                         Billions of dollars
                                                               N         r               I'O i      O
                                                                                                    r~             co      GO         CA)c
                                                                                                                                      .W     0              0
                      cn                z co                   C)             ro          N         m              ao            OD                         O4-
           o          CD             0                         0              0          0          0       0      0       0          0      0          0   0
           C              co                                         _
           0          conc
                        o0
                               ==--I
                CD
           >                            C              C
           o          <.-r 0                           co
                      CD -- M
           C)             CD C                         -'~~N
                                                                                                                          1~~~~~~~~~~~~U                               D


                                                                 o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                      :        CDno                                                                         ""
           0        oo!W                               C
           oo             -
                          ,
                               =c_~-
                               x --                    0
                                                       o0D                                                                                                             a
           CD                      CD                                                                                                                                 -- k
           o                   CD
           a)         0        CDNCL                   C)                                                                                                              CD
                                                (n =                                                                                                            0
           C0 D
                                                                                           ... k~~~         ~        ~         ~~~~~5
                                     -0
                                     C                 0
                                                       -C


                                                       0.~                                                                                                      0
                               CpDCO
                                                                ,.                   o~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                C~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Cr
                      CD
                      CL
                 -.   Cd)                                                                                                                                         0-

                                   saCD                o
                                                       0                                                                                                          O    0
                                                                                           CD       CO.-                                                        C)~O
                -                   oC                                                                                                                          C33
                      CD CD                      n                                                                 00
                               O r0
                               =
                               "    : ,                                                                             O
                           - n                  c                            S'o~~~~~~~~~                                                                               J-


                                                                                   su,                                                                          ~~~~~~~~~~~33
           o                   C <              (      O
                                                        00                                                                !0                     (~                    n


                      CD03              n              0
                          .0a                           o-
                                        0~~~0
                                                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-Uo
                          CD0D                                                                                                                                    0
           o~*
           ~  ~                    Cd,m
                                   C
                                     3=t               OCI
                                                       c
                                                                                                                   (1):

                      (DC3
                         CDCO                          0                                                                                                               CD
                            cn                         o
                                                       C.                                                                                                              0
                                    CD)

           >                                                                                                                                                           0~~~
G)                                      co              0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      (0~~~


o     0)                                N              03                                                          0~C
                                        Co
                                                       N)                                                                                                              CD
o
                                                                                                                                                                       3CDC

0                                                      00
C)                                  C                                                                              co                            0
      o                                                C                                                                                         a~~Z
                                                0   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0
                                                                    u,     hD
                                                e, ru                         N)
                                                                                                                   co~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~cCD~~~~~~~~~~C
                                                                                                                   .4,



0L         z                                    ~~~~~~0CD                                                                                                                     r
           Ci)                                                                                                     C                             CD~~~N
           C/                                          C                                                                                                                      m
V0                                                                                                                                                                            0
CD0
                                                                                                                                                                              Cl)
(0
                                                                                                                                                                              CD
-,
D)
CD                                                                                                Billions of dollars
CD
                                                                   oro     r       1~                                0A       co        c..o   0c       c   0
                          00-                                      O           o          o   0             0             0   O         O      O        O   o
                           c            .                                      I          I             I            I         I
                  (   CD
                           C0 CD
                      >0
                       o            3                     (D
                      m                                   CO

          =           00C
          c              C
                         (D "I(
                        CDC
          9.,         00=-..C
                       00
                                m(D(
          o           O                                   0
                                                                                                                                                                         -
                           OCD
          Q                .         tDO                  CD·


                                                                    0~~~~~~~~~~~~.
                                            _L                0

              3       D'             0<                   0                               '                                                                              ''D
          Cj3              0.               L
                  -       - 03 (O%                                                                                                                          OCD          O
                               (D                         0                                                                                                      (D 3
                                                                                                                                                                 wu
                                        -o~
                                        CC7
                                        -D


          0L          C
                                    .CD
                                    DD
                                    0 CD
                                                                                                                                                            cn    *
                                    CD                    0



                                                                   ~~~~~                           o~,
                                                                                   =Iv~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,,                                                                  ,

                                        cr,~
                                        CD
                                                          o-
                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                            r'
                                                                                                                                                            -    (A00-
                      0

                                CD=O
                                                                         o~~~0
                                     p
                                     d0
                                        ~~~                                                                                                                      {'
                                                                                                                                                                 oO
                                        03                0                                       --                          0~a}
                                                                                                                              03                                 C       0
                                Co                                                                               O
                                a                         0                                                      :
                                    0=
                                    Co           ,-.'          o                                                                                    =       C'   -- u
                                                        _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C
                                                                               ~~~~~~~s           O         ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(D3
                                    ::3
                                    a                     PO                                       O
                                        0.2~~                                                           0-.0
                                        a                ~~o                                      c-
                                     co                                                                                                                                               o__0
                                            0I                                                                                                                           0

                                        0                 CD       CL                                   -                                                   M (A~~~~~C
                                                                                                                                                                 (A
                                                                                                                                                                 cD
                                        r\3               O                                       E
     mD                                                   ro                                                     0 (          0V,9)(L
                                                                   C)     C)                                                                                             CL~~~~~~*C
                                                          0                                                 *=                                  0.
Ip   0                          0 !

          mn                                             ~o
                                                         o                                                                                                                            m
                            Cl)                           N                                        CD            03

                           CI)                            m                                       ~cn            =            C
                                                                                                                                                                         O~~~~C
                                                        O3IU                                       O             C            (D                                         0~
                               f.O 0
                                CD                                                                 (D:
                           0                                                                                                                    CLo
                                                              >~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~U
                                                                                                   C
                                                                                                                                                                                      CD~F
     CO
     CD                                                                                                                                                                               0
                                                              co         o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
co                                                                                                                                                                                    CDv


                                                                                                                                                CC                                0
V
                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                   -.
co
CD
co

                                                                                                                  Billions of dollars
                                                                    R "                    $                  "                   "cn                          C.            c8cn              U          C
         C)               CD
                          :Z              z01        .0                0                   C
                                                                                           0O        '4       -
                                                                                                              0                   0                           0              0                 O
                                                                                                                                                                                               0          0             CD




                    COD
         >           = 0)                                                                                                                                                                                                   (D~L
                      O                                                                                                                                                                                                       cn5

                                  W
         M)         -
                         CD~
                              .                 CD                   00                                                                                                                   j                             5.    ul~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                C
         o           C
                     o
                    §~                          0c                                                                                                                                                                            ,
                   0 CD 5:~~C

         o- CD      -C
                       -- m-                                                                                                                                                     /o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              -
                                                ro

         0          (D a
                                                                                       0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



         co         to                          roP,                                                                                                      'P                                                  o         piiS
         0.CD                                   0
         CO               0                                                                                                                           /                                                       00w
                    o_.        CO                )w                                                                                                                                                                         CC
                                                0                                                                                                                                                                       5


         = o~
         CDn              CD                                                                                                  V                                                                                    ~~(
                                                                                                                                                                                                              U) DiC
         o                                                                                                                                                                                                    o'
                                                                                                                                                                                                               O~0.
                   m      3                     0CL                                                                                     o                                                                     o
                          3·
                          C:             .0                                o                        --                                            0
                                                                                                                                                                                 CD
                          3-            C:
                                        cD. 80r'                                                                                                                                                                              C
                                                                               C) '.c.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C
                                                                            r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~3r
                                                                           3~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                                                                                     (D
                                                                             0-~~~~~~~~o~~~~~~         1                                ~ ~ ~ ~                                                               re~
                                    -Z                           -


                          o         ..
                                    CO                                                                            *                         '..                                                               I/)   .
                                                                               CD               0~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                           01~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                          o
                          oD
                          CO
                          ~-
                                                     ,                          5 -'a
                                                                                    C                                         1
                                                                                                                                      CD
                                                                                                                                                          -                                                       jV
                                                                                                                                                                                                              C00 C.
                                                                                CD 0                                                                                                                          o                   L
                          CD                                                                                                                                                                                            C* (a
                                             -0                                 -~~~~0

                                           =r                                                                                     i~~~~~~                                                                     (D                  c


                          CD                                                        CDC
                   o      CD
                          CD        0                                               C                                                                     =;                          ~~~~~~~~0E
                                                                                                                                                                                         D    -.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  r
                          o -- ' C)                                                                                   C)~~~~                                                                                  .         C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ,,C
                          CDCD                                                                                        -                                                                                                 C
                                  CD                                                                                  W                                   CDQ~~~~C                                                          Wa.
                                                o         CD                                    CO                            []                  0       3                               CD                            coC

     O
     >
                          (p                    S                                               O   ~ ~~~D-a
                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                              o         C                 a                                   C
                                                                                                                                                                                              0C
                                                                                                                                                                                               3D<-
                          CD                                                                                          0            0=
                                        co            ~~                            ~                                                                     CL:1    a

                         ~~~o                                                                                         5.                                                                                                          u,,-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                       a        ~~~~~~~~0CD
                                                                                                 · oo  r                                                       ~.     0                       C                         3
                                                                                                co                                                                                                                                       r
C-
0                         u,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(:
                          CD                                                                                                                      !~-J,,                                                                CD

              U)                  C/~                                                                                 nC~oD             U)
                                                                                                                                        oO                        b                           ~
                                                              CDw~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                           ~                 ,                         cb~~            ~            ~~~n                           0       0c
0D       CD    ~                   ~                      ~           ~             ~                     ~           ~           1                                                                                                      0
                          :~                                                                                                                                                                                                              C



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          o
CD                                                              3                                                                                                                                                                        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D0
-D

                          CD                co          ~~~~~~~~~~~Billions of dollars
o                                                                        ro              ro                       N~            ro        a            r              C
                                                                                                                                                                      o        o
                                                                                                                                                                ,     Cr,      CA)
                               "co                                                       o                        o                       o                 o         o        o
                   0
           0o                                                   c
                              2,        <                       CD
                CA) C~S                                         '                                                                                                                          c
                      CD
                 oco3~~~~~c                                     CO


                   U)         CDoC                                                                                                                                                         (A

                              o= Co :L                          0,'
                   0 o           F *=       o
                              COO
                              {0"
                             U3
                             w                                  0
                         w L <L
                    D        ~CD~
                              CD cDn(n
                   _<.                           0'                                                                                                                                                ~
                                                                              0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                                                                   a
                   CDo
                   CL      -.
                           C                      )-f                                                                       ;        a)
                   cr Oa:
                        0_:~=                                                                                                                                         .·
                         O    O CD O
                                   7                                                                                                                                                       'at
                         0=U)oD                                     ~.
                                        CD                                                                                                                                                         CD




                   _-              00        U)CD
                                                                                                              .CD
                              "0C
                                0CD~                           00                                                                                                                     0-           0.
                                                                                                      CA)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C
                              CD:Z Cr                                                                                                                                                              CL
                                 XDCD
                              UiEO'C                                                                                                              co)c~
                              a-CO
                                   0    cU                     CA
                                                                                                  ·                         ·
                                                                                                                                                      I1
                                                CD                                                    05'Uo                                                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,/
                              CD CDW                       0        )
                                        -o                     0


                                        0                                                                                                                                                  O.
     >X~                       CL CO  '                    O   K)                                     0                                                               CC
                               a   U)oCD                                                                                                                                                           0
                                                               oC                                     -*
                                 COCD                          0                                                                                                                           y
                                                                                                                                                                               -     0M5
                               SCD                                                                    C*)
                                        c,                                           ,                                                                                                     00
                                                                                                                                                                                           300


                                                        oB~~~~~~~
                                                           o                                                                                                          co                   C3
                                                      C:        0                                 CD                                                                                  '

                               '            CCD                C
                                                               0)                             (CDU
                                                                                              i'D))                                                             ::
                                                      CD       CD
                                                               CD                                                                                 '                                                -.
                                             CDCD                                                 ) CDC                                                                                    0
                                                Co0                                                   0
     cn                                 "a                     r                                                                                                                           n
     0                                                         0                                                                              _                                                '
                                        CL                     N3                                                                             CD                          I
                                                                                                                                              OO                                           0

                                                                C                                                                                                    0DCD
                                                                                                                                                                       O
     o             ,)                                                                                                                                                                              oM
     CD,                                                                      ~           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                                                                             n                                                                             .               T       J    cn
     :3
                                                           CDo~~~J~
                                                               I
                                                                                          ~       i     CC
                                                                                                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                  K)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~U
                                        a=0CD                  0
                                                               I".)                                    *                                      0                       CD                   0o1. u,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
                                        CD)                    00                        J~~~~~~~~~~~                  CD                                             C:0D
CD                                      0 VO                                                               CD0C                                                      CD
                                                03             1CO
                                                               ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0
CD                                      0                      o                              '
     C/)
                                    co                                                                                                                                                                  0~c

                                        CD                                                                                                                                                 cnc          C
                                                                                                                                                                                                        0D