United States General Accounting Office GAO Report to Congressional Requesters January 1999 YEAR 2000 COMPUTING CRISIS Status of Airports’ Efforts to Deal With Date Change Problem GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division B-280090 January 29, 1999 The Honorable John McCain Chairman, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation United States Senate The Honorable Slade Gorton Chairman, Subcommittee on Aviation Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation United States Senate The successful operation of the National Airspace System—the network supporting U.S. aviation operations that includes navigation facilities, airports, equipment, services, and information and rules—is dependent, in part, on the equipment, including computers, that airports use to carry out their operations. This equipment helps provide safe, secure, and efficient aircraft operations and other services to the public; it includes controls for such functions as lighting runways, monitoring access to secured areas, handling baggage, and fueling aircraft. Because the software and hardware components used to control airport equipment may not be able to distinguish between the years 1900 and 2000, this equipment may malfunction when the date changes from 1999 to 2000. This report responds to your request to examine the status of airports’ efforts to prepare for the year 2000 and to help ensure that the equipment supporting the functions needed for the safe and efficient operation of our nation’s airports will be ready. Specifically, we agreed to address the following: (1) What is the status of airports’ efforts to help ensure that their computers and electronic equipment will function properly on and after January 1, 2000? (2) How will the safety, the security, and the efficiency of the National Airspace System be affected if airports’ Year 2000 preparations are not completed in time? and (3) What factors affect the progress of airports’ preparations for the year 2000? The operations we examined in this review include those under the control, in whole or in part, of the nation’s airports. They do not include such other critical functions in the nation’s air transportation system as the air traffic control system operated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) or the operations and the maintenance of aircraft and other equipment owned or operated by the nation’s airlines. Our primary Page 1 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 method of data collection for this report was a questionnaire we mailed to 413 airports owned by local municipalities, states, and regional or independent authorities. This questionnaire focused on airports’ preparations to help ensure essential operations continue through and after the year 2000. The questionnaire was based, in part, on a GAO publication describing a structured approach for addressing the Year 2000 date change.1 To obtain the highest possible response rate, we agreed with your staff that the responses from individual airports would remain confidential. As of December 1998, we obtained responses from 334 airports (81 percent), which represent about 96 percent of the passengers that were served by U.S. airports in 1996. For a full description of our methodology, see appendix I. The nation’s airports have been making progress in preparing for the year Results in Brief 2000. However, there is substantial variation in the progress they have achieved and the approaches they have been taking. Among the airports responding to our survey, about one-third reported that they would meet the June 30, 1999, date FAA recommended to complete preparations for addressing the Year 2000 date change; another one-third did not report that they would meet this date but had begun contingency planning to help ensure continued operations if equipment malfunctions; and a final one-third did not meet either of these criteria. This final third are mostly small airports, but they include 9 of the nation’s 50 largest airports.2 Also, many airports were not following a comprehensive and structured approach, which is the most effective way to prepare for the year 2000. The airports that responded to our questionnaire have completed, on average, less than half of their repair work. Officials at airports and FAA agreed that adequate safeguards are in place to ensure the safety and the security of the National Airspace System before and after the Year 2000 date change. However, airports that do not meet FAA’s June 1999 recommended preparation date are at increased risk of experiencing some equipment malfunctions. If manual procedures must be substituted for operations normally controlled by automated equipment, an airport’s efficiency—its ability to handle its normal number 1 Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.14, Sept. 1997). 2 We grouped the airports in our analysis into three categories according to their size, which was based on the number of passengers they served in 1996. “Large” represents the 50 airports that served the largest number of passengers (over 83 percent of the passengers); “medium” represents the 91 airports that served about 15 percent of the passengers; and “small” represents the 272 airports that served about 3 percent of the passengers. In general, large and medium-sized airports are more dependent on automation than small airports (see app. I). Page 2 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 of scheduled flights per day—would decrease and thus cause flight delays. Because of the interdependence among airline flights and airport facilities, delays at one airport could cause delays at other airports and eventually affect the efficiency of the National Airspace System. The severity of these delays would depend to a large extent on the size of the airports and which equipment malfunctions. FAA, airport, and other aviation industry officials cited several factors that have affected the timeliness of Year 2000 preparations, including an airport’s use of contractors, the assistance provided by aviation industry associations, and the activities undertaken by the Congress and by FAA. Contractors have helped some airports prepare for the year 2000 by providing them with the trained personnel they lack. Aviation industry associations have helped increase airports’ awareness of the implications of the year 2000 through discussions at seminars and workshops and by identifying airport equipment that might be vulnerable to problems caused by the date change. In October 1998, the Congress passed legislation to encourage the sharing of information about Year 2000 equipment readiness and testing, and FAA established criteria that airports must meet to verify that the equipment used to support the safety and security activities the agency regulates is ready for the year 2000. Airports are an important component of the National Airspace System Background (NAS), as they are the entry and exit points to the NAS for most travelers. Although airports differ greatly in size and in the services they provide, most airports provide parking services, security and access control on their grounds, baggage-handling services, aircraft fueling, navigational support (such as runway lighting), and emergency communications throughout the airport and to ground crews. Some airports also provide such additional services as moving sidewalks and subways to connect terminals and computerized monitoring of runway conditions. To help provide these services, airports often rely on computer systems and other equipment with internal microprocessors. Some of these functions—such as baggage handling, controlling access to secured areas, and runway lighting—can also be performed manually and often are performed manually at small airports. Other key NAS components include U.S. airlines and FAA’s air traffic control system, both of which provide many functions at airports. Airlines often provide their own ticketing and check-in systems, jet bridges (movable walkways to connect an aircraft to an airport’s gates), and X-ray screening Page 3 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 devices. FAA provides air traffic surveillance, navigation, and communications for aircraft. Although FAA and the airlines both have personnel, facilities, and equipment at airports, the responsibilities of an airport operator do not extend to them. Additionally, such conveniences as restaurants, automatic teller machines, and gift shops are not usually the responsibility of the airport; they are usually operated by contractors who lease space from the airport. On January 1, 2000, many computers worldwide could malfunction (e.g., produce inaccurate information) or fail simply because the year will change from 1999 to 2000. Such malfunctions or failures could have a costly, widespread impact. The problem comes from how computers and other microprocessors have recorded and computed dates for the past several decades. Typically, they have used two digits to represent the year—such as “98” for 1998—to save electronic storage space and reduce operating costs. In such a format, however, 2000 is indistinguishable from 1900. Nationwide, software and computer experts are concerned that this could cause computers and equipment with internal microprocessors to malfunction in unforeseen ways or to fail completely. To help airports prepare for the year 2000, FAA and the aviation industry have developed of a list of 22 core functions for airports, such as baggage handling, access control, and aircraft fueling.3 Each core function includes specific, discrete tasks that, when carried out together, meet an essential operational need of an airport, such as communications, access control, or aircraft fueling. Certain core functions having to do with safety and security are regulated by FAA and therefore must be present at airports, such as providing navigational aids and access control. FAA, however, does not prescribe what equipment, if any, airports must use to perform these regulated core functions. Other core functions, including automated baggage handling, aircraft fueling, and ground support,4 help airports meet other needs or enhance the passengers’ convenience and efficiency. FAA has also recommended that airports either (1) complete the process of ensuring that all their equipment supporting core functions regulated by FAA is Year 2000-compliant or (2) have contingency plans to ensure the continued operation of these functions. 3 Our questionnaire focused on 14 of these core functions. To minimize the time respondents would need to fill out our questionnaire, we omitted the functions that are neither required by FAA for certification under part 139 (Airport Certification and Operations), part 107 (Airport Security), or part 108 (Airplane Operator Security) of the Federal Aviation Regulations nor deemed “airfield critical.” (For a detailed list of core functions, see table I.1 in app. I). 4 Ground support includes such services as gate assignment and snow and ice control. Page 4 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 To help federal agencies prepare for the year 2000, we have issued Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide, which discusses the scope of the challenges and offers a structured, step-by-step approach to review and assess an organization’s readiness to handle the Year 2000 problem. The guide’s general principles are being widely used by entities outside the federal government, and we believe this approach would also help airports better prepare for the year 2000. However, even if an organization uses a structured approach to prepare for the year 2000, its operations could still face major disruptions. Many organizations will not be able to repair or replace, fully test, and implement all of their essential equipment in time. Furthermore, equipment that an organization considers to be completely repaired, validated, and implemented may encounter unanticipated Year 2000 problems because exhaustive testing of interconnected production systems is not a practical option. Moreover, essential services provided by the public infrastructure (including electricity, water, transportation, and voice and data telecommunications) are also vulnerable to Year 2000-induced equipment failures. To mitigate the risk of equipment failures and their potential impact, organizations must ensure that they have established contingency plans to provide operational continuity and to support their core functions.5 Airports are making progress in their efforts to prepare for the year 2000, Some Airports May but their efforts vary considerably. Nearly a third of the airports that Finish Year 2000 responded to our questionnaire reported that they will not complete their Preparations Late and preparations for the Year 2000 problem by FAA’s recommended date of June 30, 1999, and have no contingency plans in place. Moreover, many Are Not Following a airports lack some or all of the chief components of a structured approach Structured Approach to Year 2000 repairs, which is most likely to ensure success. Many Airports Will Not The Office Of Management and Budget (OMB) has set milestones of Complete Preparations by September 1998, January 1999, and March 1999, respectively, for federal the Recommended Date agencies to complete renovating, testing, and implementing their systems. FAA has announced it will complete its preparations by June 30, 1999, and has recommended the same date to airports as the deadline for either (1) completing the process of ensuring that all their equipment supporting the core functions related to safety is Year 2000 ready or (2) implementing contingency plans to ensure the continuation of these functions. 5 For a complete discussion of continuity and contingency planning, see GAO’s Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (GAO/AIMD-10.1.19, Aug. 1998). Page 5 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Fewer than 15 percent of the responding airports indicated that they intended to meet OMB’s March date for completing preparations. Slightly more than a third (but nearly half of the large airports) expected to meet FAA’s June 1999 recommended date. An additional 32 percent indicated they had not yet determined their completion date. We asked the airports whether they had developed contingency plans for each of the 14 core functions in the event that the Year 2000 date change caused equipment malfunctions. Just over half of the airports reported contingency plans for at least one core function. In general, large airports have contingency plans for more functions than small airports. However, a substantial number of the airports (about a third of the large airports, about a quarter of the medium-sized airports, and half of the small airports) reported they had no contingency plans, did not know of such plans for any of their core functions, or did not respond. Many of the airports (32 percent) indicated that they would not meet FAA’s deadline and also reported that they did not have any contingency plans. These include 9 large airports, 19 medium-sized airports, and 79 small airports (see fig. 1). Page 6 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Figure 1: Estimated Percentage of Airports Not Prepared by June 1999 and Having No Contingency Plans Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 Small airports Medium-sized airports Large airports All airports Completion after June 30, 1999 No contingency plans Both Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Many Airports Lack Key We asked respondents to our questionnaire about a number of elements Elements of a Structured considered important to developing a structured approach to managing Approach to the Year 2000 the Year 2000 problem. These included program oversight; program plans; program-tracking mechanisms; inventories of systems, equipment, and Problem data exchanges; efforts to determine how to fix systems; and the status of renovation efforts, testing and validation plans, and contingency plans. We did not validate the information the airports reported. Most airports reported that their Year 2000 programs were in place, with defined management responsibilities and tracking mechanisms and inventories of Page 7 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 potentially affected equipment already complete or in process. However, most airports had not yet determined how to renovate all their equipment. The large airports typically reported following a more structured approach than the small ones. As noted earlier, the large and medium-sized airports are generally more dependent on automation than the small airports. Program Oversight A central program office with the authority to manage and coordinate Year 2000 activities is a key element to a successful program. Because of the interdependencies among an airport’s computers, equipment, applications, and databases, the date change problem requires centrally developed and integrated renovation plans, validation standards and tests, and resource allocations. Nearly all airports reported that a specific person or group had oversight responsibility for Year 2000 preparations. The large airports were more likely than the medium-sized or small airports to have appointed a Year 2000 program manager rather than adding this responsibility to the airport administrator’s other responsibilities. Only 16 airports, all of them small airports, reported having no person or group with specific oversight responsibility in this area (see fig. 2). Page 8 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Figure 2: Person or Group Who Oversees the Airports’ Year 2000 Efforts Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 Year 2000 Airport Year 2000 Consultant or Other (e.g., None program administrator program contractor city or county manager committee department) Small airports, n=205 Medium-sized airports, n=78 Large airports, n=48 Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Program Plan A Year 2000 program plan should include, among other things, schedules for all tasks and phases of the Year 2000 program, an assessment and a selection of repair options, an assignment of conversion or replacement projects to Year 2000 project teams, a risk assessment of the systems’ and the equipment’s vulnerabilities to the year 2000, and contingency plans. Of the airports we surveyed, only 16 percent reported completing their Year 2000 plans. A third were in the process of completing these plans, and about half (about two-thirds of them small airports) reported not having a written plan at all (see fig. 3). Page 9 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Figure 3: Degree of Completion of the Airports’ Year 2000 Plans Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 Complete In process No plan Small airports, n=206 Medium-sized airports, n=78 Large airports, n=49 Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Tracking Mechanisms Two-thirds of airports actively track the progress of their Year 2000 activities—though tracking was more common at the large airports than at the small ones. Ninety-four percent of the large airports, 81 percent of the medium-sized airports, and 55 percent of the small airports reported that they had tracking mechanisms. Inventories A comprehensive inventory of systems and electronic equipment provides the necessary foundation for Year 2000 program planning and helps to ensure that all the equipment is identified. Nearly all the airports indicated that they had already developed or were in the process of developing an inventory of their systems and electronic equipment (see fig. 4). Page 10 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Figure 4: Status of Airports’ Year 2000 Computer and Equipment Inventories Percentage 100 80 60 40 20 0 Airports that have few, Airports with Airports in the Airports having if any, date-dependent no inventory process completed their systems or electronic of completing inventories equipment their inventories Small airports, n=204 Medium-sized airports, n=74 Large airports, n=49 Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Data Exchanges Some electronic systems that support an airport’s core functions exchange data with other systems not directly under that airport’s control. For example, according to some officials, some information systems exchange personnel information with local government offices, and others exchange information on gate and baggage locations with the airlines’ flight information systems. Airports must address data exchange issues, including notifying outside entities with whom they exchange information about any changes to their computers to address the Year 2000 problem. They must also develop verification processes for incoming external data Page 11 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 and develop procedures to handle invalid data for airports’ progress in this area (see fig. 5). Figure 5: Percentage of the Airports That Have a Comprehensive List of Percentage Data Exchanges 100 80 60 40 20 0 Airports that have an Airports that do not Airports reporting inventory of data have an inventory that no data exchanges of data exchanges exchanges are present Small airports, n=134 Medium-sized airports, n=59 Large airports, n=45 Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Prioritizing and Determining Organizations should review their inventory to identify mission-critical Renovation Plans systems, determine how to best renovate them (either through repair, replacement, or retirement), schedule renovation activities, and test the new systems. Of 262 airports reporting on whether they had assessed their inventories to identify mission-critical systems, over two-thirds said they had. Of these, fewer than 40 percent of the airports reported that they had determined how they will renovate all of their affected systems. Page 12 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Status of Renovation We asked the airports how far they had progressed in renovating the systems associated with each of the 14 core functions. The airports reported that, on average, they had completed more than half of the work on about four core functions and half or less of the work on the remaining functions. The airports reported the least progress in the areas of environmental systems and airport services (e.g., elevators and moving sidewalks) and the most progress in such areas as administration and weather systems (see fig. 6). Page 13 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Figure 6: Status of the Airports’ Renovation Work on Core Functions Number of core functions 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Average number of Average number Average number of Average number functions for which of functions for functions for which of functions for airports have which airports airports reported which airports did completed more than have completed Year 2000 not know the half of the renovation half or less of the renovations were status of work renovation work not required renovation work Small airports, n=205 Medium-sized airports, n=78 Large airports, n=47 Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports. Testing and Validation Testing and validating all repaired systems and equipment are important steps to help ensure that these components perform as expected. Over half of the airports reported that, rather than perform tests themselves, they will rely on the manufacturers’ certifications to document that the majority of their systems and electronic equipment are ready for the year 2000. This Page 14 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 was true for about 36 percent of the large airports, about 60 percent of the medium-sized airports, and slightly over half of the small airports. Almost a third of the large and over half of the medium-sized airports reported that they had already received such certification for their equipment. To continue operations, FAA requires that airports meet certain safety and Airport Officials State security standards. Airport officials do not expect core functions to be That Year 2000 compromised by Year 2000 problems because they can resort to manual Malfunctions Are backup procedures. However, manual procedures could seriously reduce an airport’s efficiency, thus causing delays that could ripple through the Unlikely to Affect NAS. Given the short time remaining for airports to complete their Year Safety and Security 2000 preparations, it appears likely that some critical equipment will fail or malfunction, the efficiency of some airports will be degraded, and delays but Could resulting from less efficient backup procedures or the closures of some Compromise an airports for safety and security reasons could reduce the efficiency of the Airport’s Efficiency NAS. Safety and Security Are Under Federal Aviation Regulations, airports are required to provide a Not Expected to Be number of safety-and security-related functions, such as access control, Compromised, but Reliable fuel services, runway lighting and monitoring, and emergency communications. FAA does not specify how these functions are to be Backup Procedures Must provided; an airport may use any method, system, or procedure to provide Be Available them. If an airport is unable to provide any of these safety and security functions, FAA requires it to suspend or restrict operations. (For a complete list of FAA’s required safety and security functions, see app. I.) Airport officials reported that their airport’s safety and security functions are unlikely to be affected by year 2000-induced systems malfunctions because their airport could resort to manual backup procedures. For example, if an access control system were to malfunction, FAA officials said an airport would be permitted to post guards to control key access points. Similarly, if runway lighting systems were to malfunction, airport officials reported that they could operate the runway lights manually or restrict landings to daylight hours and divert any aircraft arriving after dark to other airports. Such contingency plans, however, will need to be fully developed and tested to help ensure that safety or security is not degraded. For example, some airport officials indicated that their contingency plans for Year 2000 malfunctions with their baggage-handling and access control equipment involve substituting manual procedures. Such contingency plans could Page 15 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 require hiring additional airport personnel and performing background checks. In addition, employees performing unfamiliar tasks to compensate for the malfunction of automated equipment would have to be trained to minimize the possibility of human errors affecting airport safety or security. Some airport officials were concerned about having the human resources they might need to respond to equipment malfunctions. Citing the “tight local labor market,” they expressed concerns about their ability to obtain qualified personnel and adequately train them in time to manually perform procedures to replace any automated equipment that might malfunction. Equipment Malfunctions Airport officials we interviewed stated that substituting manual backup Could Disrupt the NAS procedures for automated equipment could slow down their airport’s operations. For example, according to officials at one large airport, if the computer that controls their runways’ lights malfunctioned, turning the lights on manually would be a time- and labor-intensive process because the manual controls are located on the airfield and are quite far apart. Additionally, because so much of the non-safety-related equipment at large airports facilitates moving people quickly, malfunctions of key systems (including baggage-handling systems, interterminal subways and moving sidewalks, and automated fuel distribution systems)—while not likely to affect safety—could dramatically delay an airport’s operations. Furthermore, delays at one airport could disrupt schedules at connecting airports as well, eventually reducing the efficiency of the entire NAS. To the extent that these delays are confined to small airports, the effect on the NAS may not be severe. However, Year 2000 problems at just a small number of the nation’s largest airports could prove very disruptive. Given the significant number of airports in our survey that reported they did not expect to meet FAA’s recommended June 30, 1999, preparation date and had not completed contingency plans, it is possible that critical equipment at some airports will malfunction and disrupt the performance of some core functions. Should this situation occur, FAA and airport officials agree that they will suspend or restrict operations rather than potentially compromise an airport’s safety or security. However, significant delays at some airports could reduce the efficiency of the entire NAS. Page 16 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Airport managers and other members of the aviation industry identified a Assistance to number of potential sources of assistance to airports confronting the Year Airports’ Year 2000 2000 challenge. First, contractors with appropriate expertise can provide Programs Is Available the trained personnel that an airport might lack and might be able to repair equipment faster than that airport’s staff. Second, aviation industry From External associations have helped to inform airports about Year 2000 issues. Third, Sources legislation recently passed by the Congress can be expected to encourage information sharing. Finally, FAA has helped airports by providing procedures for documenting their Year 2000 readiness. The Use of Contractors Many airport officials commented that the use of contractors had Can Improve Airports’ significantly assisted their progress in completing Year 2000 preparations. Readiness Officials at large airports, in particular, acknowledged the importance of contractors. Because most airports routinely contract out certain services and maintenance rather than have their own staff perform that work, they lack the trained personnel in-house to conduct Year 2000 repairs, particularly those that require special expertise, such as testing internal microprocessors and replacing those that are date-dependent. Some aviation consulting firms that specialize in Year 2000 problems have developed databases that provide information on the Year 2000 status of equipment that is used at many airports. Additionally, some airports are working to develop global Year 2000 solutions that could be tested at a single airport, allowing subsequent airports with the same equipment to then install and implement that equipment without repeating the testing procedures. In responding to our survey, about a fifth of the small airports, almost two-fifths of the medium-sized airports, and three-fourths of the large airports indicated that they have either hired or intend to hire contractors. Aviation Industry Aviation industry associations have been working to help ensure airports Associations Have Been will be prepared to operate through and beyond the year 2000. Officials at Assisting Airports’ Year some of these associations say that while their organizations do not have the technical expertise to assist airports in actual Year 2000 testing or 2000 Efforts repairs, they have helped keep their members informed. The Airports Council International—North America (ACI-NA) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), both of which represent domestic airport operators, regularly include information on the Year 2000 problem in their newsletters and correspondence with members, discuss Year 2000 issues at workshops and conferences, and have been involved in seminars focused on the year 2000. ACI-NA recently sponsored a workshop Page 17 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 to give airport officials a forum for sharing best practices on how to prepare for the year 2000 and plans to hold additional workshops to encourage information sharing. The Air Transport Association of America (ATA), a group representing domestic air carriers, has taken a more active role in its efforts to help ensure airports are prepared to operate through and beyond the year 2000. In addition to such awareness activities as those just mentioned, ATA has contracted with a management consulting firm to inventory equipment at 158 domestic airports. ATA is interested in gathering information on the status of the equipment that could affect air carriers’ ability to operate and in raising awareness among airport officials about the extent to which the Year 2000 problem could affect their operations. Additionally, ATA has provided materials to airports to help them conduct their inventories. Federal Legislation Has Officials from airports, an aviation trade group, and FAA all expressed Assisted Airports in concerns that a reluctance to share information about equipment and its Preparing for the Year 2000 components was impeding progress toward Year 2000 readiness. They said many parties involved in preparations for the year 2000 feared being held liable for equipment malfunctions if information they provided about the problem—including the status of equipment and its components, or tests and repair procedures involving such equipment—turned out to be inaccurate. In response to these and other similar concerns expressed in many business sectors, in October 1998 the Congress passed legislation to encourage the sharing of Year 2000-readiness information and to address the potential for legal liability associated with the disclosure and the exchange of this information.6 The law also states that sharing Year 2000 information does not violate antitrust laws. Airport officials we spoke with when this legislation was pending before the Congress said sharing information on manufacturers’ certification and Year 2000 status would eliminate much repetitive testing by airports. Some airport officials, however, were less optimistic about the usefulness of this law. They speculated that such a law might foster carelessness and increase the amount of inaccurate information in circulation, thereby impeding airports’ Year 2000 efforts. In addition, the Congress, at FAA’s request, has authorized Airport Improvement Program (AIP) funds to be used in fiscal year 1999 for Year 2000 assessment and related testing. A provision in the Fiscal Year 1999 6 The Year 2000 Information and Readiness Disclosure Act (P.L. 105-271) was enacted on October 19, 1998. Page 18 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 Omnibus Appropriations Act7 permits these funds to be used to assess and test all equipment owned by an airport regardless of the equipment’s eligibility under this program. FAA expects that up to $100 million in such funds could be used under this provision. FAA Is Helping Airports To maintain the continued operation of the NAS, several offices within FAA Prepare for the Year 2000 are collaborating to help ensure airports are adequately prepared for the year 2000. In FAA’s Office of the Administrator, the Year 2000 program staff is focusing primarily on FAA itself, preparing air traffic control equipment and FAA’s internal computer systems for the date change. The Year 2000 program office intends to plan for any disruptions that could occur if the nation’s airports are not prepared for potential delays caused by Year 2000-related equipment malfunctions. Two other offices—Airport Safety and Standards and Civil Aviation Security—are working specifically with airports. FAA’s Office of Airport Safety and Standards, which oversees airports’ federally mandated safety-related operations, has provided airports with a framework for renovating their equipment. Additionally, the Associate Administrator for Airports distributed to the nation’s public airports a list of commonly used airport equipment that may be vulnerable to Year 2000 problems. The list is partly based in part on ATA’s and ACI-NA’s assessments of airports and categorizes the equipment by functional area, such as communications, financial systems, and passenger services (see app. I). The Associate Administrator for Airports has also set criteria for verifying the Year 2000 readiness of airports’ equipment that is used to meet FAA’s safety and security requirements and has established a national team to monitor the airports’ progress in preparing this equipment for the date change. According to this office, team members will monitor the airports’ progress through site visits, telephone calls, and correspondence. For all equipment used to meet FAA’s requirements, airports must demonstrate they have at least one of the following: • a manufacturer’s certification that the equipment does not contain any computers or microprocessors, • a written description of the testing performed to determine that the equipment is Year 2000 ready, • documentation that replacement hardware or software is Year 2000 ready, or 7 P.L. 105-277. Page 19 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 • a written description of contingency plans for the equipment in question. Last spring, the Office of Airports also formed a Year 2000 Airfield Working Group to help ensure airports will be prepared to operate into the next century. Members of this group include representatives from FAA’s offices of the Administrator, Airport Safety and Standards, and Civil Aviation Security; the Airport Consultants Council; ACI-NA; ATA; AAAE; the National Association of State Aviation Officials; the National Business Aviation Association; and the Regional Airline Association. This working group meets regularly and is focusing on providing airports with such information as manufacturers’ certifications, lessons learned, and testing methods and is considering the possibility of building a database containing data on manufacturers’ certifications. Such a database could reduce the amount of work airports have to do, because instead of contacting each individual manufacturer, airport officials could consult a single source. FAA has also formed an Aviation Industry Year 2000 Steering Committee to (1) serve as the focal point to promote the exchange of information on the status of Year 2000 preparations with industry representatives and (2) identify and facilitate the effective resolution of Year 2000 issues that could affect the safety, the security, and the efficiency of the NAS. Industry members of this steering committee include AAAE, ACI-NA, the Regional Airlines Association, the Aerospace Industries Association, and the General Aviation Manufacturers’ Association. FAA’s Office of Civil Aviation Security, which regulates airports’ federally mandated security-related functions, surveyed the nation’s 81 largest airports to determine the Year 2000 status of their security equipment.8 According to agency officials, the airports reported no significant problems. Although not all airports reported that their security equipment is currently Year 2000 ready, they said that it would be ready on or before January 1, 2000. Officials at the Office of Civil Aviation Security have also contacted the manufacturers of the security equipment that is frequently used by many airports to inquire about that equipment’s Year 2000 status. An official in this office told us that the manufacturers they contacted reported that most of the equipment in question would not have date-related problems. Facilities and equipment eligible for purchase with AIP funds may be repaired, if needed, with AIP funds. These include safety and security facilities, as well as lighting systems and other airport 8 The airports themselves are responsible for relatively few security-related functions; most security functions are carried out by the airlines. Page 20 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 systems. Funds from passenger facility charges may be used for all AIP-eligible repairs, as well as an expanded range of airport terminal facilities, such as baggage-handling systems. Because the problems confronting airports as they prepare for the year Conclusions 2000 are complex and airports’ preparations are still in process, it is not clear at this time (1) which airports could suffer equipment malfunctions on and after January 1, 2000, and (2) whether any malfunctions could decrease airports’ efficiency or create escalating delays throughout the NAS. But some airports have reported that they are using an ad hoc approach to prepare their equipment for the year 2000, and some have reported that they will not complete their Year 2000 preparations by FAA’s recommended date of June 30, 1999, and that they currently lack contingency plans. These airports are at higher risk of suffering equipment malfunctions related to the year 2000 date change, which could lead to decreased efficiency of their operations. Because of the interdependence among airline flights and airport facilities, decreased efficiency and delays at one airport could cause delays at other airports and eventually impede the flow of air traffic throughout the nation, especially if those delays occur at airports that serve as hubs. We provided FAA with a draft of this report for review and comment. We Agency Comments met with FAA officials, including the Director of the Year 2000 Program and Our Evaluation Office in the Office of the Administrator and representatives of the Office of Airport Safety and Standards and the Office of Civil Aviation Security Operations, and received their comments on a draft of this report. They did not dispute the report’s findings, but they pointed out that the status of airports’ preparations for the year 2000 is rapidly evolving and that data collected in the fall of 1998 may, therefore, not fully portray their current situation. FAA also suggested that we more explicitly indicate that not all of the systems supporting the functions included in our survey of airports, such as heating and ventilation and moving sidewalks, are regulated by FAA. We have incorporated this comment and others from FAA as appropriate. We performed our work between July 1998 and December 1998 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Appendix I contains details of the scope and methodology or our review. Page 21 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 B-280090 As arranged with your offices, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days after the date of this letter. At that time, we will provide copies of the report to the Secretary of Transportation; the Administrator, FAA; appropriate congressional committees; and other interested parties. We will also make copies available to others upon request. Please contact me at (202) 512-2834 if you or your staff have any questions about this report. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix III. Gerald L. Dillingham Associate Director, Transportation Issues Page 22 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Page 23 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Contents Letter 1 Appendix I 26 Core Functions at Airports 27 Scope and Methodology Appendix II 36 Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Appendix III 48 Major Contributors to This Report GAO Related Products 50 Figures Figure 1: Estimated Percentage of Airports Not Prepared by 7 June 1999 and Having No Contingency Plans Figure 2: Person or Group Who Oversees the Airports’ Year 2000 9 Efforts Figure 3: Degree of Completion of the Airports’ Year 2000 Plans 10 Figure 4: Status of Airports’ Year 2000 Computer and Equipment 11 Inventories Figure 5: Percentage of the Airports That Have a Comprehensive 12 List of Data Exchanges Figure 6: Status of the Airports’ Renovation Work on Core 14 Functions Figure I.1: FAA’s Categories of Primary Commerical Service 27 Airports Compared with Size Categories Used in This Analysis Page 24 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Contents Abbreviations AAAE American Association of Airport Executives ACI-NA Airports Council International-North America AIP Airport Improvement Program ATA Air Transport Association of America FAA Federal Aviation Administration GAO General Accounting Office NAS National Airspace System OMB Office of Management and Budget Page 25 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology We surveyed by mail the 413 airports in the United States and territories that FAA considers primary commercial service airports, that is, those with annual enplanements (the number of passengers boarding commercial aircraft) totalling 10,000 or more. As of December 1998 we obtained responses from 334 airports (81 percent), which represents about 96 percent of the passengers served by all 413 airports. The practical difficulties of conducting any survey may introduce unwanted variability in the results. These include differences in how questions are interpreted, errors in entering data, and the types of airports that did not respond. We included steps in both data collection and data analysis to minimize this unwanted variability. We pretested questionnaires with airport officials, reviewed answers during follow-up visits and telephone interviews, double-keyed and verified all data during entry, and validated all analyses with a second analyst. FAA subdivides commercial service airports into four categories on the basis of annual enplanements: large hubs, medium hubs, small hubs, and nonhubs. The numbers of airports in these categories are 29, 42, 70, and 272, respectively (see fig. I.1). To facilitate comparisons among airports responding to our survey, we modified FAA’s categories by assigning airports to one of three classes—large, medium, or small—based on the number of enplanements in 1996. We split FAA’s medium hub category by designating 21 of its airports as large and 21 as medium. Consequently, our large category contains the 50 airports with the greatest number of enplanements in 1996; the medium category contains 91 airports; and the small category contains the same 272 airports as FAA’s nonhub category. Page 26 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Figure I.1: FAA’s Categories of Primary Commerical Service Airports Compared With Size Categories Used Primary Airports in This Analysis 413 These airports have annual enplanements totaling 10,000 or more GAO's Categories FAA's Categories Large airports (50) Large hubs (29) Medium-sized airports (91) Medium hubs (42) Small airports (272) Small hubs (70) Nonhubs (272) Although FAA has designated 22 core functions for airports to consider in Core Functions at preparing for the year 2000, to minimize the time respondents would need Airports to fill out our questionnaire, we omitted the functions that are neither required by FAA for certification under part 139 (Airport Operations), part 107 (Airport Security), part 108 (Airport Operator Security) of Federal Aviation Regulations, nor deemed “airfield critical.” As a result, the following functions were not included in our questionnaire: cargo handling, information technology, flight and baggage information display computers and equipment, financial computers and equipment, jet bridge operations and maintenance, noise abatement, and passenger services (see table I.1). In addition, we combined two closely related functions, access control and security and public safety, into one. Although FAA does not deem parking a critical function, we included it as the fourteenth function because airport officials told us that revenues from parking facilities constitute their primary source of revenue. Table I.1: FAA’s List of Airports’ Core Functions to Prepare for the Year 2000 (i.e., FAA’s Y2K Airfield System List) Page 27 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 28 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 29 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 30 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 31 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 32 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 33 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 34 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix I Scope and Methodology Page 35 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 36 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 37 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 38 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 39 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 40 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 41 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 42 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 43 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 44 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 45 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 46 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix II Survey of Airports’ Administrators on Preparation for the Year 2000 Page 47 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix III Major Contributors to This Report Colleen Phillips Accounting and Information Management Division Luann Moy Design Methodology and Technical Assistance Group John Anderson, Jr. Resources, Jean Brady Community, and Dave Bryant, Jr. Economic Heather Halliwell Richard Scott Development Division Hank Townsend Robert White Page 48 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Appendix III Major Contributors to This Report Page 49 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Bureau of Prisons’ Year 2000 Efforts (GAO/AIMD-99-23, Jan. 27, 1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness Improving, but Much Work Remains to Avoid Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-99-50, Jan. 20, 1999). Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving, but Critical Risks Remain (GAO/T-AIMD-99-49). Status Information: FAA’s Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency Planning Efforts Are Ongoing (GAO/AIMD-99-40R, Dec. 4, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.21, Nov. 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems to Support Federal Welfare Programs (GAO/AIMD-99-28, Nov. 6, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Efforts to Deal With Personnel Issues (GAO/AIMD/GGD-99-14, Oct. 22, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Updated Status of Department of Education’s Information Systems (GAO/T-AIMD-99-8, Oct. 8, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring Vital Services Are Not Disrupted (GAO/T-AIMD-99-4, Oct. 2, 1998). Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and Services in Jeopardy (GAO/AIMD-98-284, Sept. 28, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Leadership Needed to Collect and Disseminate Critical Biomedical Equipment Information (GAO/T-AIMD-98-310, Sept. 24, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Compliance Status of Many Biomedical Equipment Items Still Unknown (GAO/AIMD-98-240, Sept. 18, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of Education’s Student Financial Aid Systems (GAO/T-AIMD-98-302, Sept. 17, 1998). Page 50 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, but Key Systems at Risk (GAO/T-AIMD-98-303, Sept. 17, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Depository Institution Regulators Are Making Progress, but Challenges Remain (GAO/T-AIMD-98-305, Sept. 17, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Reserve Is Acting to Ensure Financial Institutions Are Fixing Systems, but Challenges Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-248, Sept. 17, 1998). Responses to Questions on FAA’s Computer Security and Year 2000 Program (GAO/AIMD-98-301R, Sept. 14, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Severity of Problem Calls for Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships (GAO/T-AIMD-98-278, Sept. 3, 1998 in Palatine, IL). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships Needed to Reduce Likelihood of Adverse Impact (GAO/T-AIMD-98-277, Sept. 2, 1998 in Indianapolis, IN). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risks (GAO/T-AIMD-98-276, Sept. 1, 1998 in Lakewood, OH). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: State Department Needs to Make Fundamental Improvements to Its Year 2000 Program (GAO/AIMD-98-162, Aug. 28, 1998). Year 2000 Computing: EFT 99 Is Not Expected to Affect Year 2000 Remediation Efforts (GAO/AIMD-98-272R, Aug. 28, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems, but Concerns Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-237, Aug. 21, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Avoiding Major Disruptions Will Require Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships (GAO/T-AIMD-98-267, Aug. 19, 1998 in New Orleans, LA). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Address Risk of Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-98-266, Aug. 17, 1998 in Mesquite, TX). Page 51 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risk of Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-98-262, Aug. 13, 1998 in New York, NY). FAASystems: Serious Challenges Remain in Resolving Year 2000 and Computer Security Problems (GAO/T-AIMD-98-251, Aug. 6, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (GAO/AIMD-10.1.19, Aug. 1998). Internal Revenue Service: Impact of the IRS Restructuring and Reform Act on Year 2000 Efforts (GAO/GGD-98-158R, Aug. 4, 1998). Social Security Administration: Subcommittee Questions Concerning Information Technology Challenges Facing the Commissioner (GAO/AIMD-98-235R, July 10, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed on Electronic Data Exchanges (GAO/AIMD-98-124, July 1, 1998). Defense Computers: Year 2000 Computer Problems Put Navy Operations at Risk (GAO/AIMD-98-150, June 30, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Testing and Other Challenges Confronting Federal Agencies (GAO/T-AIMD-98-218, June 22, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Telecommunications Readiness Critical, Yet Overall Status Largely Unknown (GAO/T-AIMD-98-212, June 16, 1998). GAO Views on Year 2000 Testing Metrics (GAO/AIMD-98-217R, June 16, 1998). IRS’ Year 2000 Efforts: Business Continuity Planning Needed for Potential Year 2000 System Failures (GAO/GGD-98-138, June 15, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Must Be Taken Now to Address Slow Pace of Federal Progress (GAO/T-AIMD-98-205, June 10, 1998). Defense Computers: Army Needs to Greatly Strengthen Its Year 2000 Program (GAO/AIMD-98-53, May 29, 1998). Page 52 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Year 2000 Computing Crisis: USDA Faces Tremendous Challenges in Ensuring That Vital Public Services Are Not Disrupted (GAO/T-AIMD-98-167, May 14, 1998). Securities Pricing: Actions Needed for Conversion to Decimals (GAO/T-GGD-98-121, May 8, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Continuing Risks of Disruption to Social Security, Medicare, and Treasury Programs (GAO/T-AIMD-98-161, May 7, 1998). IRS’ Year 2000 Efforts: Status and Risks (GAO/T-GGD-98-123, May 7, 1998). Air Traffic Control: FAA Plans to Replace Its Host Computer System Because Future Availability Cannot Be Assured (GAO/AIMD-98-138R, May 1, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Potential for Widespread Disruption Calls for Strong Leadership and Partnerships (GAO/AIMD-98-85, Apr. 30, 1998). Defense Computers: Year 2000 Computer Problems Threaten DOD Operations (GAO/AIMD-98-72, Apr. 30, 1998). Department of the Interior: Year 2000 Computing Crisis Presents Risk of Disruption to Key Operations (GAO/T-AIMD-98-149, Apr. 22, 1998). Tax Administration: IRS’ Fiscal Year 1999 Budget Request and Fiscal Year 1998 Filing Season (GAO/T-GGD/AIMD-98-114, Mar. 31, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid Disruption of Essential Services (GAO/T-AIMD-98-117, Mar. 24, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Regulatory Efforts to Ensure Financial Institution Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-116, Mar. 24, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Office of Thrift Supervision’s Efforts to Ensure Thrift Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-102, Mar. 18, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Public/Private Cooperation Needed to Avoid Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-98-101, Mar. 18, 1998). Page 53 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Post-Hearing Questions on the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Year 2000 (Y2K) Preparedness (AIMD-98-108R, Mar. 18, 1998). SEC Year 2000 Report: Future Reports Could Provide More Detailed Information (GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-51, Mar. 6, 1998). Year 2000 Readiness: NRC’s Proposed Approach Regarding Nuclear Powerplants (GAO/AIMD-98-90R, Mar. 6, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Efforts to Ensure Bank Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-73, Feb. 10, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Must Act Quickly to Prevent Systems Failures (GAO/T-AIMD-98-63, Feb. 4, 1998). FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases Risk Dramatically (GAO/AIMD-98-45, Jan. 30, 1998). Defense Computers: Air Force Needs to Strengthen Year 2000 Oversight (GAO/AIMD-98-35, Jan. 16, 1998). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed to Address Credit Union Systems’ Year 2000 Problem (GAO/AIMD-98-48, Jan. 7, 1998). Veterans Health Administration Facility Systems: Some Progress Made in Ensuring Year 2000 Compliance, but Challenges Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-31R, Nov. 7, 1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: National Credit Union Administration’s Efforts to Ensure Credit Union Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-20, Oct. 22, 1997). Social Security Administration: Significant Progress Made in Year 2000 Effort, but Key Risks Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-6, Oct. 22, 1997). Defense Computers: Technical Support Is Key to Naval Supply Year 2000 Success (GAO/AIMD-98-7R, Oct. 21, 1997). Defense Computers: LSSC Needs to Confront Significant Year 2000 Issues (GAO/AIMD-97-149, Sept. 26, 1997). Page 54 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Veterans Affairs Computer Systems: Action Underway Yet Much Work Remains to Resolve Year 2000 Crisis (GAO/T-AIMD-97-174, Sept. 25, 1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management and Structured Approach (GAO/T-AIMD-97-173, Sept. 25, 1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.14, Sept. 1997). Defense Computers: SSG Needs to Sustain Year 2000 Progress (GAO/AIMD-97-120R, Aug. 19, 1997). Defense Computers: Improvements to DOD Systems Inventory Needed for Year 2000 Effort (GAO/AIMD-97-112, Aug. 13, 1997). Defense Computers: Issues Confronting DLA in Addressing Year 2000 Problems (GAO/AIMD-97-106, Aug. 12, 1997). Defense Computers: DFAS Faces Challenges in Solving the Year 2000 Problem (GAO/AIMD-97-117, Aug. 11, 1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Time Is Running Out for Federal Agencies to Prepare for the New Millennium (GAO/T-AIMD-97-129, July 10, 1997). Veterans Affairs Computer Systems: Uninterrupted Delivery of Benefits Depends on Timely Correction of Year 2000 Problem (GAO/T-AIMD-97-114, June 26, 1997). Veterans Benefits Computer Systems: Risk of VBA’s Year 2000 Efforts (GAO/AIMD-97-79, May 30, 1997). Medicare Transaction System: Success Depends Upon Correcting Critical Managerial and Technical Weaknesses (GAO/AIMD-97-78, May 16, 1997). Medicare Transaction System: Serious Managerial and Technical Weaknesses Threaten Modernization (GAO/T-AIMD-97-91, May 16, 1997). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Risk of Serious Disruption to Essential Government Functions Calls for Agency Action Now (GAO/T-AIMD-97-52, Feb. 27, 1997). Page 55 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 GAO Related Products Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed to Prevent Future Disruption of Government Services (GAO/T-AIMD-97-51, Feb. 24, 1997). High-Risk Series: Information Management and Technology (GAO/HR-97-9, Feb. 1, 1997). (348102) Page 56 GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000 Ordering Information The first copy of each GAO report and testimony is free. Additional copies are $2 each. Orders should be sent to the following address, accompanied by a check or money order made out to the Superintendent of Documents, when necessary. VISA and MasterCard credit cards are accepted, also. Orders for 100 or more copies to be mailed to a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders by mail: U.S. General Accounting Office P.O. Box 37050 Washington, DC 20013 or visit: Room 1100 700 4th St. NW (corner of 4th and G Sts. 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Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Airports' Efforts to Deal with Date Change Problem
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-01-29.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)