oversight

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Airports' Efforts to Deal with Date Change Problem

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-01-29.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                      United States General Accounting Office

GAO                   Report to Congressional Requesters




January 1999
                      YEAR 2000
                      COMPUTING CRISIS
                      Status of Airports’
                      Efforts to Deal With
                      Date Change Problem




GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57
      United States
GAO   General Accounting Office
      Washington, D.C. 20548

      Resources, Community, and
      Economic Development Division

      B-280090

      January 29, 1999

      The Honorable John McCain
      Chairman, Committee on Commerce,
        Science, and Transportation
      United States Senate

      The Honorable Slade Gorton
      Chairman, Subcommittee on Aviation
      Committee on Commerce, Science, and
        Transportation
      United States Senate

      The successful operation of the National Airspace System—the network
      supporting U.S. aviation operations that includes navigation facilities,
      airports, equipment, services, and information and rules—is dependent, in
      part, on the equipment, including computers, that airports use to carry out
      their operations. This equipment helps provide safe, secure, and efficient
      aircraft operations and other services to the public; it includes controls for
      such functions as lighting runways, monitoring access to secured areas,
      handling baggage, and fueling aircraft. Because the software and hardware
      components used to control airport equipment may not be able to
      distinguish between the years 1900 and 2000, this equipment may
      malfunction when the date changes from 1999 to 2000.

      This report responds to your request to examine the status of airports’
      efforts to prepare for the year 2000 and to help ensure that the equipment
      supporting the functions needed for the safe and efficient operation of our
      nation’s airports will be ready. Specifically, we agreed to address the
      following: (1) What is the status of airports’ efforts to help ensure that
      their computers and electronic equipment will function properly on and
      after January 1, 2000? (2) How will the safety, the security, and the
      efficiency of the National Airspace System be affected if airports’ Year
      2000 preparations are not completed in time? and (3) What factors affect
      the progress of airports’ preparations for the year 2000?

      The operations we examined in this review include those under the
      control, in whole or in part, of the nation’s airports. They do not include
      such other critical functions in the nation’s air transportation system as
      the air traffic control system operated by the Federal Aviation
      Administration (FAA) or the operations and the maintenance of aircraft and
      other equipment owned or operated by the nation’s airlines. Our primary




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                   method of data collection for this report was a questionnaire we mailed to
                   413 airports owned by local municipalities, states, and regional or
                   independent authorities. This questionnaire focused on airports’
                   preparations to help ensure essential operations continue through and
                   after the year 2000. The questionnaire was based, in part, on a GAO
                   publication describing a structured approach for addressing the Year 2000
                   date change.1 To obtain the highest possible response rate, we agreed with
                   your staff that the responses from individual airports would remain
                   confidential. As of December 1998, we obtained responses from 334
                   airports (81 percent), which represent about 96 percent of the passengers
                   that were served by U.S. airports in 1996. For a full description of our
                   methodology, see appendix I.


                   The nation’s airports have been making progress in preparing for the year
Results in Brief   2000. However, there is substantial variation in the progress they have
                   achieved and the approaches they have been taking. Among the airports
                   responding to our survey, about one-third reported that they would meet
                   the June 30, 1999, date FAA recommended to complete preparations for
                   addressing the Year 2000 date change; another one-third did not report
                   that they would meet this date but had begun contingency planning to help
                   ensure continued operations if equipment malfunctions; and a final
                   one-third did not meet either of these criteria. This final third are mostly
                   small airports, but they include 9 of the nation’s 50 largest airports.2 Also,
                   many airports were not following a comprehensive and structured
                   approach, which is the most effective way to prepare for the year 2000.
                   The airports that responded to our questionnaire have completed, on
                   average, less than half of their repair work.

                   Officials at airports and FAA agreed that adequate safeguards are in place
                   to ensure the safety and the security of the National Airspace System
                   before and after the Year 2000 date change. However, airports that do not
                   meet FAA’s June 1999 recommended preparation date are at increased risk
                   of experiencing some equipment malfunctions. If manual procedures must
                   be substituted for operations normally controlled by automated
                   equipment, an airport’s efficiency—its ability to handle its normal number


                   1
                    Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.14, Sept. 1997).
                   2
                    We grouped the airports in our analysis into three categories according to their size, which was based
                   on the number of passengers they served in 1996. “Large” represents the 50 airports that served the
                   largest number of passengers (over 83 percent of the passengers); “medium” represents the 91 airports
                   that served about 15 percent of the passengers; and “small” represents the 272 airports that served
                   about 3 percent of the passengers. In general, large and medium-sized airports are more dependent on
                   automation than small airports (see app. I).



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             of scheduled flights per day—would decrease and thus cause flight delays.
             Because of the interdependence among airline flights and airport facilities,
             delays at one airport could cause delays at other airports and eventually
             affect the efficiency of the National Airspace System. The severity of these
             delays would depend to a large extent on the size of the airports and
             which equipment malfunctions.

             FAA, airport, and other aviation industry officials cited several factors that
             have affected the timeliness of Year 2000 preparations, including an
             airport’s use of contractors, the assistance provided by aviation industry
             associations, and the activities undertaken by the Congress and by FAA.
             Contractors have helped some airports prepare for the year 2000 by
             providing them with the trained personnel they lack. Aviation industry
             associations have helped increase airports’ awareness of the implications
             of the year 2000 through discussions at seminars and workshops and by
             identifying airport equipment that might be vulnerable to problems caused
             by the date change. In October 1998, the Congress passed legislation to
             encourage the sharing of information about Year 2000 equipment
             readiness and testing, and FAA established criteria that airports must meet
             to verify that the equipment used to support the safety and security
             activities the agency regulates is ready for the year 2000.


             Airports are an important component of the National Airspace System
Background   (NAS), as they are the entry and exit points to the NAS for most travelers.
             Although airports differ greatly in size and in the services they provide,
             most airports provide parking services, security and access control on
             their grounds, baggage-handling services, aircraft fueling, navigational
             support (such as runway lighting), and emergency communications
             throughout the airport and to ground crews. Some airports also provide
             such additional services as moving sidewalks and subways to connect
             terminals and computerized monitoring of runway conditions. To help
             provide these services, airports often rely on computer systems and other
             equipment with internal microprocessors. Some of these functions—such
             as baggage handling, controlling access to secured areas, and runway
             lighting—can also be performed manually and often are performed
             manually at small airports.

             Other key NAS components include U.S. airlines and FAA’s air traffic control
             system, both of which provide many functions at airports. Airlines often
             provide their own ticketing and check-in systems, jet bridges (movable
             walkways to connect an aircraft to an airport’s gates), and X-ray screening



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devices. FAA provides air traffic surveillance, navigation, and
communications for aircraft. Although FAA and the airlines both have
personnel, facilities, and equipment at airports, the responsibilities of an
airport operator do not extend to them. Additionally, such conveniences
as restaurants, automatic teller machines, and gift shops are not usually
the responsibility of the airport; they are usually operated by contractors
who lease space from the airport.

On January 1, 2000, many computers worldwide could malfunction (e.g.,
produce inaccurate information) or fail simply because the year will
change from 1999 to 2000. Such malfunctions or failures could have a
costly, widespread impact. The problem comes from how computers and
other microprocessors have recorded and computed dates for the past
several decades. Typically, they have used two digits to represent the
year—such as “98” for 1998—to save electronic storage space and reduce
operating costs. In such a format, however, 2000 is indistinguishable from
1900. Nationwide, software and computer experts are concerned that this
could cause computers and equipment with internal microprocessors to
malfunction in unforeseen ways or to fail completely.

To help airports prepare for the year 2000, FAA and the aviation industry
have developed of a list of 22 core functions for airports, such as baggage
handling, access control, and aircraft fueling.3 Each core function includes
specific, discrete tasks that, when carried out together, meet an essential
operational need of an airport, such as communications, access control, or
aircraft fueling. Certain core functions having to do with safety and
security are regulated by FAA and therefore must be present at airports,
such as providing navigational aids and access control. FAA, however, does
not prescribe what equipment, if any, airports must use to perform these
regulated core functions. Other core functions, including automated
baggage handling, aircraft fueling, and ground support,4 help airports meet
other needs or enhance the passengers’ convenience and efficiency. FAA
has also recommended that airports either (1) complete the process of
ensuring that all their equipment supporting core functions regulated by
FAA is Year 2000-compliant or (2) have contingency plans to ensure the
continued operation of these functions.


3
 Our questionnaire focused on 14 of these core functions. To minimize the time respondents would
need to fill out our questionnaire, we omitted the functions that are neither required by FAA for
certification under part 139 (Airport Certification and Operations), part 107 (Airport Security), or part
108 (Airplane Operator Security) of the Federal Aviation Regulations nor deemed “airfield critical.”
(For a detailed list of core functions, see table I.1 in app. I).
4
 Ground support includes such services as gate assignment and snow and ice control.



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                           To help federal agencies prepare for the year 2000, we have issued Year
                           2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide, which discusses the scope
                           of the challenges and offers a structured, step-by-step approach to review
                           and assess an organization’s readiness to handle the Year 2000 problem.
                           The guide’s general principles are being widely used by entities outside the
                           federal government, and we believe this approach would also help airports
                           better prepare for the year 2000.

                           However, even if an organization uses a structured approach to prepare
                           for the year 2000, its operations could still face major disruptions. Many
                           organizations will not be able to repair or replace, fully test, and
                           implement all of their essential equipment in time. Furthermore,
                           equipment that an organization considers to be completely repaired,
                           validated, and implemented may encounter unanticipated Year 2000
                           problems because exhaustive testing of interconnected production
                           systems is not a practical option. Moreover, essential services provided by
                           the public infrastructure (including electricity, water, transportation, and
                           voice and data telecommunications) are also vulnerable to Year
                           2000-induced equipment failures. To mitigate the risk of equipment failures
                           and their potential impact, organizations must ensure that they have
                           established contingency plans to provide operational continuity and to
                           support their core functions.5


                           Airports are making progress in their efforts to prepare for the year 2000,
Some Airports May          but their efforts vary considerably. Nearly a third of the airports that
Finish Year 2000           responded to our questionnaire reported that they will not complete their
Preparations Late and      preparations for the Year 2000 problem by FAA’s recommended date of
                           June 30, 1999, and have no contingency plans in place. Moreover, many
Are Not Following a        airports lack some or all of the chief components of a structured approach
Structured Approach        to Year 2000 repairs, which is most likely to ensure success.

Many Airports Will Not     The Office Of Management and Budget (OMB) has set milestones of
Complete Preparations by   September 1998, January 1999, and March 1999, respectively, for federal
the Recommended Date       agencies to complete renovating, testing, and implementing their systems.
                           FAA has announced it will complete its preparations by June 30, 1999, and
                           has recommended the same date to airports as the deadline for either
                           (1) completing the process of ensuring that all their equipment supporting
                           the core functions related to safety is Year 2000 ready or (2) implementing
                           contingency plans to ensure the continuation of these functions.

                           5
                           For a complete discussion of continuity and contingency planning, see GAO’s Year 2000 Computing
                           Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (GAO/AIMD-10.1.19, Aug. 1998).



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Fewer than 15 percent of the responding airports indicated that they
intended to meet OMB’s March date for completing preparations. Slightly
more than a third (but nearly half of the large airports) expected to meet
FAA’s June 1999 recommended date. An additional 32 percent indicated
they had not yet determined their completion date.

We asked the airports whether they had developed contingency plans for
each of the 14 core functions in the event that the Year 2000 date change
caused equipment malfunctions. Just over half of the airports reported
contingency plans for at least one core function. In general, large airports
have contingency plans for more functions than small airports. However, a
substantial number of the airports (about a third of the large airports,
about a quarter of the medium-sized airports, and half of the small
airports) reported they had no contingency plans, did not know of such
plans for any of their core functions, or did not respond.

Many of the airports (32 percent) indicated that they would not meet FAA’s
deadline and also reported that they did not have any contingency plans.
These include 9 large airports, 19 medium-sized airports, and 79 small
airports (see fig. 1).




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Figure 1: Estimated Percentage of Airports Not Prepared by June 1999 and Having No Contingency Plans

 Percentage
 100




  80




  60




  40




  20




   0
              Small airports      Medium-sized airports      Large airports            All airports


       Completion after June 30, 1999
       No contingency plans
       Both




                                              Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.




Many Airports Lack Key                        We asked respondents to our questionnaire about a number of elements
Elements of a Structured                      considered important to developing a structured approach to managing
Approach to the Year 2000                     the Year 2000 problem. These included program oversight; program plans;
                                              program-tracking mechanisms; inventories of systems, equipment, and
Problem                                       data exchanges; efforts to determine how to fix systems; and the status of
                                              renovation efforts, testing and validation plans, and contingency plans. We
                                              did not validate the information the airports reported. Most airports
                                              reported that their Year 2000 programs were in place, with defined
                                              management responsibilities and tracking mechanisms and inventories of



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                    potentially affected equipment already complete or in process. However,
                    most airports had not yet determined how to renovate all their equipment.
                    The large airports typically reported following a more structured approach
                    than the small ones. As noted earlier, the large and medium-sized airports
                    are generally more dependent on automation than the small airports.

Program Oversight   A central program office with the authority to manage and coordinate Year
                    2000 activities is a key element to a successful program. Because of the
                    interdependencies among an airport’s computers, equipment, applications,
                    and databases, the date change problem requires centrally developed and
                    integrated renovation plans, validation standards and tests, and resource
                    allocations. Nearly all airports reported that a specific person or group had
                    oversight responsibility for Year 2000 preparations. The large airports
                    were more likely than the medium-sized or small airports to have
                    appointed a Year 2000 program manager rather than adding this
                    responsibility to the airport administrator’s other responsibilities. Only 16
                    airports, all of them small airports, reported having no person or group
                    with specific oversight responsibility in this area (see fig. 2).




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Figure 2: Person or Group Who Oversees the Airports’ Year 2000 Efforts

Percentage
100




 80




 60




 40




 20




  0
       Year 2000       Airport         Year 2000    Consultant or       Other (e.g.,     None
       program         administrator   program      contractor          city or county
       manager                         committee                        department)

         Small airports, n=205
         Medium-sized airports, n=78
         Large airports, n=48


                                           Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.


Program Plan                               A Year 2000 program plan should include, among other things, schedules
                                           for all tasks and phases of the Year 2000 program, an assessment and a
                                           selection of repair options, an assignment of conversion or replacement
                                           projects to Year 2000 project teams, a risk assessment of the systems’ and
                                           the equipment’s vulnerabilities to the year 2000, and contingency plans. Of
                                           the airports we surveyed, only 16 percent reported completing their Year
                                           2000 plans. A third were in the process of completing these plans, and
                                           about half (about two-thirds of them small airports) reported not having a
                                           written plan at all (see fig. 3).




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Figure 3: Degree of Completion of the
Airports’ Year 2000 Plans
                                        Percentage
                                        100




                                         80




                                         60




                                         40




                                         20




                                          0
                                                         Complete                 In process                No plan


                                                  Small airports, n=206
                                                  Medium-sized airports, n=78
                                                  Large airports, n=49


                                        Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.


Tracking Mechanisms                     Two-thirds of airports actively track the progress of their Year 2000
                                        activities—though tracking was more common at the large airports than at
                                        the small ones. Ninety-four percent of the large airports, 81 percent of the
                                        medium-sized airports, and 55 percent of the small airports reported that
                                        they had tracking mechanisms.

Inventories                             A comprehensive inventory of systems and electronic equipment provides
                                        the necessary foundation for Year 2000 program planning and helps to
                                        ensure that all the equipment is identified. Nearly all the airports indicated
                                        that they had already developed or were in the process of developing an
                                        inventory of their systems and electronic equipment (see fig. 4).




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Figure 4: Status of Airports’ Year 2000
Computer and Equipment Inventories        Percentage

                                          100



                                           80



                                           60



                                           40



                                           20



                                             0
                                                 Airports that have few, Airports with        Airports in the     Airports having
                                                 if any, date-dependent no inventory          process             completed their
                                                 systems or electronic                        of completing       inventories
                                                 equipment                                    their inventories



                                                     Small airports, n=204
                                                     Medium-sized airports, n=74
                                                     Large airports, n=49



                                          Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.


Data Exchanges                            Some electronic systems that support an airport’s core functions exchange
                                          data with other systems not directly under that airport’s control. For
                                          example, according to some officials, some information systems exchange
                                          personnel information with local government offices, and others exchange
                                          information on gate and baggage locations with the airlines’ flight
                                          information systems. Airports must address data exchange issues,
                                          including notifying outside entities with whom they exchange information
                                          about any changes to their computers to address the Year 2000 problem.
                                          They must also develop verification processes for incoming external data




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                                       and develop procedures to handle invalid data for airports’ progress in this
                                       area (see fig. 5).


Figure 5: Percentage of the Airports
That Have a Comprehensive List of      Percentage
Data Exchanges
                                       100



                                        80



                                        60



                                        40



                                        20



                                         0
                                                  Airports that have an           Airports that do not    Airports reporting
                                                  inventory of data               have an inventory       that no data
                                                  exchanges                       of data exchanges       exchanges are
                                                                                                          present
                                                    Small airports, n=134
                                                    Medium-sized airports, n=59
                                                    Large airports, n=45


                                       Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.


Prioritizing and Determining           Organizations should review their inventory to identify mission-critical
Renovation Plans                       systems, determine how to best renovate them (either through repair,
                                       replacement, or retirement), schedule renovation activities, and test the
                                       new systems. Of 262 airports reporting on whether they had assessed their
                                       inventories to identify mission-critical systems, over two-thirds said they
                                       had. Of these, fewer than 40 percent of the airports reported that they had
                                       determined how they will renovate all of their affected systems.




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Status of Renovation   We asked the airports how far they had progressed in renovating the
                       systems associated with each of the 14 core functions. The airports
                       reported that, on average, they had completed more than half of the work
                       on about four core functions and half or less of the work on the remaining
                       functions. The airports reported the least progress in the areas of
                       environmental systems and airport services (e.g., elevators and moving
                       sidewalks) and the most progress in such areas as administration and
                       weather systems (see fig. 6).




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Figure 6: Status of the Airports’ Renovation Work on Core Functions
  Number of core functions
  6




  5




  4




  3




  2




  1




  0
         Average number of           Average number            Average number of         Average number
         functions for which         of functions for          functions for which       of functions for
         airports have               which airports            airports reported         which airports did
         completed more than         have completed            Year 2000                 not know the
         half of the renovation      half or less of the       renovations were          status of
         work                        renovation work           not required              renovation work


              Small airports, n=205
              Medium-sized airports, n=78
              Large airports, n=47


                                                Source: GAO’s survey of U.S. airports.


Testing and Validation                          Testing and validating all repaired systems and equipment are important
                                                steps to help ensure that these components perform as expected. Over half
                                                of the airports reported that, rather than perform tests themselves, they
                                                will rely on the manufacturers’ certifications to document that the majority
                                                of their systems and electronic equipment are ready for the year 2000. This



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                            was true for about 36 percent of the large airports, about 60 percent of the
                            medium-sized airports, and slightly over half of the small airports. Almost
                            a third of the large and over half of the medium-sized airports reported
                            that they had already received such certification for their equipment.


                            To continue operations, FAA requires that airports meet certain safety and
Airport Officials State     security standards. Airport officials do not expect core functions to be
That Year 2000              compromised by Year 2000 problems because they can resort to manual
Malfunctions Are            backup procedures. However, manual procedures could seriously reduce
                            an airport’s efficiency, thus causing delays that could ripple through the
Unlikely to Affect          NAS. Given the short time remaining for airports to complete their Year
Safety and Security         2000 preparations, it appears likely that some critical equipment will fail or
                            malfunction, the efficiency of some airports will be degraded, and delays
but Could                   resulting from less efficient backup procedures or the closures of some
Compromise an               airports for safety and security reasons could reduce the efficiency of the
Airport’s Efficiency        NAS.


Safety and Security Are     Under Federal Aviation Regulations, airports are required to provide a
Not Expected to Be          number of safety-and security-related functions, such as access control,
Compromised, but Reliable   fuel services, runway lighting and monitoring, and emergency
                            communications. FAA does not specify how these functions are to be
Backup Procedures Must      provided; an airport may use any method, system, or procedure to provide
Be Available                them. If an airport is unable to provide any of these safety and security
                            functions, FAA requires it to suspend or restrict operations. (For a
                            complete list of FAA’s required safety and security functions, see app. I.)

                            Airport officials reported that their airport’s safety and security functions
                            are unlikely to be affected by year 2000-induced systems malfunctions
                            because their airport could resort to manual backup procedures. For
                            example, if an access control system were to malfunction, FAA officials
                            said an airport would be permitted to post guards to control key access
                            points. Similarly, if runway lighting systems were to malfunction, airport
                            officials reported that they could operate the runway lights manually or
                            restrict landings to daylight hours and divert any aircraft arriving after
                            dark to other airports.

                            Such contingency plans, however, will need to be fully developed and
                            tested to help ensure that safety or security is not degraded. For example,
                            some airport officials indicated that their contingency plans for Year 2000
                            malfunctions with their baggage-handling and access control equipment
                            involve substituting manual procedures. Such contingency plans could



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                         require hiring additional airport personnel and performing background
                         checks. In addition, employees performing unfamiliar tasks to compensate
                         for the malfunction of automated equipment would have to be trained to
                         minimize the possibility of human errors affecting airport safety or
                         security. Some airport officials were concerned about having the human
                         resources they might need to respond to equipment malfunctions. Citing
                         the “tight local labor market,” they expressed concerns about their ability
                         to obtain qualified personnel and adequately train them in time to
                         manually perform procedures to replace any automated equipment that
                         might malfunction.


Equipment Malfunctions   Airport officials we interviewed stated that substituting manual backup
Could Disrupt the NAS    procedures for automated equipment could slow down their airport’s
                         operations. For example, according to officials at one large airport, if the
                         computer that controls their runways’ lights malfunctioned, turning the
                         lights on manually would be a time- and labor-intensive process because
                         the manual controls are located on the airfield and are quite far apart.
                         Additionally, because so much of the non-safety-related equipment at large
                         airports facilitates moving people quickly, malfunctions of key systems
                         (including baggage-handling systems, interterminal subways and moving
                         sidewalks, and automated fuel distribution systems)—while not likely to
                         affect safety—could dramatically delay an airport’s operations.
                         Furthermore, delays at one airport could disrupt schedules at connecting
                         airports as well, eventually reducing the efficiency of the entire NAS. To the
                         extent that these delays are confined to small airports, the effect on the
                         NAS may not be severe. However, Year 2000 problems at just a small
                         number of the nation’s largest airports could prove very disruptive.

                         Given the significant number of airports in our survey that reported they
                         did not expect to meet FAA’s recommended June 30, 1999, preparation date
                         and had not completed contingency plans, it is possible that critical
                         equipment at some airports will malfunction and disrupt the performance
                         of some core functions. Should this situation occur, FAA and airport
                         officials agree that they will suspend or restrict operations rather than
                         potentially compromise an airport’s safety or security. However,
                         significant delays at some airports could reduce the efficiency of the entire
                         NAS.




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                           Airport managers and other members of the aviation industry identified a
Assistance to              number of potential sources of assistance to airports confronting the Year
Airports’ Year 2000        2000 challenge. First, contractors with appropriate expertise can provide
Programs Is Available      the trained personnel that an airport might lack and might be able to repair
                           equipment faster than that airport’s staff. Second, aviation industry
From External              associations have helped to inform airports about Year 2000 issues. Third,
Sources                    legislation recently passed by the Congress can be expected to encourage
                           information sharing. Finally, FAA has helped airports by providing
                           procedures for documenting their Year 2000 readiness.


The Use of Contractors     Many airport officials commented that the use of contractors had
Can Improve Airports’      significantly assisted their progress in completing Year 2000 preparations.
Readiness                  Officials at large airports, in particular, acknowledged the importance of
                           contractors. Because most airports routinely contract out certain services
                           and maintenance rather than have their own staff perform that work, they
                           lack the trained personnel in-house to conduct Year 2000 repairs,
                           particularly those that require special expertise, such as testing internal
                           microprocessors and replacing those that are date-dependent. Some
                           aviation consulting firms that specialize in Year 2000 problems have
                           developed databases that provide information on the Year 2000 status of
                           equipment that is used at many airports. Additionally, some airports are
                           working to develop global Year 2000 solutions that could be tested at a
                           single airport, allowing subsequent airports with the same equipment to
                           then install and implement that equipment without repeating the testing
                           procedures. In responding to our survey, about a fifth of the small airports,
                           almost two-fifths of the medium-sized airports, and three-fourths of the
                           large airports indicated that they have either hired or intend to hire
                           contractors.


Aviation Industry          Aviation industry associations have been working to help ensure airports
Associations Have Been     will be prepared to operate through and beyond the year 2000. Officials at
Assisting Airports’ Year   some of these associations say that while their organizations do not have
                           the technical expertise to assist airports in actual Year 2000 testing or
2000 Efforts               repairs, they have helped keep their members informed. The Airports
                           Council International—North America (ACI-NA) and the American
                           Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), both of which represent
                           domestic airport operators, regularly include information on the Year 2000
                           problem in their newsletters and correspondence with members, discuss
                           Year 2000 issues at workshops and conferences, and have been involved in
                           seminars focused on the year 2000. ACI-NA recently sponsored a workshop



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                              to give airport officials a forum for sharing best practices on how to
                              prepare for the year 2000 and plans to hold additional workshops to
                              encourage information sharing.

                              The Air Transport Association of America (ATA), a group representing
                              domestic air carriers, has taken a more active role in its efforts to help
                              ensure airports are prepared to operate through and beyond the year 2000.
                              In addition to such awareness activities as those just mentioned, ATA has
                              contracted with a management consulting firm to inventory equipment at
                              158 domestic airports. ATA is interested in gathering information on the
                              status of the equipment that could affect air carriers’ ability to operate and
                              in raising awareness among airport officials about the extent to which the
                              Year 2000 problem could affect their operations. Additionally, ATA has
                              provided materials to airports to help them conduct their inventories.


Federal Legislation Has       Officials from airports, an aviation trade group, and FAA all expressed
Assisted Airports in          concerns that a reluctance to share information about equipment and its
Preparing for the Year 2000   components was impeding progress toward Year 2000 readiness. They said
                              many parties involved in preparations for the year 2000 feared being held
                              liable for equipment malfunctions if information they provided about the
                              problem—including the status of equipment and its components, or tests
                              and repair procedures involving such equipment—turned out to be
                              inaccurate. In response to these and other similar concerns expressed in
                              many business sectors, in October 1998 the Congress passed legislation to
                              encourage the sharing of Year 2000-readiness information and to address
                              the potential for legal liability associated with the disclosure and the
                              exchange of this information.6 The law also states that sharing Year 2000
                              information does not violate antitrust laws. Airport officials we spoke with
                              when this legislation was pending before the Congress said sharing
                              information on manufacturers’ certification and Year 2000 status would
                              eliminate much repetitive testing by airports. Some airport officials,
                              however, were less optimistic about the usefulness of this law. They
                              speculated that such a law might foster carelessness and increase the
                              amount of inaccurate information in circulation, thereby impeding
                              airports’ Year 2000 efforts.

                              In addition, the Congress, at FAA’s request, has authorized Airport
                              Improvement Program (AIP) funds to be used in fiscal year 1999 for Year
                              2000 assessment and related testing. A provision in the Fiscal Year 1999

                              6
                               The Year 2000 Information and Readiness Disclosure Act (P.L. 105-271) was enacted on October 19,
                              1998.



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                                Omnibus Appropriations Act7 permits these funds to be used to assess and
                                test all equipment owned by an airport regardless of the equipment’s
                                eligibility under this program. FAA expects that up to $100 million in such
                                funds could be used under this provision.


FAA Is Helping Airports         To maintain the continued operation of the NAS, several offices within FAA
Prepare for the Year 2000       are collaborating to help ensure airports are adequately prepared for the
                                year 2000. In FAA’s Office of the Administrator, the Year 2000 program staff
                                is focusing primarily on FAA itself, preparing air traffic control equipment
                                and FAA’s internal computer systems for the date change. The Year 2000
                                program office intends to plan for any disruptions that could occur if the
                                nation’s airports are not prepared for potential delays caused by Year
                                2000-related equipment malfunctions.

                                Two other offices—Airport Safety and Standards and Civil Aviation
                                Security—are working specifically with airports. FAA’s Office of Airport
                                Safety and Standards, which oversees airports’ federally mandated
                                safety-related operations, has provided airports with a framework for
                                renovating their equipment. Additionally, the Associate Administrator for
                                Airports distributed to the nation’s public airports a list of commonly used
                                airport equipment that may be vulnerable to Year 2000 problems. The list
                                is partly based in part on ATA’s and ACI-NA’s assessments of airports and
                                categorizes the equipment by functional area, such as communications,
                                financial systems, and passenger services (see app. I).

                                The Associate Administrator for Airports has also set criteria for verifying
                                the Year 2000 readiness of airports’ equipment that is used to meet FAA’s
                                safety and security requirements and has established a national team to
                                monitor the airports’ progress in preparing this equipment for the date
                                change. According to this office, team members will monitor the airports’
                                progress through site visits, telephone calls, and correspondence. For all
                                equipment used to meet FAA’s requirements, airports must demonstrate
                                they have at least one of the following:

                            •   a manufacturer’s certification that the equipment does not contain any
                                computers or microprocessors,
                            •   a written description of the testing performed to determine that the
                                equipment is Year 2000 ready,
                            •   documentation that replacement hardware or software is Year 2000 ready,
                                or

                                7
                                 P.L. 105-277.



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•   a written description of contingency plans for the equipment in question.

    Last spring, the Office of Airports also formed a Year 2000 Airfield
    Working Group to help ensure airports will be prepared to operate into the
    next century. Members of this group include representatives from FAA’s
    offices of the Administrator, Airport Safety and Standards, and Civil
    Aviation Security; the Airport Consultants Council; ACI-NA; ATA; AAAE; the
    National Association of State Aviation Officials; the National Business
    Aviation Association; and the Regional Airline Association. This working
    group meets regularly and is focusing on providing airports with such
    information as manufacturers’ certifications, lessons learned, and testing
    methods and is considering the possibility of building a database
    containing data on manufacturers’ certifications. Such a database could
    reduce the amount of work airports have to do, because instead of
    contacting each individual manufacturer, airport officials could consult a
    single source.

    FAA  has also formed an Aviation Industry Year 2000 Steering Committee to
    (1) serve as the focal point to promote the exchange of information on the
    status of Year 2000 preparations with industry representatives and
    (2) identify and facilitate the effective resolution of Year 2000 issues that
    could affect the safety, the security, and the efficiency of the NAS. Industry
    members of this steering committee include AAAE, ACI-NA, the Regional
    Airlines Association, the Aerospace Industries Association, and the
    General Aviation Manufacturers’ Association.

    FAA’s Office of Civil Aviation Security, which regulates airports’ federally
    mandated security-related functions, surveyed the nation’s 81 largest
    airports to determine the Year 2000 status of their security equipment.8
    According to agency officials, the airports reported no significant
    problems. Although not all airports reported that their security equipment
    is currently Year 2000 ready, they said that it would be ready on or before
    January 1, 2000. Officials at the Office of Civil Aviation Security have also
    contacted the manufacturers of the security equipment that is frequently
    used by many airports to inquire about that equipment’s Year 2000 status.
    An official in this office told us that the manufacturers they contacted
    reported that most of the equipment in question would not have
    date-related problems. Facilities and equipment eligible for purchase with
    AIP funds may be repaired, if needed, with AIP funds. These include safety
    and security facilities, as well as lighting systems and other airport

    8
     The airports themselves are responsible for relatively few security-related functions; most security
    functions are carried out by the airlines.



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                     systems. Funds from passenger facility charges may be used for all
                     AIP-eligible repairs, as well as an expanded range of airport terminal
                     facilities, such as baggage-handling systems.


                     Because the problems confronting airports as they prepare for the year
Conclusions          2000 are complex and airports’ preparations are still in process, it is not
                     clear at this time (1) which airports could suffer equipment malfunctions
                     on and after January 1, 2000, and (2) whether any malfunctions could
                     decrease airports’ efficiency or create escalating delays throughout the
                     NAS. But some airports have reported that they are using an ad hoc
                     approach to prepare their equipment for the year 2000, and some have
                     reported that they will not complete their Year 2000 preparations by FAA’s
                     recommended date of June 30, 1999, and that they currently lack
                     contingency plans. These airports are at higher risk of suffering equipment
                     malfunctions related to the year 2000 date change, which could lead to
                     decreased efficiency of their operations. Because of the interdependence
                     among airline flights and airport facilities, decreased efficiency and delays
                     at one airport could cause delays at other airports and eventually impede
                     the flow of air traffic throughout the nation, especially if those delays
                     occur at airports that serve as hubs.


                     We provided FAA with a draft of this report for review and comment. We
Agency Comments      met with FAA officials, including the Director of the Year 2000 Program
and Our Evaluation   Office in the Office of the Administrator and representatives of the Office
                     of Airport Safety and Standards and the Office of Civil Aviation Security
                     Operations, and received their comments on a draft of this report. They
                     did not dispute the report’s findings, but they pointed out that the status of
                     airports’ preparations for the year 2000 is rapidly evolving and that data
                     collected in the fall of 1998 may, therefore, not fully portray their current
                     situation. FAA also suggested that we more explicitly indicate that not all of
                     the systems supporting the functions included in our survey of airports,
                     such as heating and ventilation and moving sidewalks, are regulated by
                     FAA. We have incorporated this comment and others from FAA as
                     appropriate.


                     We performed our work between July 1998 and December 1998 in
                     accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
                     Appendix I contains details of the scope and methodology or our review.




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As arranged with your offices, unless you publicly announce its contents
earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days after the
date of this letter. At that time, we will provide copies of the report to the
Secretary of Transportation; the Administrator, FAA; appropriate
congressional committees; and other interested parties. We will also make
copies available to others upon request.

Please contact me at (202) 512-2834 if you or your staff have any questions
about this report. Major contributors to this report are listed in appendix
III.




Gerald L. Dillingham
Associate Director,
Transportation Issues




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Page 23   GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
Contents



Letter                                                                                                   1


Appendix I                                                                                              26
                        Core Functions at Airports                                                      27
Scope and
Methodology
Appendix II                                                                                             36
Survey of Airports’
Administrators on
Preparation for the
Year 2000
Appendix III                                                                                            48
Major Contributors to
This Report
GAO Related Products                                                                                    50


Figures                 Figure 1: Estimated Percentage of Airports Not Prepared by                       7
                          June 1999 and Having No Contingency Plans
                        Figure 2: Person or Group Who Oversees the Airports’ Year 2000                   9
                          Efforts
                        Figure 3: Degree of Completion of the Airports’ Year 2000 Plans                 10
                        Figure 4: Status of Airports’ Year 2000 Computer and Equipment                  11
                          Inventories
                        Figure 5: Percentage of the Airports That Have a Comprehensive                  12
                          List of Data Exchanges
                        Figure 6: Status of the Airports’ Renovation Work on Core                       14
                          Functions
                        Figure I.1: FAA’s Categories of Primary Commerical Service                      27
                          Airports Compared with Size Categories Used in This Analysis




                        Page 24          GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
Contents




Abbreviations

AAAE       American Association of Airport Executives
ACI-NA     Airports Council International-North America
AIP        Airport Improvement Program
ATA        Air Transport Association of America
FAA        Federal Aviation Administration
GAO        General Accounting Office
NAS        National Airspace System
OMB        Office of Management and Budget


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Appendix I

Scope and Methodology


             We surveyed by mail the 413 airports in the United States and territories
             that FAA considers primary commercial service airports, that is, those with
             annual enplanements (the number of passengers boarding commercial
             aircraft) totalling 10,000 or more. As of December 1998 we obtained
             responses from 334 airports (81 percent), which represents about
             96 percent of the passengers served by all 413 airports. The practical
             difficulties of conducting any survey may introduce unwanted variability
             in the results. These include differences in how questions are interpreted,
             errors in entering data, and the types of airports that did not respond. We
             included steps in both data collection and data analysis to minimize this
             unwanted variability. We pretested questionnaires with airport officials,
             reviewed answers during follow-up visits and telephone interviews,
             double-keyed and verified all data during entry, and validated all analyses
             with a second analyst.

             FAA subdivides commercial service airports into four categories on the
             basis of annual enplanements: large hubs, medium hubs, small hubs, and
             nonhubs. The numbers of airports in these categories are 29, 42, 70, and
             272, respectively (see fig. I.1). To facilitate comparisons among airports
             responding to our survey, we modified FAA’s categories by assigning
             airports to one of three classes—large, medium, or small—based on the
             number of enplanements in 1996. We split FAA’s medium hub category by
             designating 21 of its airports as large and 21 as medium. Consequently, our
             large category contains the 50 airports with the greatest number of
             enplanements in 1996; the medium category contains 91 airports; and the
             small category contains the same 272 airports as FAA’s nonhub category.




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                                          Appendix I
                                          Scope and Methodology




Figure I.1: FAA’s Categories of Primary
Commerical Service Airports
Compared With Size Categories Used                                    Primary Airports
in This Analysis                                                            413
                                                                    These airports have
                                                                   annual enplanements
                                                                  totaling 10,000 or more



                                                    GAO's Categories                    FAA's Categories

                                                Large airports (50)                      Large hubs (29)


                                             Medium-sized airports (91)                  Medium hubs (42)


                                                Small airports (272)                     Small hubs (70)


                                                                                         Nonhubs (272)



                                          Although FAA has designated 22 core functions for airports to consider in
Core Functions at                         preparing for the year 2000, to minimize the time respondents would need
Airports                                  to fill out our questionnaire, we omitted the functions that are neither
                                          required by FAA for certification under part 139 (Airport Operations), part
                                          107 (Airport Security), part 108 (Airport Operator Security) of Federal
                                          Aviation Regulations, nor deemed “airfield critical.” As a result, the
                                          following functions were not included in our questionnaire: cargo
                                          handling, information technology, flight and baggage information display
                                          computers and equipment, financial computers and equipment, jet bridge
                                          operations and maintenance, noise abatement, and passenger services (see
                                          table I.1). In addition, we combined two closely related functions, access
                                          control and security and public safety, into one. Although FAA does not
                                          deem parking a critical function, we included it as the fourteenth function
                                          because airport officials told us that revenues from parking facilities
                                          constitute their primary source of revenue.

                                          Table I.1: FAA’s List of Airports’ Core Functions to Prepare for the
                                          Year 2000 (i.e., FAA’s Y2K Airfield System List)




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Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




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Scope and Methodology




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Scope and Methodology




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Scope and Methodology




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Scope and Methodology




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Scope and Methodology




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Appendix II

Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix II
Survey of Airports’ Administrators on
Preparation for the Year 2000




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Appendix III

Major Contributors to This Report


                       Colleen Phillips
Accounting and
Information
Management Division
                       Luann Moy
Design Methodology
and Technical
Assistance Group
                       John Anderson, Jr.
Resources,             Jean Brady
Community, and         Dave Bryant, Jr.
Economic               Heather Halliwell
                       Richard Scott
Development Division   Hank Townsend
                       Robert White




                       Page 48            GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
Appendix III
Major Contributors to This Report




Page 49              GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
GAO Related Products


              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Bureau of Prisons’ Year 2000 Efforts
              (GAO/AIMD-99-23, Jan. 27, 1999).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness Improving, but Much Work
              Remains to Avoid Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-99-50, Jan. 20, 1999).

              Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness Improving, but Critical Risks
              Remain (GAO/T-AIMD-99-49).

              Status Information: FAA’s Year 2000 Business Continuity and Contingency
              Planning Efforts Are Ongoing (GAO/AIMD-99-40R, Dec. 4, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: A Testing Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.21, Nov. 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Readiness of State Automated Systems to
              Support Federal Welfare Programs (GAO/AIMD-99-28, Nov. 6, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Efforts to Deal With Personnel
              Issues (GAO/AIMD/GGD-99-14, Oct. 22, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Updated Status of Department of Education’s
              Information Systems (GAO/T-AIMD-99-8, Oct. 8, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Faces Tremendous
              Challenges in Ensuring Vital Services Are Not Disrupted (GAO/T-AIMD-99-4,
              Oct. 2, 1998).

              Medicare Computer Systems: Year 2000 Challenges Put Benefits and
              Services in Jeopardy (GAO/AIMD-98-284, Sept. 28, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Leadership Needed to Collect and
              Disseminate Critical Biomedical Equipment Information (GAO/T-AIMD-98-310,
              Sept. 24, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Compliance Status of Many Biomedical
              Equipment Items Still Unknown (GAO/AIMD-98-240, Sept. 18, 1998).

              Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Significant Risks Remain to Department of
              Education’s Student Financial Aid Systems (GAO/T-AIMD-98-302, Sept. 17,
              1998).




              Page 50           GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
GAO Related Products




Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, but
Key Systems at Risk (GAO/T-AIMD-98-303, Sept. 17, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Depository Institution Regulators Are
Making Progress, but Challenges Remain (GAO/T-AIMD-98-305, Sept. 17, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Reserve Is Acting to Ensure Financial
Institutions Are Fixing Systems, but Challenges Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-248,
Sept. 17, 1998).

Responses to Questions on FAA’s Computer Security and Year 2000
Program (GAO/AIMD-98-301R, Sept. 14, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Severity of Problem Calls for Strong
Leadership and Effective Partnerships (GAO/T-AIMD-98-278, Sept. 3, 1998 in
Palatine, IL).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships
Needed to Reduce Likelihood of Adverse Impact (GAO/T-AIMD-98-277, Sept. 2,
1998 in Indianapolis, IN).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships
Needed to Mitigate Risks (GAO/T-AIMD-98-276, Sept. 1, 1998 in Lakewood, OH).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: State Department Needs to Make
Fundamental Improvements to Its Year 2000 Program (GAO/AIMD-98-162,
Aug. 28, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing: EFT 99 Is Not Expected to Affect Year 2000
Remediation Efforts (GAO/AIMD-98-272R, Aug. 28, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made in Compliance of VA Systems,
but Concerns Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-237, Aug. 21, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Avoiding Major Disruptions Will Require
Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships (GAO/T-AIMD-98-267, Aug. 19,
1998 in New Orleans, LA).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed
to Address Risk of Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-98-266, Aug. 17, 1998 in
Mesquite, TX).




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GAO Related Products




Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Partnerships Needed
to Mitigate Risk of Major Disruptions (GAO/T-AIMD-98-262, Aug. 13, 1998 in
New York, NY).

FAASystems: Serious Challenges Remain in Resolving Year 2000 and
Computer Security Problems (GAO/T-AIMD-98-251, Aug. 6, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency
Planning (GAO/AIMD-10.1.19, Aug. 1998).

Internal Revenue Service: Impact of the IRS Restructuring and Reform Act
on Year 2000 Efforts (GAO/GGD-98-158R, Aug. 4, 1998).

Social Security Administration: Subcommittee Questions Concerning
Information Technology Challenges Facing the Commissioner
(GAO/AIMD-98-235R, July 10, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed on Electronic Data
Exchanges (GAO/AIMD-98-124, July 1, 1998).

Defense Computers: Year 2000 Computer Problems Put Navy Operations
at Risk (GAO/AIMD-98-150, June 30, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Testing and Other Challenges Confronting
Federal Agencies (GAO/T-AIMD-98-218, June 22, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Telecommunications Readiness Critical, Yet
Overall Status Largely Unknown (GAO/T-AIMD-98-212, June 16, 1998).

GAO   Views on Year 2000 Testing Metrics (GAO/AIMD-98-217R, June 16, 1998).

IRS’ Year 2000 Efforts: Business Continuity Planning Needed for Potential
Year 2000 System Failures (GAO/GGD-98-138, June 15, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Must Be Taken Now to Address Slow
Pace of Federal Progress (GAO/T-AIMD-98-205, June 10, 1998).

Defense Computers: Army Needs to Greatly Strengthen Its Year 2000
Program (GAO/AIMD-98-53, May 29, 1998).




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GAO Related Products




Year 2000 Computing Crisis: USDA Faces Tremendous Challenges in
Ensuring That Vital Public Services Are Not Disrupted (GAO/T-AIMD-98-167,
May 14, 1998).

Securities Pricing: Actions Needed for Conversion to Decimals
(GAO/T-GGD-98-121, May 8, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Continuing Risks of Disruption to Social
Security, Medicare, and Treasury Programs (GAO/T-AIMD-98-161, May 7, 1998).

IRS’ Year 2000 Efforts: Status and Risks (GAO/T-GGD-98-123, May 7, 1998).

Air Traffic Control: FAA Plans to Replace Its Host Computer System
Because Future Availability Cannot Be Assured (GAO/AIMD-98-138R, May 1,
1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Potential for Widespread Disruption Calls for
Strong Leadership and Partnerships (GAO/AIMD-98-85, Apr. 30, 1998).

Defense Computers: Year 2000 Computer Problems Threaten DOD
Operations (GAO/AIMD-98-72, Apr. 30, 1998).

Department of the Interior: Year 2000 Computing Crisis Presents Risk of
Disruption to Key Operations (GAO/T-AIMD-98-149, Apr. 22, 1998).

Tax Administration: IRS’ Fiscal Year 1999 Budget Request and Fiscal Year
1998 Filing Season (GAO/T-GGD/AIMD-98-114, Mar. 31, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Needed to Avoid
Disruption of Essential Services (GAO/T-AIMD-98-117, Mar. 24, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Regulatory Efforts to Ensure
Financial Institution Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-116,
Mar. 24, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Office of Thrift Supervision’s Efforts to
Ensure Thrift Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-102, Mar. 18,
1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective
Public/Private Cooperation Needed to Avoid Major Disruptions
(GAO/T-AIMD-98-101, Mar. 18, 1998).



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GAO Related Products




Post-Hearing Questions on the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s
Year 2000 (Y2K) Preparedness (AIMD-98-108R, Mar. 18, 1998).

SEC Year 2000 Report: Future Reports Could Provide More Detailed
Information (GAO/GGD/AIMD-98-51, Mar. 6, 1998).

Year 2000 Readiness: NRC’s Proposed Approach Regarding Nuclear
Powerplants (GAO/AIMD-98-90R, Mar. 6, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s
Efforts to Ensure Bank Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (GAO/T-AIMD-98-73,
Feb. 10, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: FAA Must Act Quickly to Prevent Systems
Failures (GAO/T-AIMD-98-63, Feb. 4, 1998).

FAA Computer Systems: Limited Progress on Year 2000 Issue Increases
Risk Dramatically (GAO/AIMD-98-45, Jan. 30, 1998).

Defense Computers: Air Force Needs to Strengthen Year 2000 Oversight
(GAO/AIMD-98-35, Jan. 16, 1998).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Actions Needed to Address Credit Union
Systems’ Year 2000 Problem (GAO/AIMD-98-48, Jan. 7, 1998).

Veterans Health Administration Facility Systems: Some Progress Made in
Ensuring Year 2000 Compliance, but Challenges Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-31R,
Nov. 7, 1997).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: National Credit Union Administration’s
Efforts to Ensure Credit Union Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant
(GAO/T-AIMD-98-20, Oct. 22, 1997).

Social Security Administration: Significant Progress Made in Year 2000
Effort, but Key Risks Remain (GAO/AIMD-98-6, Oct. 22, 1997).

Defense Computers: Technical Support Is Key to Naval Supply Year 2000
Success (GAO/AIMD-98-7R, Oct. 21, 1997).

Defense Computers: LSSC Needs to Confront Significant Year 2000 Issues
(GAO/AIMD-97-149, Sept. 26, 1997).




Page 54                GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
GAO Related Products




Veterans Affairs Computer Systems: Action Underway Yet Much Work
Remains to Resolve Year 2000 Crisis (GAO/T-AIMD-97-174, Sept. 25, 1997).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Success Depends Upon Strong Management
and Structured Approach (GAO/T-AIMD-97-173, Sept. 25, 1997).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: An Assessment Guide (GAO/AIMD-10.1.14, Sept.
1997).

Defense Computers: SSG Needs to Sustain Year 2000 Progress
(GAO/AIMD-97-120R, Aug. 19, 1997).

Defense Computers: Improvements to DOD Systems Inventory Needed for
Year 2000 Effort (GAO/AIMD-97-112, Aug. 13, 1997).

Defense Computers: Issues Confronting DLA in Addressing Year 2000
Problems (GAO/AIMD-97-106, Aug. 12, 1997).

Defense Computers: DFAS Faces Challenges in Solving the Year 2000
Problem (GAO/AIMD-97-117, Aug. 11, 1997).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Time Is Running Out for Federal Agencies to
Prepare for the New Millennium (GAO/T-AIMD-97-129, July 10, 1997).

Veterans Affairs Computer Systems: Uninterrupted Delivery of Benefits
Depends on Timely Correction of Year 2000 Problem (GAO/T-AIMD-97-114,
June 26, 1997).

Veterans Benefits Computer Systems: Risk of VBA’s Year 2000 Efforts
(GAO/AIMD-97-79, May 30, 1997).

Medicare Transaction System: Success Depends Upon Correcting Critical
Managerial and Technical Weaknesses (GAO/AIMD-97-78, May 16, 1997).

Medicare Transaction System: Serious Managerial and Technical
Weaknesses Threaten Modernization (GAO/T-AIMD-97-91, May 16, 1997).

Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Risk of Serious Disruption to Essential
Government Functions Calls for Agency Action Now (GAO/T-AIMD-97-52,
Feb. 27, 1997).




Page 55                GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
           GAO Related Products




           Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership Today Needed to Prevent
           Future Disruption of Government Services (GAO/T-AIMD-97-51, Feb. 24, 1997).

           High-Risk Series: Information Management and Technology (GAO/HR-97-9,
           Feb. 1, 1997).




(348102)   Page 56                GAO/RCED/AIMD-99-57 Airports’ Efforts to Prepare for the Year 2000
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