oversight

1990 Annual Report of Key Performance Indicators

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-11-01.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO

November 1990

                1990Annual
                Report of Key
                Performance
                Indicators
Preface


            This is the third annual report to the Comptroller General on key GAO
            performance indicators during fiscal year 1990. A family of measures
            composed of a key indicator and several supporting indicators is
            presented in graphic form for each dimension. These key indicators
            address

          '" the outcomes of GAO's work,
          " managing GAO's work, and
          .. GAO's human resources.

            To the extent possible, 5-year GAO-wide and 3-year division/region/over-
            seas data are presented to help the reader appraise the movement of
            indicators in a historical context. Current year data are often compared
            with data covering fiscal year 1988, which also encompassed the second
            session of a Congress.

            Appendix I contains GAO-wide statistics.

            Any questions and comments should be directed to James Howard,
            Deputy Assistant Comptroller General for Operations.




            Ira Goldstein
            Assistant Comptroller General
              for Operations




            Page 1                                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Contents



Preface                                                                                    1

Section I                                                                                  4
Outcomes of GAO's     Product Volume                                                       6
                      Testimony                                                            8
Work                  OGC Output                                                          10
                      Impact/Accomplishments                                              12
                      Report Standards                                                    14

Section II                                                                                16
Managing GAO's Work   Direct Assistance to the Congress                                   18
                      Active Assignments                                                  20
                      Completed Assignments                                               22
                      Timeliness                                                          24

Section III                                                                               26
Profile of GAO's      Work Force                                                          28
                      EEO                                                                 30
Human Resources       Affirmative Action                                                  32
                      Recruitment/Hiring                                                  34
                      Training                                                            36
                      Attrition                                                           38

Appendix              Appendix I: GAO-Wide Table of Key Performance                       42
                         Statistics




                      Page 2                                          GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Contents




Abbreviations

AFMD       Accounting and Financial Management Division
CPE        continuing professional education
EEO        equal employment opportunity
GAO        General Accounting Office
GGD        General Government Division
GPA        grade point average
GS         General Schedule
HRD        Human Resources Division
IMTEC      Information Management and Technology Division
NSIAD      National Security and International Affairs Division
OGC        Office of the General Counsel
PEMD       Program Evaluation and Methodology Division
RCED       Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division
SES        Senior Executive Service


Page3                                             GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I

Outcomes of GAO's Work


               GAO produced a 5-year record high number of written reports and testi-
               monies during 1990 while maintaining its quality standards. Letter
               reports, which increased sharply during 1988 and 1989, were up slightly
               this year to 450 and continued to be GAO's largest product type. All other
               types of congressional written reports also increased over levels
               reported last year. Fact sheets, issued to meet quick turnaround infor-
               mation requests from customers, were up most. Chapter reports, how-
               ever, responding to more substantive requirements and often containing
               recommendations, showed the second highest growth rate. In 1990,
               chapter reports constituted 29 percent of all congressional reports, up 2
               percentage points over last year. Congressional briefings (without
               written products) declined 11 percent from last year, reaching a 3-year
               low.

               Not only did GAO's testimony reach a record high (306), it was delivered
               by a record number of GAO officials (71) to 24 House and 17 Senate com-
               mittees, compared with 21and13, respectively, last year. Testimony
               before committees addressing government operations/affairs, energy,
               tax, banking, armed services, and agricultural issues increased
               significantly.

               Office of the General Counsel external product output was down slightly
               this year, due primarily to decreased requests from the executive
               branch for decisions. Such requests fluctuate from year to year.

               Adherence to GAO report standards during 1990 continued to be main-
               tained at a satisfactory level.

               In 1990, GAO's work contributed to legislative and executive actions
               resulting in significant improvements in overall government operations
               and measurable financial benefits of over $15 billion-a substantial
               increase over last year. (This total could change when all accomplish-
               ment reports for 1990 are filed and approved.)

               GAO made 1,635 recommendations in 1990, up 45 percent over last year
               and a 5-year record high. During the year, GAO's work made major con-
               tributions that could yield large payoffs that would be difficult to quan-
               tify. Examples follow.

             • GAO's review of the U.S. Customs Service's revenue collection process
               helped initiate internal control improvements that should prevent the
               loss of millions of dollars in government revenue due to fraud and
               abuse.


               Page4                                                  GAO 1990 Key Indicators
  Section I
  Outcomes of GAO's Work




• On the basis of GAO's work in the debt collection area, a number of fed-
  eral agencies improved their collection procedures. This should result in
  more efficient operations and improved loan collections.




  Page5                                                 GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work

Product                                  Total output of audit/evaluation products in 1990 reached a 5-year high
                                         of 1,470, a 12-percent increase over last year. Letter reports continued
                                         to be GAo's largest product type, slightly exceeding last year's total. Tes-
Volume                                   timony and congressional written products increased most-41 percent
                                         and 11 percent, respectively. Agency reports were relatively unchanged
                                         and congressional briefings declined. Congressional reports issued in
                                         chapter format increased 19 percent this year, reaching a 5-year high of
                                         271.
Key Indicator: Number of Audit/Evaluation Products


                                          1500
                                          1400
                                          1300
                                          1200
                                          1100
                                          1000
                                           900
                                           800
                                           700
                                          600
                                          500
                                          400
                                          300
                                          200
                                          100



                                                  86                   87         88                 89   90
                                                  Fiscal Years


                                                  ~         Congressional Briefings

                                                  ~Testimonies
                                                  mm::rnm   Agency Reports

                                                  fl.Bl     Congressional Written Products




Audit/Evaluation Products by Division
550

500

450

400

350

3~0

250

200

150

100

50

 0

      GGD                 HAD   NSIAD           ACED                  AFMD                   IMTEC             PEMD


            Fiscal Year 1988

            Fiscal Year 1989

            Fiscal Year 1990




                                          Page6                                                                       GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                                              Section I: Outcomes ofGAO's Work
                                                                              Product Volume




Congressional Written Products by Type




                                                                              50




                                                                                   66                                      67                                   66                            69          90
                                                                                   Fiscal Years

                                                                                                     Chapter Reports



                                                                                        -
                                                                                        1111111111
                                                                                                     Letter Reports
                                                                                                     Briefing Reports
                                                                                                     Fact Sheets




Congressional and Agency Written Products Resulting From Region-Led Assignments
45   Number of Products

40

35

30




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             Fiscal Year 1989

             Fiscal Year 1990




                                                                              Page7                                                                                                                        GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                       Testimonies totaled 306-a 5-year high-up 41 percent from last year
                                       and 35 percent from 1988, which also encompassed a second congres-
                                       sional session. The number of GAO officials appearing as lead witnesses
                                       also set a new record, reaching 71in1990, up 7 over last year. Twenty
                                       percent of all testimony in 1990 was presented to the Committees on
                                       Government Operations and Governmental Affairs.



Key Indicator: Number of Testimonies


                                       350


                                       300


                                       250


                                       200


                                       150


                                       100


                                       50




                                              86                 87        08            09   90
                                              Fiscal Years


                                                      Before Joint Committees

                                                      Before Senate Committees

                                                      Before House Committees




Number of Testimonies by Division
90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10




     GGD                 HRD   NSIAD         RCED                AFMD            IMTEC             PEMD

           Fiscal Year 1988

           Fiscal Year 1989

           Fiscal Year 1990




                                        Pages                                                             GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                         Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                         Testimony




House Committees Receiving Most Testimony in Fiscal Year 1990
50




        Fiscal Year 1988

        Fiscal Year 1989

        Fiscal Year 1990




Senate Committees Receiving Most Testimony in Fiscal Year 1990
50

45

40

35

30




        Fiscal Year 1988

        Fiscal Year 1989

        Fiscal Year 1990




                                         Page9                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                             ooc output of selected written products decreased 6 percent from the
OGCOutput                                    levels reported last year. While the number of congressional opinions
                                             and bid protest decisions remained relatively constant, the number of
                                             requests for decisions from the executive branch decreased significantly
                                             this year, resulting in a 22-percent decline in decisions. This is consistent
                                             with historical trends, as executive branch requests for decisions
                                             fluctuate.


Key Indicator: Number of External Products



                                             4000




                                                     86        87    88    89    90
                                                     Fiscal Years




Number of Opinions for the Congress
                                             700


                                             600


                                             500


                                             400




                                                    86        87    88    89    90
                                                    Flscal Years




                                             Page 10                                                 GAO 1990 Key lndicat:ors
                                       Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                       OGCOutput




Number of Bid Protest Decisions
                                       4000

                                       3500

                                       3000

                                       2500

                                       2000

                                       1500

                                       1000

                                        500




                                              86        87    88   89   90
                                              Flsca,I Years




Number of Executive Branch Decisions
                                       700


                                       600


                                       500


                                       400


                                       300


                                       200


                                       100




                                              86        87    88   89   90
                                              Fiscal Years




                                       Page 11                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work

hnpact/                             GAO contributed to legislative and executive actions taken in 1990 that
                                    resulted in over $15 billion in measurable financial benefits-up sharply
                                    from last year. The total number of accomplishment reports claimed in
Accomplish-                         1990 (as of Nov. 9) increased slightly over last year. GAO made 1,635
                                    recommendations in 1990, up 45 percent over last year. By the end of
ments                               1990, 78 percent of all recommendations made in 1986 had been
                                    implemented.

Key Indicator: Financial Benefits


                                    Billions of Dollars
                                    24

                                    22

                                    20

                                    18
                                    16

                                    14

                                    12
                                    10




                                          86             87         88     89       90
                                          Fiscal Year Benefits Reported

                                          CJ            Civil programs

                                          I        §j   Defense programs


                                    Financial Benefits for FY 1990 are based upon reports as of November 9, 1990, some of which are still being processed.




Number of Accomplishment Reports
                                    250




                                              86          87         88    89       90
                                              Fiscal Year Accomplishment Reported


                                              CJ         Monetary

                                           I < \I        Nonmonetary




                                    Page 12                                                                                         GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                           Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                           Impact/Accomplishments




Financial Benefits/Nonmonetary
Accomplishment Reports. for Fisc11I Year
1990 by Division
                                                                                                       GGD


                                                                                                       HRD


                                                                                                       NSIAD



                                                                                                       ACED


                                                                                                       AFMD


                                                                                                       IMTEC



                                                                                                       PEMD


                                           9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0                       0      10       20     30      40   50   60

                                                                              Miiiions of Dollars              Number of Nonmonetary Reports




Status of GAO Recommendations Made
in Fiscal Years 1986-90 as of the End of
                                           1800   Number of Recommendations
Fiscal Year 1990
                                           1600

                                           1400

                                           1200

                                           1000

                                            800

                                            600

                                            400

                                            200




                                                  86        87      88        89        90
                                                  Fiscal Years

                                                          Recommendations Closed But Not Implemented

                                                          Recommendations Open

                                                          Recommendations Implemented




                                           Page 13                                                                                   GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                                       monitors conformity with its stringent report standards by
Report                                             GAO
                                                   reviewing a random sample of issued products. Using a rating scale of 0
                                                   (poor) to 5 (exceptional), these postissuance reviews continue to show a
Standards                                          satisfactory level of compliance.




Key lndicatpr: Adherence to Standar~s ·


                                                   5    Average Rating




                                                        86        87       88        89        90
                                                        Flacal Years

                                                   Note: Data for 1990 cover only the first three quarters.




Adherence to Standards by Division
5   Average Rating




    GGD                    HRD             NSIAD       ACED                 AFMD                    IMTEC     PEMD


    C=:J Fiscal Year 1987
    EE' \I   Fiscal Year 1988
    ~        Fiscal Year 1989

    . . 1990 (through the third quarter)




                                                   Page 14                                                           GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                      Section I: Outcomes of GAO's Work
                                      Report
                                      Standards




Adherence to Standards by Component
                                      5   Average Rating




                                          C=:J    Fiscal Year 1986

                                          I ll    Fiscal Year 1987
                                          !Bil    Fiscal Year 1988

                                          lm,1    Fiscal Year 1989

                                          . . 1990 (through the third quarter)




                                      Page 15                                    GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II

Managing GAO's Work


             GAO started 1,786 and completed 1,707 assignments of all types in 1990,
             up 13 and 16 percent, respectively, from last year and ended the year
             with an active assignment work load slightly higher than last year's
             work load. The average assignment was completed faster (6 percent),
             and all timeliness indicators showed some improvement.

             GAO's direct assistance work load (staff-years charged to audits and
             evaluations that directly assist the Congress) was 81.5 percent, down 1
             percentage point from last year. However, committee work increased
             slightly.

             The entire increase in new assignment starts was for congressional cus-
             tomers, while self-initiated assignment starts were unchanged.

             Active assignments at the end of the year increased for the fifth consec-
             utive year, reaching 1,198 assignments, up 2 percent from a year ago.

             The average age of active assignments continues to decline, with 83.2
             percent of the active assignments less than a year old, up 3 percentage
             points from a year ago.

             GAO competed 1,707 assignments during 1990, a 16-percent increase
             over last year's total and the highest number of assignments completed
             during the past 5 years.

             The average cost of completed assignments was $197,000, up less than
             the inflation rate from last year. The average cost of assignments for
             which the principal product was chapter and letter reports for the Con-
             gress was up 35 percent (due largely to several large financial statement
             audits), the committee assignment cost was relatively unchanged, and
             the testimony assignment cost declined 23 percent.

             Completing an assignment during 1990 averaged 9 months, down
             slightly from last year-continuing a 5-year declining trend.

             The average duration for congressional report assignments was
             unchanged from last year. Testimony assignments, however, averaged
             only 2.6 months, a month less than last year.

             Progress has been made this year in reducing the average time required
             to get a principal product issued after the draft product reaches the
             issue area director. This process took 164 days when agency comments



             Page 16                                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II
Managing GAO's Work




were requested, compared with 181 days last year. When comments
were not requested, it took 65 days, unchanged from last year.

Some improvement was also realized in the percentage of principal prod-
ucts issued by the dates estimated at the start of implementation-19
percent in 1990-up 3 percentage points from last year. Continued pro-
gress in reducing the time spent in the reporting phases of our work-
through special emphasis in the Operations Improvement Program, and
better estimating-should lead to improved "on-time" performance.




Page 17                                             GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II: Managing GAO's Work
                                             GAO's direct assistance work load (staff-years charged to audits and
Direct                                       evaluations that directly assist the Congress) was 81.5 percent, nearly 1
Assistance                                   percentage point less than the rate experienced during the prior 3 years.
                                             The number of congressional assignments started in 1990 reached a 5-
to the                                       year high of 1,521-up 15 percent from last year and 22 percent from
                                             1988, which also encompassed a second congressional session. In addi-
Umgress                                      tion, 265 self-initiated assignments were started, a level unchanged from
                                             1989.

Key Indicator: Direct Assistance to the Congress


                                             90   Percent of Steff-Years

                                             80

                                             70

                                             60

                                             50

                                             40

                                             30

                                             20

                                             10




                                                   86                   87        88       89   90
                                                   Fiscal Years

                                                           Others

                                                            Members

                                                           Committees




Direct Assistance to the Congress by Division
100   Percent of Staff-Years

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10




      GGD                      HRD   NSIAD        RCED                     AFMD        IMTEC         PEMD


               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Vear 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




                                              Page 18                                                       GAO 1990 Key lndicat.ors
                                                                                                                Section Il: Managing GAO's Work
                                                                                                                Direct Assistance to the Congress




ls~ue         Areas/Areas of Interest With Direct Assistance Rates Over 90 Percent
100     Percent

 99

 98

 97

 96

 95

 94

 93

 92

 91

 90


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Congressional Assignments Started by Division
400     Number Started


350


300


250


200


150


100


 50




         GGD                                            HRD                                     NSIAD                  RCED                                          AFMD          IMTEC   PEMD


                             Fiscal Year 1988

                             Fiscal Year 1989

                             Fiscal Year 1990




                                                                                                                    Page 19                                                                       GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II: Managing GAO's Work
                                               Active assignments as of the end of 1990 increased for the fifth consecu-
Active                                         tive year, reaching 1,198 assignments-up 2 percent from last year. The
                                               average age of active assignments continued to decline, with 83.2 per-
Assigmnents                                    cent of the active assignments less than a year old, compared with 80.4
                                               percent a year ago. Only 1.5 percent of assignments are over 2 years old,
                                               a 5-year low.



~ey   Indicator:   ~umber   of Active Assignments


                                               1400
                                               1300
                                               1200
                                               1100
                                               1000
                                                900
                                                800
                                                700
                                                600
                                                500
                                                400
                                                300
                                                200
                                                100

                                                    o,.~
                                                        86
                                                                 ..re..r.111..-•
                                                                  87           88      89     90
                                                        Fiscal Years




Aging Pattern of Active Assignments
GAO-Wide and by Division
                                               35     Percent of Active Assignments


                                               30


                                               25


                                               20


                                               15


                                               10




                                                      GAO                GGD          HRD   NSIAD   RCED   AFMD   IMTEC   PEMD

                                                              Over 24 Months

                                                              18 - 24 Months

                                                              12-18 Months




                                               Page 20                                                                           GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                                                      Section Ii: Managing GAO's Work
                                                                                      Active Assignments




Number of Active Assignments by Division
350
325
300
275
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
 75
 50
 25



               GGD                            HAD                NSIAD                         ACED                                     AFMD                           IMTEC                    PEMD

                            Fiscal Year 1988

                            Fiscal Year 1989

                            Fiscal Year 1990




Number of Active Assignments by Region
80


70


60


50


40


30


20


10




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                                                                                      Page 21                                                                                                          GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II: Managing GAO's Work
                                             completed 1,705 assignments during 1990, up 16 percent from last
C-Ompleted                              GAO
                                        year, setting a 5-year high. The average duration of an assignment in
                                        1990 was 9 months, down more than 6 percent from last year. The
Assigmnents                             average duration of assignments in which the principal products were
                                        reports to the Congress, committees, and members was unchanged at
                                        13.9 months, while the average duration of briefing report, fact sheet,
                                        testimony, and agency report assignments declined. The average cost of
                                        a completed assignment in 1990 was $197,000, up marginally.
Key Indicator: Number of Completed Assignments


                                        1800


                                        1600


                                        1400


                                        1200


                                        1000


                                         800


                                         600


                                         400


                                         200




                                                 86        87            88    89        90
                                                 Fiscal Years


                                                         Region Led

                                                          Division Led

                                                         Combined (Separate data were not available.)




Number of Completed Assignments by Division
450


400


350


300


250


200


150


100


50




      GGD                 HRD   NSIAD          RCED                  AFMD                  IMTEC        PEMD


            Fiscal Year 1988

            Fiscal Year 1989

            Fiscal Year 1990




                                         Page 22                                                               GAO 1990 Key fudicators
                                              Section Il: Managing GAO's Work
                                              Completed Assignments




Average Duration of Completed Assignments GAO-Wide and by Product Group
24    Months


21

18

15

12




               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Year 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




Average Cost of Completed Assignments GAO-Wide and by Division
400   Dollars In Thousands


350

300

250

200

150

100

50




      GAO                         GGD   HRD      NSIAD      ACED       AFMD     IMTEC   PEMD


               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Year 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




                                              Page 23                                          GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section II: Managing GAO's Work

Timeliness                                   In 1990, 19 percent of the principal products were issued by the original
                                             target dates established at the start of implementation and 47 percent
                                             were issued within 60 days of the original target dates, up 3 and 4 per-
                                             centage points, respectively, from a year ago. During 1990, to issue a
                                             principal product after the issue area director received a draft product
                                             for review took an average of 94 days, 7 days less than it took in 1988
                                             and 1989.

Key lndic,ator: Timeliness o! Pri~cipal Products Issued


                                             100       Percent

                                             90




                                                  86                         87                       88                      89                    90
                                               Fiscal Years


                                               11111 By Original Target Date                        I:}~{)   Over 2 Months to 6 Months After Target Date

                                               ~:i::::::;:j   1 Day to 2 Months After Target Date




Principal Products Issued by Original Target Date by Division
50   Percent

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10




0


     GGD                     HRD   NSIAD       ACED                        AFMD                 IMTEC                    PEMD


               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Year 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




                                            Page 24                                                                                                  GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                                                  Section II: Managing GAO's Work
                                                                                  Timeliness




Time From Draft Product Delivered to Issuance of Principal Product
200       Average Calendar Days




150




100




50




          0
         <1

                     Fiscal Year 1989

                     Fiscal Year 1990




Region-Led Draft Products Delivered to Issue Area Director by Original Target Date
50        Percent

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

10




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                                                                                                                                                                              1l       "'It
~                                                                                                      ~          ..:;"'                                      q,<:'



                    Fiscal Year 1989

                    Fiscal Year 1990
                                                                                                                                                                              "

                                                                                      Page 25                                                                                                 GAO 1990 Key htdicat.ors
Section III

Profile of GAO's Human Resources


               In virtually every human resource area, the 1990 indicators illustrate
               that GAO's staff is undergoing significant change. Although this evolu-
               tion was discussed in the 1989 annual indicators report and the 1990
               midyear report, the year-end indicators more clearly show GAO's human
               resource evolution. In general, GAO's trends are in line with the forecasts
               of studies like Workforce 2000 and Civil Service 2000, which predict
               that the nation's work force is continuing to become more diverse,
               white-collar, and specialized.

               While the size of GAO's work force has remained stable for the past 5
               years, the composition of this work force is changing. For the fifth
               straight year, for example, the percentages of evaluator and secretarial/
               clerical staff declined. This decline has been matched by increased per-
               centages of evaluator-related specialists and administrative/technical
               staff. While the 1990 percentage changes were small (less than 1 per-
               centage point for each group), the changes suggest a gradual but clear
               trend toward a higher proportion of professionals and specialists.

               This shift is also illustrated by GAO's hiring patterns. During 1990, the _
               percentage of professional staff hires increased to over 84 percent of all
               hires, a 5-year high. In addition, the types of professionals hired con-
               tinued to change, as the percentage of headquarters evaluators
               increased and the percentage of specialists rose to over 20 percent of all
               new employees.

               Another significant indicator of how GAO's work force is evolving is the
               changing academic profile of our new hires. In 1990, for example, over
               60 percent of GAO's evaluator and evaluator-related recruits had
               advanced degrees. In addition, over 60 percent had GPAs of over 3.5.
               This continued emphasis on graduate degrees and superior academic
               credentials and the increasing number of applicants for entry-level posi-
               tions (about 7,200 for 239 positions) suggest that GAO is attracting and
               hiring highly skilled and qualified candidates. The challenge now is to
               effectively utilize, motivate, and retain these new employees.

               The demographic composition of GAO's staff is also continuing to more
               closely reflect the diversity of our nation's work force. Over the past 5
               years, GAO has systematically increased the proportions of women and
               minority professionals at all levels. As a result, women now constitute
               about 37 percent of GAO's professional staff while minorities constitute
               over 20 percent. It is particularly significant that GAO is promoting and
               hiring more minorities into the upper levels, where the agency's decen-
               tralized, unit-based affirmative action program is now focusing. In 1985,


               Page 26                                                GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section ill
Profile of GAO's Human Resources




for example, only 8 percent of GAO's Management and SES staff were
women and less than 3 percent were minorities. In contrast, at the end
of fiscal year 1990, about 18 percent of GAO's senior managers were
women and over 8 percent were minorities.

Despite this progress, however, GAO must continue its aggressive efforts
to achieve a truly representative work force. Although GAO achieved
more affirmative action goals in 1990 than the agency met in 1989, GAO
needs to pay continued attention to attracting, developing, advancing,
and retaining women and minorities.

In 1990, employee training and education was again a critical element of
GAO's efforts to develop the skills needed to perform the complex work
of the future. This year, GAO's staff attended almost 340,000 hours of
internal and external training, an average of 63 hours per employee.
Since 1990 is the first year that external training data have been avail-
able, it is not possible to compare 1990 total training hours with prior
year totals. Nevertheless, the agency's continuing professional educa-
tion requirement (each staff member must earn 80 training credits in the
2-year period ending December 31, 1990) appears to be stimulating
GAO's staff to develop and enhance skills through formal training.

Finally, GAO's attrition data also clearly indicate that the organization is
changing. While 1990 midyear attrition figures suggested that GAO turn-
over patterns were changing, year-end data show more dramatic and
across-the-board changes. In 1990, GAO's overall attrition rate increased
by 16 percent to a 5-year high of 9.3 percent, reversing a 2-year decline
in attrition. Significantly, attrition rates increased for all groups ana-
lyzed. Attrition reached 5-year highs for evaluators, specialists, head-
quarters professionals, field professionals, Senior and Management level
staff, SES members, professionals with 1 to 3 years of GAO experience,
Asians/others and blacks. Finally, the headquarters attrition rate was
higher than the field attrition rate for the first time since 1987.

Although these 1-year attrition figures should not be used to project
future attrition, the 1990 increases suggest that GAO's historically low
attrition may be increasing. Factors such as changing career attitudes,
the increase in specialist staff (who have highly marketable skills), and
GAO's performance-based pay system (which emphasizes performance
management and feedback) may all be stimulating at~rition. In the
future, other factors, such as changing economic conditions and modifi-
cations to federal retirement rules, may also influence GAO attrition.



Page 27                                                 GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources

Work Force                           At the end of 1990, GAO had 5189 staff members, a slight increase from
                                     last year's total. The mix of staff among divisions, staff offices, and
                                     regions also changed only slightly from 1989. By level, the proportion of
                                     Staff level professionals declined slightly, while the percentage at the
                                     Management level increased slightly. More significantly, GAO's occupa-
                                     tional mix continued to change-the proportions of specialists and
                                     administrative/technical staff rose and the percentages of evaluators
                                     and support staff declined.
Key Indicator: Total Work Force


                                         6000



                                         5000



                                         4000



                                         3000



                                         2000



                                         1000




                                                  86         87             88   89     90
                                                  Fiscal Years


                                                            Field

                                                            Staff Offices

                                                            Divisions


                                         Note: 1988 reflects closing of Washington Regional Office and transfer of staff to divisions.




Professional Work Force by Level/Grade
                                         65     Percent

                                         60

                                         55

                                         50

                                         45

                                         40

                                         35

                                         30

                                         25

                                         20

                                         15

                                         10




                                                Staff Level and         Senior Level      Management            SES
                                                GS-7 to GS-12           and GS-13/14      Level and
                                                                                          GS-15


                                                          Fiscal Year 1986

                                                          Fiscal Year 1987

                                                          Fiscal Year 1988

                                                          Fiscal Year 1989

                                                          Fiscal Year 1990




                                         Page 28                                                                                         GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                  Section ill: Profile of GAO's Human
                                  Resources
                                  Work Force




Work Force by Job Category
65   Percent
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10




               Fiscal Year 1986

               Fiscal Year 1987

               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Year 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




                                  Page 29                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources

EEO                                  The percentages of women and minorities increased in all categories
                                     except for blacks at the Staff level. Women and minorities now account
                                     for over 37 and 20 percent, respectively, of GAO's professional staff. Pro-
                                     portionately, Hispanic representation increased most, growing by 12
                                     percent. By level, the largest percentage increases occurred at the upper
                                     levels. For example, the percentage of Senior level Asians/other minori-
                                     ties rose by 25 percent and the percentage of Management/SES blacks
                                     increased by about 23 percent.
Key Indicator: Women and Minorities in the Professional Staff



                                            40        Percent


                                            35

                                            30


                                            25


                                            20


                                            15

                                            10    --------------------------------------------------------


                                                 66                          67                       66                          69                         90
                                                 Fiscal Years

                                                      - - Women
                                                      • • • • Blacks
                                                      -         Hispanics
                                                      aaaa      Asians/other Minorities




Women and Minorities at the Staff and
GS-7 to GS-12 Levels
                                            60        Percent

                                            55
                                            50

                                            45
                                            40

                                            35
                                            30

                                            25



                                            20 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
                                            15
                                            10




                                                 66                          67                       66                          69                         90
                                                 Fiscal Years

                                                      - - Women
                                                      • • • • Blacks
                                                      -         Hispanics
                                                      aaaa      Asians/Other Minorities




                                            Page 30                                                                                                              GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                         Section ill: Profile of GAO's Human
                                         Resources
                                         EEO




Women and Minorities at the Senior and
GS-13/14 Levels
                                         28        Percent
                                         26
                                         24
                                         22
                                         20
                                         18
                                         16
                                         14
                                         12


                                         10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




                                              86                          87                         88                               89                             90
                                              Fiscal Years

                                                             Women
                                                             Blacks
                                                   -         Hispanics
                                                   • • • •   Asians/Other Minorities




Women and Minorities at the
Management, GS-15, and SES Levels
                                         18

                                         16

                                         14

                                         12

                                         10




                                                                                                                                              ..........................
                                          4
                                                                                       ....................   .......................... ..

                                          2 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••




                                              86                          87                          88                              89                              90
                                              Fiscal Years

                                                             Women
                                                             Blacks
                                                   -         Hispanics
                                                   • • • •   Asians/Other Minorities




                                         Page 31                                                                                                                       GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources
                                     Since 1986, GAO's divisions and regions have set individual unit-based
Affirmative                          affirmative action goals; the charts below show combined results for all
                                     units. The charts show that in 1990 GAO continued to achieve affirma-
Action                               tive action goals for women at all levels and was generally successful in
                                     meeting Staff level goals for all groups. At the Senior level, however,
                                     goals were not met for any minority groups. At the Management level,
                                     goal attainment percentages increased for blacks and Hispanics, but
                                     decreased for Asians/others.
Attainment of Affirmative Action Goals for Women


                                          200   Percent of goal

                                          180

                                          160

                                          140

                                          120

                                          100

                                           80

                                           60

                                           40

                                           20




                                                Staff Level          Senior Level   Management
                                                                                    Level

                                                         Fiscal Year 1987

                                                         Fiscal Year 1988

                                                         Fiscal Year 1989

                                                         Fiscal Year 1990




Attainment of Affirmative Action Goals
for Blacks                                200   Percent of goal

                                          180

                                          160

                                          140

                                          120

                                          100

                                           80

                                           60

                                           40

                                           20




                                                Staff Level          Senior Level   Management
                                                                                    Level

                                                         Fiscal Year 1987

                                                         Fiscal Year 1988

                                                         Fiscal Year 1989
                                                         Fiscal Year 1990




                                          Page 32                                                GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                         Section III: Proille of GAO's Human
                                         Resources
                                         Afflrmative Action




Attainment of Affirmative Action Goals
for Hispanics                            200   Percent of goal

                                         180

                                         160

                                         140

                                         120

                                         100

                                         80

                                         60

                                         40

                                         20




                                               Staff Level           Senior Level    Management
                                                                                     Level

                                                        Fiscal Year 1987

                                                        Fiscal Year 1988

                                                        Fiscal Year 1989

                                                        Fiscal Year 1990




Attainment of Affirmative Action Goals
for Asians and Others                    200   Percent of goal

                                         180

                                         160

                                         140

                                         120




                                               Staff Level           Senior Level     Management
                                                                                      Level

                                                         Fiscal Year 1987

                                                         Fiscal Year 1988

                                                         Fiscal Year 1989

                                                         Fiscal Year 1990


                                         Note: No goal was set for the Management Level in 1987 .




                                         Page 33                                                    GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources
                                      The number of hires during 1990 remained at about last year's level, but
Recruitment/                         the percentage of professional hires rose to 84 percent. The proportions
                                      of specialists and headquarters evaluators increased while the per-
Hiring                                centage of field evaluator and support staff hires decreased. At the
                                      entry levels, the percentages of evaluators and specialists with
                                      advanced degrees and high GPAs increased substantially. This year's
                                      applicant pool grew by 23 percent to over 7,200. Over two-thirds of
                                     GAO's entry-level hires came from schools where GAO recruits.
Key Indicator: Total Hires


                                                     700


                                                     600


                                                     500


                                                     400


                                                     300


                                                     200


                                                     100




                                                               86        87             88              89   90
                                                               Fiscal Years

                                                                       Support Staff

                                                                        Professional Staff




Percent of Hires by Job Category
40   Percent


35


30




                         ll'                   J'~
                                             ~;P
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                                                               ~
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                     i§
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               86
               87

               88

               89

               90                                    Page 34                                                              GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                                     Section ill: Profile of GAO's Human
                                                                     Resources
                                                                     Recruitment/Hiring




Entry-Level.Evaluator and Evaluator- Related Hiring
      Academic Major                                                           Degree Level                                             GPA                                 Source
Percent                                                            Percent                                                  Percent                          Percent
100                                                                100                                                      100                              100

90                                                                  90                                                       90                               90

80                                                                  80                                                       80                               80

70                                                                  70                                                       70                               70

60                                                                  60                                                       60                               60

50                                                                  50                                                       50                               50

40                                                                  40                                                       40                               40

30                                                                  30                                                      30                                30

20                                                                  20                                                      20                                20

10                                                                  10                                                      10                                10

 0

       88         89          90                                               88         89           90                          88           89      90             88       89        90
       Fiscal Years                                                            Fiscal Years                                        Fiscal Years                    Fiscal Years


      C:=J       Other (Including Social Sciences and Economics)                         Doctoral Degree                                    Below 2.9                          Other Schools

      [ }    j   Computer Science                                                        Master's Degree                                    2.9-3.25                           Schools Where GAO Recruits

      mlj        Accounting                                                              Bachelor's Degree                                  3.26-3.49

      . . Business Administration                                                                                                           3.5-4.0

      . . Public Administration/Policy


Numbers of Entry-Level Applications,
Certified Candidates, Selections, and                                7500
Job Offer Acceptances                                                7000
                                                                     6500
                                                                     6000
                                                                     5500
                                                                     5000
                                                                     4500
                                                                     4000
                                                                     3500
                                                                     3000
                                                                     2500
                                                                     2000
                                                                     1500
                                                                     1000
                                                                         500
                                                                           0


                                                                                    Fiscal Year               Fiscal Year         Fiscal Year
                                                                                    1988                      1989                1990


                                                                                               Applications

                                                                                              Certified Candidates

                                                                                               Selections

                                                                                              Offers Accepted


                                                                     Note: Totals for Evaluators, Accountants, and Computer Scientists only.




                                                                     Page 35                                                                                                GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources

                  g                  At the end of fiscal year 1990, almost three-quarters of GAO's staff had
                                     met the continuing professional education requirement to earn 80 CPES
                                     by December 31, 1990. About 11 percent of the staff had fewer than 60
                                     CPEs and therefore must earn at least 20 more CPEs to meet the require-
                                     ment. Overall, GAO employees attended 339,395 hours of training in
                                     1990-an average of about 63 hours per employee. The staff office
                                     average of about 31 hours was considerably lower than the averages for
                                     divisions (69) and regions (75).
Key Indicator: Progress Toward 2-Year CPE Requirement


                                         100    Percent of staff

                                          90

                                          8-0

                                          70

                                          60

                                          50

                                          40

                                          30

                                          20

                                          10




                                                CJ        60 or more CPEs
                                                CJ        80 or more CPEs


                                         Note 1: Staff must earn 80 CPEs during the period 1/1/89 to 12131/90 (there is also a grace period
                                         extending to 2128/91 ).

                                         Note 2: "GAO-wide" includes staff office employees who must meet the CPE requirement.




CPE Progress by Number of CPEs
Earned                                   55     Percent

                                         50

                                         45

                                         40

                                         35

                                         30

                                         25

                                         20

                                         15

                                         10




                                                Fewer Than 40            40-59 CPEs         60-79 CPEs             80-130 CPEs           More Than 130
                                                CPEs                                                                                     CPEs


                                                          Staff Level

                                                          Senior Level

                                                          Management Level

                                                          SES




                                         Page 36                                                                                                   GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                                              Section ill: Profile of GAO's Human
                                                                              Resources
                                                                              Training




1990 Average Training Hours: Divisions and Staff Offices
80        Hours
                                                                   ---
70


60


50


40


30


20


10


0

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                                                                                                                            $'
~                                                                                                                          r;j
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1990 Average Training Hours: Regions
130        Hours
120
110
100
 90
 80
 70

60
 50
 40
 30
 20
10




      ,pf
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                                                                              Page 37                                                                                                                     GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Section III: Profile of GAO's Human Resources
                                     GAO's overall attrition rate rose to 9.3 percent this year, up from 8 per-
Attrition                            cent last year. Attrition increased for virtually all groups, and for the
                                     first time since 1987, attrition was higher in headquarters than in the
                                     field. By level, attrition increased most for Management and SES staff.
                                     While retirements increased to 31 percent of all losses, most "attrits"
                                     transferred to other agencies or resigned. Attrition in all EEO groups
                                     rose, but only Asians/others had attrition rates higher than GAO's
                                     overall rate.

Key Indicator: Overall Attrition Rate


                                         16        Percent




                                              66                               67                   66                     89   90
                                              Fiscal Years

                                                   111111a111   Support Staff
                                                                Evaluator-Related Specialists
                                                    -           All Staff Average
                                                                Evaluators




Professional Staff Attrition Rates for
Headquarters and Field                   10        Percent




                                                                                                ........................




                                              86                           67                      86                      89   90
                                              Fiscal Years

                                                                Headquarters
                                                   --           Field




                                         Page 38                                                                                 GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                           Section Ill: Prof'tle of GAO's Human
                                           Resources
                                           Attrition




Professional Staff Attrition Rates by
Level/Grade                                14        Percent


                                           12


                                           10


                                           8



                                                                                   ....
                                            4 ---------------




                                                86                            87                          88                 89                 90
                                                Fiscal Years

                                                     1111111111   Statt Level and GS-7 to GS-12


                                                     -            SES
                                                                  Senior Level and GS-13/14
                                                                  Management Level and GS-15




Reasons for Professional Staff Attrition
                                           Percent
                                           100




                                            70

                                            60

                                            50

                                            40

                                            30

                                            20

                                            10




                                                       1988         1989      1990                 1988        1989   1990        1988   1989        1990
                                                       Statt level                                 Senior level                   Management level

                                                                   Retirements and Other Separation Actions

                                                                   Transfers Within Government

                                                                   Resignations




                                           Page 39                                                                                              GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                       Section III: Pro:file of GAO's Human
                                                       Resources
                                                       Attrition




Professional Staff Attrition Rates                     of Service in GAO
40   Percent


35

30


25


20


15


10




     Less Than 1 Year        1·3 Years   3-5 Years          5·10 Years                10·25 Years   More Than 25
                                                                                                    Years
     Tenure


               Fiscal Year 1986

               Fiscal Year 1987

               Fiscal Year 1988

               Fiscal Year 1989

               Fiscal Year 1990




Professional Staff Attrition Rates               EEO
Group
                                                       16


                                                       14


                                                       12

                                                       10




                                                        86                              87             88          89   90
                                                            Fiscal Years

                                                                            Asians/Others
                                                                            Hispanics
                                                                            Blacks
                                                               llUlllllll   Women




                                                       Page 40                                                           GAO 1990 Key lndicat.ors
Page 41   GAO 1990 Key Indicators
Appendix I

GAO-Wide Table of Key Performance Indicators



SECTION I: Outcomes of GAO's Work                          1986     1987      1988       1989           1990
Product volume
Total products                                             1,201    1, 112    1,289      1,310          1,470
  Congressional written reports/testimonies                 942      836      1,048      1,046          1,227
     Chapter reports                                        168       187      238         227           271
     Letter reports                                         227       199      313         438           450
     Testimonies                                            197       161      227         217           306
     Briefing reports                                       210       184      167          85            98
     Fact sheets                                            140      105       103          79           102
  Agency reports                                            108        94       48          52            54
  Congressional briefings                                   151       182      193         212           189
Testimony
Number of appearances                                       197       161      227         217           306
  House committees                                          149       105      166         163           205
  Senate committees                                          44        54       60          54            99
  Joint committees                                             4        2         1          0             2
Number of different lead witnesses                           57        47       58          63            71
OGC output
Total external products                                    3,865    3,428     3,786      3,818         3,584
  Opinions for the Congress                                 333       185      225         232           244
  Bid protest decisions                                    2,884    2,949     2,992      2,917          2,822
  Executive branch decisions                                648      294       569         669           518
Impact/accomplishments
Financial benefits (billions)                             $17.67   $18.20    $23.56      $7.84        $15.36
  Defense programs                                         $9.57   $13.56    $11.72      $3.31        $11.26
  Civil programs                                           $8.10    $4.64    $11.84      $4.53         $4.10
Accomplishment reports                                      146       159      204         225           231
  Monetary                                                   83        76      111          79            88
  Non monetary                                               63        83       93         146           143
Recommendations made                                       1,133     918       996       1,127          1,635
  Implemented to date                                       883      659       625         540           217
  Not implemented; open                                      27        67      277         500          1,376
  Closed but not implemented                                223      192        94          87            42
Report standards
Adherence to standards (on a scale of 1 to 5)               2.94     3.27      3.26       3.30           3.24
By report element
  Summary/format                                            2.98     3.30      3.31       3.29           3.25
  Perspective                                               2.95     3.32      3.27       3.37           3.27
  Message soundness                                         2.89     3.17      3.17       3.24           3.20




                                                Page 42                               GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                                Appendix I
                                                GAO-Wide Table of Key Performance
                                                Indicators




SECTION II: Managing GAO's Work                                        1986         1987     1988       1989          1990
Direct assistance to the Congress
Percent of GAO's audit staff-years assisting the Congress               78.5         82.5     82.2       82.3          81.5
  Committees                                                            56.6         61.8     63.9       63.1          63.8
  Members                                                               15.6         13.0     10.0       10.1            8.7
  Others                                                                 6.3          7.8      8.4        9.1            8.5
New congressional starts                                               1,059        1, 182   1,248      1,317         1,521
Active assignments
Total assignments                                                        996        1, 121   1,119      1,178         1,198
By age (percent)
  Less than 12 months                                                   75.2         78.9     79.1       80.4          83.2
  12 to 18 months                                                              a                         13.0           11.1
  18 to 24 months                                                              a                          4.6            3.5
  Over 24 months                                                         4.7          2.1      2.6        1.9            1.5
Completed assignments
Total assignments                                                      1,208        1,251    1,431      1,473         1,707
  Headquarters led                                                                    883    1,040      1,083         1,197
  Region led                                                                          368     391         390           510
Duration (Months)
Median duration, all                                                                  8.5      8.1        7.8            7.2
Average duration, all                                                   10.5         10.5      9.7        9.6            9.0
  Reports to committees, members, and the Congress                      15.4         15.9     14.2       13.9           13.9
  Briefing reports and fact sheets                                       7.2          8.6      9.0        9.4            8.4
  Testimonies                                                            3.9          4.5      3.6        3.7            2.6
  Agency reports                                                        20.2         19.6     13.2       15.2           12.0
Cost
Median cost (thousands)                                                        a    $104     $103         $88          $105
Average cost (thousands)                                                $244        $215     $195       $194           $197
Timeliness
Principal products issued (percent)
  By original estimated date                                            21.1         16.3     18.1       15.8           19.0
  1 day to 2 months late                                                31.8         27.0     28.3       26.9           28.0
  2 to 6 months late                                                    23.2         30.3     27.8       33.2           32.3
  Over 6 months late                                                    23.9         26.4     25.7       24.1           20.7
Time from draft product to principal product issuance, all                     a      109     101         101            94
                                                                               a      186     174         181           164
  With comments
  Without comments                                                             a       66       59         65            65




                                                 Page 43                                             GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                              Appendix I
                                              GAO.Wide Table of Key Performanc~
                                              Indicators




SECTION Ill: Profile of GAO's Human Resources                        1986         1987    1988       1989           1990
Work force
Total work force                                                     4,992        5,166   5,151      5,181          5,189
  Divisions                                                          2,104        2,214   2,396      2,383          2,389
  Staff offices                                                        860          885     934        960            952
  Regional offices                                                   2,028        2,067   1,821      1,838          1,848
Professional work force by level/grade
  SES                                                                  125          130     132        141            139
  Management level and GS-15                                           447          468     482        509            536
  Senior level and GS-13/14                                          1,845        1,881   1,898      1,900          1,929
  Staff level and GS-7 to GS-12                                      1,743        1,858   1,825      1,852          1,837
Work force by job categories
  Evaluators                                                         3,031        3,108   3,076      3,070          3,066
  Evaluator-related specialists                                        486          575     587        591            622
  Lawyers                                                              127          122     138        151            153
  Administrative/technical                                             392          402     405        448            460
  Support                                                              831          829     813        780            749
  Senior management (SES)                                              125          130     132        141            139
EEO
Women and minorities in the professional staff
  Women                                                              1,188        1,369   1,442      1,576          1,661
  Blacks                                                               460          506     522        572            592
  Hispanics                                                            117          125     128        149            167
  Asians                                                                88           92     108        121            134
  Others                                                                10            9       9          8              8
Women and minorities at the Staff and GS-7 to GS-12 levels
  Women                                                               822          960     976       1,018          1,016
  Blacks                                                              293          331     325         351            340
  Hispanics                                                            85           88      94         101            109
  Asians                                                               55           59      70          74             76
  Others                                                                8            6       7           5              4
Women and minorities at the Senior and GS-13/14 levels
  Women                                                               331          366     412         462           526
  Blacks                                                              157          167     185         193           215
  Hispanics                                                            30           36      32          43            52
  Asians                                                               25           24      28          35            44
  Others                                                                2            3       2           3             4
Women and minorities at the Management and GS-15 levels
  Women                                                                35           43      54          75             97
  Blacks                                                               10            8      12          20             28
                                                                                                              (continued)




                                              Page44                                              GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                              Appendix I
                                              GAO-Wide Table of Key Performance
                                              Indicators




SECTION Ill: Profile of GAO's Human Resources                        1986         1987   .1988      1989           1990
  Hispanics                                                              2           1       2          2              2
  Asians                                                                 8           9      10         11             11
  Others                                                                 0           0      0           0              0
Women and minorities in the SES
  Women                                                                 15          16      19         21             22
  Blacks                                                                 5           7       7          8              8
  Hispanics                                                              0                  3           3              4
  Asians                                                                                                               3
Affirmative action
Goals/achievement for hiring and promotions
Staff level and GS-7 to GS-12 goal                                      22         182     83          61            45
  Achievement                                                           25         340     81          70             64
Senior level and GS-13/14 goal                                          71         125    134         104            96
  Achievement                                                           80          99     92         105           122
Management level and GS-15 goal                                         10          15     24          23            40
  Achievement                                                           11          12     15          17            35
Recruitment/hiring
Total hires                                                           264          630    351         457           453
  Professional                                                         166         484    267         356           378
  Support                                                              95          146     84         101            75
Hires by job category
  Evaluators (headquarters)                                             25          81     58          80           109
  Evaluators (regions)                                                 63          216     94         143           138
  Evaluator-related specialists                                        48          131     61          73            91
  Lawyers                                                                5          16     22          18              5
  Administrative/technical                                              25          40     32          42            34
  Support                                                              98          146     84         101            75
Entry-level hires by academic major
  Doctoral                                                                           4      0           4
  Master's                                                                   a     131     53         111           150
  Bachelor's                                                                       165     49         114            88
Entry-level hires by academic field
  Public administration/policy                                          27         104     42          88           105
  Business administration                                              22           79     35          45            59
  Accounting                                                            14          60      5          33            40
  Computer science                                                       3          18      8           2              5
  Other (includes social sciences and economics)                       34           39     12          61            30
                                                                                                             (continued)




                                              Page 45                                            GAO 1990 Key Indicators
                                              Appendix I
                                              GAO-Wide Table of Key Performance
                                              Indicators




SECTION Ill: Profile of GAO's Human Resources                               1986              1987     1988      1989           1990
Training
Average training hours per staff memberb
  GAO-wide                                                                     31                31      28         27            63
  Divisions                                                                    40                35      29         29            69
  Regions                                                                      30                31      31         33            75
  Staff offices                                                                                          18         11            31
Average training hours by gradeb
  SES                                                                          36                20      16          8            76
  Management level and GS-15                                                   36                26      19         18            80
  Senior level and GS-13/14                                                    27                24      25         24            69
  Staff level and GS-7 to GS-12                                                36                38      36         38            64
  Support                                                                      28                35      25         21            35
Attrition
Total                                                                         396               459     448        413           484
  Professional                                                                270               333     327        320           377
  Support                                                                     126               126     121         93           103
Attrition by job category
  Evaluators                                                                  179               217     221        220           260
  Evaluator-related specialists                                                41                62      50         57            71
  Lawyers                                                                      15                14      14          8             6
  Administrative/technical                                                     35                40      42         35            40
  Support                                                                     126               126     121         93           107
Professional staff attrition
  Headquarters                                                                142               198     189        198           243
  Regions                                                                     128               135     138        122           134
Professional staff attrition by level/grade
  Staff level and GS-7 to GS-12                                               160               202     175        171           190
  Senior level and GS-13/14                                                    84               102     109        118           134
  Management level and GS-15                                                   17                22      35         26            41
  SES                                                                           9                  7      8          5            12
                                              8
                                                  Data not available.
                                              bFigures for 1986-1989 include internal training only.




                                              Page 46                                                         GAO 1990 Key Indicators