oversight

Military Education: Student and Faculty Perceptions of Student Life at the Military Academies

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-09-12.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to the Subcommittee on Defense,
                 Committee on Appropriations, House of
                 Representatives


September 2003
                 MILITARY
                 EDUCATION
                 Student and Faculty
                 Perceptions of Student
                 Life at the Military
                 Academies




GAO-03-1001
                 a
                                                September 2003


                                                MILITARY EDUCATION

                                                Student and Faculty Perceptions of
Highlights of GAO-03-1001, a report to the      Student Life at the Military Academies
Subcommittee on Defense, Committee on
Appropriations, House of Representatives




The Army, Navy, and Air Force                   The majority of students who responded to GAO’s survey expressed overall
each operate an academy to                      satisfaction with their academy, although students gave wide-ranging
educate and train young men and                 responses to a variety of quality-of-life questions. About 59 percent of
women to become leaders and                     students at the Military and Naval Academies and 71 percent at the Air Force
effective junior officers in the                Academy reported that quality-of-life problems are openly confronted and/or
military services. The
approximately 4,000 students who
                                                solved to some, little, or no extent. Over 90 percent of students rated their
attend each academy undergo a                   academic programs as good or excellent. About a quarter to a third of
challenging 4-year program of                   students rated their academy’s performance standards for developing
academic, physical, and military                military officers as too low. Most differences in student responses on
education that culminates in a                  academy emphasis on prevention of gender- and race-/ethnicity-based
bachelor’s degree and a                         discrimination and harassment were generally between male and female
commission as a military officer.               students and minorities and nonminority students. Over 80 percent of
In addition to completing academic              students who were not recruited as athletes responded that recruited
course work, students must                      athletes receive preferential treatment during the admissions process.
participate in rigorous military
training and in mandatory athletic              The faculty members who responded to the survey generally agreed with the
activities. In return for their free
education, these students must
                                                students’ perceptions of student life at the academies, but they were less
serve on active duty for 5 years                likely than students to say that quality-of-life problems are seldom openly
after graduation. In two reports,               confronted and/or solved. About a quarter to a third of faculty agreed with
GAO reviewed all three service                  student perceptions that performance standards for developing military
academies and their preparatory                 officers were too low. Faculty perceptions varied on issues associated with
schools. In this report, GAO                    gender- and race-/ethnicity-based discrimination and harassment and
surveyed students and faculty to                preferential treatment. More than 90 percent of faculty who participated in
obtain their perceptions of various             the admissions process in the past 4 years at the Military and Naval
aspects of student life at the                  Academies and 72 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that
academies.                                      recruited athletes receive preferential treatment during the admissions
                                                process.
GAO conducted a Web-based
survey of 12,264 students and 2,065             Student Rating of Overall Satisfaction with Academies
faculty members at the three
service academies on questions
related to such student life issues
as academic and military programs;
gender- and race-/ethnicity-based
discrimination and harassment; and
preferential treatment. GAO’s
survey did not query students and
faculty on specific incidents of
alleged sexual assault at the
academies. We are making no
recommendations in this report.
DOD reviewed a draft of this report
and had no comments.
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-1001.

To view the full product, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Derek Stewart
at (202) 512-5559 or stewartd@gao.gov.
Contents



Letter                                                                                                   1
                             Results in Brief                                                            3
                             Background                                                                  5
                             Students Express Overall Satisfaction with Academies,
                               but Perceptions Vary on Some Quality-of-Life Issues                       8
                             Faculty Generally Agree with Student Perceptions on Some
                               Quality-of-Life Issues                                                   37
                             Conclusion                                                                 52
                             Agency Comments                                                            52


Appendixes
              Appendix I:    Scope and Methodology                                                      54
             Appendix II:    Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                             Student Survey and Responses                                               58
             Appendix III:   Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                             Faculty Survey and Responses                                               78
             Appendix IV:    GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                      93


Related GAO Products                                                                                    94


Tables                       Table 1: Female and Racial/Ethnic Minorities at the Service
                                      Academies at Time of Survey (February-March 2003)                  6
                             Table 2: Civilian and Military Faculty at the Service Academies, as
                                      of February 2003                                                   7
                             Table 3: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction of Male and Female
                                      Students with Social Life at the Academies                        17
                             Table 4: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the
                                      Military Academy                                                  18
                             Table 5: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the
                                      Naval Academy                                                     18
                             Table 6: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the
                                      Air Force Academy                                                 19
                             Table 7: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Emphasis
                                      Placed on Prevention of Gender-based Discrimination               22
                             Table 8: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Emphasis
                                      Placed on Prevention of Sexual Harassment                         24
                             Table 9: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Overall
                                      Atmosphere for Women at the Academies                             26


                             Page i                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
          Contents




          Table 10: Perceptions of Minority and Nonminority Students of the
                    Overall Atmosphere for Racial/Ethnic Minorities at
                    the Academies                                                     32
          Table 11: Percentage of Student Group and Nongroup Members
                    Perceiving Preferential Treatment of Student Groups               32
          Table 12: Percentage of Student Group and Nongroup Members
                    Perceiving Discriminatory Treatment of Student
                    Groups                                                            34
          Table 13: Percentage of Faculty Perceiving Preferential Treatment of
                    Student Groups in the Admissions Process                          49
          Table 14: Percentage of Faculty Perceiving Preferential Treatment of
                    Student Groups While at the Academies                             50
          Table 15: Number of Student and Faculty Survey Responses and
                    Corresponding Response Rates                                      56
          Table 16: Characteristics of Survey Respondents Compared to
                    Academy Student Populations                                       57


Figures   Figure 1: Student Rating of Overall Satisfaction with
                     the Academies                                                     9
          Figure 2: Student Perceptions of the Extent to Which
                     Quality-of-Life Issues Are Openly Confronted and/or
                     Solved at the Academies                                          10
          Figure 3: Student Ratings of the Overall Academic Program at
                     the Academies                                                    11
          Figure 4: Student Perceptions of Their Academic Workload                    12
          Figure 5: Student Perceptions of the Military Development
                     Programs at the Academies                                        13
          Figure 6: Student Perceptions of Whether the Honor Code/Concept
                     Is Practiced As Taught                                           14
          Figure 7: Student Perceptions of How Fairly the Honor Code/
                     Concept Is Applied at Their Academy                              15
          Figure 8: Student Perceptions of Social Life at the Academies               16
          Figure 9: Student Perceptions of Adequacy or Inadequacy of Time
                     to Handle Personal Affairs                                       20
          Figure 10: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on
                     Prevention of Gender-based Discrimination                        21
          Figure 11: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on
                     Prevention of Sexual Harassment                                  23
          Figure 12: Student Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for
                     Women at the Academies                                           25
          Figure 13: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on
                     Prevention of Race-/Ethnicity-based Discrimination               27



          Page ii                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Contents




Figure 14: Percentage of Minorities and Nonminorities Reporting
           Underemphasis of Academies’ Prevention of Race-/
           Ethnicity-based Discrimination                                  28
Figure 15: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on
           Prevention of Race-/Ethnicity-based Harassment                  29
Figure 16: Percentage of Minorities and Nonminorities Reporting
           Underemphasis of Academies’ Prevention of Race-/
           Ethnicity-based Harassment                                      30
Figure 17: Perceptions of Students of the Overall Atmosphere for
           Racial/Ethnic Minorities at the Academies                       31
Figure 18: Student Responses on Career Intentions                          36
Figure 19: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Academic Program at
           the Academies                                                   38
Figure 20: Faculty Perceptions of the Academic Workload at the
           Academies                                                       39
Figure 21: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Military Development
           Program at the Academies                                        40
Figure 22: Faculty Perceptions of the Extent to Which the Honor
           Code/Concept Is Practiced as Taught                             41
Figure 23: Faculty Perceptions of the Extent to Which the Honor
           Code/Concept Is Fairly Applied                                  42
Figure 24: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis Placed on the
           Prevention of Gender-based Discrimination                       43
Figure 25: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis Placed on the
           Prevention of Sexual Harassment                                 44
Figure 26: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for
           Women at the Academies                                          45
Figure 27: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on the Prevention of
           Race-/Ethnicity-based Discrimination at
           the Academies                                                   46
Figure 28: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on the Prevention of
           Race-/Ethnicity-based Harassment                                47
Figure 29: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for
           Racial/Ethnic Minorities at the Academies                       48
Figure 30: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on Varsity
           Intercollegiate Athletics at the Academies                      51




Page iii                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Contents




Abbreviations

DOD          Department of Defense
USAFA        U.S. Air Force Academy
USMA         U.S. Military Academy
USNA         U.S. Naval Academy




 This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
 United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further
 permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or
 other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to
 reproduce this material separately.




Page iv                                                   GAO-03-1001 Military Education
A
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, D.C. 20548



                                    September 12, 2003                                                                         Leter




                                    The Honorable Jerry Lewis
                                    Chairman
                                    The Honorable John P. Murtha
                                    Ranking Minority Member
                                    Subcommittee on Defense
                                    Committee on Appropriations
                                    House of Representatives

                                    The Army, the Navy, and the Air Force each operate an academy to educate
                                    and train young men and women to be leaders and effective junior officers
                                    in the military services. Student life at the military service academies is
                                    demanding and, in many ways, differs from student life at other colleges
                                    and universities. The approximately 4,000 students1 who attend each
                                    academy at any one time undergo a challenging 4-year program of
                                    academic, physical, and military education that culminates in a bachelor’s
                                    degree and a commission as a military officer. In addition to completing the
                                    academic course work at the service academies, students must participate
                                    in rigorous military training activities and in mandatory athletic activities.
                                    In return for their free education, these students must serve on active duty
                                    for 5 years after graduation.

                                    The House of Representatives report on defense appropriations for fiscal
                                    year 20032 directed that we perform reviews of all three service academies
                                    and their respective preparatory schools. In September 2003, we issued
                                    two reports on these topics. In our report on the three service academies,
                                    we recommended that the Secretary of Defense, in concert with the
                                    services, enhance performance goals and measures to improve oversight
                                    of the academies’ operations and performance.3 In our report on the three
                                    service academy preparatory schools, we recommended that the Secretary
                                    of Defense, together with the services and service academies, clarify the


                                    1
                                      Students attending the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, and the U.S. Air
                                    Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, are called “cadets,” while those attending
                                    the U.S. Naval Academy, in Annapolis, Maryland, are called “midshipmen.” We refer to
                                    cadets and midshipmen collectively as “students.”
                                    2
                                        H.R. Rept. 107-532, at 14-15 (2002).
                                    3
                                      U.S. General Accounting Office, Military Education: DOD Needs to Enhance Performance
                                    Goals and Measures to Improve Oversight of Military Academies, GAO-03-1000
                                    (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 10, 2003).




                                    Page 1                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
schools’ mission statements, establish quantified performance goals
and measures, and enhance the existing oversight framework by using
quantified performance goals and measures to objectively evaluate
the performance of the schools.4 As part of our review of the service
academies, the House report also directed us to survey students and
faculty to obtain their perceptions of various aspects of student life at the
academies. As agreed with your offices, this report presents the results of
the student and faculty surveys.

We conducted Web-based surveys of all students and faculty at the
three service academies—the U.S. Military Academy (Military Academy)
at West Point, New York; the U.S. Naval Academy (Naval Academy)
in Annapolis, Maryland, and the U.S. Air Force Academy (Air Force
Academy), in Colorado Springs, Colorado. In total, we surveyed
12,264 students and 2,065 faculty members5 between February 5 and
March 7, 2003. We obtained responses from 9,238 students (an overall
response rate of 75 percent) and 1,586 faculty members (an overall
response rate of 77 percent) to questions related to such student life issues
as academic and military programs, the honor code/concept,6 social life
and campus services, gender- and race-/ethnicity-based discrimination7 and
harassment,8 and preferential treatment for various student groups.
We also asked students about their career intentions. Our surveys did not
query students and faculty on specific incidents of alleged sexual assault at
the academies.




4
  U.S. General Accounting Office, Military Education: DOD Needs to Align Academy
Preparatory Schools’ Mission Statements with Overall Guidance and Establish
Performance Goals, GAO-03-1017 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 10, 2003). These schools exist to
prepare selected students who are not ready academically to attend one of the academies.
5
    This number includes instructors and other academy staff who have contact with students.
6
  Students pledge not to lie, cheat, or steal as a fundamental guide to their conduct at the
academies. This pledge is the basis for honor systems to investigate violations that are run
by students and overseen by academy officials.
7
  Academy policies or practices that lead to unfair adverse treatment of a person or group
based on race, ethnicity, gender, or religion.
8
  Derogatory comments, gestures, or other actions aimed at race, gender, religion, or
ethnicity that interfere with an individual’s performance or create an intimidating, offensive,
or hostile environment, including unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors,
and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.




Page 2                                                       GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                   The individual academy response rates for the student survey were
                   83 percent at the Military Academy; 82 percent at the Naval Academy;
                   and 60 percent at the Air Force Academy. The individual academy response
                   rates for the faculty survey were 90 percent at the Military Academy;
                   73 percent at the Naval Academy; and 69 percent at the Air Force Academy.
                   We were unable to determine the reason for the lower overall response
                   rates from students and faculty at the Air Force Academy. There were
                   initial difficulties in resolving inaccuracies in the list of student and faculty
                   E-mail addresses provided to us by the Air Force Academy, resulting in
                   delays in notifying all students and faculty of the surveys’ availability.
                   Additionally, during the survey period, issues associated with alleged
                   sexual assaults at the Air Force Academy became widely reported in
                   the press, and several Air Force and Department of Defense (DOD)
                   investigations commenced. Due to concerns about the overall lower Air
                   Force Academy survey response rates, we extended the survey period by a
                   week to March 7, 2003, at all academies. We received full cooperation from
                   Air Force Academy officials, who sent additional notices to students and
                   faculty encouraging them to respond to our surveys. Although overall
                   response rates at the Air Force Academy were lower, our analysis shows
                   that the survey responses for various groups at each academy (e.g., women
                   and minorities) appear generally representative of their respective
                   academy populations. Further details of our scope and methodology are
                   in appendix I. Student and faculty surveys and responses are available
                   in appendixes II and III, respectively. We performed our work between
                   November 2002 and July 2003 in accordance with generally accepted
                   government auditing standards.



Results in Brief   The majority of the 9,238 students who responded to our survey at the
                   three military academies expressed overall satisfaction with their academy,
                   although the students gave wide-ranging responses to a variety of questions
                   about quality-of-life issues. A majority of students at each academy
                   reported that quality-of-life problems are openly confronted and/or solved
                   at the academies to some, little, or no extent. For example, about
                   59 percent of students at the Military and Naval Academies and 71 percent
                   at the Air Force Academy held this view. Overall satisfaction with academic
                   training was high, with 90 percent of students rating their academic
                   programs as good or excellent. However, students reported somewhat less
                   satisfaction with various aspects of their military training. For example,
                   one-quarter to one-third of the students at each academy rated their
                   school’s performance standards for developing military officers from much
                   too low to generally too low. Students had mixed views about the practice



                   Page 3                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
of the honor code/concept at their academies, with 15 percent at the
Military Academy, 31 percent at the Naval Academy, and 28 percent at
the Air Force Academy reporting that it is practiced as taught only to some,
a little, or no extent. Students reported varying levels of satisfaction or
dissatisfaction with their social life and with such campus services as the
quality of mess hall food, laundry services, medical care, and computer
equipment. Most differences in student responses on the emphasis the
academies give to the prevention of gender- and race-/ethnicity-based
discrimination and harassment were generally between male and female
students and between minority and nonminority students. For example,
about half the students at each academy responded that their academy’s
emphasis on preventing sexual harassment was about right. However,
25 percent of female students at the Military Academy, 21 percent at
the Naval Academy, and 37 percent at the Air Force Academy reported
that prevention of sexual harassment was generally or greatly
underemphasized. Minority students were also more likely than
nonminority students to report the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based
discrimination and harassment as underemphasized. There were similar
differences in perceptions of the degree to which various groups, such as
females, minorities, and recruited athletes, received preferential treatment
during the admissions process or at the academies in general. For example,
58 percent of male students at the Military Academy, 63 percent at the
Naval Academy, and 53 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that
female students received preferential treatment during the admissions
process, while about one quarter of female students at each academy
reported the same perception. In addition, 86 percent of students who were
not recruited athletes at the Military Academy, 83 percent at the Naval
Academy, and 87 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that recruited
athletes received preferential treatment during the admissions process,
while over 60 percent of recruited athletes reported the same perception.

The 1,586 faculty members who responded to our survey at the three
military academies generally agreed with the students’ perceptions of
aspects of student life at the academies, but they were less likely than
students to say that quality-of-life problems are seldom openly confronted
and/or solved. A large majority of faculty rated the overall academic
program at the academies as good or excellent. However, 26 percent of
faculty at the Military Academy, 22 percent at the Naval Academy, and
32 percent at the Air Force Academy rated their academy’s performance
standards for developing military officers as generally too low or much too
low. Faculty perceptions varied on the practice of the honor code/concept.
While 51 percent of faculty at the Military Academy, 41 percent at the Naval



Page 4                                           GAO-03-1001 Military Education
             Academy, and 34 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that the
             honor code/concept was practiced as taught to a great or very great extent,
             22 percent of faculty at the Military Academy, 32 percent at the Naval
             Academy, and 36 percent at the Air Force Academy indicated that it was
             practiced as taught to some, a little, or no extent. Faculty perceptions
             varied on issues associated with gender- and race-/ethnicity-based
             discrimination and harassment and preferential treatment of various
             groups of students during the admissions process or at the academies in
             general. Seventy-five percent of faculty at the Military and Naval
             Academies and 65 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that the level
             of emphasis given to the prevention of sexual harassment was about right.
             However, about half of faculty at each academy reported that the overall
             atmosphere for women at the academies was good or excellent. About
             80 percent of the faculty reported that the level of emphasis placed on the
             prevention of race-/ethnicity-based harassment is about right. Finally, more
             than 90 percent of faculty who had participated in the admissions process
             in the past 4 years at the Military and Naval Academies and 72 percent at
             the Air Force Academy responded that recruited athletes received
             preferential treatment during the admissions process.

             We are making no recommendations in this report. DOD reviewed a draft of
             this report and had no comments.



Background   The Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force each have their own
             educational institutions (academies) to produce a portion of each branch’s
             officer corps:9

             • U.S. Military Academy, established in 1802,

             • U.S. Naval Academy, established in 1845, and

             • U.S. Air Force Academy, established in 1954.

             The academies are structured to provide a curriculum critical to the
             development of successful future officers in the areas of academic,
             military, and physical achievement. Additionally, the academies emphasize


             9
               Other sources for commissioned officers include Reserve Officer Training Corps programs
             at colleges and universities and Officer Candidate/Training Schools for individuals who
             already have college degrees.




             Page 5                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                          the moral and ethical development of students through their respective
                                          honor codes and concepts.

                                          Approximately 4,000 students are enrolled at each of the three service
                                          academies at any one time, though in December 2002 Congress authorized
                                          an annual increase of up to 100 students until the total number reaches
                                          4,400 for each academy.10 Each academy’s student population consists of
                                          about 15 percent women and 19 to 24 percent racial/ethnic minorities.
                                          Table 1 shows the numbers of females and racial/ethnic minorities at each
                                          academy during the time our survey was taken.



Table 1: Female and Racial/Ethnic Minorities at the Service Academies at Time of Survey (February-March 2003)

                                               Total number         Total number of women          Total number of racial/ethnic
Service academy                                  of students      (percent of student body) minorities (percent of student body)
U.S. Military Academy                                 3,957                         616 (16%)                                  947 (24%)
U.S. Naval Academy                                    4,229                         648 (15%)                                  851 (20%)
U.S. Air Force Academy                                4,073                         669 (16%)                                  776 (19%)
Total                                                12,259                       1,933 (16%)                                2,574 (21%)
Source: DOD.

                                          Note: Demographic information is based on a snapshot of each academy. Therefore, there may be
                                          differences between our survey population and the demographic figures.




                                          10
                                            Pub. L. 107-314, Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003,
                                          § 532, December 2, 2002.




                                          Page 6                                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                           The academies employ both civilian and military faculty. Faculty at the
                                           Military Academy and the Air Force Academy are comprised
                                           predominantly of military officers (79 and 75 percent, respectively), while
                                           at the Naval Academy 59 percent of the faculty are civilians. Table 2 shows
                                           the distribution of civilian and military faculty members at each academy
                                           during the time our survey was taken. Additionally, the academies’ staffs
                                           include others who have regular contact with students, such as military
                                           officers who serve as commanders to students at each academy (tactical
                                           officers at the Military Academy, company commanders at the Naval
                                           Academy, and air officers commanding at the Air Force Academy). About
                                           398 of these other staff were also given the faculty survey.



Table 2: Civilian and Military Faculty at the Service Academies, as of February 2003

                                                Total number Total number of civilian faculty          Total number of military faculty
Service academy                                     of faculty         (percent of faculty)                       (percent of faculty)
U.S. Military Academy                                    622                         131 (21%)                                  491 (79%)
U.S. Naval Academy                                       555                         326 (59%)                                  229 (41%)
U.S. Air Force Academy                                   490                         123 (25%)                                  367 (75%)
Total                                                  1,667                         580 (35%)                                1,087 (65%)
Source: DOD.

                                           Note: Demographic information is based on a snapshot of each academy. Therefore, there may be
                                           differences between our survey population and the demographic figures.


                                           Between 1993 and 1995, we issued a series of reports11 on student
                                           treatment at the three service academies. At the core of our reviews
                                           were surveys of academy students and faculty on a range of student-related
                                           subjects, including sexual harassment and the treatment of women and
                                           minorities. In the reports, we concluded that more actions were needed to
                                           eliminate sexual harassment and that disparities in the treatment of women
                                           and minorities existed at the academies. We made recommendations to



                                           11
                                             U.S. General Accounting Office, DOD Service Academies: More Actions Needed to
                                           Eliminate Sexual Harassment, GAO/NSIAD-94-6 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 31, 1994);
                                           DOD Service Academies: Update on Extent of Sexual Harassment, GAO/NSIAD-95-58
                                           (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 31,1994); Naval Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities,
                                           GAO/NSIAD-93-54 (Washington, D.C.: April 30, 1993); Air Force Academy: Gender and
                                           Racial Disparities, GAO/NSIAD-93-244 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 24, 1993); and Military
                                           Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities, GAO/NSIAD-94-95 (Washington, D.C.:
                                           Mar. 17, 1994).




                                           Page 7                                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                            help DOD achieve its goal of a sexual harassment-free environment and to
                            improve the monitoring and evaluation of gender and racial disparities.



Students Express            Although a majority of the 9,238 students who responded to our survey
                            at the three military service academies expressed overall satisfaction
Overall Satisfaction        with their academy, the students gave wide-ranging responses to a variety
with Academies,             of questions about quality-of-life issues. A majority responded that
                            quality-of-life problems are openly confronted and/or solved at their
but Perceptions             academies to some, little, or no extent. Most students responded they
Vary on Some                were satisfied overall with their academic and military training, but they
Quality-of-Life Issues      expressed mixed views on the practice of the honor code/concept on their
                            campuses. They reported varying levels of satisfaction with their social life
                            and certain campus services. Their perceptions of discrimination and
                            harassment prevention and preferential treatment issues often varied
                            according to gender and race/ethnicity. Finally, many students indicated
                            that they planned long military careers.



Overall Satisfaction with   The majority of students at all three academies reported that, overall,
Academies Is High           they were satisfied with their academy, while about one-fifth of the
                            students at each school responded that they were dissatisfied. As figure 1
                            shows, 62 percent at the Military Academy (USMA), 64 percent at the
                            Naval Academy (USNA), and 59 percent at the Air Force Academy
                            (USAFA) reported their overall satisfaction with their academy.




                            Page 8                                            GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 1: Student Rating of Overall Satisfaction with the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70
                              64.4
      61.6
                                                      58.6
 60

 50

 40

 30
                                                                    23.9
             18.5 19.9               16.7
                                            18.9             17.5
 20

 10

  0
          USMA                       USNA                USAFA

                 Very or generally satisfied
                 Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
                 Generally or very dissatisfied

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 9                                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
At the same time, some 59 to 71 percent of students at each academy
reported that quality-of-life problems are being openly confronted and/or
solved at the academies to some, little, or no extent.



Figure 2: Student Perceptions of the Extent to Which Quality-of-Life Issues Are
Openly Confronted and/or Solved at the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80
                                                 71.2
 70
      59.3                   59.1
 60

 50

 40
             30.5                   32.2
 30
                                                        22.6
 20
                    10.1                   8.7
 10                                                            6.1

  0
          USMA                    USNA              USAFA

                Some/little or no extent

                Moderate extent
                Great or very great extent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 10                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Students’ Rating of     As figure 3 shows, between 90 and 93 percent of the students at each
Academic and Military   academy rated the overall academic program as good or excellent. At the
                        same time, a majority of them reported that they thought their academic
Training Is High        workload was definitely or probably too heavy (see fig. 4). This response
                        ranged from 63 percent at the Military Academy, 56 percent at the
                        Naval Academy, to 69 percent at the Air Force Academy.



                        Figure 3: Student Ratings of the Overall Academic Program at the Academies

                        In percent
                        100
                                            92.7                                      92.4
                                                                    90
                         90

                         80

                         70

                         60

                         50

                         40

                         30

                         20

                                                               8
                         10          5.5                                        5.8
                              1.8                        2               1.8
                          0
                                    USMA                     USNA              USAFA

                                           Poor or below average
                                           Average
                                           Good to excellent

                        Source: GAO.

                        Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                        Page 11                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 4: Student Perceptions of Their Academic Workload

In percent
100

 90

 80
                                                                69
 70
                    62.9
 60                                        55.5

 50
                                    42.9
 40          35.3
                                                         30.3
 30

 20

 10
      1.8                     1.6                  .8
  0
            USMA                    USNA                USAFA

                Definitely or probably too light
                About right
                Definitely or probably too heavy

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 12                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
In terms of military training, the majority of students at each academy
evaluated their overall military development program as good or excellent.
As figure 5 shows, the percentages ranged from 53 percent at the Air
Force Academy to 71 percent at the Military Academy. However, about
one-quarter to one-third of the students rated their academy’s performance
standards for developing military officers as generally or much too low
(see question 8, app. II). Moreover, about 40 percent of the students at the
Air Force and Naval Academies and 27 percent at the Military Academy
evaluated the 4-year class system for developing military officers as very
or generally ineffective (see question 9, app. II).



Figure 5: Student Perceptions of the Military Development Programs at
the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80
                    70.8
 70

 60                                        57.3
                                                                52.9
 50

 40

 30                                 26.6                 26.3
             19.4                                 20.7
 20                         16.1
      9.8
 10

  0
            USMA                    USNA             USAFA

                Poor or below average
                Average
                Good to excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 13                                                                GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Students Have Mixed        Students gave varied responses regarding the practice of the honor
Views on the Practice of   code/concept at their academy. Whereas 62 percent of students at the
                           Military Academy believed the honor code/concept is practiced as taught to
the Honor Code/Concept     a great or very great extent, 37 percent of students at the Naval Academy
at Their Academy           and 43 percent at the Air Force Academy held the same view (see fig. 6).



                           Figure 6: Student Perceptions of Whether the Honor Code/Concept Is Practiced
                           As Taught

                           In percent
                           100

                            90

                            80

                            70
                                               62.1
                            60

                            50
                                                                                         42.6
                            40                                        36.8
                                                        30.9 32.4
                                                                             28.1 29.3
                            30
                                        23.3
                            20   14.7

                            10

                             0
                                     USMA                    USNA               USAFA

                                           Some/little or no extent
                                           Moderate extent
                                           Great/very great extent

                           Source: GAO.

                           Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                           Page 14                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Students also expressed varied impressions of how fairly the honor
code/concept is applied at the academies with respect to students
who have been accused of similar violations. As figure 7 shows, about
40 percent of students at the Military and Air Force Academies and
30 percent at the Naval Academy reported that they thought the honor
code/concept was fairly applied to students with similar violations to a
great or very great extent.



Figure 7: Student Perceptions of How Fairly the Honor Code/Concept Is Applied at
Their Academy

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60

 50
                    42.9
                             40.2
 40                                                           37.3
                                                35.2
      30.7                          30.8 29.1
 30          26.4                                      27.4

 20

 10

  0
          USMA                    USNA            USAFA

                Some/little or no extent
                Moderate extent

                Great/very great extent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 15                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Students Report Various        A majority of students at each academy expressed dissatisfaction with the
Levels of Dissatisfaction      social life on their campus. As figure 8 indicates, the percentages ranged
                               from a high of 73 percent at the Military Academy to a low of 57 percent at
with Social Life and Certain   the Naval Academy.
Campus Services


                               Figure 8: Student Perceptions of Social Life at the Academies

                               In percent
                               100

                                90

                                80
                                     72.6
                                70                                                  64.7

                                60                           56.7

                                50

                                40

                                30                                         25.9
                                                                                                  21.5
                                20                                  17.4
                                            13.6 13.8                                      13.8
                                10

                                 0
                                         USMA                       USNA               USAFA

                                               Very or generally dissatisfied

                                               Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

                                               Generally or very satisfied

                               Source: GAO.

                               Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                               Page 16                                                                   GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                           Male students were more likely to be dissatisfied with their social life than
                                           female students. As table 3 shows, between 60 and 74 percent of males
                                           across the three academies expressed dissatisfaction with their social life
                                           while between 42 and 63 percent of females across the academies had a
                                           similar response.



Table 3: Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction of Male and Female Students with Social Life at the Academies

Numbers in percent
                                         USMA                                    USNA                              USAFA
Level of satisfaction                  Males         Females                  Males           Females            Males       Females
Generally or very satisfied               12                23                    23               41                18            39
Neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied                              14                14                    17               18                14            14
Generally or very dissatisfied            74                63                    60               42                68            47
Source: GAO.

                                           Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                           Page 17                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                          Students also expressed varying levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction
                                          with certain campus services. As tables 4, 5, and 6 indicate, the majority
                                          of students at the three academies were generally satisfied with medical
                                          care (except for the Air Force Academy), updating of school computer
                                          equipment, condition of athletic facilities (except for the Military
                                          Academy), and personal safety. At the same time, some 40 to 50 percent of
                                          students at each academy indicated that they were dissatisfied with the
                                          quality of mess hall food and laundry service on campus.



Table 4: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the Military Academy

Numbers in percent
                                          Updating of                                                  Condition of
Level of                   Medical          computer      Quality of mess           Laundry                athletic             Personal
satisfaction                 care          equipment             hall food           service              facilities              safety
Generally or
very satisfied                  58                  57                  40                 31                    27                   89
Neither satisfied
nor dissatisfied                21                  25                  21                 20                    14                    9
Generally or very
dissatisfied                    21                  18                  39                 49                    59                    3
Source: GAO.

                                          Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Table 5: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the Naval Academy

Numbers in percent
                                            Updating of                                                    Condition of
                              Medical         computer Quality of mess                  Laundry                athletic         Personal
Level of satisfaction           care         equipment        hall food                  service              facilities          safety
Generally or very
satisfied                            56                  53                39                     30                   72             85
Neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied                         24                  25                24                     24                   14             12
Generally or very
dissatisfied                         21                  22                38                     47                   14              3
Source: GAO.

                                          Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                          Page 18                                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 6: Student Perceptions of Campus Services at the Air Force Academy

Numbers in percent
                                         Updating of                                                  Condition of
Level of                    Medical        computer         Quality of mess             Laundry           athletic         Personal
satisfaction                  care        equipment                hall food             service         facilities          safety
Generally or very
satisfied                        36                 60                     24                    18             57               84
Neither satisfied
nor dissatisfied                 21                 26                     19                    25             15               13
Generally or very
dissatisfied                     43                 14                     57                    56             29                4
Source: GAO.

                                         Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                         Page 19                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
A majority of students, with higher percentages at the Military and Air
Force Academies, reported that they did not have adequate time to handle
their personal affairs. As figure 9 indicates, 58 percent at the Naval
Academy, 67 percent at the Military Academy, and 73 percent at the
Air Force Academy reported that the time they had was generally or
very inadequate.



Figure 9: Student Perceptions of Adequacy or Inadequacy of Time to Handle
Personal Affairs

In percent
100

 90

 80
                                                     72.5
 70   66.7

                                 58.3
 60

 50
                                        38.7
 40
               31
 30                                                         26.5

 20

 10
                     2.4                       2.9                 1.1
  0
          USMA                       USNA               USAFA

                    Very or generally inadequate
                    Adequate
                    Generally more, or much more than adequate

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 20                                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Student Perceptions   Student responses on a range of discrimination and harassment issues
of Prevention of      often varied according to gender or race/ethnicity. As figure 10 shows,
                      47 percent of students at the Military Academy, 45 percent at the Naval
Discrimination and    Academy, and 51 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that their
Harassment Varied     academy’s emphasis on preventing gender-based discrimination was about
                      right. However, as table 7 indicates, these responses varied according to
                      the respondents’ gender, with female students more likely to say that
                      prevention was underemphasized. Between 34 and 47 percent of female
                      students at each academy believed that prevention was underemphasized
                      while between 8 and 17 percent of male students had a similar response.



                      Figure 10: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on Prevention of
                      Gender-based Discrimination

                      In percent
                      100

                       90

                       80

                       70

                       60
                                                                               51
                       50          47.1
                                                          45.1
                                          40.7
                                                                 38.6
                       40

                       30                                                           26.5
                                                                        22.4
                       20                          16.2
                            12.3
                       10

                        0
                                USMA                   USNA                  USAFA

                                      Greatly or generally underemphasized

                                      Emphasis is about right

                                      Generally or greatly overemphasized

                      Source: GAO.

                      Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                      Page 21                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 7: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Emphasis Placed on Prevention of Gender-based Discrimination

Numbers in percent
                               USMA                                    USNA                               USAFA
Level of emphasis             Males         Females                  Males            Females           Males          Females
Greatly or generally
underemphasized                   8                34                    13                  35             17               47
Emphasis is about
right                            47                51                    45                  51             52               46
Generally or greatly
overemphasized                   45                15                    43                  14             31                7
Source: GAO.

                                         Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                         Page 22                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
As figure 11 shows, in terms of sexual harassment, about one half of the
students at each academy responded that their academy’s emphasis on
the prevention of sexual harassment was about right. However, female
students were more likely than male students to report that the prevention
of sexual harassment was generally or greatly underemphasized.
Twenty-five percent of female students at the Military Academy, 21 percent
at the Naval Academy, and 37 percent at the Air Force Academy responded
that the prevention of sexual harassment was generally or greatly
underemphasized (table 8).



Figure 11: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on Prevention of
Sexual Harassment

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60
               54                                            52.1
                                      48.9
 50
                                              44.1
                     38.4
 40
                                                                    33.6
 30

 20
                                                      14.2

 10   7.6                         7

  0
            USMA                      USNA                 USAFA

                    Greatly or generally underemphasized
                    Emphasis is about right
                    Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 23                                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 8: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Emphasis Placed on Prevention of Sexual Harassment

Numbers in percent
                               USMA                                    USNA                               USAFA
Level of emphasis            Males          Females                  Males            Females           Males          Females
Greatly or generally
underemphasized                   4                25                     4                  21             10               37
Emphasis is about
right                            54                60                    48                  55             54               46
Generally or greatly
overemphasized                   42                15                    48                  24             37               18
Source: GAO.

                                         Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                         Page 24                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
As figure 12 shows, about one half of all students at each of the three
academies rated the overall atmosphere for women as good or excellent.
The percentages ranged from 57 percent at the Military and Air Force
Academies to 49 percent at the Naval Academy. However, female students
were more likely to view the atmosphere for women as poor or below
average than were male students. As table 9 indicates, between 36 and
43 percent of female students at the three academies expressed this view
compared with between 17 and 22 percent of the males. The results of
our 1994 survey of students on sexual harassment issues showed that
the majority of women students experienced some form of gender-based
harassment that interfered with their performance or created an
intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment.



Figure 12: Student Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for Women at
the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60               57.3                                    57.1

                                       49.3
 50

 40

 30                         25.8 25
      20.4 22.2                               21.5 21.5
 20

 10

  0
          USMA                     USNA          USAFA

               Poor or below average
               Average
               Good or excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 25                                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 9: Perceptions of Male and Female Students of the Overall Atmosphere for Women at the Academies

Numbers in percent
                               USMA                                    USNA                               USAFA
Level of emphasis            Males          Females                  Males            Females           Males          Females
Poor or below
average                          17                39                    22                  43             18               36
Average                          21                30                    24                  30             20               29
Good or excellent                63                31                    54                  27             62               36
Source: GAO.

                                         Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                         Page 26                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
The perceptions of students on the emphasis the academies place on
preventing race-/ethnicity-based discrimination also varied according
to group membership. As figure 13 shows, a large majority of students
at each academy reported that the emphasis was about right. The
percentages ranged from 75 percent at the Naval Academy to 68 and
62 percent, respectively, at the Air Force and Military Academies.



Figure 13: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on Prevention of
Race-/Ethnicity-based Discrimination

In percent
100

 90

 80                                  75
                                                            68
 70
             61.6
 60

 50

 40
                    31.6
 30
                                                                 20.1
 20                                       16.6
                                                      12
      6.8                     8.4
 10

  0
            USMA                    USNA                   USAFA

                Greatly or generally underemphasized
                Emphasis is about right
                Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 27                                                                 GAO-03-1001 Military Education
However, minority students were more likely than nonminority students
to report that the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based discrimination was
generally or greatly underemphasized. As figure 14 shows, 4 percent of
nonminority students at the Military Academy, 5 percent at the Naval
Academy, and 9 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that their
academy underemphasized this prevention. By comparison, 17 percent
of minority students at the Military Academy, 21 percent at the Naval
Academy, and 27 percent at the Air Force Academy responded in this way.



Figure 14: Percentage of Minorities and Nonminorities Reporting Underemphasis of
Academies’ Prevention of Race-/Ethnicity-based Discrimination

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30                                        27
                               21
 20     17

                                                9
 10                                    5
                 4

  0
          USMA                  USNA        USAFA

               Minorities
               Nonminorities

Source: GAO.




Page 28                                             GAO-03-1001 Military Education
In terms of race-/ethnicity-based harassment, a large majority of all
students responded that their academy’s emphasis on preventing such
harassment was about right. For example, as figure 15 shows, 77 percent
of all students at the Naval Academy, 71 percent at the Air Force Academy,
and 65 percent at the Military Academy reported this view. However, as
figure 16 indicates, minority students were more likely to report that
the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based harassment was generally or
greatly underemphasized.



Figure 15: Student Perceptions of the Emphasis Academies Place on Prevention of
Race-/Ethnicity-based Harassment

In percent
100

 90

 80                                76.5
                                                         71.4
 70          64.7

 60

 50

 40
                    29.5
 30

 20                                       15.4                  17.3
                                                  11.3
                             8.2
 10   5.9

  0
            USMA                   USNA                USAFA

                Greatly or generally underemphasized
                Emphasis is about right
                Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 29                                                                GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 16: Percentage of Minorities and Nonminorities Reporting Underemphasis of
Academies’ Prevention of Race-/Ethnicity-based Harassment

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30                                     27
                               20
 20
        14

 10                                          8
                                    5
                3
  0
          USMA                  USNA     USAFA

               Minorities
               Nonminorities

Source: GAO.




Page 30                                             GAO-03-1001 Military Education
A large majority of all students rated the overall atmosphere for racial/
ethnic minorities as good or excellent. As figure 17 shows, 83 percent of
students at the Military Academy, 81 percent at the Naval Academy, and
79 percent at the Air Force Academy expressed this view. However, these
views varied within groups. As table 10 shows, minority students were
more likely than nonminority students to evaluate the overall atmosphere
for minorities as poor or below average. Some 10 to 17 percent of minority
students expressed this view while about 2 percent of nonminority
students had a similar view.



Figure 17: Perceptions of Students of the Overall Atmosphere for Racial/Ethnic
Minorities at the Academies

In percent
100

 90
                    83                     81.4
                                                             78.5
 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20                                 14.4                16
             12.8
 10   4.2                    4.2                  5.5

  0
            USMA                   USNA             USAFA

                Poor or below average
                Average

                Good or excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 31                                                             GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 10: Perceptions of Minority and Nonminority Students of the Overall Atmosphere for Racial/Ethnic Minorities at
the Academies

Numbers in percent
                                   USMA                                   USNA                                   USAFA
Rating                 Nonminorities         Minorities       Nonminorities            Minorities       Nonminorities       Minorities
Poor or below
average                             2                 10                      2                    11               2               17
Average                            10                 23                    12                     22              14               22
Good or excellent                  88                 67                    86                     67              83               60
Source: GAO.

                                            Note: Percentages may not add to100 due to rounding.




Student Perceptions                         Student perceptions varied as to whether various groups of students,
of Preferential                             such as women, recruited athletes, and minorities, receive preferential
                                            treatment during the admissions process and in general at the academies.
Treatment Varied
                                            The differences varied most between members of a particular group and
                                            those who were not part of that group. As table 11 shows, 58 percent of
                                            male students at the Military Academy, 63 percent at the Naval Academy,
                                            and 53 percent at the Air Force Academy believed that women received
                                            preferential treatment during the admissions process. By comparison,
                                            25 percent of female students at the Military Academy, 27 percent at the
                                            Naval Academy, and 24 percent at the Air Force Academy expressed the
                                            same view. Additionally, between 83 and 87 percent of students who were
                                            not recruited athletes believed that recruited athletes received preferential
                                            treatment during the admissions process. Between 64 and 68 percent of
                                            recruited athletes held the same view.



Table 11: Percentage of Student Group and Nongroup Members Perceiving Preferential Treatment of Student Groups

Numbers in percent
                             USMA                                       USNA                                     USAFA
                     Nonmembers         Members of           Nonmembers           Members of            Nonmembers         Members of
Group                   of group            group               of group              group                of group            group
Preferential treatment during the admissions process
Women                         58                 25                      63                  27                    53               24
Recruited
athletes                      86                 68                      83                  67                    87               64




                                            Page 32                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
(Continued From Previous Page)
Numbers in percent
                             USMA                               USNA                               USAFA
                     Nonmembers       Members of        Nonmembers      Members of        Nonmembers         Members of
Group                   of group          group            of group         group            of group            group
African-
American                         46            20                43              14                  41               17
Hispanic                         34            35                32              22                  29               24
Asian                            26            14                22               9                  22               11
Native
Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                 23            27                20              11                  19                6
American-
Indian/Alaska
Native                         26               31               22              36                  22               15
Preferential treatment in general at the academies
Women                            47             5                50               6                  49                8
Varsity athletes                 74            33                69              37                  80               34
African-
American                         18             3                16               0                  22                3
Hispanic                          8             5                  7              4                   8               10
Asian                             8             4                  5              2                   2                8
Native
Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                  5             6                  4              4                   5                0
American-
Indian/Alaska
Native                            5             7                  4              9                   5                6
Source: GAO.


                                           Student perceptions also varied as to whether the same groups of students
                                           receive discriminatory treatment (unfair, adverse treatment) during the
                                           admissions process and in general at the academies. Table 12 shows the
                                           differences between groups of students and those who are outside those
                                           groups in perceptions of discriminatory treatment during the admissions
                                           process and at the academies in general. For example, between 37 and
                                           42 percent of female respondents at the three academies reported that they
                                           perceived discriminatory treatment in general at the academy while 8 to
                                           14 percent of male respondents held the same view.




                                           Page 33                                         GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Table 12: Percentage of Student Group and Nongroup Members Perceiving Discriminatory Treatment of Student Groups

Numbers in percent
                            USMA                               USNA                                USAFA
                     Nonmembers     Members of        Nonmembers        Members of        Nonmembers         Members of
Group                   of group        group            of group           group            of group            group
During the admissions process
Women                           3           14                    2               6                   2               11
Recruited
athletes                        1            5                    1               6                   2               10
African-
American                        1           18                    1              18                   2               17
Hispanic                        2            4                    1               6                   2                8
Asian                           2            7                    1               8                   1                8
Native
Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                1           12                    1              11                   1               18
American-
Indian/Alaska
Native                          2            2                    2               2                   2                2
In general at the academy
Women                         10            42                  14               42                   8               37
Varsity athletes                3           24                    7              31                   5               33
African-
American                        2           23                    2              31                   2               29
Hispanic                        2            4                    2               6                   2                8
Asian                           1            9                    1               7                   1               14
Native
Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                1            9                    1               4                   1               18
American-
Indian/Alaska
Native                          1            4                    1               3                   1                4
Source: GAO.




                                        Page 34                                            GAO-03-1001 Military Education
A majority of students at the Military Academy and the Air Force
Academy (54 percent and 64 percent, respectively) indicated that varsity
intercollegiate athletics were generally or greatly overemphasized,
while at the Naval Academy 39 percent of the students reported the same
overemphasis (see question 29, app. II).

In our prior surveys on student treatment, we asked respondents whether
they believed women and minorities were treated better than, the same
as, or worse than men by various academy systems such as faculty
members. Students perceived that women and minorities generally
received treatment equal to that of men and whites. However, differences
in student perceptions were generally between male and female students
and minorities and nonminority students.




Page 35                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Many Students Plan Long   Many students at the three academies reported that they plan to stay in
Military Careers          the military beyond their initial obligation or until retirement (40 percent
                          at the Military Academy, 44 percent at the Naval Academy, and 55 percent
                          at the Air Force Academy), while between 14 and 19 percent across all
                          academies responded that they would probably or definitely leave at the
                          end of their obligation. Figure 18 shows the student responses of their
                          career intentions.



                          Figure 18: Student Responses on Career Intentions

                          In percent
                          100

                           90

                           80

                           70

                           60                                                 55.1

                           50
                                                       44.2
                                40.2 40.8                     38.8
                           40
                                                                                     30.9
                           30
                                            19                       17
                           20
                                                                                            14
                           10

                            0
                                    USMA                   USNA                   USAFA

                                         Remain in military beyond obligation, possibly or definitely until retirement

                                         Undecided about remaining in military beyond obligation
                                         Probably or definitely leave military upon completion of obligation

                          Source: GAO.

                          Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                          Page 36                                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Faculty Generally            The 1,586 faculty members who responded to our survey generally agreed
                             with student perceptions of aspects of student life at the academies, but
Agree with Student           they were less likely than students to report that quality-of-life problems
Perceptions on Some          at the academies are seldom openly confronted and/or solved. Faculty
                             perceptions varied on the practice of the honor code/concept and gender
Quality-of-Life Issues       and race-/ethnicity-based discrimination and harassment and preferential
                             treatment issues.



Faculty Perceptions Varied   Thirty-eight percent of the faculty at the Military Academy, 45 percent at
on the Extent to Which       the Naval Academy, and 46 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that
                             quality-of-life problems are openly confronted and/or solved to some, little,
Quality-of-Life Problems
                             or no extent at the academies. By comparison, 59 percent of students at the
Are Addressed                Military and Naval Academies and 71 percent of students at the Air Force
                             Academy held the same views. About one third of faculty at each academy
                             indicated that these problems are openly confronted and/or solved to a
                             moderate extent (see question 29, app. III).




                             Page 37                                           GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Overall Satisfaction with   Overall faculty satisfaction with academic and military training is high. As
Academic and Military       figure 19 shows, a large majority of faculty members at each academy
                            rated the overall academic program as good or excellent (88 percent at the
Training Is High            Military Academy, 87 percent at the Naval Academy, and 91 percent at the
                            Air Force Academy).



                            Figure 19: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Academic Program at the Academies

                            In percent
                            100
                                                                                           91.4
                             90                87.7                       86.7

                             80

                             70

                             60

                             50

                             40

                             30

                             20
                                         9.4                       10.6
                             10
                                  2.9                       2.7                  4.0 4.6
                              0
                                        USMA                      USNA             USAFA

                                               Poor or below average

                                               Average
                                               Good to excellent

                            Source: GAO.

                            Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                            Page 38                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
With regard to the students’ academic workload, figure 20 shows that
55 percent of faculty at the Military Academy, 60 percent at the Naval
Academy, and 58 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that the
workload was about right.



Figure 20: Faculty Perceptions of the Academic Workload at the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70
                                     60.3
 60                                                      58.2
             55.1

 50

 40                 35.8
                                            31.4                32.3
 30

 20
      9.1                      8.2                 9.4
 10

  0
            USMA                     USNA                USAFA

                Definitely or probably too light

                About right
                Definitely or probably too heavy

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 39                                                                GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 21 shows the faculty perceptions of the overall military development
program. Seventy-three percent at the Military Academy, 77 percent at the
Naval Academy, and 60 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that the
overall military development program was good or excellent. However,
26 percent of faculty at the Military Academy, 22 percent at the Naval
Academy, and 32 percent at the Air Force Academy rated their academy’s
performance standards for developing military officers as generally too low
or much too low (see question 10, app. III).



Figure 21: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Military Development Program at
the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80                                        76.7
                    73.1
 70
                                                                60.2
 60

 50

 40

 30
                                                         21.3
             17.4                   17.3          18.5
 20
      9.6
 10                          6.1

  0
            USMA                   USNA              USAFA

                Poor or below average

                Average
                Good to excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 40                                                                GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Faculty Perceptions         Faculty perceptions varied on the practice of the honor code/concept.
Varied on Practice of the   Figure 22 shows that while 51 percent of faculty at the Military Academy,
                            41 percent at the Naval Academy, and 34 percent at the Air Force Academy
Honor Code/Concept          reported that the honor code/concept was practiced as taught to a great or
                            very great extent. Twenty-two percent of faculty at the Military Academy,
                            32 percent at the Naval Academy, and 36 percent at the Air Force Academy
                            indicated that it was practiced as taught to some, a little, or no extent.



                            Figure 22: Faculty Perceptions of the Extent to Which the Honor Code/Concept Is
                            Practiced as Taught

                            In percent
                            100

                             90

                             80

                             70

                             60
                                                50.9
                             50
                                                                       41.2
                             40                                               35.6
                                                          31.8                              33.6
                                                                                     30.8
                             30          26.7                    27
                                  22.4
                             20

                             10

                              0
                                      USMA                    USNA               USAFA

                                            Some/little or no extent
                                            Moderate extent
                                            Great/very great extent

                            Source: GAO.

                            Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                            Page 41                                                                GAO-03-1001 Military Education
As figure 23 shows, 53 percent of faculty at the Military Academy and
41 percent at the Naval and Air Force Academies reported that the honor
code/concept was applied fairly with respect to students who have been
accused of similar violations.



Figure 23: Faculty Perceptions of the Extent to Which the Honor Code/Concept Is
Fairly Applied

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70

 60
                  52.9
 50
                                          41.2                 41.1
 40
                             31                  32.5
 30                               27.8                  26.4
      23.2 23.9
 20

 10

  0
          USMA                    USNA              USAFA

               Some/little or no extent

               Moderate extent

               Great/very great extent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 42                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Faculty Perceptions   Faculty were asked for their perceptions on the same gender-based and
of Prevention of      race-/ethnicity-based discrimination and harassment issues as were
                      students. The same definitions of discrimination and harassment were
Discrimination and    used. Figure 24 shows that about 70 percent of the faculty at each academy
Harassment Varied     reported that the level of emphasis given to the prevention of gender-based
                      discrimination was about right.



                      Figure 24: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis Placed on the Prevention of
                      Gender-based Discrimination

                      In percent
                      100

                       90

                       80
                                                        72.3
                                   70.2                                        68.9
                       70

                       60

                       50

                       40

                       30
                                                                        21.4
                       20 15.5                     18
                                          14.3
                                                                9.7                   9.8
                       10

                        0
                                USMA                    USNA                 USAFA

                                      Greatly or generally underemphasized

                                      Emphasis is about right
                                      Generally or greatly overemphasized

                      Source: GAO.

                      Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                      Page 43                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 25 shows that 75 percent of the faculty at the Military and Naval
Academies and 65 percent at the Air Force Academy reported that the level
of emphasis given to the prevention of sexual harassment was about right.
Figure 26 shows that just over one half of the faculty at each academy
assessed the overall atmosphere for women at the academies as good
or excellent.



Figure 25: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis Placed on the Prevention of
Sexual Harassment

In percent
100

 90

 80            75                       75

 70                                                          65.1

 60

 50

 40

 30
                                                      23.5
 20                              16.3
       13             12                                            11.3
                                              8
 10

  0
            USMA                     USNA                  USAFA

                    Greatly or generally underemphasized
                    Emphasis is about right
                    Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 44                                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 26: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for Women at
the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80

 70
                    58.2
 60                                     54.8
                                                         50.7
 50

 40

 30                                            25.3 24
             23.8             23 22.2
      17.9
 20

 10

  0
          USMA                  USNA             USAFA

                Poor or below average

                Average
                Good or excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 45                                                         GAO-03-1001 Military Education
With regard to the emphasis the academies place on the prevention of
race-/ethnicity-based discrimination, figure 27 shows that about 80 percent
of faculty at each academy reported that the emphasis was about right.



Figure 27: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on the Prevention of
Race-/Ethnicity-based Discrimination at the Academies

In percent
100

 90
                                   81.4                 82
             78.3
 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20                 15.3
                            10.5                  8.6        9.5
       6.4                                8.1
 10

  0
             USMA                USNA                  USAFA

                Greatly or generally underemphasized

                Emphasis is about right
                Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 46                                                            GAO-03-1001 Military Education
A similar majority of faculty at each academy reported that the
emphasis placed on the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based harassment is
about right and that the overall atmosphere for racial/ethnic minority
students at the academies is good or excellent. Figures 28 and 29 show
these perceptions.



Figure 28: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on the Prevention of
Race-/Ethnicity-based Harassment

In percent
100

 90
                                   83.2                 82.1
             79.8
 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20
                    13.2
                             9.6                  8.2          9.7
 10    7                                  7.2

  0
           USMA                    USNA                USAFA

                Greatly or generally underemphasized

                Emphasis is about right
                Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 47                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Figure 29: Faculty Perceptions of the Overall Atmosphere for Racial/Ethnic
Minorities at the Academies

In percent
100

 90
                    79.4
 80                                                            76.9
                                           73.8
 70

 60

 50

 40

 30
                                    19.4                18.2
 20          16.4

 10                          6.8                  4.9
      4.2

  0
            USMA                   USNA             USAFA

                Poor or below average

                Average
                Good or excellent

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 48                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Faculty Perceptions                           Faculty perceptions varied as to whether different groups of students,
of Preferential                               such as women, recruited athletes, and minorities, receive preferential
                                              treatment during the admissions process and in general at the academies.
Treatment Varied                              Table 13 shows the differences between faculty who had been involved
                                              in the admissions process in the last 4 years and those who had not in
                                              perceptions of preferential treatment during the admissions process.
                                              More than 90 percent of the faculty who had participated in the
                                              admissions process in the last 4 years at the Military and Naval Academies
                                              and 72 percent at the Air Force Academy responded that they perceived
                                              recruited athletes as receiving preferential treatment during the admissions
                                              process. While 75 percent of the faculty who had participated in the
                                              admissions process at the Military Academy and 81 percent at the Naval
                                              Academy reported that they perceived African-Americans as receiving
                                              preferential treatment during the admissions process, only 29 percent of
                                              faculty at the Air Force Academy who had participated in the process gave
                                              the same assessment.



Table 13: Percentage of Faculty Perceiving Preferential Treatment of Student Groups in the Admissions Process

Numbers in percent
                                USMA                                 USNA                               USAFA
                                              Had not                              Had not                             Had not
                        Participated   participated in    Participated in   participated in   Participated in   participated in
Group                in the process      the process        the process       the process       the process       the process
Women                            14                36                 16                32                13                24
Recruited
athletes                         93                88                 92                86                72                84
African-
American                         75                71                 81                68                29                37
Hispanic                         65                52                 75                56                24                26
Asian                            13                22                 15                17                 2                10
Native
Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                 29                33                 52                32                11                13
American-
Indian/Alaska
Native                           45                40                 63                46                18                19
Source: GAO.




                                              Page 49                                           GAO-03-1001 Military Education
With the exception of perceptions regarding varsity athletes, faculty across
the academies were less likely to perceive preferential treatment of various
student groups while at the academies, as shown by table 14.



Table 14: Percentage of Faculty Perceiving Preferential Treatment of Student Groups
While at the Academies

Numbers in percent
Group                                      USMA            USNA             USAFA
Women                                         11               10                10
Varsity athletes                              56               55                63
African-American                              12               10                 6
Hispanic                                        4               5                 3
Asian                                           1               2                 1
Native Hawaiian/other
Pacific Islander                                1               2                 1
American-Indian/Alaska Native                   2               3                 2
Source: GAO.




Page 50                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
As figure 30 shows, about one-half the faculty at the Military and Naval
Academies and 70 percent of the faculty at the Air Force Academy reported
that the relative emphasis given to varsity intercollegiate athletics was
generally or greatly overemphasized.



Figure 30: Faculty Perceptions of the Emphasis on Varsity Intercollegiate Athletics
at the Academies

In percent
100

 90

 80
                                                              69.1
 70

 60                 56.5
                                          51.4
 50
                                   42.8
 40          36.6

                                                         28
 30

 20

 10   6.9                    5.8
                                                  2.8
  0
            USMA                   USNA                 USAFA

                Greatly or generally underemphasized

                Emphasis is about right

                Generally or greatly overemphasized

Source: GAO.

Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




Page 51                                                              GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Conclusion        The results of the student and faculty surveys presented in this report
                  highlight several areas that may warrant further study. For example,
                  the percentage of students and faculty that rated their academy’s
                  performance standards for developing military officers as being generally
                  or much too low suggests that this may be an area of concern. Likewise,
                  similar responses from students and faculty related to the conduct of
                  the honor code/concept underscore another area of potential concern.
                  In addition, the high percentage of student responses indicating
                  dissatisfaction with their social life at the academies and with certain
                  campus services may also suggest cause for concern.

                  In our report on oversight and admissions issues at the service academies,12
                  we concluded that DOD conducts considerable oversight of the academies’
                  operations and performance, but they lack a complete oversight
                  framework. To develop a more complete oversight framework, we
                  recommended that DOD improve its oversight by enhancing its
                  performance goals and measures. The academies’ climate surveys are
                  conducted periodically and can inform decision makers about areas that
                  may warrant further attention. The results of our surveys, especially those
                  areas mentioned above, may be of use to DOD in enhancing the quality of
                  its oversight.



Agency Comments   DOD reviewed a draft of this report and had no comments.



                  We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional
                  committees; the Secretaries of Defense, the Army, the Navy, and the Air
                  Force; and the Director, Office of Management and Budget. We will also
                  make copies available to others upon request. In addition, the report will be
                  available at no charge on the GAO Web site at http://www.gao.gov.




                  12
                       GAO-03-1000.




                  Page 52                                           GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Please contact me on (202) 512-5559 if you or your staff have any questions
concerning this report. Key contributors are listed in appendix IV.




Derek B. Stewart
Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 53                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix I

Scope and Methodology                                                                                AA
                                                                                                      ppp
                                                                                                        ep
                                                                                                         ned
                                                                                                           n
                                                                                                           x
                                                                                                           id
                                                                                                            e
                                                                                                            x
                                                                                                            Iis




             To obtain student and faculty perceptions of aspects of student life at the
             U.S. Military Academy, the U.S. Naval Academy, and the U.S. Air Force
             Academy, we took the following initial steps:

             • To design two separate surveys (one for students and one for faculty),
               we reviewed our surveys used to query academy students in 1993 and
               1994 and prior service academy instruments to develop general topics
               and questions that were appropriate indicators of student life issues.
               Specifically, we reviewed student and faculty surveys on quality-of-life
               issues administered by the Military, Naval, and Air Force Academies
               within the last 2 years.1 We also reviewed the student and faculty
               surveys on various aspects of student life that we administered during
               our 1994 review of the Air Force Academy.2 For the student survey, we
               developed questions for nine general topics: (1) academic climate;
               (2) military/professional development; (3) social and cultural climate;
               (4) harassment, discrimination (gender- and race-/ethnicity-based), and
               preferential treatment for various groups of students; (5) moral climate
               and honor code/concept; (6) intercollegiate and intramural athletics;
               (7) campus services; (8) personal affairs; and (9) career intentions.
               For the faculty survey, we developed five student-related topics:
               (1) academic climate; (2) military/professional development;
               (3) harassment, discrimination (gender- and race-/ethnicity-based),
               and preferential treatment for various groups of students; (4) moral
               climate and honor code/concept; and (5) intercollegiate and
               intramural athletics.

             • To ensure the relevance and appropriateness of the survey questions,
               we sought outside comments on our survey approach and questions
               from officials in the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for
               Personnel and Readiness; the Army, Navy, and Air Force headquarters;
               and the Military, Naval, and Air Force academies. The purpose of
               seeking outside consultation was twofold. First, to determine whether
               the questions and the manner in which we planned to ask them were
               adequate for addressing the larger questions posed by our evaluation.
               Second, to find out whether academy students and faculty had the


             1
               Each of the service academies periodically surveys its students and faculty on topics
             including academic workload, perceptions of discrimination and harassment, application of
             the honor code/concept, and the quality of campus services.
             2
               U.S. General Accounting Office, Air Force Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities,
             GAO/NSIAD-93-244 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 24, 1993).




             Page 54                                                   GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




   knowledge to answer our survey questions. The reviewing officials did
   not act as pretest interviewees; they provided critiques. Based on the
   comments received, we modified the survey terminology to apply to the
   respective academies, eliminated and/or changed questions or response
   items that did not apply, and added questions or response items to
   address issues germane to all three service academies.

• To test the survey questions before they were administered, we
  pretested the surveys in focus groups of students and faculty at the
  Naval and Air Force Academies. At both academies, we held two
  student focus groups, one for junior and senior students and one for
  freshmen and sophomore students, and two faculty focus groups, one
  each for military and civilian faculty. Each focus group consisted of
  approximately 10 participants, was racially diverse, and included males
  and females. We refined the survey questions based on the comments
  made during these sessions. Time constraints prevented pretesting at
  the Military Academy, although we discussed some of the survey topics
  with one student focus group during our site visit.

• To identify all students and faculty that would be included in the survey,
  we requested and obtained E-mail addresses for all students and faculty.
  For the faculty population, we asked the academies to include both
  teaching faculty and other staff who have regular contact with students,
  particularly the officers who serve as commanders of student units
  (companies or squadrons). Since we left it to the discretion of the
  academies which of these other staff they included (about 398 total),
  the numbers of total faculty vary among academies. There were initial
  difficulties in resolving inaccuracies in the E-mail addresses provided to
  us by the Air Force Academy, but Air Force Academy officials worked
  with us to resolve those issues.

To administer the surveys, we built six Web-based survey sites, two
for each academy (one for students and one for faculty). Before
administering the surveys, the superintendent of each academy notified all
students and faculty of our upcoming surveys and encouraged participation
in them. This notification was followed by our E-mail to all students and
faculty, containing the Web link to the appropriate survey as well as the
individual’s unique user name and password. The previously discussed
inaccurate E-mail addresses resulted in delays in notifying all students
and faculty at the Air Force Academy of the surveys’ availability. The
Web-based surveys were initially operational from February 5 to
February 28, 2003. During this time, students and faculty completed the



Page 55                                          GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix I
Scope and Methodology




surveys and contacted designated GAO personnel, via telephone or E-mail,
regarding any difficulties. Each week, we sent follow-up E-mail to all
respondents, requesting that they complete the surveys if they had not
done so. At the end of the survey period, we extended the survey at all
academies by 1 week to March 7, 2003, to allow respondents at the Air
Force Academy additional time to complete the surveys. Each academy’s
superintendent sent out an additional notification E-mail, announcing that
we were extending the deadline for the surveys and once again
encouraging participation. Table 15 shows that the response rates for the
surveys were generally high.



Table 15: Number of Student and Faculty Survey Responses and Corresponding
Response Rates

                            Total number of     Number of students    Response
                              students and             and faculty          rate
                           faculty surveyed   responding to survey     (percent)
U.S. Military Academy
Students                             3,987                   3,323            83
Faculty                                665                    597             90
U.S. Naval Academy
Students                             4,224                   3,473            82
Faculty                                663                    484             73
U.S. Air Force Academy
Students                             4,053                   2,442            60
Faculty                                737                    505             69
Source: GAO.


To analyze the response rates for possible errors due to some
groups responding out of proportion to the population as a whole,
we compared the rates for certain demographic subgroups to the
relevant academy student populations. We found comparable distributions
of students for these subgroups and concluded that the survey results for
each academy appeared to be generally representative of the academy
populations. Although overall response rates for the Air Force Academy
were lower than those of the other two academies, the pattern of
responses across demographic groups is much the same as for the other
academies. Table 16 shows the percentage of groups who completed the
student survey compared to the percentage of identified groups in the
entire student population.



Page 56                                            GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                            Appendix I
                                            Scope and Methodology




Table 16: Characteristics of Survey Respondents Compared to Academy Student Populations

Numbers in percent
                              USMA                                        USNA                                           USAFA
                           Survey         Group as                 Survey         Group as                         Survey         Group as
Identified           response rate   percentage of           response rate   percentage of                   response rate   percentage of
student group            (percent) total population              (percent) total population                      (percent) total population
Males                         84.7              84.4                     84.4                  84.7                        82                 83.6
Females                       15.3              15.6                     15.6                  15.3                        18                 16.4
               a
Minorities                    22.9              23.9                     20.2                  20.1                        20                       19
Varsity athletes              19.6              18.3              Not testedb          Not testedb                       18.2                 17.1
Prior enlisted          Not testedb      Not testedb                     10.1                   9.1                        1.6                  1.0
Prep school
graduates                     13.8              14.7                     15.9                  16.8                      11.6                 12.6
Source: GAO.
                                            a
                                             Our definition of “minority” differed somewhat from that used by the academies. Differences in
                                            response rates may be attributed to the differences in definition. For example, we did not specify an
                                            “other” category for race/ethnicity and included a category for Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander.
                                            b
                                             We were unable to test these groups because of apparent measurement differences between our
                                            survey and the academies’ demographic profiles. In our survey more students responded that they
                                            were in these groups than the academies reported in their population.


                                            To analyze survey results, we noted responses for all questions and
                                            highlighted those where a significant response occurred in a particular
                                            category, such as an unfavorable opinion. We also compared responses
                                            by groups for questions addressing those groups (e.g., male and female
                                            student responses and minority and nonminority student responses).
                                            Since we surveyed the entire student and faculty populations at all three
                                            academies and not a statistical sample, achieved high response rates, and
                                            found minimal occurrences of some groups responding out of proportion
                                            to the population as a whole, the responses can be considered
                                            representative of those populations.

                                            We performed our work between November 2002 and July 2003 in
                                            accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.




                                            Page 57                                                            GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix II

Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
Student Survey and Responses                                                                                                              Appendx
                                                                                                                                                Ii




Academic Climate
1. Considering all your responsibilities, how would you characterize your academic workload?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Definitely too light                                                 .3                                 .3                               .2
Probably too light                                                 1.5                                 1.3                               .6
About right                                                       35.3                                42.9                            30.3
Probably too heavy                                                48.1                                45.1                            50.5
Definitely too heavy                                              14.8                                10.4                            18.5

2. How much emphasis does the Academy place on academics, relative to what you think it should be?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            1.7                                 1.1                              2.8
Generally underemphasized                                         15.7                                 9.7                            26.1
Emphasis is about right                                           50.6                                49.9                            54.1
Generally overemphasized                                          25.3                                29.8                            14.3
Greatly overemphasized                                             6.7                                 9.4                              2.7

3. How would you characterize the level of academic competition among Academy students?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Definitely too little                                                .7                                 .5                               .6
Probably too little                                                9.1                                 7.0                              7.2
About right                                                       48.6                                41.9                            46.6
Probably too much                                                 30.3                                36.2                            33.6
Definitely too much                                               11.2                                14.4                            12.0

4. How effective or ineffective is additional instruction available outside the normal class meeting time for students who need it?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Very ineffective                                                   2.4                                 2.0                              1.2
Generally ineffective                                              3.3                                 2.2                              2.0
Neither effective nor ineffective                                  4.0                                 2.9                              1.6
Generally effective                                               38.7                                37.4                            31.6




                                                Page 58                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                             U.S. Military Academy                   U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                            (percent)                       (percent)
Very effective                                                   51.7                               55.5                             63.6

5. Overall, how effective or ineffective are your Academy instructors as teachers?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                   U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                            (percent)                       (percent)
Very ineffective                                                  1.4                                  .8                               .7
Generally ineffective                                             3.3                                 4.6                              3.3
Neither effective nor ineffective                                 5.2                                 8.7                              4.8
Generally effective                                              56.1                               66.8                             62.0
Very effective                                                   34.0                               19.1                             29.3

6. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall academic program at the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                   U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                            (percent)                       (percent)
Poor                                                               .4                                  .4                               .3
Below average                                                     1.4                                 1.6                              1.5
Average                                                           5.5                                 8.0                              5.8
Good                                                             33.4                               36.7                             32.5
Excellent                                                        59.3                               53.3                             59.9




Military/Professional Development
7. Considering all your responsibilities, how would you characterize your military development workload during the academic year?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                   U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                            (percent)                       (percent)
Definitely too light                                              8.5                                 6.4                              1.4
Probably too light                                               33.5                               26.6                               8.8
About right                                                      40.7                               50.7                             40.4
Probably too heavy                                               13.8                               13.7                             33.6
Definitely too heavy                                              3.5                                 2.7                            15.7




                                               Page 59                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                Appendix II
                                                Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                Student Survey and Responses




8. How would you rate the Academy’s performance standards for developing you as an officer?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Much too low                                                        2.2                                 4.5                                 4.9
Generally too low                                                  21.0                                28.2                                22.1
About right                                                        64.5                                57.4                                46.0
Generally too high                                                 10.3                                 8.3                                19.7
Much too high                                                       2.0                                 1.5                                 7.3

9. How effective or ineffective is the four-year class system for developing students as officers?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Very ineffective                                                    8.2                                11.6                                17.0
Generally ineffective                                              18.7                                27.1                                23.6
Neither effective nor ineffective                                  19.7                                19.2                               18.9
Generally effective                                                45.9                                38.1                                32.2
Very effective                                                      7.5                                 4.0                                 8.3

10. How effective or ineffective are the summer military development activities (not including initial entry summer training) for providing you
with the skills needed to be an officer?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Very ineffective                                                    1.5                                 2.9                                 3.1
Generally ineffective                                               3.3                                 7.9                                 6.9
Neither effective nor ineffective                                   4.8                                 8.7                                 7.5
Generally effective                                                46.9                                45.7                                41.2
Very effective                                                     43.4                                34.9                                41.3

11. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall military development program at the Academy?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Poor                                                                2.0                                 4.1                                 6.6
Below average                                                       7.8                                12.0                                14.1
Average                                                            19.4                                26.6                                26.3
Good                                                               49.0                                43.5                                39.5
Excellent                                                          21.8                                13.8                                13.4




                                                Page 60                                                       GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                 Appendix II
                                                 Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                 Student Survey and Responses




Social and Cultural Climate
12. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your social life at the Academy?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                  U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                           (percent)                           (percent)
Very dissatisfied                                                  33.0                                 22.6                              30.3
Generally dissatisfied                                             39.6                                 34.1                              34.4
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied                                 13.6                                 17.4                              13.8
Generally satisfied                                                12.1                                 22.5                              18.2
Very satisfied                                                       1.7                                 3.4                               3.3

13. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the types of cultural opportunities (e.g., courses related to the arts, opportunities to
participate in the arts, and attending such events) available to Academy students on or off Academy grounds?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                  U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                           (percent)                           (percent)
Very dissatisfied                                                  14.6                                  9.9                              18.8
Generally dissatisfied                                             29.4                                 23.5                              34.2
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied                                 31.0                                 30.4                              28.9
Generally satisfied                                                20.8                                 28.3                              15.1
Very satisfied                                                       4.2                                 7.9                               2.9

14. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with opportunities to participate in religious services and activities?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                  U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                           (percent)                           (percent)
Very dissatisfied                                                    2.2                                 1.4                               1.9
Generally dissatisfied                                               3.9                                 2.9                               5.5
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied                                 17.5                                 17.3                              17.9
Generally satisfied                                                38.5                                 40.2                              39.4
Very satisfied                                                     38.0                                 38.2                              35.4




                                                 Page 61                                                       GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                             Appendix II
                                             Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                             Student Survey and Responses




Harassment, Discrimination, and Preferential Treatment
                                             Discrimination: Academy policies or practices that lead to unfair adverse treatment of a person or
                                             group based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion.
                                             Harassment: Derogatory comments, gestures or other actions aimed at race, gender, religion, or
                                             ethnicity that interfere with an individual’s performance or create an intimidating, offensive or hostile
                                             environment, including unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or
                                             physical conduct of a sexual nature.

15. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of sexual harassment, relative to what you think it should be?

                                           U.S. Military Academy                      U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                         (percent)                               (percent)                               (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            1.2                                       .7                                      2.7
Generally underemphasized                                          6.4                                      6.3                                    11.5
Emphasis is about right                                          54.0                                     48.9                                     52.1
Generally overemphasized                                         26.3                                     29.8                                     23.3
Greatly overemphasized                                           12.1                                     14.3                                     10.3

16. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of gender-based discrimination, relative to what you think it
should be?

                                           U.S. Military Academy                      U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                         (percent)                               (percent)                               (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            2.0                                      2.5                                      4.3
Generally underemphasized                                        10.3                                     13.7                                     18.1
Emphasis is about right                                          47.1                                     45.1                                     51.0
Generally overemphasized                                         26.5                                     23.2                                     17.2
Greatly overemphasized                                           14.2                                     15.4                                       9.3

17. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall Academy atmosphere for women?

                                           U.S. Military Academy                      U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                         (percent)                               (percent)                               (percent)
Poor                                                               3.9                                      6.6                                      4.9
Below average                                                    16.5                                     19.2                                     16.6
Average                                                          22.2                                     25.0                                     21.5
Good                                                             39.9                                     32.6                                     38.5
Excellent                                                        17.4                                     16.7                                     18.6




                                             Page 62                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                Appendix II
                                                Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                Student Survey and Responses




18. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based harassment, relative to what you think it
should be?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                             .9                                .9                               1.7
Generally underemphasized                                          5.0                               7.3                               9.6
Emphasis is about right                                           64.7                             76.5                              71.4
Generally overemphasized                                          19.6                             10.4                              11.9
Greatly overemphasized                                             9.9                               5.0                               5.4

19. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based discrimination, relative to what you think it
should be?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                             .9                               1.1                               1.6
Generally underemphasized                                          5.9                               7.3                             10.4
Emphasis is about right                                           61.6                             75.0                              68.0
Generally overemphasized                                          21.3                             11.8                              13.5
Greatly overemphasized                                            10.3                               4.8                               6.6

20. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall Academy atmosphere for members of racial/ethnic minorities?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Poor                                                                .8                                .6                               1.2
Below average                                                      3.4                               3.6                               4.3
Average                                                           12.8                             14.4                              16.0
Good                                                              44.6                             45.0                              44.6
Excellent                                                         38.4                             36.4                              33.9

21. Based on your perception, how were your classmates in the following groups treated during the admissions process relative to other
applicants?

                                                          U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy        U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                        (percent)                  (percent)                     (percent)
Males                 Preferential treatment                                 5.0                            3.2                        3.0
                      Same treatment                                        71.4                           75.6                      78.8
                      Discriminatory treatment                               7.2                            8.3                        7.1
                      Do not know                                           16.4                           13.0                      11.1




                                                Page 63                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix II
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                        U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                      (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
Females              Preferential treatment                               44.5                       50.4                       43.3
                     Same treatment                                       34.9                       34.7                       42.7
                     Discriminatory treatment                              3.7                         2.2                        3.3
                     Do not know                                          16.8                       12.8                       10.8
Whites/Caucasians    Preferential treatment                                4.4                         3.6                        3.1
                     Same treatment                                       68.8                       73.2                       76.2
                     Discriminatory treatment                             10.1                         9.8                        9.5
                     Do not know                                          16.7                       13.3                       11.2
Blacks/African-      Preferential treatment                               35.7                       34.4                       34.4
Americans
                     Same treatment                                       43.4                       47.5                       48.8
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.9                         1.6                        2.0
                     Do not know                                          19.0                       16.5                       14.8
Spanish/Hispanics/   Preferential treatment                               27.1                       25.3                       23.5
Latinos
                     Same treatment                                       49.6                       53.3                       57.4
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.6                         1.4                        1.9
                     Do not know                                          21.7                       19.9                       17.3
Asians               Preferential treatment                               19.1                       16.9                       17.8
                     Same treatment                                       57.0                       59.3                       62.6
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.5                         1.3                        1.3
                     Do not know                                          22.4                       22.5                       18.3
American             Preferential treatment                               18.2                       15.7                       16.5
Indians/Alaska
Natives
                     Same treatment                                       49.9                       53.2                       58.3
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.2                         1.0                        1.3
                     Do not know                                          30.6                       30.0                       23.8
Native Hawaiians/    Preferential treatment                               16.0                       14.4                       14.7
Other Pacific
Islanders
                     Same treatment                                       52.3                       56.6                       62.3
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.1                         1.0                        1.0
                     Do not know                                          30.6                       27.9                       22.0
Recruited            Preferential treatment                               73.5                       72.5                       76.8
Intercollegiate
Athletes
                     Same treatment                                       15.3                       17.4                       14.3
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.6                         2.4                        4.1




                                              Page 64                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                         U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                       (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
                      Do not know                                           9.6                         7.8                        4.8
Prior Enlisted        Preferential treatment                               32.1                       21.4                       16.4
                      Same treatment                                       47.2                       59.9                       66.1
                      Discriminatory treatment                              1.8                         2.6                        3.2
                      Do not know                                          18.9                       16.2                       14.3
Students with         Preferential treatment                               48.4                       49.2                       41.1
Military Parents
                      Same treatment                                       36.8                       38.4                       49.1
                      Discriminatory treatment                                .5                         .3                         .5
                      Do not know                                          14.2                       12.1                         9.2
Preparatory School    Preferential treatment                               40.8                       32.1                       35.3
Graduates
                      Same treatment                                       42.4                       53.3                       52.4
                      Discriminatory treatment                              1.6                         1.9                        2.0
                      Do not know                                          15.3                       12.8                       10.3

22. To your knowledge, how are members of the following groups treated at the Academy in general, relative to other students?

                                                         U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                       (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
Males                 Preferential treatment                                8.7                         8.2                        5.7
                      Same treatment                                       84.3                       84.6                       87.1
                      Discriminatory treatment                              4.4                         6.0                        5.4
                      Do not know                                           2.7                         1.2                        1.8
Females               Preferential treatment                               39.9                       42.6                       40.9
                      Same treatment                                       42.5                       37.8                       44.5
                      Discriminatory treatment                             14.2                       17.9                       12.4
                      Do not know                                           3.4                         1.7                        2.1
Whites/Caucasians     Preferential treatment                                4.8                         3.8                        3.6
                      Same treatment                                       87.6                       90.7                       89.0
                      Discriminatory treatment                              4.3                         3.4                        4.8
                      Do not know                                           3.4                         2.1                        2.6
Blacks/African-       Preferential treatment                               16.3                       14.8                       20.1
Americans
                      Same treatment                                       76.1                       78.6                       73.2
                      Discriminatory treatment                              3.2                         3.4                        2.8
                      Do not know                                           4.3                         3.2                        3.9




                                               Page 65                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix II
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                        U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                      (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
Spanish/Hispanics/   Preferential treatment                                7.4                         6.8                        8.2
Latinos
                     Same treatment                                       84.6                       86.0                       84.3
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.9                         1.9                        2.3
                     Do not know                                           6.1                         5.3                        5.2
Asians               Preferential treatment                                6.9                         4.7                        6.2
                     Same treatment                                       85.4                       88.1                       86.1
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.8                         1.3                        1.9
                     Do not know                                           6.0                         6.0                        5.8
American             Preferential treatment                                4.5                         3.7                        4.4
Indians/Alaska
Natives
                     Same treatment                                       83.3                       85.1                       84.5
                     Discriminatory treatment                                .9                         .9                        1.3
                     Do not know                                          11.3                       10.3                         9.7
Native Hawaiians/    Preferential treatment                                4.0                         3.7                        4.3
Other Pacific
Islanders
                     Same treatment                                       84.1                       86.4                       86.2
                     Discriminatory treatment                              1.0                          .9                        1.1
                     Do not know                                          10.9                         9.0                        8.4
Varsity Athletes     Preferential treatment                               64.2                       59.5                       70.4
                     Same treatment                                       26.4                       25.9                       18.2
                     Discriminatory treatment                              7.1                       13.3                       10.1
                     Do not know                                           2.2                         1.3                        1.3
Non-Varsity          Preferential treatment                                4.6                         3.1                      20.0
Athletes
                     Same treatment                                       77.8                       84.8                       61.5
                     Discriminatory treatment                             14.2                       10.2                       16.1
                     Do not know                                           3.4                         1.9                        2.4
Prior Enlisted       Preferential treatment                               32.2                       18.6                         9.3
                     Same treatment                                       62.3                       75.3                       84.9
                     Discriminatory treatment                              2.0                         3.2                        2.5
                     Do not know                                           3.6                         2.9                        3.3
Students with        Preferential treatment                               25.2                       25.5                       19.2
Military Parents
                     Same treatment                                       70.3                       71.0                       77.0
                     Discriminatory treatment                                .6                         .6                         .7




                                              Page 66                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                   Appendix II
                                                   Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                   Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                             U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy        U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                           (percent)                  (percent)                     (percent)
                         Do not know                                            3.9                            2.8                        3.2
Preparatory School       Preferential treatment                                18.2                            9.2                      10.4
Graduates
                         Same treatment                                        75.1                           84.9                      84.4
                         Discriminatory treatment                               2.9                            3.0                        2.1
                         Do not know                                            3.8                            3.0                        3.0
Foreign Students         Preferential treatment                                21.3                           11.0                      20.3
                         Same treatment                                        70.4                           78.6                      70.4
                         Discriminatory treatment                               2.0                            3.1                        3.5
                         Do not know                                            6.3                            7.3                        5.9




Moral Climate and Honor Code/Concept
23. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the moral/ethical development of students, relative to what you think it should be?

                                                  U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                               1.0                               1.6                               3.5
Generally underemphasized                                             5.9                               9.7                             15.4
Emphasis is about right                                              61.5                             59.7                              61.3
Generally overemphasized                                             22.4                             21.6                              14.9
Greatly overemphasized                                                9.2                               7.4                               4.9

24. To what extent is the Honor Code/Concept practiced as it is taught?

                                                  U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
To little or no extent                                                2.2                               6.1                               6.0
To some extent                                                       12.5                             24.8                              22.1
To a moderate extent                                                 23.3                             32.4                              29.3
To a great extent                                                    40.1                             28.9                              32.2
To a very great extent                                               22.0                               7.9                             10.4




                                                   Page 67                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




25. To what extent is the Honor Code/Concept fairly applied to students with similar violations?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                       (percent)
To little or no extent                                            9.5                              13.7                            12.2
To some extent                                                   21.2                              26.5                            23.0
To a moderate extent                                             26.4                              30.8                            27.4
To a great extent                                                29.6                              22.8                            26.9
To a very great extent                                           13.3                               6.3                            10.4

26. How frequently have you witnessed academic cheating at the Academy?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                       (percent)
Seldom or never                                                  89.1                              76.1                            69.0
On occasion                                                       8.0                              18.8                            20.7
Often                                                             2.1                               3.1                              5.9
Very often                                                          .7                              1.6                              3.4
All or almost all the time                                          .2                               .4                              1.1




Intercollegiate and Intramural Athletics
27. When you were applying to the Academy, were you recruited to be an athlete for one of the Academy’s varsity intercollegiate
athletic teams?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                       (percent)
No                                                               75.9                              73.3                            74.9
Yes                                                              24.1                              26.7                            25.1

28. Are you an athlete on one of the Academy’s varsity intercollegiate teams?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                       (percent)
No                                                               80.4                              71.9                            81.8
Yes                                                              19.6                              28.1                            18.2




                                               Page 68                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                 Appendix II
                                                 Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                 Student Survey and Responses




29. How much emphasis does the Academy place on varsity intercollegiate athletics?

                                                U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                              (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                             5.8                               4.9                                3.5
Generally underemphasized                                          14.5                             15.0                                10.6
Emphasis is about right                                            25.8                             41.3                                22.0
Generally overemphasized                                           28.7                             26.1                                29.5
Greatly overemphasized                                             25.2                             12.7                                34.3

30. How much emphasis does the Academy place on intramural athletics?

                                                U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                              (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                             5.7                               3.6                                2.1
Generally underemphasized                                          23.0                             19.6                                10.0
Emphasis is about right                                            52.3                             59.2                                35.8
Generally overemphasized                                           13.5                             13.6                                28.8
Greatly overemphasized                                              5.5                               4.0                               23.2

31. How much emphasis does the Academy place on club athletics?

                                                U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                              (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            11.5                             11.6                                44.4
Generally underemphasized                                          36.8                              37.7                               39.6
Emphasis is about right                                            45.2                             48.1                                13.5
Generally overemphasized                                            5.4                               2.1                                1.9
Greatly overemphasized                                              1.2                                .5                                 .7




Services
32. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the following housing conditions, food services and other services/facilities at the Academy?

                                                           U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy       U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                         (percent)                  (percent)                    (percent)
Physical condition     Very dissatisfied                                      4.5                           1.6                          1.0
of housing
                       Generally dissatisfied                                16.2                           7.9                          8.8




                                                 Page 69                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix II
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                        U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                      (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
                     Neither satisfied nor                                20.3                       14.6                       15.5
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  50.0                       57.3                       55.9
                     Very satisfied                                        9.0                       18.6                       18.7
Maintenance of       Very dissatisfied                                     5.4                         3.3                        2.8
housing
                     Generally dissatisfied                               19.6                       16.9                       13.6
                     Neither satisfied nor                                20.0                       17.6                       17.1
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  46.3                       48.9                       49.6
                     Very satisfied                                        8.7                       13.2                       16.9
Total amount of      Very dissatisfied                                     5.8                         6.4                        4.8
living area
                     Generally dissatisfied                               17.8                       22.8                       18.6
                     Neither satisfied nor                                17.2                       21.9                       18.1
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  45.9                       39.2                       43.5
                     Very satisfied                                       13.3                         9.6                      15.0
Study conditions     Very dissatisfied                                     2.9                         2.4                        3.7
                     Generally dissatisfied                               10.5                       11.9                       12.9
                     Neither satisfied nor                                19.1                       22.5                       21.0
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  54.5                       51.1                       48.9
                     Very satisfied                                       13.1                       12.2                       13.5
Personal storage     Very dissatisfied                                    12.2                       13.8                       11.4
area
                     Generally dissatisfied                               35.2                       37.3                       33.1
                     Neither satisfied nor                                17.8                       18.9                       20.1
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  29.8                       25.2                       29.2
                     Very satisfied                                        5.0                         4.8                        6.2
Restrooms            Very dissatisfied                                     7.1                         5.6                        5.3
                     Generally dissatisfied                               18.8                       14.8                       17.3
                     Neither satisfied nor                                21.4                       23.2                       25.6
                     dissatisfied
                     Generally satisfied                                  44.3                       45.8                       42.6
                     Very satisfied                                        8.4                       10.6                         9.2
Available            Very dissatisfied                                     1.8                         8.1                        1.1
technology




                                              Page 70                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                         U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                       (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
                      Generally dissatisfied                                5.9                       11.8                         4.3
                      Neither satisfied nor                                11.1                       11.2                       11.4
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  49.6                       41.8                       48.0
                      Very satisfied                                       31.5                       27.2                       35.3
Security of personal Very dissatisfied                                      4.3                       15.1                         3.3
effects
                      Generally dissatisfied                                8.4                       23.6                         9.6
                      Neither satisfied nor                                15.4                       21.0                       18.4
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  45.8                       31.2                       48.7
                      Very satisfied                                       26.1                         9.2                      20.0
Personal safety       Very dissatisfied                                     1.3                         1.1                        1.2
                      Generally dissatisfied                                1.6                         1.8                        2.3
                      Neither satisfied nor                                 8.5                       12.2                       12.5
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  36.0                       40.8                       44.9
                      Very satisfied                                       52.6                       44.1                       39.0
Quality of mess hall Very dissatisfied                                     12.4                       11.2                       22.8
food
                      Generally dissatisfied                               26.3                       26.4                       34.2
                      Neither satisfied nor                                21.1                       23.7                       18.9
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  35.7                       34.4                       21.6
                      Very satisfied                                        4.5                         4.3                        2.4
Laundry service       Very dissatisfied                                    18.2                       19.6                       24.9
                      Generally dissatisfied                               31.1                       27.0                       31.2
                      Neither satisfied nor                                19.9                       23.8                       25.4
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  27.1                       26.4                       16.4
                      Very satisfied                                        3.6                         3.2                        2.0
Medical care          Very dissatisfied                                     6.8                         4.8                      15.0
                      Generally dissatisfied                               14.2                       15.9                       28.0
                      Neither satisfied nor                                21.4                       23.6                       20.8
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  44.2                       42.4                       28.3
                      Very satisfied                                       13.4                       13.3                         7.9
Shopping facilities   Very dissatisfied                                    11.0                         3.4                        7.9
                      Generally dissatisfied                               27.5                         9.4                      19.8




                                               Page 71                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                         U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy     U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                       (percent)                  (percent)                  (percent)
                      Neither satisfied nor                                24.4                       22.5                       30.3
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  32.7                       52.2                       37.6
                      Very satisfied                                        4.4                       12.5                         4.4
Off-installation      Very dissatisfied                                    35.3                       26.3                       41.8
transportation
                      Generally dissatisfied                               34.2                       36.0                       31.0
                      Neither satisfied nor                                16.8                       23.7                       19.6
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  12.0                       12.0                         6.6
                      Very satisfied                                        1.8                         2.0                        1.1
Phone service         Very dissatisfied                                    10.5                         6.7                      20.7
                      Generally dissatisfied                               17.0                       12.6                       24.5
                      Neither satisfied nor                                24.1                       24.0                       35.4
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  40.5                       46.2                       17.1
                      Very satisfied                                        7.8                       10.5                         2.3
Cable service         Very dissatisfied                                    17.2                       25.3                       29.1
                      Generally dissatisfied                               24.0                       19.8                       27.0
                      Neither satisfied nor                                21.6                       30.6                       29.8
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  31.1                       20.5                       12.0
                      Very satisfied                                        6.1                         3.7                        2.0
Updating of           Very dissatisfied                                     6.2                         9.4                        4.1
school computer
equipment
                      Generally dissatisfied                               11.7                       12.8                         9.7
                      Neither satisfied nor                                25.3                       24.6                       25.9
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  42.6                       40.0                       43.5
                      Very satisfied                                       14.2                       13.2                       16.8
Condition of          Very dissatisfied                                    34.4                         3.5                        9.5
athletic facilities
that all students
can use
                      Generally dissatisfied                               24.1                       10.2                       19.2
                      Neither satisfied nor                                14.1                       14.0                       14.8
                      dissatisfied
                      Generally satisfied                                  22.2                       50.6                       38.4
                      Very satisfied                                        5.2                       21.7                       18.1




                                               Page 72                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                   Appendix II
                                                   Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                   Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                             U.S. Military Academy         U.S. Naval Academy        U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                           (percent)                  (percent)                     (percent)
Club sports              Very dissatisfied                                      5.8                            3.3                      18.7
(number, diversity,
participation, etc.)
                         Generally dissatisfied                                11.5                            8.7                      23.4
                         Neither satisfied nor                                 32.2                           30.9                      27.3
                         dissatisfied
                         Generally satisfied                                   40.0                           45.4                      24.4
                         Very satisfied                                        10.5                           11.8                        6.2
Personal privacy         Very dissatisfied                                     23.2                           16.5                      16.0
                         Generally dissatisfied                                30.7                           29.6                      26.5
                         Neither satisfied nor                                 22.0                           27.8                      27.4
                         dissatisfied
                         Generally satisfied                                   20.6                           23.2                      25.4
                         Very satisfied                                         3.5                            2.9                        4.7




Personal Affairs
33. How adequate or inadequate is the amount of time you have to handle your personal affairs?

                                                  U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Very inadequate                                                      18.5                             12.3                               20.8
Generally inadequate                                                 48.2                             46.0                               51.7
Adequate                                                             31.0                             38.7                               26.5
Generally more than adequate                                          2.1                               2.8                               1.1
Much more than adequate                                                 .3                               .1                               0.0

34. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with opportunities to use personal time as you would like to use it?

                                                  U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
Very dissatisfied                                                    28.5                             14.9                               27.0
Generally dissatisfied                                               42.1                             37.8                               42.3
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied                                   17.7                             23.1                               17.3
Generally satisfied                                                  11.2                             22.8                               12.7
Very satisfied                                                          .5                              1.4                                .7




                                                   Page 73                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




General
35. Considering everything, how would you rate your overall satisfaction with the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
Very dissatisfied                                                 4.0                              4.2                              5.8
Generally dissatisfied                                           15.9                             14.7                             18.1
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied                               18.5                             16.7                             17.5
Generally satisfied                                              49.0                             50.1                             47.1
Very satisfied                                                   12.6                             14.3                             11.5

36. To what extent are quality of life problems at the Academy openly confronted and/or solved?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
To little or no extent                                           24.3                             25.3                            39.0
To some extent                                                   35.0                             33.8                            32.2
To a moderate extent                                             30.5                             32.2                             22.6
To a great extent                                                 8.8                              7.5                              5.3
To a very great extent                                            1.3                              1.2                               .8

37. Which of the following best describes your career intentions at the present time?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
I plan to stay in the military until                             15.4                             15.3                             25.6
retirement.
I plan to stay in the military                                   24.8                             28.9                             29.5
beyond my obligation, but am
undecided about staying until
retirement.
I am undecided whether I will                                    40.8                             38.8                             30.9
stay in the military beyond my
obligation.
I will probably leave the military                               12.6                             11.9                             10.0
upon completion of my
obligation.
I will definitely leave the military                              6.4                              5.1                              4.0
upon completion of my
obligation.




                                               Page 74                                                   GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix II
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Student Survey and Responses




Background Information
38. Which Academy do you attend?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
U.S. Military Academy                                         100.0                               0.0                               0.0
U.S. Naval Academy                                              0.0                            100.0                                0.0
U.S. Air Force Academy                                          0.0                               0.0                            100.0

39. What is your year class?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
First Class (class of 2003)                                    21.4                              22.2                              25.6
Second Class (class of 2004)                                   24.4                              24.7                              23.9
Third Class (class of 2005)                                    26.0                              26.1                              27.0
Fourth Class (class of 2006)                                   28.2                              27.1                              23.5

40. What is your gender?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
Male                                                           84.7                             84.4                               82.0
Female                                                         15.3                             15.6                               18.0

41. Are you either Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
No                                                             91.1                             90.3                               92.1
Yes                                                             8.9                               9.7                               7.9

42. What is your race?

                                               U.S. Military Academy              U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                       (percent)                        (percent)
White/Caucasian Not checked                                      22.4                             18.7                             17.8
                    Checked                                      77.6                            81.3                              82.2
Black/African-      Not checked                                  93.8                             94.9                             95.4
American




                                              Page 75                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                U.S. Military Academy              U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                              (percent)                       (percent)                        (percent)
                    Checked                                          6.2                            5.1                              4.6
Asian               Not checked                                    92.4                            95.6                             95.6
                    Checked                                          7.6                            4.4                              4.4
American            Not checked                                    98.1                            97.8                             97.7
Indian/Alaska
Native
                    Checked                                          1.9                            2.2                              2.3
Native              Not checked                                    98.9                            98.5                             99.1
Hawaiian/Pacific
Islander
                    Checked                                          1.1                            1.5                               .9
No response         Not checked                                    90.6                            90.4                             91.1
                    Checked                                          9.4                            9.6                              8.9

43. Were you prior enlisted before enrolling in the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
No                                                                90.1                           89.9                               95.4
Yes                                                                9.9                           10.1                                4.6

44. Did you attend the Academy’s preparatory school before enrolling in the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
No                                                                86.2                           84.1                               88.4
Yes                                                               13.8                           15.9                               11.6

45. Is either of your parents a graduate of a military academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                         (percent)
No                                                                93.4                           93.4                               91.4
Yes                                                                6.6                             6.6                               8.6




                                               Page 76                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix II
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Student Survey and Responses




46. Is either of your parents currently serving in the active services or Guard/Reserves?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                           (percent)
No                                                               92.1                                  93.7                             91.1
Yes                                                                7.9                                  6.3                              8.9
                                               Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                               Page 77                                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix III

Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
Faculty Survey and Responses                                                                                                              Appendx
                                                                                                                                                iI




Academic Climate
1. Considering all the students’ responsibilities, how would you characterize their academic workload at the Academy?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Definitely too light                                               1.5                                  .6                              1.6
Probably too light                                                 7.6                                 7.6                              7.8
About right                                                       55.1                                60.3                             58.2
Probably too heavy                                                29.2                                22.9                             25.1
Definitely too heavy                                               6.6                                 8.5                              7.2

2. How much emphasis does the Academy place on academics, relative to what you think it should be?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            2.5                                 2.1                              5.8
Generally underemphasized                                         30.4                                32.4                             37.1
Emphasis is about right                                           54.8                                55.4                             50.0
Generally overemphasized                                          10.3                                 7.7                              5.2
Greatly overemphasized                                             2.0                                 2.3                              1.8

3. How would you characterize the level of academic competition among Academy students?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Definitely too little                                              3.5                                 4.3                              3.9
Probably too little                                               28.7                                27.0                             21.1
About right                                                       54.5                                56.4                             60.7
Probably too much                                                 10.3                                10.9                             12.1
Definitely too much                                                3.0                                 1.3                              2.2

4. How effective or ineffective is additional instruction available outside the normal class meeting time for students who need it?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                 U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                          (percent)                          (percent)
Very ineffective                                                   4.1                                 3.8                              3.1
Generally ineffective                                              2.2                                 1.9                              4.1
Neither effective nor ineffective                                  1.2                                 1.7                              2.5
Generally effective                                               35.5                                38.3                             33.1




                                                Page 78                                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix III
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy                U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                             (percent)
Very effective                                                   57.0                             54.2                                  57.3

5. How would you rate the academic preparedness of students who attended the Academy Preparatory School relative to their classmates
at the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy                U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                             (percent)
Much more prepared                                                1.3                              1.6                                   1.9
Somewhat more prepared                                           14.6                             16.8                                  20.3
About the same                                                   40.3                             40.5                                  42.0
Somewhat less prepared                                           35.4                             33.7                                  28.3
Much less prepared                                                8.4                              7.4                                   7.4

6. Overall, how effective or ineffective are Academy instructors as teachers?

                                             U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy                U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                         (percent)                             (percent)
Very ineffective                                                  2.4                              1.9                                   2.3
Generally ineffective                                             2.4                              1.7                                   1.0
Neither effective nor ineffective                                 1.2                              2.8                                   1.9
Generally effective                                              45.2                             45.8                                  41.8
Very effective                                                   48.7                             47.7                                  52.9

7. Who among the following have ever tried to improperly influence you to modify the grades in any of your Academy courses?

                                                 U.S. Military Academy              U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                               (percent)                       (percent)                           (percent)
Fellow faculty          Not checked                                  97.8                          97.9                                 97.8
                        Checked                                         2.2                          2.1                                 2.2
Course director         Not checked                                  96.0                          99.4                                 96.0
                        Checked                                         4.0                              .6                              4.0
Department head or Not checked                                       94.0                          96.9                                 96.0
deputy department
head
                        Checked                                         6.0                          3.1                                 4.0
Dean or someone         Not checked                                 100.0                          99.2                                 98.6
on his/her staff
                        Checked                                         0.0                              .8                              1.4




                                               Page 79                                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                            Appendix III
                                            Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                            Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                              U.S. Military Academy              U.S. Naval Academy               U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                       (percent)                            (percent)
Coach or other      Not checked                                  98.8                            97.7                                 98.0
athletic department
or association
official
                      Checked                                        1.2                          2.3                                  2.0
Someone on            Not checked                               100.0                            98.1                                 99.6
Commandant’s
staff
                      Checked                                        0.0                          1.9                                   .4
Someone on            Not checked                                99.8                            99.8                                 99.6
Superintendent’s
staff
                      Checked                                         .2                               .2                               .4
Other                 Not checked                                99.3                            97.1                                 98.8
                      Checked                                         .7                          2.9                                  1.2
No one at the         Not checked                                14.1                            12.6                                 18.0
Academy has ever
tried to improperly
influence me to
modify grades
                      Checked                                    85.9                            87.4                                 82.0
No basis to judge     Not checked                                96.8                            97.7                                 91.9
                      Checked                                        3.2                          2.3                                  8.1

8. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall academic program at the Academy?

                                          U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy                 U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                        (percent)                         (percent)                              (percent)
Poor                                                            .5                               0.0                                    .6
Below average                                                 2.4                                2.7                                   3.4
Average                                                       9.4                               10.6                                   4.6
Good                                                         30.3                               32.9                                  33.3
Excellent                                                    57.4                               53.8                                  58.1




                                            Page 80                                                         GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                Appendix III
                                                Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                Faculty Survey and Responses




Military/Professional Development
9. Considering all the students’ responsibilities, how would you characterize their military development workload during the
academic year?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                           (percent)
Definitely too light                                              13.0                                 2.4                                    2.8
Probably too light                                                27.1                                12.5                                11.2
About right                                                       28.6                                53.3                                36.1
Probably too heavy                                                22.1                                26.2                                34.3
Definitely too heavy                                                9.1                                 5.7                               15.6

10. How would you rate the Academy’s performance standards for developing students as officers?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                           (percent)
Much too low                                                        2.8                                2.1                                    3.9
Generally too low                                                 23.4                                20.2                                27.9
About right                                                       70.3                                74.2                                60.5
Generally too high                                                  3.5                                 2.8                                   6.0
Much too high                                                       0.0                                  .7                                   1.7

11. How effective or ineffective is the four-year class system for developing students as officers?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                           (percent)
Very ineffective                                                    3.4                                4.4                                    9.5
Generally ineffective                                             10.7                                15.1                                21.9
Neither effective nor ineffective                                   7.9                               11.4                                12.7
Generally effective                                               66.9                                56.9                                49.2
Very effective                                                    11.1                                12.2                                    6.7

12. How effective or ineffective are the summer military development activities (not including initial entry summer training) for providing
students with the skills needed to be an officer?

                                               U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                             (percent)                         (percent)                           (percent)
Very ineffective                                                    1.6                                1.8                                    1.7
Generally ineffective                                               5.5                                 9.3                                   8.0
Neither effective nor ineffective                                   2.0                                9.9                                    7.5




                                                Page 81                                                       GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                             Appendix III
                                             Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                             Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                            U.S. Military Academy                     U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                              (percent)                               (percent)
Generally effective                                              53.9                                     52.8                                      52.3
Very effective                                                   36.9                                     26.3                                      30.5

13. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall military development program at the Academy?

                                            U.S. Military Academy                     U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                              (percent)                               (percent)
Poor                                                                .9                                      1.0                                      4.5
Below average                                                      8.7                                      5.1                                     14.0
Average                                                          17.4                                     17.3                                      21.3
Good                                                             49.5                                     47.0                                     41.3
Excellent                                                        23.6                                     29.7                                     18.9




Harassment, Discrimination, and Preferential Treatment
                                             Discrimination: Academy policies or practices that lead to unfair adverse treatment of a person or
                                             group based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion.
                                             Harassment: Derogatory comments, gestures or other actions aimed at race, gender, religion, or
                                             ethnicity that interfere with an individual’s performance or create an intimidating, offensive or hostile
                                             environment, including unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or
                                             physical conduct of a sexual nature.

14. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of sexual harassment of students, relative to what you think it
should be?

                                            U.S. Military Academy                     U.S. Naval Academy                  U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                              (percent)                               (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                            3.2                                      1.9                                      4.8
Generally underemphasized                                          9.8                                    14.4                                      18.7
Emphasis is about right                                          75.0                                     75.0                                      65.1
Generally overemphasized                                           9.2                                      6.3                                      8.6
Greatly overemphasized                                             2.8                                      2.5                                      2.7




                                             Page 82                                                               GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                             Appendix III
                                             Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                             Faculty Survey and Responses




15. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of gender-based discrimination of students, relative to what you think
it should be?

                                            U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                         2.1                               2.4                              3.0
Generally underemphasized                                      13.4                             15.6                              18.4
Emphasis is about right                                        70.2                             72.3                              68.9
Generally overemphasized                                       11.1                               7.3                              6.4
Greatly overemphasized                                          3.2                               2.4                              3.4

16. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall Academy atmosphere for women students?

                                            U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
Poor                                                            3.6                               3.0                              6.2
Below average                                                  14.3                             20.0                              19.1
Average                                                        23.8                             22.2                              24.0
Good                                                           39.8                             37.8                              34.3
Excellent                                                      18.4                             17.0                              16.4

17. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based harassment of students, relative to what you
think it should be?

                                            U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                         1.1                               1.2                              0.0
Generally underemphasized                                       5.9                               8.4                              8.2
Emphasis is about right                                        79.8                             83.2                              82.1
Generally overemphasized                                       10.0                               4.8                              8.0
Greatly overemphasized                                          3.2                               2.4                              1.7

18. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the prevention of race-/ethnicity-based discrimination of students, relative to what
you think it should be?

                                            U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy            U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                        (percent)                         (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                         1.1                               1.2                                  .4
Generally underemphasized                                       5.3                               9.3                              8.2
Emphasis is about right                                        78.3                             81.4                              82.0
Generally overemphasized                                       11.7                               5.7                              8.2
Greatly overemphasized                                          3.6                               2.4                              1.3




                                             Page 83                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix III
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Faculty Survey and Responses




19. Based on your experiences, how would you rate the overall Academy atmosphere for members of racial/ethnic minorities?

                                            U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                          (percent)                         (percent)                          (percent)
Poor                                                              .9                               1.3                               0.0
Below average                                                    3.3                               5.5                               4.9
Average                                                        16.4                               19.4                              18.2
Good                                                           43.0                               42.4                              41.4
Excellent                                                      36.4                               31.4                              35.5

20. Based on your perception, how were students in the following groups treated during the admissions process relative to
other applicants?

                                                  U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy          U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                      (percent)                       (percent)
Males                    Preferential                                   2.2                           2.8                            3.7
                         treatment
                         Same                                          49.5                          48.2                           48.3
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                                 4.3                           3.7                            1.3
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                   44.0                          45.4                           46.7
Females                  Preferential                                  17.2                          17.0                           11.8
                         treatment
                         Same                                          37.7                          36.1                           39.2
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                                 2.5                           3.6                            2.6
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                   42.5                          43.3                           46.4
Whites/Caucasians        Preferential                                   1.8                           1.2                            2.8
                         treatment
                         Same                                          46.9                          46.3                           46.3
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                                 8.0                           7.2                            4.1
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                   43.3                          45.4                           46.7
Blacks/African-          Preferential                                  42.0                          40.5                           19.1
Americans                treatment
                         Same                                          16.5                          17.0                           33.4
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                                  .5                              .9                           .9
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                   40.9                          41.6                           46.6




                                              Page 84                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                         Appendix III
                                         Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                         Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                             U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy       U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                      (percent)                    (percent)
Spanish/Hispanics/      Preferential                            30.3                          32.2                          13.6
Latinos                 treatment
                        Same                                    25.0                          22.3                          37.2
                        treatment
                        Discriminatory                             .4                            .5                          1.1
                        treatment
                        Do not know                             44.3                          45.1                          48.1
Asians                  Preferential                            10.3                            8.8                          4.4
                        treatment
                        Same                                    42.0                          41.9                          45.0
                        treatment
                        Discriminatory                           1.1                             .9                          1.3
                        treatment
                        Do not know                             46.6                          48.4                          49.3
American                Preferential                            18.8                          22.0                           8.8
Indians/Alaska          treatment
Natives
                        Same                                    26.8                          22.2                          37.4
                        treatment
                        Discriminatory                             .5                            .7                           .9
                        treatment
                        Do not know                             53.8                          55.1                          52.9
Native Hawaiians/       Preferential                            13.9                          15.3                           5.7
Other Pacific Islanders treatment
                        Same                                    30.3                          27.2                          38.9
                        treatment
                        Discriminatory                             .4                            .5                           .4
                        treatment
                        Do not know                             55.4                          57.0                          54.9
Recruited               Preferential                            55.9                          54.7                          56.3
Intercollegiate         treatment
Athletes
                        Same                                     7.5                            7.9                         11.2
                        treatment
                        Discriminatory                             .2                            .2                           .9
                        treatment
                        Do not know                             36.5                          37.2                          31.6
Prior Enlisted          Preferential                            12.4                          24.8                           7.7
                        treatment
                        Same                                    40.6                          29.0                          43.0
                        treatment




                                         Page 85                                                  GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix III
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                                  U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy        U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                                (percent)                      (percent)                     (percent)
                          Discriminatory                                .7                           1.1                            .4
                          treatment
                          Do not know                                46.3                           45.1                          48.9
Students with Military    Preferential                               20.0                           30.0                          18.7
Parents                   treatment
                          Same                                       34.7                           24.8                          35.7
                          treatment
                          Discriminatory                              0.0                             .2                            .4
                          treatment
                          Do not know                                45.3                           45.0                          45.1
Preparatory School        Preferential                               23.4                           35.7                          24.6
Graduates                 treatment
                          Same                                       31.7                           21.9                          31.5
                          treatment
                          Discriminatory                                .4                            .2                            .2
                          treatment
                          Do not know                                44.5                           42.1                          43.7

21. To your knowledge, how are members of the following groups treated at the Academy in general, relative to other students?

                                                 U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy         U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                               (percent)                      (percent)                      (percent)
Males                    Preferential                                4.9                             7.1                           9.5
                         treatment
                         Same                                       87.3                           82.9                           81.5
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                              1.0                             1.3                           1.2
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                 6.8                             8.7                           7.8
Females                  Preferential                               11.3                             9.8                           9.7
                         treatment
                         Same                                       70.9                           67.1                           68.2
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                             10.3                           13.8                           14.4
                         treatment
                         Do not know                                 7.5                             9.3                           7.6
Whites/Caucasians        Preferential                                3.5                             3.1                           4.1
                         treatment
                         Same                                       87.8                           85.9                           84.6
                         treatment
                         Discriminatory                              1.4                             2.0                           1.7
                         treatment




                                              Page 86                                                   GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                       Appendix III
                                       Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                       Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                          U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy       U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                        (percent)                      (percent)                    (percent)
                      Do not know                             7.3                            8.9                          9.5
Blacks/African-       Preferential                           11.7                            9.6                          6.2
Americans             treatment
                      Same                                   77.2                          76.7                          81.4
                      treatment
                      Discriminatory                          3.0                            3.8                          3.1
                      treatment
                      Do not know                             8.2                          10.0                           9.3
Spanish/Hispanics/    Preferential                            4.0                            5.1                          3.3
Latinos               treatment
                      Same                                   85.4                          81.3                          83.9
                      treatment
                      Discriminatory                          1.4                            2.9                          1.7
                      treatment
                      Do not know                             9.1                          10.7                          11.1
Asians                Preferential                            1.1                            1.8                          1.3
                      treatment
                      Same                                   88.1                          84.7                          86.4
                      treatment
                      Discriminatory                          1.4                            1.8                           .6
                      treatment
                      Do not know                             9.5                          11.7                          11.7
American              Preferential                            1.6                            3.2                          2.1
Indians/Alaska        treatment
Natives
                      Same                                   82.4                          75.5                          81.9
                      treatment
                      Discriminatory                          1.1                            1.6                          1.1
                      treatment
                      Do not know                            14.9                          19.8                          14.9
Native Hawaiians/     Preferential                            1.2                            2.3                          1.3
Other Pacific         treatment
Islanders
                      Same                                   82.9                          76.1                          82.8
                      treatment
                      Discriminatory                            .9                           1.4                           .6
                      treatment
                      Do not know                            14.9                          20.2                          15.3
Varsity Athletes      Preferential                           56.4                          55.2                          62.9
                      treatment
                      Same                                   34.8                          32.3                          27.7
                      treatment




                                       Page 87                                                 GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                        Appendix III
                                        Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                        Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                           U.S. Military Academy             U.S. Naval Academy       U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                         (percent)                      (percent)                    (percent)
                       Discriminatory                          1.7                            3.3                          3.5
                       treatment
                       Do not know                             7.1                            9.2                          5.9
Non-Varsity Athletes   Preferential                            2.5                            1.3                          5.6
                       treatment
                       Same                                   83.7                          84.1                          77.0
                       treatment
                       Discriminatory                          5.8                            4.0                          9.1
                       treatment
                       Do not know                             8.1                          10.5                           8.3
Prior Enlisted         Preferential                            6.5                            2.4                           .2
                       treatment
                       Same                                   82.8                          83.6                          84.6
                       treatment
                       Discriminatory                          1.1                            1.8                          2.1
                       treatment
                       Do not know                             9.7                          12.2                          13.1
Students with          Preferential                           10.7                            7.2                          8.7
Military Parents       treatment
                       Same                                   79.1                          79.5                          78.0
                       treatment
                       Discriminatory                          0.0                             .2                           .2
                       treatment
                       Do not know                            10.2                          13.1                          13.1
Preparatory School     Preferential                            4.4                            2.7                          3.1
Graduates              treatment
                       Same                                   85.1                          84.3                          82.9
                       treatment
                       Discriminatory                            .5                            .7                           .6
                       treatment
                       Do not know                            10.0                          12.3                          13.3
Foreign Students       Preferential                           18.4                            9.0                         19.5
                       treatment
                       Same                                   67.3                          73.6                          66.5
                       treatment
                       Discriminatory                          2.1                            1.4                          2.1
                       treatment
                       Do not know                            12.3                          16.0                          11.9




                                        Page 88                                                 GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                               Appendix III
                                               Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                               Faculty Survey and Responses




Moral Climate and Honor Code/Concept
22. How much emphasis does the Academy place on the moral/ethical development of students, relative to what you think it should be?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                             .7                               .8                              2.6
Generally underemphasized                                         8.6                               8.6                             14.5
Emphasis is about right                                          78.8                              72.7                             72.5
Generally overemphasized                                          9.8                              13.2                              8.1
Greatly overemphasized                                            2.2                               4.6                              2.2

23. To what extent is the Honor Code/Concept practiced as it is taught?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
To little or no extent                                            2.6                               7.3                              6.5
To some extent                                                   19.8                              24.5                            29.1
To a moderate extent                                             26.7                              27.0                             30.8
To a great extent                                                39.0                              36.9                             27.9
To a very great extent                                           11.9                               4.3                              5.7

24. To what extent is the Honor Code/Concept fairly applied to students with similar violations?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                U.S. Naval Academy           U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                         (percent)                        (percent)
To little or no extent                                            4.2                               7.9                              8.9
To some extent                                                   19.0                              23.1                            23.6
To a moderate extent                                             23.9                              27.8                             26.4
To a great extent                                                40.8                              34.5                             34.8
To a very great extent                                           12.1                               6.7                              6.3




                                               Page 89                                                    GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix III
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Faculty Survey and Responses




25. How frequently have you witnessed academic cheating at the Academy?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Seldom or never                                                 82.7                              65.9                              61.8
On occasion                                                     16.4                              30.1                              34.6
Often                                                             .7                               3.4                               2.7
Very often                                                        .2                                 .6                               .8
All or almost all the time                                       0.0                               0.0                               0.0




Intercollegiate and Intramural Athletics
26. How much emphasis does the Academy place on varsity intercollegiate athletics, relative to what you think it should be?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                           .5                                 .6                               .6
Generally underemphasized                                        6.4                               5.2                               2.2
Emphasis is about right                                         36.6                              42.8                              28.0
Generally overemphasized                                        33.6                              35.1                              36.4
Greatly overemphasized                                          22.9                              16.3                             32.7

27. How much emphasis does the Academy place on intramural athletics, relative to what you think it should be?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                          1.8                               2.0                               2.3
Generally underemphasized                                       18.5                              14.6                              17.8
Emphasis is about right                                         66.1                              73.0                              60.4
Generally overemphasized                                         9.8                               8.5                              13.6
Greatly overemphasized                                           3.9                               1.8                               5.9

28. How much emphasis does the Academy place on club athletics, relative to what you think it should be?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Greatly underemphasized                                          5.7                               3.2                             15.8
Generally underemphasized                                       22.0                              20.6                              28.4
Emphasis is about right                                         59.1                              66.6                              45.9




                                              Page 90                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                              Appendix III
                                              Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                              Faculty Survey and Responses




(Continued From Previous Page)
                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Generally overemphasized                                            9.6                             7.4                              7.9
Greatly overemphasized                                              3.6                             2.1                              2.0




General
29. To what extent are quality of life problems at the Academy openly confronted and/or solved?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
To little or no extent                                          10.8                               10.4                            18.7
To some extent                                                  27.5                               34.9                            27.2
To a moderate extent                                            33.1                               31.9                             31.3
To a great extent                                               24.1                               19.6                             18.3
To a very great extent                                              4.5                             3.2                              4.6




Background Information
30. At which Academy do you teach?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
U.S. Military Academy                                          100.0                                0.0                              0.0
U.S. Naval Academy                                                  0.0                           100.0                              0.0
U.S. Air Force Academy                                              0.0                             0.0                           100.0

31. Are you a military or civilian member of the Academy faculty?

                                             U.S. Military Academy               U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                           (percent)                        (percent)                          (percent)
Military                                                        79.0                               43.1                             71.6
Civilian                                                        15.4                               44.0                             13.9
Civilian with prior military service                                5.6                            12.9                             14.5




                                              Page 91                                                     GAO-03-1001 Military Education
                                                  Appendix III
                                                  Aspects of Student Life at the Academies:
                                                  Faculty Survey and Responses




32. Are you a graduate of one of the military academies?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                    U.S. Naval Academy             U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                             (percent)                          (percent)
No                                                                  51.5                                  70.5                            64.4
Yes                                                                 48.5                                  29.5                            35.6

33. Are you a tactical officer (USMA), company officer (USNA), or air officer commanding (USAFA)?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                    U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                             (percent)                           (percent)
No                                                                   93.9                                 93.5                             90.4
Yes                                                                   6.1                                  6.5                              9.6

34. In the past 4 years, have you participated in the admissions process?

                                              U.S. Military Academy                    U.S. Naval Academy              U.S. Air Force Academy
                                                            (percent)                             (percent)                           (percent)
No                                                                  85.6                                  91.4                             89.8
Yes                                                                 14.4                                   8.6                             10.2

35. How many years of full-time college teaching have you completed total and at the Academy specifically? Do not count teaching as a
graduate student. Write the numbers of years in the space provided.

_____ Total years of full-time college teaching

_____ Years of full-time college teaching at the Academy
                                                  Note: Percentages may not add to 100 due to rounding.




                                                  Page 92                                                        GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Appendix IV

GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                                          Appendx
                                                                                                     iIV




GAO Contact       Sandra F. Bell (202) 512-8981



Acknowledgments   In addition to the individual named above, Gabrielle M. Anderson, Nancy L.
                  Benco, Carolyn M. Boyce, Brian G. Hackett, and Joseph W. Kirschbaum
                  also made key contributions to this report.




                  Page 93                                         GAO-03-1001 Military Education
Related GAO Products


             Military Education: DOD Needs to Enhance Performance Goals and
             Measures to Improve Oversight of the Military Academies. GAO-03-1000.
             Washington, D.C.: September 10, 2003.

             Military Education: DOD Needs to Align Academy Preparatory Schools’
             Mission Statements with Overall Guidance and Establish Performance
             Goals. GAO-03-1017. Washington, D.C.: September 10, 2003.

             DOD Service Academies: Problems Limit Feasibility of Graduates
             Directly Entering the Reserves. GAO/NSIAD-97-89. Washington, D.C.:
             March 24, 1997.

             DOD Service Academies: Comparison of Honor and Conduct
             Adjudicatory Processes. GAO/NSIAD-95-49. Washington, D.C.:
             April 25, 1995.

             DOD Service Academies: Academic Review Processes. GAO/NSIAD-95-57.
             Washington, D.C.: April 5, 1995.

             DOD Service Academies: Update on Extent of Sexual Harassment.
             GAO/NSIAD-95-58. Washington, D.C.: March 31, 1995.

             Coast Guard: Cost for the Naval Academy Preparatory School and
             Profile of Minority Enrollment. GAO/RCED-94-131. Washington, D.C.:
             April 12, 1994.

             Military Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities. GAO/NSIAD-94-95.
             Washington, D.C.: March 17, 1994.

             DOD Service Academies: Further Efforts Needed to Eradicate Sexual
             Harassment. GAO/T-NSIAD-94-111. Washington, D.C.: February 3, 1994.

             DOD Service Academies: More Actions Needed to Eliminate Sexual
             Harassment. GAO/NSIAD-94-6. Washington, D.C.: January 31, 1994.

             Academy Preparatory Schools. GAO/NSIAD-94-56R. Washington, D.C.:
             October 5, 1993.

             Air Force Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities. GAO/NSIAD-93-244.
             Washington, D.C.: September 24, 1993.




             Page 94                                       GAO-03-1001 Military Education
           Related GAO Products




           Military Education: Information on Service Academies and Schools.
           GAO/NSIAD-93-264BR. Washington, D.C.: September 22, 1993.

           Naval Academy: Gender and Racial Disparities. GAO/NSIAD-93-54.
           Washington, D.C.: April 30, 1993.

           DOD Service Academies: More Changes Needed to Eliminate Hazing.
           GAO/NSIAD-93-36. Washington, D.C.: November 16, 1992.

           DOD Service Academies: Status Report on Reviews of Student Treatment.
           GAO/T-NSIAD-92-41. Washington, D.C.: June 2, 1992.

           Service Academies: Historical Proportion of New Officers During
           Benchmark Periods. GAO/NSIAD-92-90. Washington, D.C.: March 19, 1992.

           DOD Service Academies: Academy Preparatory Schools Need a Clearer
           Mission and Better Oversight. GAO/NSIAD-92-57. Washington, D.C.:
           March 13, 1992.

           Naval Academy: Low Grades in Electrical Engineering Courses Surface
           Broader Issues. GAO/NSIAD-91-187. Washington, D.C.: July 22, 1991.

           DOD Service Academies: Improved Cost and Performance Monitoring
           Needed. GAO/NSIAD-91-79. Washington, D.C.: July 16, 1991.

           Review of the Cost and Operations of DOD’s Service Academies.
           GAO/T-NSIAD-90-28. Washington, D.C.: April 4, 1990.




(350373)   Page 95                                      GAO-03-1001 Military Education
GAO’s Mission            The General Accounting Office, the audit, evaluation and investigative arm of
                         Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional
                         responsibilities and to help improve the performance and accountability of the
                         federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public
                         funds; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses,
                         recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed
                         oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO’s commitment to good government
                         is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.


Obtaining Copies of      The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is
                         through the Internet. GAO’s Web site (www.gao.gov) contains abstracts and full-
GAO Reports and          text files of current reports and testimony and an expanding archive of older
                         products. The Web site features a search engine to help you locate documents
Testimony                using key words and phrases. You can print these documents in their entirety,
                         including charts and other graphics.
                         Each day, GAO issues a list of newly released reports, testimony, and
                         correspondence. GAO posts this list, known as “Today’s Reports,” on its Web site
                         daily. The list contains links to the full-text document files. To have GAO e-mail
                         this list to you every afternoon, go to www.gao.gov and select “Subscribe to
                         e-mail alerts” under the “Order GAO Products” heading.


Order by Mail or Phone   The first copy of each printed report is free. Additional copies are $2 each. A
                         check or money order should be made out to the Superintendent of Documents.
                         GAO also accepts VISA and Mastercard. Orders for 100 or more copies mailed to
                         a single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders should be sent to:
                         U.S. General Accounting Office
                         441 G Street NW, Room LM
                         Washington, D.C. 20548
                         To order by Phone:    Voice: (202) 512-6000
                                               TDD: (202) 512-2537
                                               Fax: (202) 512-6061


To Report Fraud,         Contact:
                         Web site: www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm
Waste, and Abuse in      E-mail: fraudnet@gao.gov
Federal Programs         Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7470



Public Affairs           Jeff Nelligan, Managing Director, NelliganJ@gao.gov (202) 512-4800
                         U.S. General Accounting Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149
                         Washington, D.C. 20548
United States                  Presorted Standard
General Accounting Office      Postage & Fees Paid
Washington, D.C. 20548-0001           GAO
                                 Permit No. GI00
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300
Address Service Requested