oversight

Military Recruiting: DOD Needs to Establish Objectives and Measures to Better Evaluate Advertising's Effectiveness

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-09-19.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to the Senate and House
                 Committees on Armed Services



September 2003
                 MILITARY
                 RECRUITING
                 DOD Needs to
                 Establish Objectives
                 and Measures to
                 Better Evaluate
                 Advertising's
                 Effectiveness




GAO-03-1005
                                                September 2003


                                                MILITARY RECRUITING

                                                DOD Needs to Establish Objectives and
Highlights of GAO-03-1005, a report to the      Measures to Better Evaluate Advertising's
Senate and House Committees on Armed
Services                                        Effectiveness



The Department of Defense (DOD)                 Since the late 1990s, DOD has revamped its recruiting advertising programs
must convince more than 200,000                 and nearly doubled the funding for recruiting advertising. The military
people each year to join the                    services have revised many of their advertising campaigns and focused on
military. To assist in recruiting, the          complementing traditional advertising, such as by increasing the use of the
military services advertise on                  Internet, and participating in more promotional activities, such as sports car
television, on radio, and in print
and participate in other
                                                racing events. DOD’s total advertising funding increased 98 percent in
promotional activities. In the late             constant dollars from fiscal year 1998 through fiscal year 2003—from $299
1990s, some of the services missed              million to $592 million. The advertising cost per enlisted recruit has nearly
their overall recruiting goals. In              tripled and is now almost $1,900. The military services agree that the revised
response, DOD added recruiting                  strategies and increased investments have energized their advertising
resources by increasing its                     campaigns and better positioned them to recruit in an increasingly
advertising, number of recruiters,              competitive marketplace. Today, almost all of the active and reserve
and financial incentives. By fiscal             components are meeting their overall recruiting goals in terms of the quality
year 2003, DOD’s total recruiting               and quantity of new recruits.
budget was approaching $4 billion
annually.                                       DOD does not have clear program objectives and adequate outcome
At the request of Congress, GAO
                                                measures to evaluate the effectiveness of its advertising as part of its overall
determined the changes in DOD’s                 recruiting effort. Thus, DOD cannot show that its increased advertising
advertising programs and funding                efforts have been a key reason for its overall recruiting success. Isolating the
trends since the late 1990s and                 impact of advertising on recruiting efforts is inherently difficult because
assessed the adequacy of measures               joining the military is a profound life decision. Moreover, DOD has not
used by DOD to evaluate the                     consistently tracked key information, such as public awareness of military
effectiveness of its advertising.               recruiting advertising and the willingness of young adults to join the military.
                                                Such data could be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of advertising.
                                                Without sufficient information on advertising’s effectiveness, DOD cannot
GAO recommends that DOD set                     determine the return on its advertising funding or make fact-based choices
clear, measurable advertising                   on how its overall recruiting investments should be allocated.
objectives; develop outcome
measures to evaluate advertising                DOD’s Total Recruiting Advertising Funding for Fiscal Years 1998 to 2003
programs’ performance; and use
these measures to monitor
advertising’s performance and
make choices on recruiting
investments.

In its comments on this report,
DOD concurred with the
recommendations and stated that it
will develop a DOD advertising
strategic framework to provide
overall direction.


www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-1005.

To view the full product, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Derek B.          a
                                                In-year estimate.
Stewart at (202) 512-5559 or
stewartd@gao.gov.
Contents


Letter                                                                                             1
                       Results in Brief                                                           2
                       Background                                                                 4
                       DOD Has Revised Advertising Programs and Increased Funding                 6
                       DOD Does Not Adequately Measure Advertising’s Effectiveness               14
                       Conclusions                                                               20
                       Recommendations for Executive Action                                      21
                       Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                        22

Appendix I             Scope and Methodology                                                     24



Appendix II            Comments from the Department of Defense                                   26



Related GAO Products                                                                             31



Tables
                       Table 1: DOD’s Advertising Campaign Slogans, Program
                                Descriptions, and Examples of Key Changes                         7
                       Table 2: Summary of DOD’s Recruiting Advertising Funding                  14


Figures
                       Figure 1: Army-Sponsored Sports Racing Car                                  9
                       Figure 2: Total DOD Recruiting Advertising Funding for Fiscal
                                Years 1998 to 2003                                               10
                       Figure 3: Total Recruiting Investment per Enlisted Recruit for
                                Fiscal Years 1990 to 2003                                        12
                       Figure 4: The Use of Advertising throughout the Recruiting Process        18




                       Page i                                        GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Abbreviations

DOD               Department of Defense
GAO               General Accounting Office
GPRA              Government Performance and Results Act


This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further
permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or
other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to
reproduce this material separately.




Page ii                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   September 19, 2003

                                   The Honorable John W. Warner
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Carl Levin
                                   Ranking Minority Member
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   United States Senate

                                   The Honorable Duncan L. Hunter
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Ike Skelton
                                   Ranking Minority Member
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   House of Representatives

                                   To meet its human capital needs, the Department of Defense (DOD) must
                                   convince about 200,000 people each year—the majority of them recent
                                   high school graduates—to join the military. To assist in this recruiting
                                   effort, the military services advertise on television, on radio, in print, and
                                   on the Internet; sponsor sports teams; and participate in other
                                   promotional activities. Such advertising is designed primarily to raise
                                   awareness of the military as a career option and help recruiters meet their
                                   goals for new recruits. During the exceptionally strong U.S. economy of
                                   the late 1990s, most of the services missed their overall recruiting goals. In
                                   response, DOD put additional resources into recruiting by increasing
                                   advertising, the number of recruiters, and various incentives, such as
                                   enlistment bonuses. By fiscal year 2003, DOD’s total recruiting budget was
                                   approaching $4 billion annually.

                                   The Senate Committee on Armed Services directed that we examine
                                   DOD’s growing investments in military recruitment advertising.1 As agreed
                                   with your committees, the objectives of this report were to (1) determine
                                   the changes in DOD’s advertising programs and funding trends since the
                                   late 1990s and (2) assess the adequacy of the measures used by DOD to
                                   evaluate the effectiveness of its advertising. In March 2003, we provided
                                   your committees with an interim briefing that described the trends in


                                   1
                                    S. Rep. 107-151, at 300 (2002).



                                   Page 1                                           GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                   advertising funding requests since fiscal year 2000 and DOD’s justifications
                   for those requests.

                   This report updates the information discussed in the interim briefing and
                   provides our analysis of the other issues in your request. To determine the
                   changes in DOD’s advertising programs and funding trends since the late
                   1990s, we reviewed the changes in the services’ advertising programs,
                   DOD’s and the services’ congressional justification books, and DOD
                   funding data. To assess the adequacy of DOD’s outcome measures, we
                   used established management guidance provided in the Government
                   Performance and Results Act2 (GPRA) and in Office of Management and
                   Budget guidance. Our scope included DOD’s active duty services, reserve
                   components, and joint advertising program. We conducted our review
                   from October 2002 through July 2003 in accordance with generally
                   accepted government auditing standards. (See appendix I for more
                   detailed information on our scope and methodology.)


                   Since the late 1990s, DOD has revamped its recruiting advertising
Results in Brief   programs and nearly doubled the funding devoted to recruiting
                   advertising. The active duty military services, except for the Marine Corps,
                   substantially revised their advertising campaigns and selected new
                   advertising agencies as contractors. Long-time and well-recognized
                   advertising slogans such as the Army’s “Be All You Can Be” were
                   abandoned in favor of campaigns designed to better appeal to today’s
                   young adults. The military services agree that these revised strategies and
                   increased investments have energized their advertising campaigns and
                   better positioned them to recruit young adults in an increasingly
                   competitive marketplace. Today, almost all of the active and reserve
                   components report that they are meeting their overall recruiting goals,
                   both in terms of the quality and quantity of recruits. To better reach
                   today’s young adults, the services have focused on complementing
                   traditional advertising by increasing funding for events marketing, public
                   relations, and the Internet. The expenditures for paid television, which
                   remains the single largest advertising cost, and other national media have
                   declined as a percentage of total advertising funding. DOD’s total
                   advertising funding increased 98 percent from fiscal year 1998 through
                   fiscal year 2003—from $299 million to $592 million.3 Today, DOD is


                   2
                   Pub. L. No. 103-62, Aug. 3, 1993.
                   3
                   All dollars are in constant fiscal year 2003 dollars unless otherwise indicated.




                   Page 2                                                    GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
spending $1,900 in advertising per enlisted recruit, which is almost three
times as much as it did in fiscal year 1990. The increases in funding have
not been evenly distributed across DOD’s advertising programs. The size
of each service’s advertising programs varies greatly. The Army has the
largest advertising programs; its active and reserve components account
for nearly half of the total advertising funding.

DOD does not have adequate outcome measures to evaluate the
effectiveness of its advertising as part of its overall recruiting effort. Thus,
DOD cannot show that its increased advertising efforts have been a key
reason for its overall recruiting success. Evaluating advertising’s
effectiveness requires that DOD establish clear program objectives and
outcome measures. DOD has not established such objectives and outcome
measures for two reasons. First, isolating the impact of advertising on
recruiting efforts is inherently difficult because joining the military is a
profound life decision influenced by many factors, including the
opportunities available in college or in the job market. Second, even
though DOD has developed recruiting goals to ensure that it meets its
human capital needs, these goals do not directly relate to or measure the
effectiveness of advertising. Owing to the absence of program objectives
and outcome measures, DOD has not consistently tracked key
information, such as public awareness of military recruiting advertising
and changes in the willingness of young adults to join the military. Such
information could be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of
advertising. In our 2000 report, we recommended that DOD and the
services assess the relative success of their recruiting strategies, including
how the services can create the most cost-effective mix of recruiters,
enlistment bonuses, college incentives, advertising, and other recruiting
tools.4 Although DOD acknowledges the need for such information,
current DOD guidance does not require the measurement of outcomes or
reports on advertising’s effectiveness. Without sufficient information on
advertising’s effectiveness, DOD cannot determine the return on its
advertising funding or make fact-based choices on how its overall
recruiting investments should be allocated.

We are making recommendations to DOD to improve its guidance to better
evaluate recruiting advertising’s effectiveness. We are recommending that



4
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Military Personnel: Services Need to Assess Efforts to
Meet Recruiting Goals and Cut Attrition, GAO/NSIAD-00-146 (Washington, D.C.: June 23,
2000).




Page 3                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
             DOD set clear, measurable advertising objectives for its advertising
             programs and develop outcome measures to evaluate the performance of
             its advertising programs. We are also recommending that DOD use these
             outcome measures to monitor its advertising programs’ performance and
             make fact-based choices about advertising funding as part of the overall
             recruiting investment.

             In commenting on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with all of our
             recommendations. DOD stated in its comments that it will implement the
             recommendations by developing a DOD advertising strategic framework to
             provide overall direction for its advertising programs and by conducting
             research initiatives intended to advance the measurement of the
             performance of recruiting and advertising.


             Most of the military services’ active and reserve components faced
Background   recruiting difficulties during the strong economic climate of the late 1990s.
             As a result, the services stepped up their recruiting to ensure that they
             would have enough recruits to fill their ranks. Recruiting efforts focus on
             three initiatives. First, a “sales force” of more than 15,000 recruiters, who
             are mostly located in the United States, recruit from the local population.
             Second, these recruiters have financial and other incentives that they can
             use to convince young adults to consider a military career. Such incentives
             include enlistment bonuses and college benefits. Finally, the services use
             advertising to raise the public’s awareness of the military and help the
             sales force of recruiters reach the target recruiting population and
             generate potential leads for recruiters. This advertising can include
             television and radio commercials, Internet and printed advertisements,
             and special events.

             DOD believes that advertising is increasingly critical to its recruiting effort
             because convincing young adults to join the military is becoming more
             difficult. In 2001, over 70 percent of polled young adults said that they
             probably or definitely would not join the military, compared with 57
             percent in 1976.5 The number of veterans is declining, which means that
             fewer young adults have influencers—a relative, coach, or teacher—who
             have past military experience. Compounding these difficulties,



             5
             J.G. Bachman, L.D. Johnston, and P.M. O’Malley, Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire
             Responses from the Nation’s High School Seniors (Ann Arbor, Mich.: Institute for Social
             Research, 2001).




             Page 4                                                  GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
proportionally more high school graduates are attending college. Finally,
the perception that service in the military is arduous—and possibly
dangerous—can inhibit recruiting efforts. DOD believes that these factors
together make the military an increasingly harder sell as a career choice
and life-style option for young adults.

The Office of the Secretary of Defense is responsible for establishing
policy and providing oversight for the military recruiting and advertising
programs of the active and reserve components. Within the Office of the
Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness is
responsible for developing, reviewing, and analyzing recruiting policy,
plans, and resource levels. The office provides policy oversight for
advertising programs and coordinates them through the Joint Marketing
and Advertising Committee. DOD’s strategic plan for military personnel
human resources emphasizes the need to recruit, motivate, and retain
adequate and diverse numbers of quality recruits.6

DOD’s recruiting and advertising programs are not centrally managed. All
of the active components and some of the reserve components manage
their separate advertising programs and work closely with their own
contracted advertising agencies.7 DOD and the services believe that this
decentralized approach better differentiates between the service “brands”
(i.e., Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines). The Joint Advertising, Market
Research, and Studies program, which is funded separately by DOD, exists
to address common DOD requirements, such as conducting market
research and obtaining and distributing lists of potential leads. The joint
program has developed a DOD-wide advertising campaign to target the
adult influencers of potential recruits, but this program had not been fully
implemented at the time of our review.




6
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, Military Personnel
Human Resources Strategic Plan (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 2002).
7
 The Navy and Naval Reserve have separate advertising programs; however, their recruiting
programs were recently reorganized under one commander.




Page 5                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                            After most of the services experienced recruiting shortfalls in the late
DOD Has Revised             1990s, DOD reviewed its advertising programs and identified opportunities
Advertising Programs        for improvement. The services, except the Marine Corps, substantially
                            revised their advertising campaigns and slogans and contracted with new
and Increased               advertising agencies. The services told us that their revised campaigns
Funding                     place them in a better position to recruit today’s young adults. Currently,
                            almost all of the services and reserve components are achieving their
                            recruiting goals, and advertising funding has almost doubled since fiscal
                            year 1998. The increases in funding have not been used to buy more
                            national media, such as television commercials. Rather, the funding
                            increases are being directed to other types of advertising, such as special
                            events marketing and the Internet, that are intended to better reach
                            today’s young adults. Advertising funding for DOD increased from $299
                            million in fiscal year 1998 to $592 million in fiscal year 2003, an increase of
                            98 percent.8


Military Services Have      Recruiting shortfalls in the late 1990s led to an examination and revision of
Revised Their Advertising   DOD’s advertising programs. The Army, Navy, and Air Force missed their
Campaigns to Better         recruiting quantity goals, while some of the reserve components fell short
                            of both their quantity and quality goals.9 Following these recruiting
Attract Today’s Young       shortfalls, Congress asked the Secretary of Defense to review DOD’s
Adults                      advertising programs and make recommendations for improvements.10
                            DOD has revamped its advertising programs. The active-duty services,
                            except for the Marine Corps, substantially revised their advertising
                            campaigns and selected new advertising agencies as their contractors.
                            They produced new advertising strategies and campaigns, complete with
                            new slogans and revised television, print, and radio advertisements, along
                            with new brand images defined by distinct logos, colors, and music. The
                            services, in conjunction with their advertising agencies, conducted new


                            8
                             These amounts are in fiscal year 2003 constant dollars using DOD’s Operation and
                            Maintenance funding deflators. In nominal dollars, DOD’s advertising funding increased
                            from $271 million in fiscal year 1998 to $592 million in fiscal year 2003—an increase of 118
                            percent.
                            9
                             “Quantity” is the total number of recruits needed in a given fiscal year. “Quality” is the
                            achievement of high school diplomas and adequate scores on the Armed Forces
                            Qualification Test.
                            10
                             Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Force Management Policy), A New Focus for
                            Military Advertising and Market Research (Washington, D.C.: March 2000) and Rand
                            Corporation, A Report on the Audit of the Armed Services Recruitment Advertising
                            (Santa Monica, Calif.: 2002).




                            Page 6                                                      GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                                       research on young adults—their primary target market. During this period,
                                       the joint program developed an advertising campaign to target influencers
                                       of prospective recruits, as recommended in DOD’s review.

                                       In addition to their overall campaigns, all of the services have specialized
                                       campaigns to target diverse segments of the young adult population. For
                                       instance, the Navy created a Web site, called El Navy, which is designed to
                                       better communicate with the Hispanic market, and the Army has
                                       specifically tailored radio advertisements to reach the African American
                                       market. The services also incorporated a greater variety of public relations
                                       and promotional activities, such as participating in job fairs and
                                       sponsoring sports car racing teams, as an integral part of their advertising
                                       programs. As shown in table 1, there are essentially nine advertising
                                       programs that are managed separately by the military services, reserve
                                       components, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

Table 1: DOD’s Advertising Campaign Slogans, Program Descriptions, and Examples of Key Changes

                             Current campaign slogans
Components                   (year established)            Program descriptions and examples of key changes
Army, Army Reserve           An Army of One (2001)         • Army and Army Reserve combined programs.
Army National Guard          You Can (1997)                • Army National Guard program independently managed.
                                                           • Largest active and reserve recruiting mission and advertising
                                                             budget.
                                                           • New advertising campaigns and contractors.
                                                           • Advertises in all national media venues.
                                                           • Engages in promotional events, such as sports car racing
                                                             sponsorship, high school sports, and video games.
                                                           • Initiated on-line recruiting.

Navy                         Accelerate Your Life (2001)   • Separate advertising programs for Navy and Naval Reserve
                                                             (reorganized recruiting under one commander).
Naval Reserve                Stay Strong (2001)
                                                           • Second largest active duty recruiting mission.
                                                           • New advertising campaigns and contractors.
                                                           • Advertises in all major media.

Air Force                    Cross into the Blue (2001)    • Three independent advertising programs.

Air Force Reserve            Above and Beyond (1998)       • Third largest active duty recruiting mission.
                                                           • New advertising campaigns and contractors.
Air National Guard           Fuel Your Future (1999)
                                                           • Active Air Force emphasizing promotional activities and
                                                             events, such as traveling recruiting trucks and sports car
                                                             racing.
                                                           • Initiated a national television campaign for the active Air Force.
                                                           • Increased use of Internet recruiting across the active and
                                                             reserve components.




                                       Page 7                                               GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                              Current campaign slogans
 Components                   (year established)            Program descriptions and examples of key changes
 Marine Corps, Marine Corps   Marines, The Few, The Proud   • Marine Corps and Marine Corps reserve integrated programs.
 Reserve                      (1986)                        • Smallest recruiting mission of the services.
                                                            • Marine Corps brand image not changed for 30 years and same
                                                              advertising contractor for 56 years.
                                                            • Emphasis on television, especially sports programming.

 Joint Program                Today’s Military—See It for   •   Developed advertising campaign to target influencers of
                              What It Really Is (2003)          prospective recruits that includes magazine advertisements,
                                                                use of Web site, and television public service announcements.
                                                            •   New advertising contractor.
                                                            •   Conducts market research and studies for DOD’s advertising
                                                                programs.
                                                            •   Provides other support for DOD’s advertising programs.
Source: DOD.

                                        The active services told us that they are pleased with their new advertising
                                        campaigns and agencies, and they believe that the revised and better-
                                        funded campaigns have placed them in a more competitive position to
                                        recruit young adults. The sluggish U.S. economy has also narrowed
                                        employment options and is considered to be an important factor in easing
                                        the recruiting challenge. Today, all of the active services are meeting or
                                        exceeding their overall recruiting goals. Most of the reserve components
                                        are also achieving their recruiting goals. As of June 2003, the Army
                                        National Guard was falling short of its recruiting goals because of
                                        extensive overseas deployments and the implementation of stop loss
                                        (restrictions on leaving the military). Army National Guard officials stated
                                        that they expect to meet their goals by the end of fiscal year 2003. Some
                                        reserve officers expressed concerns about the negative impact of the
                                        recent high deployment rates on future recruiting. The services, especially
                                        the reserve components, continue to face challenges in recruiting
                                        individuals with some types of specific training or skills, such as medical,
                                        legal, and construction, and they have developed some specialized
                                        advertising campaigns targeted to recruit them.

                                        Since fiscal year 1998, the services have changed how they allocate
                                        advertising funding, according to the figures provided by DOD. Grouped
                                        into three broad categories, advertising funding includes: (1) events
                                        marketing, public affairs and public relations, Internet, and other; (2)
                                        national media; and (3) direct mail and miscellaneous recruiting support.
                                        One of the categories—events marketing, public affairs and public
                                        relations, Internet, and other—has shown the greatest increase as a
                                        percentage of the total budget, nearly tripling from around 10 percent in
                                        fiscal year 1998 to 29 percent in fiscal year 2003. This increase was used



                                        Page 8                                              GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
partly to create and produce new advertising campaigns and strategies.
Service officials told us that event marketing and public relations activities
provide recruiters with greater opportunities to interact with potential
recruits and supplement their national media campaigns and other
methods of advertising. One example is the Army’s sponsorship of a sports
racing car. (See fig. 1.) Internet and Web-site recruiting have also
increased significantly from fiscal year 1998 through fiscal year 2003. All of
the active military services have increased the amount of advertising on
the Internet and have used interactive Web sites to complement their
traditional recruiting and advertising methods.

Figure 1: Army-Sponsored Sports Racing Car




The expenditures for the national media category, which includes paid
television, radio, and magazine advertisements, have remained relatively
constant. This means that this category’s proportion of the growing total
advertising budgets has actually declined. Specifically, expenditures for
the national media in fiscal year 1998 were more than half of the
advertising budget; currently, it represents about 40 percent. Television
advertising—which offers tremendous reach to target audiences—
dominates this category. Television advertising has remained the single
largest advertising expenditure: paid television is still about a quarter of
the total advertising budget for all of the military components.




Page 9                                           GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
DOD Has Significantly   DOD’s advertising funding has nearly doubled in the years since 1998 and
Increased Funding for   most of these increases occurred in the earlier years. (See fig. 2.) Total
Advertising             advertising funding for all of the services increased 98 percent, from $299
                        million in fiscal year 1998 to $592 million in fiscal year 2003.11 The total
                        DOD advertising budget request to Congress for fiscal year 2004 was
                        $592.8 million.

                        Figure 2: Total DOD Recruiting Advertising Funding for Fiscal Years 1998 to 2003




                        Note: The funding amounts were taken from DOD’s and the services’ congressional budget
                        justification books (adjusted to account for inflation).
                        a
                        In-year estimate.


                        Since fiscal year 1998, DOD’s advertising funding, which is included in
                        DOD’s operation and maintenance appropriations, has increased at a
                        significantly higher rate than the total of all of DOD’s operation and
                        maintenance funding. DOD officials cite media inflation as one reason for
                        increased advertising funding. Inflation for some types of media, especially
                        for television commercials, has been higher than general inflation.
                        However, this is not the reason for all of the increases in advertising
                        funding during this period because not all of the advertising funding is
                        used for media advertising. For example, only about a quarter of



                        11
                         In nominal dollars, DOD’s total recruiting advertising funding for fiscal years 1998-2002,
                        consecutively, was $271 million, $379 million, $450 million, $501 million, and $595 million.




                        Page 10                                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
advertising funds are currently spent to buy time to run television
commercials.

Growing advertising costs are only part of a rapidly increasing total
investment in recruiting. The rising advertising and overall recruiting costs
can be seen in the investment per enlisted recruit—an important bottom-
line measure that shows the amount of money spent to enlist each recruit.
Today, the services are spending almost three times as much on
advertising per recruit than in fiscal year 1990. We examined data
collected by DOD from the services, and it showed that the total
advertising investment per enlisted recruit rose from approximately $640
to $1,900 between fiscal year 1990 and fiscal year 2003. As a proportion of
the total recruiting investment, advertising has increased from 8 percent in
fiscal year 1990 to 14 percent in fiscal year 2003. Bonuses and incentives to
enlist have also increased substantially during this same period. The total
recruiting investment per recruit increased almost 65 percent, from
approximately $8,100 in fiscal year 1990 to $13,300 in fiscal year 2003. Very
steep growth occurred between fiscal year 1998 and fiscal year 2002. This
is shown in figure 3.




Page 11                                         GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Figure 3: Total Recruiting Investment per Enlisted Recruit for Fiscal Years 1990 to
2003




The increases are not evenly distributed across the services’ advertising
programs. (See table 2.) The Army has the largest advertising budget, and
the Army active and reserve components account for nearly half (about
$295 million) of the total advertising funding. The Marine Corps, at just
under $50 million, has the smallest advertising budget. The Air Force has
experienced the most significant increase in funding, in part owing to the
creation of its first national television campaign. The Navy’s advertising
funding has also increased, but this is primarily due to the addition of
costs related to the Blue Angels12 and a program to test recruiting kiosks at
public locations.




12
 The Blue Angels, the Navy’s flight demonstration team, performs at air shows and special
events. The recruiting advertising budget funds the operation and maintenance costs
related to the team.




Page 12                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
DOD’s Joint Advertising, Market Research, and Studies Program is
responsible for (1) providing market research and studies for recruiting
and (2) developing an advertising campaign to target adult influencers,
such as parents, coaches, and career counselors. Currently, the joint
program is conducting market research and studies and providing other
support for the services’ advertising programs, such as purchasing lists of
high school students and recent graduates for use in mailing
advertisements. In addition, the program is implementing a limited print
advertising campaign targeting influencers in fiscal year 2003.

The joint advertising campaign has not had consistent funding. Program
managers told us that the current funding level is insufficient to fully
implement the influencer advertising campaign they have developed. In
past years, DOD cut funding for the joint advertising program because of
concerns that the program office was not adequately executing its
advertising budget. For fiscal year 2003, Congress provided the joint
advertising program with less funding than DOD requested, and DOD
subsequently reallocated part of the remaining joint advertising funding to
a program that it considered a higher priority.




Page 13                                        GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                     Table 2: Summary of DOD’s Recruiting Advertising Funding

                         Constant fiscal year 2003 dollars in millions
                                                                          1998                 2003          Percentage
                         Components                                  (actual)     (in-year estimate)              change
                         Army                                            $113.7              $196.9                     73
                         Army Reserve                                      17.0                50.2                   196
                         Army National Guarda                              23.2                48.2                   108
                         Navy                                              75.7                 107                     41
                         Naval Reserve                                      2.4                 7.4                   208
                         Air Force                                         18.3                90.5                   395
                         Air Force Reserve                                  4.6                13.5                   193
                                              a
                         Air National Guard                                 4.4                 5.8                     31
                         Marine Corps                                      29.8                46.5                     56
                         Marine Corps Reserve                               3.0                 2.9                     -3
                                                                                                   b
                         Joint Program                                      6.8                22.9                   237
                         Totals                                          $298.9              $591.8                     98
                     Source: DOD.

                     Note: The funding amounts were taken from DOD’s and the services’ congressional budget
                     justification books (adjusted to account for inflation).
                     a
                      The advertising funding for the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard is for both recruiting
                     and retention. These figures do not include the funding for recruiting and retention advertising done
                     by the states and territories.
                     b
                     DOD subsequently reallocated part of this funding.




                     DOD does not have adequate outcome measures to evaluate the
DOD Does Not         effectiveness of its advertising as part of its overall recruiting effort.
Adequately Measure   Effective program management requires the establishment of clear
                     objectives and outcome measures to evaluate the program, and DOD has
Advertising’s        established neither. This has been a long-standing problem for DOD
Effectiveness        primarily because measuring the impact of advertising is inherently
                     difficult, especially for a major life decision such as joining the military.
                     Owing to the absence of established advertising objectives and outcome
                     measures, DOD has not consistently collected and disseminated key
                     information that would allow it to better assess advertising’s contribution
                     to achieving recruiting goals. This information would include public
                     awareness of military recruiting advertising and the willingness of young
                     adults to join the military. Rather, the services report outcome measures
                     that focus on achieving overall recruiting goals instead of isolating the
                     specific contribution of advertising. Without adequate information and


                     Page 14                                                            GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                         outcome measures, the Office of the Secretary of Defense cannot
                         satisfactorily review the services’ advertising budget justifications nor can
                         it determine the return on their advertising dollars as part of their overall
                         recruiting investment.


Effective Management     The Secretary of Defense is required by law to enhance the effectiveness
Requires Clear Program   of DOD’s recruitment programs through an aggressive program of
Objectives and Outcome   advertising and market research targeted at prospective recruits and those
                         who may influence them.13 DOD guidance requires the services, by active
Measures                 and reserve components, to report their resource inputs—how much they
                         are spending on advertising.14 DOD guidance also requires the services to
                         report on overall recruiting outcomes15—their recruit quantity and quality.
                         However, the guidance does not require active and reserve components to
                         report information specifically about the advertising programs’ recruiting
                         effectiveness.

                         Effective program management requires the establishment of clearly
                         defined objectives and outcome measures to evaluate programs. The
                         Government Performance and Results Act was intended to help federal
                         program managers enhance the effectiveness of their programs.16 It
                         requires agencies to establish strategic plans for program activities that
                         include, among other things, a mission statement covering major functions
                         and operations, outcome-related goals and objectives, and a description of
                         how these goals and objectives are to be achieved. GPRA shifted the focus
                         of accountability for federal programs from inputs, such as staffing and
                         resource levels, to outcomes. This requires agencies to measure the
                         outcomes of their programs and to summarize the findings of program
                         evaluations in their performance reports. The Office of Management and
                         Budget’s guidance implementing GPRA requires agencies to establish




                         13
                          10 U.S.C. § 503.
                         14
                          DOD Instruction 1304.8, Military Procurement Resources Report, May 28, 1991.
                         15
                          DOD Instruction 7730.56, Monthly Report of Personnel Statistics, September 15, 1975.
                         16
                          Pub. L. No. 103-62, Aug. 3, 1993.




                         Page 15                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                                 meaningful program objectives and identify outcome measures that
                                 compare actual program results with established program objectives.17


Lack of Adequate Outcome         DOD does not have adequate information to measure the effectiveness of
Measures Limits DOD’s            its advertising as part of the overall recruiting effort. Measuring
Ability to Effectively           advertising’s effectiveness has been a long-standing problem, partly
                                 because it is inherently difficult to measure the impact that advertising has
Allocate Its Recruiting          on recruiting. DOD has not established advertising program objectives and
Investments                      it lacks adequate outcome measures of the impact that advertising
                                 programs have on recruiting. Outcome measures are used to evaluate how
                                 closely a program’s achievements are aligned with program objectives, and
                                 to assess whether advertising is achieving its intended outcome. DOD
                                 currently requires the services and reserve components to report on inputs
                                 and outcomes related to overall recruiting. These measures are important
                                 in assessing DOD’s overall recruiting success; however, they do not assess
                                 advertising’s contribution to the recruiting process.

Measuring Advertising’s          In our 2000 report, we noted that the services do not know which of their
Effectiveness Is a Long-         recruiting initiatives—advertising, recruiters, or bonuses—work best.18
standing and Difficult Problem   This prevented DOD from being able to effectively allocate its recruiting
                                 investment among the multiple recruiting resources. We recommended
                                 that DOD and the services assess the relative success of their recruiting
                                 strategies, including how the services can create the most cost-effective
                                 mix of recruiters, enlistment bonuses, college incentives, advertising, and
                                 other recruiting tools. In comments on that report, DOD stated that it
                                 intended to develop a joint-service model that would allow trade-off
                                 analyses to determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the various
                                 recruiting resources. This has not been done, and the current DOD cost
                                 performance trade-off model does not support analyses across the
                                 services’ budgets.

                                 Similarly, a 2002 Office of Management and Budget assessment, known as
                                 the Program Assessment Rating Tool, found that DOD’s recruiting
                                 program had met its goal of enlisting adequate numbers of recruits;
                                 however, since there were no measures of program efficiency, the overall


                                 17
                                  Office of Management and Budget, Preparation and Submission of Strategic Plans, Annual
                                 Performance Plans, and Annual Program Performance Reports, Circular No. A-11, Part 6,
                                 June 2002.
                                 18
                                  GAO/NSIAD-00-146.




                                 Page 16                                               GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
rating for the recruiting program was only “moderately effective.” In its
assessment, the Office of Management and Budget noted the inability of
the recruiting program to assess the impact of individual resources, such
as advertising and recruiters. The services continually adjust the mix of
funding between advertising and other recruiting resources to accomplish
their program goals. They have generally increased spending on
advertising, added recruiters, and increased or added bonuses at the same
time, making it impossible to determine the relative value of each of these
initiatives. Other studies have reached similar conclusions. In 2000, a
review of DOD’s advertising programs resulted in a recommendation that
they be evaluated for program effectiveness.19 More recently, the National
Academy of Sciences also cited the need to evaluate advertising’s direct
influence on actual enlistments.20 The academy is now doing additional
work on evaluating DOD’s advertising and recruiting.

The lack of adequate information is partly attributable to the inherent
difficulty in measuring advertising’s affect on recruiting. Measuring
advertising’s effectiveness is a challenge for all businesses, according to
advertising experts. Private-sector organizations cannot attribute
increases in sales directly to advertising because there are many other
factors influencing the sale of products, such as quality, price, and the
availability of similar products. Many factors impact recruiting as well,
such as employment and educational opportunities, making it especially
difficult to isolate and measure the effectiveness of advertising. Enlisting
in a military service is a profound life decision. Typically, an enlistment is
at least a 4-year commitment and can be the start of a long military career.

Another complicating factor in measuring advertising’s effectiveness is
that it consists of different types and is employed differently throughout
the recruiting process to attract and enlist potential recruits. Figure 4
displays the recruiting process and demonstrates the role of advertising
while a young adult may be considering enlisting in the military.




19
 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Force Management Policy), A New Focus for
Military Advertising and Market Research (March 2000).
20
 National Research Council, Attitudes, Aptitudes, and Aspirations of American Youth:
Implications for Military Recruitment (Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press,
2003).




Page 17                                                GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                           Figure 4: The Use of Advertising throughout the Recruiting Process




                           As the figure shows, the use of multiple types of advertising at various
                           stages in the recruiting continuum makes it difficult to assess the
                           effectiveness of specific types of advertising. A single recruit may be
                           exposed to some or all of these advertising types. Traditional advertising
                           in the national media, such as television and magazines, is intended to
                           disseminate information designed to influence consumer activity in the
                           marketplace. The services typically use such national media to make
                           young people aware of a military service, the career options available in a
                           service, and other opportunities the services have to offer them. Direct
                           mail, special events, and the services’ Web sites are utilized to provide
                           more detailed information about the services and the opportunities
                           available for persons who enlist. These marketing resources give people
                           the opportunity to let a recruiter know they are possibly interested in
                           enlisting in a service.

DOD Lacks Guidance         Another contributing factor to the absence of advertising objectives and
Establishing Advertising   outcome measures is the lack of DOD-wide guidance. Officials from the
Programs’ Objectives and   Office of the Secretary of Defense view their role as overseeing the
Outcome Measures           decentralized programs managed by the individual services and reserve
                           components. They scrutinize the quality and quantity of recruits and
                           gather data about the uses of advertising funds. However, they told us they
                           were reluctant to be more prescriptive because of a concern about
                           appearing to micromanage the successful recruiting programs of the active



                           Page 18                                            GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
and reserve components. On the basis of our work, their sensitivity is
warranted. The active and reserve components tend to guard their
independence, seeking to maintain their “brand” and arguing that the
current decentralized structure allows them to be more responsive to their
individual needs. The Office of the Secretary of Defense seeks to
coordinate the active and reserve components’ activities through joint
committees and to centralize research that can be utilized by all.

Defining exactly what to measure may be difficult, but it is not impossible.
DOD and the services, as well as their contracted advertising agencies,
generally agree that there are at least two key advertising outcomes that
should be measured: (1) the awareness of recruiting advertising and (2)
the willingness or “propensity” to consider joining the military. However,
this is not clearly stated in any program guidance. Current DOD guidance
requires only that the services provide information on funding for
advertising, the quality and quantity of recruits, and the allocation of
resources to the various advertising categories.21 Although this information
is valuable—in fact, critical—it is not sufficient to evaluate and isolate the
effectiveness of the services’ advertising programs.

DOD’s efforts thus far to measure the awareness of recruiting advertising
and willingness to join the military have met with problems. Inconsistent
funding for the Joint Advertising, Market Research, and Studies program
has hampered consistent collection of this information. DOD has
sponsored an advertising tracking study designed to monitor the
awareness of individual service campaigns since 2001. However, officials
from the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps told us that they do not regularly
use the research provided by this study. According to program officials,
there were numerous problems with the advertising tracking study.22 DOD
is implementing changes to the study that are intended to improve its
usefulness to all of the active and reserve components. In the absence of
reliable and timely advertising tracking, the Army implemented its own
tracking study, and the Air Force is currently planning an experimental
study to assess the effectiveness of its national television advertising
campaign, according to program managers. To monitor the willingness to



21
  DOD Instruction 1304.8, Military Procurement Resources Report, May 28, 1991; and DOD
Instruction 7730.56, Monthly Report of Personnel Statistics, September 15, 1975.
22
 The advertising agency contracted by DOD’s joint program also identified several
problems, including (1) having an extremely large sample size, (2) voluminous data but
poor analysis, and (3) poor training for the services in using the data.




Page 19                                                 GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
              join the military, DOD sponsors youth and adult polls, which are designed
              to track changes in attitudes and young adults’ aspirations. These polls
              replaced the Youth Attitude Tracking Survey, which had been in place for
              a number of years and provided long-term trend data about the propensity
              of young adults to consider the military. The services expressed concern
              that the current polls ask questions that are significantly different from
              those asked in the prior survey, which makes the analysis of trends
              difficult.

              DOD officials also pointed to research indicating that advertising is a cost-
              effective recruiting investment when compared with other recruiting
              initiatives. For example, a report that was done for DOD found that it was
              less expensive to enlist a recruit through increased investments in
              advertising than through increased investments in military pay for new
              recruits in the Army and Navy.23 Similarly, a study for DOD analyzed the
              marginal cost of different recruiting initiatives and concluded that, under
              certain conditions, it was more cost-effective to invest additional funds in
              advertising than in military pay for recruits or recruiters.24 DOD officials
              told us that these reports, which used data from the 1980s and early 1990s,
              provide the best research available on the topic. However, the situation
              has changed dramatically in recent years. DOD has altered its advertising
              and recruiting strategies and is spending much more on advertising.
              Advertising itself is also changing and is more fragmented with an
              expanding array of television channels and other media. Finally, media
              inflation, which has increased faster than general inflation even in the
              sluggish economy, has lessened buying power.


              Funding devoted to advertising has increased considerably since fiscal
Conclusions   year 1998. Although the military services are now generally meeting their
              overall recruiting goals, the question of whether the significant increases
              in advertising budgets were a main contributor to the services’ recruiting
              successes remains open. During the same period, DOD also greatly
              increased funding for bonuses and other incentives to enlist recruits. At



              23
               John Warner, Curtis Simon, and Deborah Payne, Enlistment Supply in the 1990s: A
              Study of the Navy College Fund and Other Enlistment Incentive Programs, Defense
              Manpower Data Center, report No. 2000-015 (April 2001), p. 45.
              24
               Jim Dertouzos and Steven Garber, Is Military Advertising Effective? An Estimation
              Methodology and Applications to Recruiting in the 1980s and 90s (Santa Monica, Calif.:
              Rand Corporation, 2003).




              Page 20                                                GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                      the same time, the U.S. economy slowed dramatically, narrowing the other
                      employment options available to young people. These factors make it
                      difficult to disentangle the effects of the internal DOD investments made
                      in recruiting from the changes in the external recruiting environment.
                      Even though the effect of advertising is inherently difficult to measure, this
                      issue needs to be addressed. This is crucial because DOD is now spending
                      nearly $592 million annually on recruiting advertising, or about $1,900 per
                      enlisted recruit. In addition, the total funding for all of DOD’s recruiting
                      efforts is now almost $4 billion.

                      DOD needs better advertising outcome measures to allow it to oversee and
                      manage the advertising investment as part of its overall recruiting effort.
                      DOD and the services have an understandable focus on the most
                      important program outcome—to ensure that the military has enough
                      quality recruits to fill its ranks. Judged by this short-term measure, the
                      recruiting programs are successful. But now that DOD is meeting its
                      recruiting goals, should it reduce advertising funding or continue at its
                      current funding levels? DOD believes that continued investments in
                      advertising are critical to keeping awareness up in the young adult
                      population and combating the declining propensity among today’s young
                      adults to join the military. However, DOD has neither stated these goals
                      clearly in its guidance, nor consistently gathered information to ensure
                      that these objectives are being met. Now that it is meeting its recruiting
                      goals, DOD needs to turn its attention to program effectiveness and
                      efficiency to ensure that the active and reserve components are getting the
                      best return on their recruiting and advertising investments.


                      To improve DOD’s ability to adequately measure the impact of its
Recommendations for   advertising programs on its recruiting mission, we recommend that the
Executive Action      Secretary of Defense direct the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel
                      and Readiness to issue guidance that would (1) set clear, measurable
                      objectives for DOD’s advertising programs; (2) develop outcome measures
                      for each of DOD’s advertising programs that clearly link advertising
                      program performance with these objectives; and (3) use these outcome
                      measures to monitor the advertising programs’ performance and make
                      fact-based choices about advertising funding as part of the overall
                      recruiting investment in the future.




                      Page 21                                         GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                     DOD concurred with all of our recommendations. In commenting on this
Agency Comments      report, DOD stated that the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for
and Our Evaluation   Personnel and Readiness, in concert with the services, will develop an
                     advertising strategic framework to provide overall direction for DOD’s
                     advertising programs. The framework, with associated outcome measures,
                     would allow the office to monitor advertising results regularly and make
                     fact-based decisions at a strategic level. It would provide an overarching
                     structure within which each service would develop its own advertising
                     program strategy, program objectives, and outcome measures. The
                     framework would also direct the activities of the DOD joint program to
                     ensure support to the services. DOD also commented that current
                     research has not advanced to the point where models exist that adequately
                     account for the many factors that affect recruiting as well as for the
                     differences in the services. DOD stated that it will address this research
                     gap through several initiatives intended to advance the measurement of
                     the performance of recruiting and advertising. The National Academy of
                     Sciences is currently developing an evaluation framework for recruiting
                     and advertising and expects to publish a report in early 2004.

                     DOD’s comments are provided in their entirety in appendix II. DOD
                     officials also provided technical comments that we have incorporated as
                     appropriate.


                     We are sending copies of this report to interested congressional
                     committees; the Secretaries of Defense, the Army, the Navy, and the Air
                     Force; and the Commandant of the Marine Corps. We will send copies to
                     other interested parties upon request. In addition, the report will be
                     available at no charge on the GAO Web site at http://www.gao.gov.




                     Page 22                                       GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Please contact me at (202) 512-5559 if you or your staffs have any
questions regarding this report. Key contributors to this report were John
Pendleton, Lori Atkinson, Nancy Benco, Kurt Burgeson, Alan Byroade,
Chris Currie, LaTonya Gist, Jim McGaughey, Charles Perdue, Barry
Shillito, and John Smale.




Derek B. Stewart
Director, Defense Capabilities
and Management




Page 23                                        GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology


             To describe the changes in the Department of Defense’s (DOD) advertising
             programs and advertising funding trends since the late 1990s, we reviewed
             advertising exhibits in the operation and maintenance congressional
             justification books as well as budget information provided by the Office of
             the Secretary of Defense. Since our objective was to look at broad funding
             trends, we did not reconcile these requested amounts with actual
             obligations or expenditures by the active and reserve components. We
             interviewed active and reserve component officials to understand program
             changes since the late 1990s. We obtained recruiting mission goals and
             actual accessions back to fiscal year 1990 from the Office of the Secretary
             of Defense and the services. We obtained information on the quality of
             accessions of each of the active and reserve components back to fiscal
             year 1990, as well as the investment per active enlisted accession back to
             fiscal year 1990. We reviewed information from the Defense Human
             Resources Activity and the Joint Marketing and Advertising Committee for
             discussions of advertising programs. The services provided additional
             information regarding the types of advertising media they use.

             To assess the adequacy of the measures used by DOD to evaluate the
             effectiveness of advertising, we reviewed information on outcome
             measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertising provided by
             each of the active and reserve components; the advertising agencies that
             are their contractors; and the DOD Joint Advertising, Market Research,
             and Studies program. We spoke with the advertising contractors to learn
             what measures of effectiveness they are aware of and use. We also
             reviewed the requirements for establishing program objectives and
             outcome measures in the Government Performance and Results Act and in
             Office of Management and Budget guidance.

             We interviewed DOD and advertising officials from each of the active and
             reserve components, as well as representatives from the services’
             advertising agencies. We also reviewed their programs, procedures, and
             oversight activities. These interviews were conducted with officials in the
             Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness;
             Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller/Chief Financial
             Officer); Defense Human Resources Activity, Joint Advertising, Market
             Research, and Studies Office; Army Accessions Command, Fort Knox,
             Kentucky; Air Force Recruiting Service, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas;
             Navy Recruiting Command, Millington, Tennessee; Marine Corps
             Recruiting Command, Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia; Army
             National Guard Recruiting and Retention Command, Arlington, Virginia;
             Naval Reserve Command, New Orleans, Louisiana; Air Force Reserve
             Command, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia; and the Air National Guard


             Page 24                                        GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




Office of Recruiting and Retention, Arlington, Virginia. We also
interviewed officials at the contracted advertising agencies for the joint
program, the Army, the Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Air Force. We
reviewed reports on recruiting and advertising from DOD, the
Congressional Research Service, the private sector, and others. We
obtained recruiting advertising budget and funding data for types of
advertising from the Office of the Secretary of Defense. We reviewed, but
did not verify, the accuracy of the data provided by DOD.

We conducted our review from October 2002 through July 2003 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 25                                        GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
             Appendix II: Comments from the Department
Appendix II: Comments from the Department
             of Defense



of Defense




             Page 26                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Appendix II: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 27                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                              Appendix II: Comments from the Department
                              of Defense




Note: Page numbers in
the draft report may differ
from those in this report.




                              Page 28                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Appendix II: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 29                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
Appendix II: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 30                                     GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
             Related GAO Products
Related GAO Products


             Program Evaluation: Strategies for Assessing How Information
             Dissemination Contributes to Agency Goals. GAO-02-923. Washington,
             D.C.: September 30, 2002.

             Military Personnel: Services Need to Assess Efforts to Meet Recruiting
             Goals and Cut Attrition. GAO/NSIAD-00-146. Washington, D.C.: June 23,
             2000.

             Military Personnel: First-Term Recruiting and Attrition Continue to
             Require Focused Attention. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-102. Washington, D.C.:
             February 24, 2000.

             Military Recruiting: DOD Could Improve Its Recruiter Selection and
             Incentive Systems. GAO/NSIAD-98-58. Washington, D.C.: January 30, 1998.

             Military Personnel: High Aggregate Personnel Levels Maintained
             Throughout Drawdown. GAO/NSIAD-95-97. Washington, D.C.: June 2,
             1995.

             Military Recruiting: More Innovative Approaches Needed. GAO/NSIAD-
             95-22. Washington, D.C.: December 22, 1994.

             Military Downsizing: Balancing Accessions and Losses Is Key to
             Shaping the Future Force. GAO/NSIAD-93-241. Washington, D.C.:
             September 30, 1993.




(350274)
             Page 31                                      GAO-03-1005 Military Recruiting
                         The General Accounting Office, the audit, evaluation and investigative arm of
GAO’s Mission            Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional responsibilities
                         and to help improve the performance and accountability of the federal
                         government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public funds;
                         evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses,
                         recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed
                         oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO’s commitment to good government
                         is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.


                         The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is
Obtaining Copies of      through the Internet. GAO’s Web site (www.gao.gov) contains abstracts and full-
GAO Reports and          text files of current reports and testimony and an expanding archive of older
                         products. The Web site features a search engine to help you locate documents
Testimony                using key words and phrases. You can print these documents in their entirety,
                         including charts and other graphics.
                         Each day, GAO issues a list of newly released reports, testimony, and
                         correspondence. GAO posts this list, known as “Today’s Reports,” on its Web site
                         daily. The list contains links to the full-text document files. To have GAO e-mail
                         this list to you every afternoon, go to www.gao.gov and select “Subscribe to e-mail
                         alerts” under the “Order GAO Products” heading.


Order by Mail or Phone   The first copy of each printed report is free. Additional copies are $2 each. A
                         check or money order should be made out to the Superintendent of Documents.
                         GAO also accepts VISA and Mastercard. Orders for 100 or more copies mailed to a
                         single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders should be sent to:
                         U.S. General Accounting Office
                         441 G Street NW, Room LM
                         Washington, D.C. 20548
                         To order by Phone:     Voice:    (202) 512-6000
                                                TDD:      (202) 512-2537
                                                Fax:      (202) 512-6061


                         Contact:
To Report Fraud,
                         Web site: www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm
Waste, and Abuse in      E-mail: fraudnet@gao.gov
Federal Programs         Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7470


                         Jeff Nelligan, Managing Director, NelliganJ@gao.gov (202) 512-4800
Public Affairs           U.S. General Accounting Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149
                         Washington, D.C. 20548