oversight

Chemical Weapons: Sustained Leadership, Along With Key Strategic Management Tools, Is Needed to Guide DOD's Destruction Program

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-09-05.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                 United States General Accounting Office

GAO              Report to Congressional Committees




September 2003
                 CHEMICAL
                 WEAPONS

                 Sustained Leadership,
                 Along with Key
                 Strategic Management
                 Tools, Is Needed to
                 Guide DOD’s
                 Destruction Program




GAO-03-1031
                                                September 2003


                                                CHEMICAL WEAPONS

                                                Sustained Leadership, Along with Key
Highlights of GAO-03-1031, a report to          Strategic Management Tools, Is Needed
congressional committees
                                                to Guide DOD’s Destruction Program



Congress expressed concerns                     The Chemical Demilitarization Program remains in turmoil because a
about the Chemical                              number of long-standing leadership, organizational, and strategic planning
Demilitarization Program cost and               issues remain unresolved. The program lacks stable leadership at the upper
schedule, and its management                    management levels. For example, the program has had frequent turnover in
structure. In 2001, the program                 the leadership providing oversight. Further, recent reorganizations have
underwent a major reorganization.
Following a decade long trend of
                                                done little to reduce the complex and fragmented organization of the
missed schedule milestones, in                  program. As a result, roles and responsibilities are often unclear and
September 2001, the Department of               program actions are not always coordinated. Finally, the absence of a
Defense (DOD) revised the                       comprehensive strategy leaves the program without a clear road map and
schedule, which extended planned                methods to monitor program performance. Without these key elements,
milestones and increased program                DOD and the Army have no assurance of meeting their goal to destroy the
cost estimates beyond the 1998                  chemical stockpile in a safe and timely manner, and within cost estimates.
estimate of $15 billion to
$24 billion. GAO was asked to                   DOD and the Army have already missed several 2001 milestones and
(1) examine the effect that recent              exceeded cost estimates; the Army has raised the program cost estimates by
organization changes have had on                $1.2 billion, with other factors still to be considered. Almost all of the
program performance and
(2) assess the progress DOD and
                                                incineration sites will miss the 2001 milestones because of schedule delays
the Army have made in meeting the               due to environmental, safety, community relations, and funding issues.
revised 2001 cost and schedule and              Although neutralization sites have not missed milestones, they have had
Chemical Weapons Convention                     delays. DOD and the Army have not developed an approach to anticipate and
(CWC) deadlines.                                influence issues that could adversely impact program schedules, cost, and
                                                safety. Unless DOD and the Army adopt a risk management approach, the
                                                program remains at great risk of missing milestones and CWC deadlines. It
                                                will also likely incur rising costs and prolong the public’s exposure to the
GAO recommends that DOD
                                                chemical stockpile.
develop an overall strategy for the
Chemical Demilitarization Program
that would articulate the program’s             Comparison of 1998 and 2001 Cumulative Program Cost Estimates
mission, identify the long-term
goals and objectives, delineate the
roles and responsibilities of all
DOD and Army offices, and
establish near-term performance
measures. Also, DOD should
implement a risk management
approach that anticipates and
influences internal and external
factors that could adversely impact
program performance.

DOD concurred with GAO’s
recommendations and said it is
taking steps to implement them.
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-1031.

To view the full product, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Ray Decker at
(202) 512-6020.
Contents


Letter                                                                                           1
                       Results in Brief                                                          3
                       Background                                                                4
                       Long-Standing Management and Organization Weaknesses
                         Continue to Hamper Program Progress                                    12
                       Most Sites Will Miss Schedule Milestones due to Program’s
                         Inability to Anticipate and Influence Issues                           18
                       Conclusions                                                              24
                       Recommendations for Executive Action                                     26
                       Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                       26

Appendix I             Scope and Methodology                                                    28



Appendix II            Major Schedule Phases Associated with
                       Chemical Demilitarization Process and Current
                       Facility Status                                                          30



Appendix III           Comments from the Department of Defense                                  35



Related GAO Products                                                                            37



Tables
                       Table 1: Stockpile Sites, Type of Agent, Original Agent Tonnage,
                                and Percentage of Original Stockpile                             6
                       Table 2: CWC Deadlines                                                    6
                       Table 3: Comparison of DOD’s 1998 and 2001 Milestones for
                                Starting and Finishing Agent Destruction Operations              9
                       Table 4: Transfer of Program Oversight Responsibilities between
                                DOD and the Army, 1986-Present                                  13
                       Table 5: Transfer of Program Oversight Responsibilities within the
                                Army, 1986-Present                                              15
                       Table 6: Slippage of 2001 Scheduled Milestone Dates, by
                                Incineration Site                                               19




                       Page i                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
         Table 7: Program Cost Increases Resulting from Delays at
                  Incineration Sites                                                               21
         Table 8: Status of Chemical Demilitarization Facilities                                   33


Figure
         Figure 1: Comparison of 1998 and 2001 Cumulative Program
                  Cost Estimates                                                                   10




         Abbreviations

         ACWA              Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment
         CMA               Chemical Materials Agency
         CSEPP             Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program
         CWC               Chemical Weapons Convention
         DOD               Department of Defense
         FEMA              Federal Emergency Management Agency


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         Page ii                                                  GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   September 5, 2003

                                   The Honorable John Warner
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Carl Levin
                                   Ranking Minority Member
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   United States Senate

                                   The Honorable Duncan Hunter
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Ike Skelton
                                   Ranking Minority Member
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   House of Representatives

                                   The United States, along with many other countries, is committed to
                                   ridding the world of chemical weapons. In fiscal year 1986, Congress
                                   directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy the nation’s
                                   chemical weapons stockpile in a safe manner, and DOD designated
                                   the Army to set up and operate the demilitarization program. On an
                                   international level, the United States and more than 150 countries since
                                   1997 have become parties to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC),
                                   which prohibits the use of these weapons and mandates a deadline of
                                   April 2007 to destroy the existing stockpiles.1 With the events of
                                   September 11, 2001, heightened concerns over weapons of mass
                                   destruction have further raised the awareness of these chemical weapons
                                   and their potential danger to the public.

                                   Since its inception, DOD’s Chemical Demilitarization Program has been
                                   plagued by frequent schedule delays, cost overruns, and continuing
                                   management problems. In 2001, DOD and the Army2 once again undertook



                                   1
                                    In April 1997, the United States Senate ratified the Convention on the Prohibition of
                                   the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their
                                   Destruction, commonly known as the Chemical Weapons Convention. S. Res. 75,
                                   Apr. 24, 1997.
                                   2
                                    DOD reorganized the program by elevating its oversight while the Army consolidated
                                   functions at the Assistant Secretary level (Installations and Environment).



                                   Page 1                                                   GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
a major reorganization of the program’s complex management structure
and revised its schedule, extending the projected milestones beyond the
2007 CWC deadline. The revisions also increased the estimated costs for
destroying the chemical weapons stockpile by 60 percent, from $15 billion
to $24 billion. Because DOD and the Army have had long-term problems
in meeting past schedule milestones and are now entering a demanding
phase of the program—the planned start of agent destruction operations at
multiple sites, using both incineration and alternative (neutralization)
technologies—there are growing concerns in Congress over DOD’s ability
to accomplish its mission.

In the House Report to the fiscal year 2003 defense authorization budget,3
Congress mandated that we review and assess the management and status
of the program. In February 2003, we briefed your staffs on our
preliminary findings. As agreed with your offices, this report (1) examines
the effect that recent organizational changes have had on the program’s
performance and (2) assesses the progress that DOD and the Army have
made in meeting the revised 2001 cost and schedule estimates and the
2007 CWC deadline.

Leading organizations embrace principles for effectively implementing
and managing programs. Some key aspects of these principles include
promulgating a comprehensive mission statement, long-term and annual
performance goals, measurable performance indicators, and evaluation
and corrective action plans. Combined with effective leadership, these
principles provide decision makers with a means to manage risk,
understand a program’s evolution and implementation, and determine
whether initiatives are achieving their desired results.

In assessing the program’s management performance, we compared the
elements of program management documents to the general tenets and
management principles, such as those supported by the Government
Performance and Results Act, to determine if the program has a
framework to produce results. We also compared previous and current
program organizational structures and obtained a rationale for changes
from program officials and documents to determine if lines of authority
were clear and if roles and responsibilities were articulated. To assess



3
  Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2003, Report of the
Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, H.R. Rept. No. 107-436,
May 3, 2002.




Page 2                                                  GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                   DOD’s progress in meeting revised schedule and cost estimates, we
                   reviewed current program estimates, destruction schedules, CWC
                   provisions, and other documents. We determined issues that had caused
                   delays and ascertained approaches being used to reduce the potential for
                   delays in the future. We also met with DOD and Army program officials
                   and interviewed officials at several destruction sites and state
                   environmental offices. We conducted our review from August 2002 to
                   June 2003 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing
                   standards. A detailed description of our scope and methodology is
                   included in appendix I.


                   While DOD and the Army have recently initiated some organizational
Results in Brief   changes in the Chemical Demilitarization Program, the program remains in
                   turmoil, affecting management performance because of long-standing and
                   unresolved leadership, organizational, and strategic planning issues. The
                   lack of sustained leadership at both the upper levels of oversight and at
                   the program-manager level confuses the decision-making authority and
                   obscures accountability.4 Moreover, the recent reorganization has done
                   little to reduce the program’s complex management structure. It continues
                   to have multiple lines of management authority within the Army and
                   separation of program components between the Army and DOD. These
                   separations leave roles and responsibilities for the different parts of the
                   program unclear. Finally, the absence of an overarching, comprehensive
                   strategy has left the program without a clear, top-level road map to
                   closely guide and integrate all activities and to monitor program
                   performance. Without key elements such as effective leadership,
                   streamlined organization structure, and important management tools
                   including strategic planning, DOD and the Army have no assurances that
                   they will be able to meet the program’s principal goal—to destroy the
                   chemical stockpile in a safe manner and by the Chemical Weapons
                   Convention 2007 deadline.

                   The program has missed most schedule milestones and cost estimates
                   following a decade long trend. Nearly all of the incineration sites will miss
                   the DOD-approved 2001 schedule milestones because of substantial delays
                   that stem primarily from a number of problems that DOD and the Army
                   have not been able to anticipate or influence. These problems include



                   4
                    For purposes of this report, upper level refers to the offices of the assistant secretary or
                   above in the Departments of the Army and Defense.




                   Page 3                                                      GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
             plant safety issues, difficulties in meeting environmental permitting
             requirements, public concerns about emergency preparedness plans, and
             budgeting shortfalls. Although the neutralization sites have not missed
             their milestones yet, they too have experienced delays. Program officials
             told us that they have already raised preliminary total program cost
             estimates by $1.2 billion, and other factors, yet to be considered, could
             raise these estimates even more. DOD and the Army have not developed
             an approach to anticipate and address potential problems that could
             adversely affect program schedules, costs, and safety. Until DOD and the
             Army adopt a comprehensive risk management approach, the program
             remains at great risk of not meeting its schedule milestones and the
             Chemical Weapons Convention deadline, leading to rising costs and
             unnecessarily prolonging the potential risk to the public associated with
             the storage of the chemical stockpile.

             We are recommending that DOD develop an overall strategy for the
             Chemical Demilitarization Program that would articulate the program’s
             mission, identify the long-term goals and objectives, delineate the roles
             and responsibilities of all DOD and Army offices, and establish near-term
             performance measures. Also, DOD should implement a risk management
             approach that anticipates and influences internal and external factors that
             could adversely impact program performance.

             In written comments on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with our
             recommendations and said it is taking steps to implement them.


             In fiscal year 1986, Congress directed DOD to destroy the U.S. stockpile of
Background   lethal chemical agents and munitions.5 DOD designated the Department of
             the Army as its executive agent for the program, and the Army established
             the Chemical Demilitarization (or Chem-Demil) Program, which was
             charged with the destruction of the stockpile at nine storage sites.
             Incineration was selected as the method to destroy the stockpile.6 In 1988,
             the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) was
             created to enhance the emergency management and response capabilities
             of communities near the storage sites in case of an accident; the Army and


             5
              The Department of Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1986, P.L. 99-145
             (Nov. 8, 1985), sec. 1412(a).
             6
              The Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization was originally referred to as the
             U.S. Army Chemical Demilitarization and Remediation Activity.




             Page 4                                                  GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly managed
the program. In 1997, consistent with congressional direction, the Army
and FEMA clarified their CSEPP roles by implementing a management
structure under which FEMA assumed responsibility for off-post (civilian
community) program activities, while the Army continued to manage
on-post chemical emergency preparedness. The Army provides CSEPP
funding to FEMA, which is administered via grants to the states and
counties near where stockpile sites are located in order to carry out the
program’s off-post activities.

Agent destruction began in 1990 at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.
Subsequently, Congress directed DOD to evaluate the possibility of
using alternative technologies to incineration. In 1994, the Army initiated
a project to develop nonincineration technologies for use at the
two bulk-agent only sites at Aberdeen, Maryland, and Newport, Indiana.
These sites were selected in part because their stockpiles were relatively
simple—each site had only one type of agent and this agent was stored
in bulk-agent (ton) containers. In 1997, DOD approved pilot testing of
a neutralization technology at these two sites. Also in 1997, Congress
directed DOD to evaluate the use of alternative technologies and
suspended incineration planning activities at two sites with assembled
weapons in Pueblo, Colorado, and Blue Grass, Kentucky. Furthermore,
Congress directed that these two sites be managed in a program
independent of the Army’s Chem-Demil Program and report to DOD
instead of the Army. Thus, the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment
(ACWA) program was established. The nine sites, the types of agent, and
the percentage of the original stockpiles are shown in table 1.




Page 5                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Table 1: Stockpile Sites, Type of Agent, Original Agent Tonnage, and Percentage of
Original Stockpile

                                                         Original agent           Percent of
    Site                      Type of agenta                   tonnage     original stockpile
    Johnston Atoll            Blister and nerve                  2,031                       6
    Tooele, Utah              Blister and nerve                 13,616                      44
    Anniston, Ala.            Blister and nerve                  2,254                       7
    Umatilla, Oreg.           Blister and nerve                  3,717                      12
    Pine Bluff, Ark.          Blister and nerve                  3,850                      12
    Aberdeen, Md.             Blister                            1,625                       5
    Newport, Ind.             Nerve                              1,269                       4
    Pueblo, Colo.             Blister                            2,611                       8
    Blue Grass, Ky.           Blister and nerve                    523                       2
    Total                                                       31,496                   100
Source: DOD data.
a
The stockpile includes two nerve agents, GB and VX, and blister agents.


In 1997, the United States ratified the CWC, which prohibits the use of
these weapons and mandates the elimination of existing stockpiles by
April 29, 2007.7 A CWC provision allows that extensions of up to 5 years
can be granted. The CWC also contains a series of interim deadlines
applicable to the U.S. stockpile8 (see table 2).

Table 2: CWC Deadlines

    Required percentage of agent Deadlines for                     Date United States met
    destroyed                    destruction                       deadline
    1                                   April 29, 2000             September 1997
    20                                  April 29, 2002             July 2001
    45                                  April 29, 2004             NA
    100                                 April 29, 2007             NA
Sources: CWC and U.S. Army.

Legend: NA - Not applicable.




7
 The CWC implementing legislation, P.L. 105-277 (Oct. 21, 1998), provides the statutory
authority for domestic compliance with the convention’s provisions.
8
 This report solely focuses on the weapons the convention defines as category 1, which are
the most dangerous chemicals in the stockpile.




Page 6                                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
The United States met the 1 percent interim deadline in September 1997
and the 20 percent interim deadline in July 2001. As of June 2003, the Army
was reporting that a total of about 26 percent of the original stockpile had
been destroyed.9

Three other countries (referred to as states parties)—India, Russia, and
one other country—have declared chemical weapons stockpiles and are
required to destroy them in accordance with CWC deadlines as well. As of
April 2003, two of these three countries (India and one other country) had
met the 1 percent interim deadline to destroy their stockpiles.10 Of the
three countries, only India met the second (20 percent) interim deadline
to destroy its stockpile by April 2002. However, Russia, with the largest
declared stockpile—over 40,000 tons— did not meet the 1 percent or the
20 percent interim deadlines, and only began destroying its stockpile in
December 2002. In 2001, Russia requested a 5-year extension to the 2007
deadline.11 Russia did destroy 1 percent of its stockpile by April 2003,
although it is doubtful that it will meet the 2012 deadline if granted.12

Traditionally, management and oversight responsibilities for the
Chem-Demil Program reside primarily within three levels at DOD—the
Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) who
is the Defense Acquisition Executive for the Secretary of Defense, the
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, Technology) who
is the Army Acquisition Executive for the Army, and the Program Manager
for Chemical Demilitarization—because it is a major defense acquisition
program.13 In addition to these offices, since August 2002, the Deputy
Assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Chemical Demilitarization and
Threat Reduction), has served as the focal point responsible for oversight,
coordination, and integration of the Chem-Demil Program.


9
    As of June 2003, agent had been destroyed at Johnston Atoll, Tooele, and Aberdeen.
10
   One other state party is not included in this assessment because it is expected to submit
a detailed declaration of the chemical weapons stockpile that was recently discovered on
its territory.
11
 The CWC’s implementing body, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical
Weapons, is in the process of negotiating future Russian destruction deadlines.
12
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Weapons of Mass Destruction: Additional Russian
Cooperation Needed to Facilitate U.S. Efforts to Improve Security of Russian Sites,
GAO-03-482 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 24, 2003).
13
  DOD Directive 5000.1, the Defense Acquisition System, May 12, 2003, and DOD
Instruction 5002.2, Operations of the Defense Acquisition System, May 12, 2003.




Page 7                                                     GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
In May 2001, in response to program cost, schedule, and management
concerns, milestone decision authority was elevated to the Under
Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics). DOD stated
that this change would streamline future decision making and increase
program oversight. DOD indicated that the change was also consistent
with the size and scope of the program, international treaty obligations,
and the level of local, state, and federal interest in the safe and timely
destruction of the chemical stockpile.

In September 2001, after more than a yearlong review, DOD revised the
program’s schedule milestones for seven of the nine sites and the cost
estimates for all nine sites.14 These milestones represent the target dates
that each site is supposed to meet for the completion of critical phases of
the project. The phases include design, construction, systemization,
operations, and closure. (Appendix II describes these phases and provides
the status of each site.) The 2001 revision marked the third time the
program extended its schedule milestones and cost estimates since it
became a major defense acquisition program in 1994. The 2001 revision
also pushed the milestones for most sites several years beyond the
previous 1998 schedule milestones and, for the first time, beyond the April
2007 deadline contained in the CWC. Table 3 compares the 1998 and 2001
schedule milestones for starting and finishing agent destruction operations
at the eight sites with chemical agent stockpiles in 2001.15 The planned
agent destruction completion date at some sites was extended over
5 years.




14
  The cost estimates for the Pueblo and Blue Grass sites were based on incineration
technology pending a technology decision.
15
     Johnston Atoll is not included because its stockpile has been destroyed.




Page 8                                                      GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Table 3: Comparison of DOD’s 1998 and 2001 Milestones for Starting and Finishing Agent Destruction Operations

                    Planned agent destruction                                   Planned agent destruction
                                     a
                           start date                                                completion date
                                                               Change                                                           Change
Site             1998            2001                  (no. of months)       1998              2001                     (no. of months)
Tooele           Ongoing         Ongoingb                              NA    Oct. 2003         Feb. 2008                               + 53
Anniston         Jan. 2002       July 2002                             +7    Nov. 2005         May 2011                                + 67
Umatilla         Feb. 2002       July 2003                            + 18   June 2005         Jan. 2011                               + 68
Pine Bluff       June 2002       Oct. 2003                            + 17   Oct. 2005         Nov. 2009                               + 50
Aberdeen         Jan. 2004       Mar. 2005                            + 15   Dec. 2004         Mar. 2008                               + 40
Newport          Jan. 2004       Dec. 2006                            + 36   Dec. 2004         Nov. 2009                               + 60
Blue Grass       NAc
Pueblo           NAc
                                        Sources: DOD and U.S. Army.
                                        a
                                            The 2001 schedule milestones reflect both Army and DOD changes.
                                        b
                                         Tooele was already conducting destruction operations when the 1998 and 2001 estimates for this
                                        phase were made.
                                        c
                                        NA - Not available. Schedules are to be determined after technology decisions for Blue Grass
                                        and Pueblo are made.


                                        DOD extended the schedule milestones to reflect the Army’s experience
                                        at the two sites—Johnston Atoll and Tooele—that had begun the
                                        destruction process prior to 2001. It found that previous schedule
                                        milestones had been largely based on overly optimistic engineering
                                        estimates. Lower destruction rates stipulated by environmental regulators,
                                        and increased time needed to change the facility’s configuration when
                                        switching between different types of chemical agents and weapons, meant
                                        destruction estimates needed to be lengthened. Moreover, experience at
                                        Johnston Atoll, which began closure activities in 2000, revealed that
                                        previous closure estimates for other sites had been understated. In
                                        addition, DOD’s Cost Analysis Improvement Group modified the site
                                        schedules based on a modeling technique that considered the probabilities
                                        of certain schedule activities taking longer than anticipated. In particular,
                                        the group determined that the operations phase, where agent destruction
                                        takes place, has the highest probability for schedule delays and lengthened
                                        that phase the most. Because the costs of the program are directly related
                                        to the length of the schedule, DOD also increased the projected life-cycle
                                        costs, from $15 billion in 1998 to $24 billion in 2001 (see fig. 1).




                                        Page 9                                                        GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Figure 1: Comparison of 1998 and 2001 Cumulative Program Cost Estimates




In December 2001, after the program schedule and costs were revised,
the Army transferred primary program oversight from the Office of the
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology)
to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and
Environment). According to the Army, this move streamlined
responsibilities for the program, which were previously divided between
these two offices. In January 2003, the Army reassigned oversight
responsibilities to the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition,
Logistics, and Technology) for all policy and direction for the Chem-Demil
Program and CSEPP. The Secretary of the Army also directed the
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology)
and the Commanding General, U.S. Army Materiel Command, to jointly
establish an agency to perform the chemical demilitarization as well as the
chemical weapons storage functions. In response to this directive, the
Army announced the creation of a new organization—the Chemical



Page 10                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Materials Agency (CMA)—which will merge the demilitarization and the
storage functions.16 During this transition process, the Program Manager
for Chemical Demilitarization was redesignated as the Program Manager
for the Elimination of Chemical Weapons and will report to the Director of
CMA and have responsibility for each site through the systemization
phase. The Director for Operations will manage the operations and closure
phases. As of June 2003, the Program Manager for the Elimination of
Chemical Weapons was providing day-to-day management for the sites at
Anniston, Umatilla, Newport, and Pine Bluff; the Director for Operations
was providing day-to-day management for the sites at Tooele, Aberdeen,
and Johnston Atoll, and the Program Manager, ACWA, was managing the
sites at Pueblo and Blue Grass.

Since 1990, we have issued a number of reports that have focused on
management, cost, and schedule issues related to the Chem-Demil
Program. For example, in a 1995 testimony we cited the possibility of
further cost growth and schedule slippage due to environmental
requirements, public opposition to the baseline incineration process, and
lower than expected disposal rates. We also testified that weaknesses in
financial management and internal control systems have hampered
program results and alternative technologies were unlikely to mature
enough to meet CWC deadlines.

In 1995, we noted that the emergency preparedness program had been
slow to achieve results and that communities were not fully prepared
to respond to a chemical emergency. In 1997, we found high-level
management attention was needed at the Army and FEMA to clearly
define management roles and responsibilities. In 2001, we found that the
Army and FEMA needed a more proactive approach to improve working
relations with CSEPP states and local communities and to assist them in
preparing budgets and complying with program performance measures.

In 2000, we found that the Chem-Demil Program was hindered by its
complex management structure and ineffective coordination between
program offices. We recommended that the Secretary of Defense
direct the Secretary of the Army to clarify the management roles and
responsibilities of program participants, assign accountability for
achieving program goals and results, and establish procedures to improve



16
  According to Army officials, CMA is provisional, but the Army expects to have this
agency fully established by October 2003.




Page 11                                                  GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                           coordination among the program’s various elements and with state and
                           local officials.

                           A detailed list of these reports and other products is included in Related
                           GAO Products at the end of this report.


                           Despite recent efforts to improve the management and streamline the
Long-Standing              organization of the Chem-Demil Program, the program continues to falter
Management and             because several long-standing leadership, organizational, and strategic
                           planning weaknesses remain unresolved. The absence of sustained
Organization               leadership confuses decision-making authority and obscures
Weaknesses Continue        accountability. In addition, the Army’s recent reorganization of the
                           program has not reduced its complex organization nor clarified the roles
to Hamper Program          and responsibilities of various entities. For example, CMA reports to two
Progress                   different offices with responsibilities for different phases of the program
                           and left the management of CSEPP divided between the Army and FEMA.
                           The ACWA program continues to be managed outside of the Army as
                           directed by Congress. Finally, the lack of an overarching, comprehensive
                           strategy has left the Chem-Demil Program without a top-level road map to
                           guide and monitor the program’s activities. The absence of effective
                           leadership, streamlined organization, and important management tools,
                           such as strategic planning, creates a barrier to the program accomplishing
                           the safe destruction of the chemical stockpile and staying within schedule
                           milestones, thereby raising program costs.


Shifts in Leadership       The Chem-Demil Program has experienced frequent shifts in leadership
Confuse Decision-Making    providing oversight, both between DOD and the Army and within the
Authority and Obscure      Army, and frequent turnover in key program positions. These shifts have
                           led to confusion among participants and stakeholders about the program’s
Accountability             decision making and have obscured accountability. For example, program
                           officials were not consistent in following through on promised initiatives
                           and some initiatives were begun but not completed. Also, when leadership
                           responsibilities changed, new initiatives were often introduced and old
                           initiatives were abandoned, obscuring accountability for program actions.

Changes in Oversight       The program has lacked sustained leadership above the program level
Responsibilities Confuse   as demonstrated by the multiple shifts between DOD and the Army
Decision-Making Role       for providing oversight that affects consistent decision making. The
                           leadership responsible for oversight has shifted between the Army and
                           DOD three times during the past two decades, with the most recent
                           change occurring in 2001. Table 4 summarizes these changes. As different


                           Page 12                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
offices took over major decision authority, program emphasis frequently
shifted, leaving initiatives pursued but not completed, consistency of
initiatives was not maintained, and responsibility for decisions shifted.
For example, we reported in August 2001 that the Army and FEMA
had addressed some management problems in how they coordinated
emergency preparedness activities after they had established a
memorandum of understanding to clarify roles and responsibilities related
to CSEPP.17 However, according to FEMA officials, DOD did not follow
the protocols for coordination as agreed upon with the Army when
making decisions about emergency preparedness late in 2001. This led
to emergency preparedness items being funded without adequate plans
for distribution, which delayed the process. These changes in oversight
responsibilities also left the stakeholders in the states and local
communities uncertain as to the credibility of federal officials.

Table 4: Transfer of Program Oversight Responsibilities between DOD and the
Army, 1986-Present

                Oversight
 Year           authority           Action
 1986           Army                DOD designates the Army as the executive agent for the
                                    Chem-Demil Program.
 1994           DOD                 DOD makes the program a major defense acquisition
                                    program and oversight is elevated to control cost and
                                    schedule increases and to raise program visibility.
 1998           Army                DOD delegates decision-making authority to the Army,
                                    primarily as part of its overall effort to reduce responsibilities
                                    and staffing of its offices.
 2001           DOD                 DOD reinstates its position as the program’s top
                                    decision maker. According to DOD, this was done to
                                    streamline decision making, which is consistent with the
                                    cost of the program and national and state interest in the
                                    safe and timely destruction of the stockpile.
Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.




17
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Chemical Weapons: FEMA and Army Must
Be Proactive in Preparing States for Emergencies GAO-01-850 (Washington, D.C.:
Aug. 13, 2001).




Page 13                                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Leadership responsibilities for the program within the Army have
also transferred three times from one assistant secretary to another
(see table 5). During this time, there were numerous CSEPP issues that the
Army took positions on with which FEMA did not concur. For example, in
August 2002, the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and
Environment) officials committed to funding nearly $1 million to study
building an emergency operations center for a community near Umatilla
with additional funds to be provided later. Since the program shifted to the
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology)
in 2003, program officials have been reconsidering this commitment. The
problem of Army and FEMA not speaking with one voice led to confusion
among state and local communities. Further, dual or overlapping authority
by the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and
Technology) and the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and
Environment) in 2001 was not clarified. Without clear lines of authority,
one office took initiatives without consulting the other. As a result,
stakeholders were unclear if initiatives were valid.

In addition to these program shifts, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the
Army (Chemical Demilitarization)—an oversight office moved from DOD
to the Army in 1998—reported to the Assistant Secretary of the Army
(Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology) from 1998 until 2001, then to the
Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and Environment) until
2003, and now again to the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition,
Logistics, and Technology). These many shifts in this oversight office
with responsibility for programmatic decisions left stakeholders confused
about this office’s oversight role and about the necessity of funding
requests it made. As a result, the accumulation of extra funding ultimately
caused Congress to cut the program’s budget.18




18
  U.S. General Accounting Office, Chemical Weapons Disposal: Improvements
Needed in Program Accountability and Financial Management, GAO/NSIAD-00-80
(Washington, D.C.: May 8, 2000).




Page 14                                           GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                            Table 5: Transfer of Program Oversight Responsibilities within the Army,
                            1986-Present

                                               Army
                             Year              organization           Action
                             1986              Assistant           The Secretary of the Army assigned oversight of the
                                               Secretary of the    Chem-Demil Program to the Assistant Secretary of the
                                               Army (Installations Army (Installations and Environment).
                                               and Environment)
                             1994              Assistant              When DOD designated the program a major defense
                                               Secretary of the       acquisition program, the Army transferred oversight to
                                               Army (Research,        the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research,
                                               Development, and       Development, and Acquisition).
                                               Acquisition)
                             2001              Assistant           To streamline the program’s organizational structure,
                                               Secretary of the    the Army transferred oversight back to the Assistant
                                               Army (Installations Secretary of the Army (Installations and Environment).
                                               and Environment)
                             2003              Assistant          The Army transfers the program back to the Assistant
                                               Secretary of the   Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and
                                               Army (Acquisition, Technology) when CMA was established.
                                               Logistics, and
                                               Technology)
                            Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Army data.




Frequent Changes in Key     The Chem-Demil Program has experienced a number of changes and
Program Officials Obscure   vacancies in key program leadership positions, which has obscured
Accountability              accountability. This issue is further compounded, as discussed later,
                            by the lack of a strategic plan to provide an agreed upon road map for
                            officials to follow. Within the Army, three different officials have held
                            senior leadership positions since December 2001. In addition, five officials
                            have served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Chem-Demil)
                            during that time.19 The program manager’s position remained vacant for
                            nearly 1 year, from April 2002 to February 2003, before being filled.
                            However, in June, after only 4 months, the program manager resigned and
                            the Army named a replacement.

                            Frequent shifts in key leadership positions led to several instances
                            where this lack of continuity affected decision making and obscured
                            accountability. For example, in June 2002, a program official promised to
                            support future funding requests for emergency preparedness equipment


                            19
                             This position is now the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Elimination of
                            Chemical Weapons).




                            Page 15                                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                            from a community, but his successor did not fulfill this promise. This
                            promise caused communities to submit several funding requests that
                            were not supported. The lack of leadership continuity makes it unclear
                            who is accountable when commitments are made but not implemented.
                            Moreover, when key leaders do not remain in their positions long enough
                            to develop the needed long-term perspective (on program issues) or to
                            effectively follow through on program initiatives, it is easy for them to
                            deny responsibility for previous decisions and avoid current
                            accountability.


Recent Reorganization       The recent reorganization by the Army has not streamlined the program’s
Has Not Reduced             complex organization or clarified roles and responsibilities. For example,
Organizational Complexity   the Director of CMA will now report to two different senior Army
                            organizations, which is one more than under the previous structure. This
                            divided reporting approach is still not fully developed, but it may adversely
                            affect program coordination and accountability. The reorganization has
                            also divided the responsibility for various program phases between two
                            offices within CMA. One organization, the Program Manager for the
                            Elimination of Chemical Weapons, will manage the first three phases
                            for each site and a newly created organization, the Director of Operations,
                            will manage the final two phases. This reorganization changes the
                            cradle-to-grave management approach that was used to manage sites
                            in the past and has blurred responsibities for officials who previously
                            provided support in areas such as quality assurance and safety. Moreover,
                            the reorganization did not address two program components—community-
                            related CSEPP and ACWA. CSEPP will continue to be jointly managed
                            with FEMA. ACWA, as congressionally directed, will continue to be
                            managed separately from the Army by DOD.

                            During the transition process, no implementation plan was promulgated
                            when the new organization was first announced in January 2003. As of
                            June 2003, the migration of roles and responsibilities formerly assigned to
                            the office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization into the
                            new CMA had not been articulated. For example, several key CMA
                            officials who had formerly been part of the former program office told us
                            that they were unsure of their new roles within CMA and the status of
                            ongoing program initiatives. Furthermore, past relationships and
                            responsibilities among former program offices and site activities have
                            been disrupted. Although the establishment of CMA with a new directorate
                            responsible for operations at Tooele and Aberdeen is underway, former
                            program office staff told us they did not know how this new organization
                            would manage the sites in the future.


                            Page 16                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Program Lacks Strategy    While DOD and the Army have issued numerous policies and guidance
and Implementation Plan   documents for the Chem-Demil Program, they have not developed an
                          overarching, comprehensive strategy or an implementation plan to guide
                          the program and monitor its progress. Leading organizations embrace
                          principles for effectively implementing and managing programs. Some key
                          aspects of this approach include promulgating a comprehensive strategy
                          to include mission, long-term goals, and methods to accomplish these
                          goals and an implementation plan that includes annual performance goals,
                          measurable performance indicators, and evaluation and corrective action
                          plans. According to DOD and Army officials, the Chem-Demil Program
                          relies primarily on guidance and planning documents related to the
                          acquisition process.20 For example, the former program manager drafted
                          several documents, such as the Program Manager for Chemical
                          Demilitarization’s Management Plan and Acquisition Strategy for the
                          Chemical Demilitarization Program, as the cornerstone of his management
                          approach. Our review of these and other key documents showed that they
                          did not encompass all components of the program or other nonacquisition
                          activities. Some documents had various elements, such as a mission
                          statement, but they were not consistently written. None contained all of
                          the essential elements expected in a comprehensive strategy nor
                          contained aspects needed for an implementation plan, such as an
                          evaluation and corrective action plan. Further, all documents were out of
                          date and did not reflect recent changes to the program.

                          DOD and Army officials stated that the program’s strategy would be
                          articulated in the updated program’s acquisition strategy to be completed
                          by the new Director of CMA. According to the draft acquisition strategy,
                          the focus is to acquire services, systems, and equipment. Again, this
                          approach does not address all components of the Chem-Demil Program,
                          such as CSEPP and ACWA.

                          More importantly, a strategic plan would ensure that all actions support
                          overall program goals as developed by the appropriate senior-level office
                          with oversight responsibility for the program. An implementation plan
                          would define the steps the program would take to accomplish its mission.
                          Further, a strategy document, coupled with an implementation plan,
                          would clarify roles and responsibilities and establish program
                          performance measurements. Together, these documents would provide



                          20
                            Acquisition programs establish program goals for cost, schedule, and performance
                          parameters over the program’s life cycle.




                          Page 17                                                 GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                            the foundation for a well-managed program to provide continuity of
                            operations for program officials to follow.


                            The program continues to miss most milestones, following a decade long
Most Sites Will Miss        trend. Nearly all of the incineration sites will miss the 2001 scheduled
Schedule Milestones         milestones because of substantial delays during their systematization
                            (equipment testing) or operations (agent destruction) phases. Delays at
due to Program’s            sites using incineration stem primarily from a number of problems that
Inability to Anticipate     DOD and the Army have not been able to anticipate or control, such as
                            concerns involving plant safety, difficulties in meeting environmental
and Influence Issues        permitting requirements, public concerns about emergency preparedness
                            plans, and budgeting shortfalls. The neutralization sites have not missed
                            milestones yet but have experienced delays as well. DOD and the Army
                            have not developed an approach to anticipate and address potential
                            problems that could adversely affect program schedules, costs, and safety.
                            Neither DOD nor the Army has adopted a comprehensive risk management
                            approach to mitigate potential problems. As a result, the Chem-Demil
                            Program will have a higher level of risk of missing its schedule milestones
                            and CWC deadlines, incurring rising costs, and unnecessarily prolonging
                            the potential risk to the public associated with the storage of the chemical
                            stockpile.


Substantial Delays at       Most incineration sites will miss important milestones established in 2001
Incineration Sites Led to   due to schedule delays. For example, delays at Anniston, Umatilla, and
Missed Milestones           Pine Bluff have already resulted, or will result, in their missing the 2001
                            schedule milestones to begin chemical agent destruction operations
                            (operation phase). 21 Johnston Atoll will miss its schedule milestone for
                            shutting down the facility (closure phase).22 The Tooele site has not missed
                            any milestones since the 2001 schedule was issued; however, the site has
                            undergone substantial delays in destroying its stockpile primarily due to a
                            safety-related incident in July 2002.23 If additional delays occur at the



                            21
                              At the time of the 2001 schedule revision, all three of these sites were in the
                            systemization phase; thus, their next milestone was to begin agent destruction operations.
                            22
                              At the time of the 2001 schedule revision, agent destruction operations had been
                            completed and its next milestone was to complete closure of the facility.
                            23
                             According to Army officials, the United States will not meet the 45 percent interim
                            CWC deadline by April 2004.




                            Page 18                                                  GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Tooele site, it could also exceed its next milestone as well. Table 6 shows
the status of the incineration sites that will miss 2001 schedule milestones.

Table 6: Slippage of 2001 Scheduled Milestone Dates, by Incineration Site

                                                                                          Difference
                                                                                      between 2001
                                                                              a
                                          2001 schedule           Estimated           schedule and
                         Next project     date to begin           date to begin        estimate (no.
    Site                 milestone        next milestone          next phase             of months)
    Anniston             Operations       July 2002               July 2003                        +12
    Umatilla             Operations       July 2003               Dec. 2003                         +5
    Pine Bluff           Operations       Oct. 2003               Apr. 2004                         +6
    Johnston Atoll       End of closure   Sept. 2003              Jan. 2004                         +4
Sources: DOD and the U.S. Army.
a
 Program manager’s official estimate for Pine Bluff and Johnston Atoll; unofficial estimates for other
sites based on discussions with site officials as of June 2003.


The delays at the incineration sites have resulted from various
long-standing issues, which the Army has not been able to effectively
anticipate or control because it does not have a process to identify and
mitigate them. An effectively managed program would have an approach,
such as lessons learned, to identify and mitigate issues. Although the
program now has extensive experience with destroying agents at two
sites, the Chem-Demil Programmatic Lessons Learned Program has been
shifted to individual contractors from a headquarters centralized effort.
In September 2002, we reported on the effectiveness of the centralized
lessons learned program and found it to be generally effective, but it
should be improved and expanded.24 By decentralizing the program, it is
uncertain how knowledge will be leveraged between sites to avoid or
lessen potential delays due to issues that have previously occurred. In
addition, program officials told us that they were concerned that lessons
from the closure at Johnston Atoll were not being captured and saved for
future use at other sites.

Many delays have resulted from incidents during operations,
environmental permitting, community protection, and funding issues.
This continues to be a trend we identified in previous reports on the


24
   U.S General Accounting Office, Chemical Weapons: Lessons Learned Program
Generally Effective but Could Be Improved and Expanded, GAO-02-890 (Washington, D.C.:
Sept. 10, 2002).




Page 19                                                           GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
    program. The following examples illustrate some of the issues that have
    caused delays at incineration sites since 2001:

•   Incidents during operations: Agent destruction operations at Tooele were
    suspended from July 2002 to March 2003 because of a chemical incident
    involving a plant worker who came into contact with a nerve agent while
    performing routine maintenance. Subsequent investigations determined
    that this event occurred because some procedures related to worker safety
    were either inadequate or not followed. A corrective action plan, which
    required the implementation of an improved safety plan, was instituted
    before operations resumed. Since it resumed operations in March 2003,
    Tooele has experienced several temporary shutdowns. (These shutdowns
    are discussed further in app. II.)

•   Environmental permitting: The start of agent destruction operations at
    Umatilla and Anniston sites has been delayed because of several
    environmental permitting issues.25 Delays at the Umatilla site have resulted
    from several unanticipated engineering changes related to reprogramming
    software and design changes that required permit modifications. An
    additional delay occurred at the Umatilla site when the facility was
    temporarily shut down in October 2002 by state regulators because
    furnaces were producing an unanticipated high amount of heavy metals
    during surrogate agent testing. The testing was suspended until a
    correction could be implemented. Delays at the Anniston site occurred
    because state environmental regulators did not accept test results for one
    of the furnaces because the subcontractor did not follow state permit-
    specified protocols.

•   Community protection: Destruction operations at the Anniston site have
    been delayed because of concerns about emergency preparedness for the
    surrounding communities. These concerns included the inadequacy of
    protection plans for area schools and for special needs residents. Although
    we reported on this issue in July 199626 and again in August 2001 and a
    senior DOD official identified it as a key concern in September 2001, the


    25
     We have reported on permitting delays in Chemical Weapons And Materiel: Key
    Factors Affecting Disposal Costs and Schedule, GAO/NSIAD-97-18 (Washington, D.C.:
    Feb. 10, 1997).
    26
       See U.S. General Accounting Office, Chemical Weapons Stockpile: Emergency
    Preparedness in Alabama Is Hampered by Management Weaknesses,GAO/NSIAD-96-150
    (Washington, D.C: July 23, 1996) and Chemical Weapons: FEMA and Army Must Be
    Proactive in Preparing States for Emergencies, GAO-01-850 (Washington, D.C.:
    Aug. 13, 2001).




    Page 20                                               GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
    Army was unable to come to a satisfactory resolution with key state
    stakeholders prior to the planned January 2003 start date. As of June 2003,
    negotiations were still ongoing between the Army and key public officials
    to determine when destruction operations could begin.

•   Funding: Systemization and closure activities were delayed at Pine Bluff
    and Johnston Atoll sites, respectively, because program funds planned for
    demilitarization were redirected in fiscal year 2002 by DOD to pay for
    $40.5 million for additional community protection equipment for Anniston.
    This was an unfunded budget expense, and the Army reduced funds for
    the Pine Bluff site by $14.9 million, contributing to construction and
    systemization milestones slipping 1 year. The Pine Bluff site was selected
    because the loss of funding would not delay the projected start of
    operations during that fiscal year. Program officials told us that the total
    program cost of this schedule slip would ultimately be $90 million.
    Additionally, funds were reduced for the Johnston Atoll site by $25.1
    million because it was in closure.

    According to an Army official, delays increase program costs by
    approximately $250,000 to $300,000 a day or about $10 million per month.
    Since 2001, delays have caused cost increases of $256 million at the
    incineration sites shown in table 7.

    Table 7: Program Cost Increases Resulting from Delays at Incineration Sites

     Dollars in millions
     Incineration site                        Cause of delay                       Cost increase
     Johnston Atoll                           Funding                                       $26
     Tooele                                   Incident during operation                      75
     Anniston                                 Environmental permitting                       45
     Umatilla                                 Environmental permitting                       20
     Pine Bluff                               Funding                                        90
     Total                                                                                 $256
    Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Army data.

    Note: Data as of March 2003.




    Page 21                                                        GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                           Due to the delays, the Army is in the process of developing new milestones
                           that would extend beyond those adopted in 2001. According to an Army
                           official, the program will use events that have occurred since 2001 to
                           present new cost estimates to DOD in preparation for the fiscal year 2005
                           budget submission. Program officials told us that they estimate costs have
                           already increased $1.2 billion. This estimated increase is likely to rise
                           further as additional factors are considered.


Delays at Neutralization   The two bulk-agent only sites, Aberdeen and Newport, have experienced
Sites Have Not Led to      delays but have not breeched their milestones. The schedules were revised
Missed Milestones          in response to concerns about the continued storage of the chemical
                           stockpile after the events of September 11, 2001. In 2002, DOD approved
                           the use of a modified process that will accelerate the rate of destruction at
                           these two sites. For example, the Army estimates that the modified
                           process will reduce the length of time needed to complete destruction of
                           the blister agent stockpile at Aberdeen from 20 months to 6 months. The
                           Army estimates that this reduction, along with other changes, such as the
                           off-site shipping of a waste byproduct, will reduce the scheduled end of
                           operations by 5 years, from 2008 to 2003. Similarly, projections for agent
                           destruction operations at Newport were reduced from 20 months to
                           7 months, and the destruction end date moved up from 2009 to 2004.

                           While the Aberdeen site did begin destruction operations, as of June 2003,
                           it had only achieved a peak rate of 2 containers per day, which is far
                           less than the projected peak daily rate of 12, and had experienced
                           unanticipated problems removing residual agent from the containers. After
                           2 months of processing, Army officials said it had initially processed 57 of
                           the 1,815 containers in Aberdeen’s stockpile and will have to do
                           additional processing of these containers because of a higher amount
                           of unanticipated hardened agent. Even if the peak daily rate of 12 is
                           achieved, the site will not meet the October 2003 Army estimate.

                           At the Newport site, construction problems will delay the start of
                           operations, missing the program manager’s October 2003 estimate for
                           starting agent destruction operations. Another possible impediment to
                           starting operations is the program’s efforts to treat the waste byproduct
                           at a potential off-site disposal facility in Ohio. These efforts have met
                           resistance from some community leaders and residents near the potential
                           disposal site. If the Army is unable to use an off-site facility, the disposal
                           may have to be done on site, requiring the construction of a waste
                           byproduct treatment facility, further causing delays and increasing costs.



                           Page 22                                           GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                         Schedule milestones were not adopted for the Pueblo and Blue Grass
                         sites in the 2001 schedule because DOD had not selected a destruction
                         technology. Subsequently, DOD selected destruction technologies for
                         these sites; however, these decisions were made several months beyond
                         the dates estimated in 2001. For example, while program officials
                         indicated that the technology decision for the Kentucky site would be
                         made by September 2002, the decision was not made until February 2003.
                         Significantly, DOD announced initial schedule milestones for these
                         two sites that extended beyond the extended April 2012 deadline of the
                         CWC. According to DOD officials, these schedules are preliminary and will
                         be reevaluated after the selected contractors complete their initial design
                         of the facilities. Plans for these sites are immature, and changes are likely
                         to occur as they move closer to the operations phase still at least several
                         years away.


Risk Management          DOD and the Army have not implemented a comprehensive risk
Approach Needed to       management approach that would proactively anticipate and influence
Reduce Schedule Delays   issues that could adversely affect the program’s progress. The program
                         manager’s office drafted a risk management plan in June 2000, but the plan
                         has not been formally approved or implemented. According to program
                         officials, a prior program official drafted the plan and subsequent officials
                         did not approve or further develop the plan. The draft plan noted that
                         DOD’s acquisition rules require program managers to establish a risk
                         management plan to identify and control risk related to performance, cost,
                         and schedule.27

                         Such a plan would allow managers to systematically identify, analyze, and
                         influence the risk factors and could help keep the program within its
                         schedule and cost estimates.

                         DOD and Army officials have given several reasons for not having an
                         overall risk management plan. A DOD official indicated that the
                         approach that has been used to address program problems has been crisis
                         management, which has forced DOD to react to issues rather than control
                         them. The deputy program manager stated that the program’s focus has
                         been on managing individual sites by implementing initiatives to improve
                         contractor performance as it relates to safety, schedule, and cost. The



                         27
                          Interim Defense Acquisition Guidebook, Oct. 30, 2002 (formerly DOD 5000.2-R,
                         Apr. 5, 2002).




                         Page 23                                                GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
              official also said that establishing a formal, integrated risk management
              plan has not been a priority. However, an official from the program
              manager’s office said the infrastructure is in place to finalize an integrated
              risk management plan by October 2003, which coincides with the date
              CMA takes over leadership of the program. However, due to the transition
              that the organization is undergoing, the status of this effort is uncertain.

              The Army defines its risk management approach as a process for
              identifying and addressing internal and external issues that may have
              a negative impact on the program’s progress. A risk management
              approach has five basic steps, which assist program leaders in effective
              decision making for better program outcomes. Simply stated, the first step
              is to identify those issues that pose a risk to the program. For example, a
              problem in environmental permitting can significantly delay the program
              schedule. The second step is to analyze the risks identified and prioritize
              the risks using established criteria. The third step is to create a plan for
              action to mitigate the prioritized risks in some order of importance. The
              fourth step is to track and validate the actions taken.

              The last step is to review and monitor the outcomes of the actions taken
              to ensure their effectiveness. Additional remedies may be needed if
              actions are not successful or the risks have changed. Risk management
              is a continuous, dynamic process and must become a regular part of the
              leadership decision process. Without developing such an approach, the
              Chem-Demil Program will continue to manage by addressing issues as
              they arise and not by developing strategies or contingency plans to
              meet program issues. As the program complexity increases with new
              technologies and more active sites, a comprehensive risk management
              approach, as the acquisition regulations require, would facilitate program
              success and help control costs. Such a proactive approach would allow
              the program to systematically identify, analyze, and manage the risk
              factors that could hamper its efforts to destroy the chemical stockpile and
              help keep it within its schedule and cost estimates.


              For more than a decade, the Chem-Demil Program has struggled to meet
Conclusions   schedule milestones—and control the enormous costs—for destroying
              the nation’s chemical weapons stockpile. The program will also miss
              future CWC deadlines. Despite several reorganizations of its complex
              structure, the program continues to flounder. Program leadership at
              both the oversight and the program manager levels has shifted
              frequently, contributing to the program’s continued instability, ineffective
              decision making, and weak accountability. The repeated realignments of


              Page 24                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
the program have done little to resolve its awkward, hydra-like structure
in which roles and responsibilities continue to be poorly defined, multiple
lines of authority exist, and coordination between various entities is poor.
These shifts and realignments have taken place without the benefit of a
comprehensive strategy and an implementation plan that could help the
program clearly define its mission and begin working toward its goals
effectively. If the program had these key pillars, such as a strategy to guide
it from its inception and an implementation plan to track performance, it
would be in a better position to achieve desired outcomes. The program
will have a low probability of achieving its principal goal of destroying the
nation’s chemical weapons stockpile in a safe manner within the 2001
schedule unless DOD and Army leadership take immediate action to
clearly define roles and responsibilities throughout the program and
implement an overarching strategic plan.

The Chem-Demil Program is entering a crucial period as more of its sites
move into the operations phase. As this occurs, the program faces
potentially greater challenges than it has already encountered, including
the possibilities of growing community resistance, unanticipated technical
problems, and serious site incidents. Unless program leadership is
proactive in identifying potential internal and external issues and
preparing for them, or in reducing the chances that they will occur, the
program remains at great risk of failing to meet its scheduled milestones
and the deadlines set by the CWC. These problems, and subsequent
delays, are likely to continue plaguing the program unless it is able to
incorporate a comprehensive risk management system into its daily
routine. Such a proactive approach would allow the program to
systematically identify, analyze, and manage the risk factors that could
hamper its efforts to destroy the chemical stockpile and help keep it
within its schedule and cost estimates. Without the advantage of having a
risk management tool, the program will continue to be paralyzed by delays
caused by unanticipated issues, resulting in spiraling program costs and
missed deadlines that prolong the dangers of the chemical weapons
stockpile to the American public.




Page 25                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                      We recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the Under Secretary
Recommendations for   of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, in conjunction with
Executive Action      the Secretary of the Army, to

                      •   develop an overall strategy and implementation plan for the chemical
                          demilitarization program that would:

                          •     articulate a program mission statement,
                          •     identify the program’s long-term goals and objectives,
                          •     delineate the roles and responsibilities of all DOD and Army offices,
                                and
                          •     establish near-term performance measures, and

                      •   implement a risk management approach that anticipates and influences
                          internal and external factors that could adversely impact program
                          performance.


                      In written comments on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with our
Agency Comments       recommendations. In concurring with our recommendation to develop an
and Our Evaluation    overall strategy and implementation plan, DOD stated that it is in the
                      initial stages of developing such a plan and estimates that it will be
                      completed in fiscal year 2004. In concurring with our recommendation to
                      implement a risk management approach, DOD stated that the CMA will
                      review the progress of an evaluation of several components of its risk
                      management approach within the next 120 days. At that time, DOD will
                      evaluate the outcome of this review and determine any appropriate action.

                      We believe these actions should improve program performance provided
                      DOD’s plan incorporates a clearly articulated mission statement, long-term
                      goals, well-delineated assignment of roles and responsibilities, and near-
                      term performance measures and the Army’s review of its risk management
                      approach focuses on anticipating and influencing internal and external
                      factors that could adversely impact the Chem-Demil Program.

                      DOD’s comments are printed in appendix III. DOD also provided technical
                      comments that we incorporated where appropriate.


                      We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional
                      committees; the Secretary of Defense; the Under Secretary of Defense for
                      Acquisition, Technology and Logistics; the Secretary of the Army; and the
                      Director, Office of Management and Budget. We will make copies available



                      Page 26                                            GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
to others upon request. In addition, the report will be available at no
charge on the GAO Web site at http://www.gao.gov.

For any questions regarding this report, please contact me at
(512) 512-6020. Key contributors to this report were Donald Snyder,
Rodell Anderson, Bonita Oden, John Buehler, Pam Valentine,
Steve Boyles, Nancy Benco, and Charles Perdue.




Raymond J. Decker
Director, Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 27                                          GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology


             This report focuses on the Chemical Demilitarization (Chem-Demil)
             Stockpile Program, one of the components of the Chem-Demil program.
             Other components, such as the Chemical Stockpile Emergency
             Preparedness Program, were only discussed to determine their effects on
             the destruction schedule.

             To determine if recent changes in the stockpile program’s management
             and oversight have been successful in improving program progress, we
             interviewed numerous officials and reviewed various documents. Through
             a review of previous and current organizational charts, we noted a number
             of changes in the program from 1986 to the present. We interviewed
             Department of Defense (DOD) and Army officials to determine what effect
             organizational changes and management initiatives had on the program
             and to determine if a strategic plan had been developed to manage the
             program. We identified organizational changes between DOD and the
             Army, determined the rationale for changes, and ascertained the effect of
             these changes on program performance. We reviewed Defense Acquisition
             System directives to determine the roles and responsibilities of DOD and
             the Army in managing the Chemical Demilitarization Program. We
             assessed Chem-Demil Program’s Acquisition Strategy and Management
             and Program Performance plans to identify elements of a strategic plan
             and evaluated and compared them to the general tenets and management
             principles embraced by the Government Performance and Results Act.
             Additionally, we interviewed Office of Management and Budget officials to
             discuss their assessment of the program’s performance and its adherence
             to a results-oriented management approach and reviewed DOD directives
             and regulations to determine the criteria for strategic planning.

             To determine the progress that DOD and the Army have made in
             meeting revised 2001 cost and schedule estimates and Chemical Weapons
             Convention (CWC) deadlines, we interviewed relevant program officials
             and reviewed a number of documents. We reviewed the Army’s current
             program office estimates to destroy the chemical weapons stockpile and
             weekly and monthly destruction schedules to understand how sites will
             perform and synchronize activities to meet milestones. We interviewed
             DOD’s Cost Analysis Improvement Group to determine how DOD
             developed estimates for the 2001 milestone schedules for each site.
             However, we did not independently evaluate the reliability of the
             methodology the Cost Analysis Improvement Group used to develop its
             estimate. Further, we interviewed program officials to determine the
             status of the destruction process at incineration and neutralization sites
             and the impact of delays on schedule and cost.



             Page 28                                        GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




We reviewed Selected Acquisition Reports and Acquisition Program
Baselines to identify the increase in program cost estimates in 1998 and
2001 and to determine the relationship between changes to schedule
milestones and increased program cost. Our analysis identified the effect
that schedule delays would have on schedule milestones at incineration
and neutralization sites. Additionally, the analysis also identified types of
schedule delays and the impact on program cost. Through interviews with
program officials, we discussed the status of factors that increase program
life-cycle cost estimates. We examined the Chem-Demil Program’s draft
risk management plans to determine if the Army had developed a
comprehensive risk management approach to address potential problems
that could adversely affect program schedules, cost, and safety. Through
an analysis of other risk management plans, we identified elements of a
risk management process. We reviewed CWC documents to determine
deadlines for the destruction of the chemical weapons stockpile. We
interviewed program officials to discuss the potential implications of not
meeting interim milestones and CWC deadlines.

During the review, we visited and obtained information from the Office
of the Secretary of Defense, the Assistant Secretaries of the
Army (Installations and Environment) and (Acquisition, Logistics, and
Technology); the Office of Management and Budget, the Department
of State, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the DOD
Inspector General in Washington, D.C. and met with the Director of
Chemical Materials Agency and the Program Managers for Chemical
Demilitarization and Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment in
Edgewood, Maryland. We also met project managers, site project
managers, state environmental offices, and contractors associated with
disposal sites in Aberdeen, Maryland; Anniston, Alabama; Umatilla,
Oregon; and Pine Bluff, Arkansas. We also interviewed Federal Emergency
Management Agency officials concerning funding of emergency
preparedness program activities.

We conducted our review from August 2002 to June 2003 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 29                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                           Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
                           Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
                           Process and Current Facility Status


Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
Process and Current Facility Status
                           When developing schedules, the Army divides the demilitarization
                           process into five major phases. The five major phases are facility design,
                           construction, systemization, operations, and closure. Some activities of
                           one phase may overlap the preceding phase. The nine sites are at different
                           phases of the process.


The Army’s                 Design
Demilitarization Process
                           During the design phase, the Army obtains the required environmental
                           permits. The permits are required to comply with federal, state, and local
                           environmental laws and regulations to build and operate chemical disposal
                           facilities. The permits specify construction parameters and establish
                           operations guidelines and emission limitations. Subsequent engineering
                           changes to the facility are incorporated into the permits through formal
                           permit modification procedures. During this phase, the Army originally
                           solicited contract proposals from systems contractors to build, and
                           operate, the chemical demilitarization facility and selected a systems
                           contractor. Now, the Army uses a design/build approach, whereby the
                           contractor completes both phases. The Army originally provided the
                           systems contractors with the design for the incineration facilities;
                           however, systems contractors developed the facility design for the
                           neutralization facilities.

                           Construction

                           During the construction phase, the Army, with the contractor’s input,
                           develops a master project schedule that identifies all major project tasks
                           and milestones associated with site design, construction, systemization,
                           operations, and closure. For each phase in the master project schedule,
                           the contractor develops detailed weekly schedules to identify and
                           sequence the activities necessary to meet contract milestones. Army site
                           project managers review and approve the detailed schedules to monitor
                           the systems contractor’s performance. After developing the schedules, the
                           contractor builds a disposal site and acquires, installs, and integrates the
                           necessary equipment to destroy the stockpile and begins hiring, training,
                           and certifying operations staff.

                           Systemization

                           During systemization, the systems contractor also prepares and executes a
                           systemization implementation plan, which describes how the contractor
                           will ensure the site is prepared to conduct agent operations. The


                           Page 30                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
Process and Current Facility Status




contractor begins executing the implementation plan by testing system
components. The contractor then tests individual systems to identify and
correct any equipment flaws. After systems testing, the contractor
conducts integrated operations tests. For example, the contractor uses
simulated munitions to test the rocket processing line from receipt of the
munitions through incineration. Army staff observe and approve key
elements of each integrated operations test, which allows the contractor
to continue the systemization process. Once the Army approves the
integrated operations test, the contractor tests the system by conducting
mini and surrogate trial burns. During minitrial burns, the contractor adds
measured amounts of metals to a surrogate material to demonstrate the
system’s emissions will not exceed allowable rates. In conducting
surrogate trial burns, the contractor destroys nonagent compounds similar
in makeup to the agents to be destroyed at the site. By using surrogate
agents, the contractor tests destruction techniques without threatening
people or the environment. Both the minitrial burn test results and the
surrogate trial burn test results are submitted to environmental regulators
for review and approval. When the environmental regulators approve the
surrogate trial burns, the contractor conducts an Operational Readiness
Review to validate standard operating procedures and to verify the
proficiency of the workforce. During the Operational Readiness Review,
the workforce demonstrates knowledge of operating policies and
procedures by destroying simulated munitions. After systemization, the
contractor begins the operations phase; that is, the destruction of chemical
munitions.

Operations

The operations phase is when weapons and agents are destroyed.
Weapons are destroyed by campaign, which is the complete destruction of
like chemical weapons at a given site. Operations for incineration and
alternative technologies differ. The following examples pertain to an
incineration site. In its first campaign, Umatilla plans to destroy its
stockpile of M55 rockets filled with one type of nerve agent. Then a
second campaign is planned to destroy its stockpile of M55 rockets filled
with another type of nerve agent. After each campaign, the site must be
reconfigured. The Army refers to this process as an agent changeover.
During the changeover, the contractor decontaminates the site of any prior
nerve agent residue. The contractor then adjusts the monitoring, sampling,
and laboratory equipment to test for the next nerve agent. The contractor
also validates the operating procedures for the second agent destruction
process. Some operating procedures may be rewritten because the
processing rates among chemical agents differ. Although the operations


Page 31                                        GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                         Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
                         Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
                         Process and Current Facility Status




                         staff have been trained and certified on specific equipment, the staff are
                         re-trained on the operating parameters of processing VX agent.

                         In the third and forth campaigns at Umatilla, the contractor plans to
                         destroy 8-inch VX projectiles and 155-millimeter projectiles, respectively.
                         Because the third campaign involves a different weapon than the second
                         campaign (i.e., from rockets in the second campaign to projectiles in the
                         third campaign), the contractor will replace equipment during the
                         changeover. For example, the machine that disassembles rockets will be
                         replaced with a machine that disassembles projectiles. Additionally, a
                         changeover may require certain processes to be bypassed. For instance, if
                         a changeover involved changing processes from weapons with explosives
                         to weapons without explosives, the explosives removal equipment and
                         deactivation furnace would be bypassed. For the changeover to the fourth
                         campaign at Umatilla, the contractor will adjust equipment to handle
                         differences in weapon size. For example, the contractor will adjust the
                         conveyor system to accommodate the 155-millimeter projectiles. The
                         contractor also will change the location of monitoring equipment.

                         Closure

                         After destruction of the stockpile, the systems contractor begins closing
                         the site. During the closure phase, the contractor decontaminates and
                         disassembles the remaining systems, structures, and components used
                         during the demilitarization effort, and the contractor performs any other
                         procedures required by state environmental regulations or permits. The
                         contractor removes, disassembles, decontaminates, and destroys the
                         equipment, including ancillary equipment such as pipes, valves, and
                         switches. The contractor also decontaminates buildings by washing and
                         scrubbing concrete surfaces. Additionally, the contractor removes and
                         destroys the surface concrete from the walls, ceilings, and floors. With the
                         exception of the Umatilla site, the structures will remain standing. Any
                         waste generated during the decontamination process is destroyed.


Status of the            The Army’s nine chemical demilitarization sites are in different phases of
Demilitarization Sites   the demilitarization process. The Johnston Atoll site completed the
                         destruction of its stockpile and closure is almost complete. The sites at
                         Tooele, Utah, and Aberdeen, Maryland, are in the operations phase, each
                         using different technologies, to destroy chemical agent and munitions. The
                         remaining six facilities are in systems design, construction and/or
                         systemization. Table 8 provides details on the status of each of the nine
                         chemical demilitarization sites.


                         Page 32                                         GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                                           Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
                                           Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
                                           Process and Current Facility Status




Table 8: Status of Chemical Demilitarization Facilities

 Incineration site       Current phase            Status as of June 30, 2003
 Johnston Atoll          Closure                  • The Army completed operations in November 2000 and began closure activities
                                                    in January 2001.
                                                  • The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is September 2003; however,
                                                    the Army expects to complete closure in January 2004.
 Tooele, Utah            Operations               •   The Army began operations in August 1996.
                                                  •   After a 9-month shutdown, operations resumed in March 2003. Operations were
                                                      suspended from July 2002 to March 2003 because a worker was exposed to
                                                      chemical agent.
                                                  •   Subsequent to resuming operations in March 2003, the Army suspended agent
                                                      operations five times, for a total of 12 days. The suspensions occurred because
                                                      of various operational problems including: contamination of an agent collection
                                                      tank, air monitors erroneously reporting the presence of agent, problems
                                                      associated with processing spent decontaminate solution, a power outage, and
                                                      a chemical event.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete operations is February 2008;
                                                      however, the Army expects to complete operations in January 2006.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is September 2010; however,
                                                      the Army expects to complete closure in May 2008.
 Anniston, Ala.          Systemization            •   The Army completed systemization in January 2003. However, due to
                                                      congressional concerns that the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness
                                                      Program (CSEPP) had not adequately prepared the community for an accidental
                                                      release of agent, the Army did not begin agent operations as planned and
                                                      agreed to address the following four CSEPP issues before beginning
                                                      operations: (1) overpressurize schools and community facilities located within a
                                                      12-mile radius of the stockpile, (2) establish protection for individuals who are
                                                      unable to carry out protective action recommendations because of disability,
                                                      illness, inability to understand instructions in English, or are underage and
                                                      unattended, (3) assume responsibility for turning on the sirens for zones located
                                                      closest to the Anniston Army Depot, and (4) use the Environmental Protection
                                                      Agency’s new Acute Exposure Guideline Levels.
                                                  •   On June 5, 2003, the Army sent official 30-day notification, as required, to
                                                      Congress that the site is ready to begin operations.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete operations is May 2011; however, the
                                                      Army expects to complete operations in July 2009.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is December 2013; however,
                                                      the Army expects to complete closure in November 2011.
 Umatilla, Oreg.         Systemization            •   The DOD schedule milestone to start operations is July 2003; however, the
                                                      Army now expects to begin operations in December 2003 because of a minitrial
                                                      burn failure.
                                                  •   The Army is conducting surrogate trial burns, which are expected to be complete
                                                      in August 2003.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete operations is January 2011; however,
                                                      the Army expects to complete operations in May 2009.
                                                  •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is June 2014; however, the
                                                      Army expects to complete closure in February 2012.




                                           Page 33                                                   GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                                                     Appendix II: Major Schedule Phases
                                                     Associated with Chemical Demilitarization
                                                     Process and Current Facility Status




 Incineration site                   Current phase          Status as of June 30, 2003
 Pine Bluff, Ark.                    Systemization          • The DOD schedule milestone to begin operations is October 2003; however,
                                                              because of funding reductions, the Army expects to begin operations in
                                                              April 2004.
                                                            • The Army is conducting systems testing, which is expected to be complete in
                                                              August 2003.
                                                            • The Army expects to begin surrogate trial burns in June 2003 and complete the
                                                              trial burns in April 2004.
                                                            • The DOD schedule milestone to complete operations is November 2009;
                                                              however, the Army expects to complete operations in January 2009.
                                                            • The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is December 2011; however,
                                                              the Army expects to complete closure in December 2010.
 Neutralization site
 Aberdeen, Md.                       Operations             •   The Army began operations in April 2003 and the DOD schedule milestone to
                                                                complete operations is March 2004; however, the Army expects to complete
                                                                operations in September 2003.
                                                            •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is December 2006; however,
                                                                the Army expects to complete closure in July 2005.
 Newport, Ind.                       Systemization          •   The Army began systemization in September 2002 and the DOD schedule
                                                                milestone to complete systemization is February 2005; however, the Army
                                                                expects to complete systemization in October 2003.
                                                            •   The DOD schedule milestone to start operations is February 2005; however, the
                                                                Army expects to start operations in October 2003. The DOD schedule milestone
                                                                to complete operations is January 2006; however, the Army expects to complete
                                                                operations by April 2004.
                                                            •   The DOD schedule milestone to complete closure is April 2009; however, the
                                                                Army expects to complete closure in September 2006.
 Pueblo, Colo.                       Design                 •   The Army awarded a systems contract in September 2002 to design a
                                                                demilitarization site.
                                                            •   The Army is reviewing a proposed design and build plan with the systems
                                                                contractor. After the Army approves the design and build plan, the contractor will
                                                                begin site preparation activities.
                                                            •   The DOD schedule estimates operations will be completed by April 2010. (The
                                                                Army has not developed an estimated destruction schedule.)
 Blue Grass, Ky.                     Design                 •   The Army solicited systems contractor proposals in February 2003.
                                                            •   The Army selected a systems contractor in June 2003.
                                                            •   The DOD schedule estimates operations will be completed by May 2014. (The
                                                                Army has not developed an estimated destruction schedule.)
Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Army data.




                                                     Page 34                                                    GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
                   Appendix III: Comments from the Department
Appendix III: Comments from the
                   of Defense



Department of Defense




         Page 35                                           GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
          Appendix III: Comments from the Department
          of Defense




Page 36                                           GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
             Related GAO Products
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             Chemical Weapons: Lessons Learned Program Generally Effective but
             Could Be Improved and Expanded. GAO-02-890. Washington, D.C.:
             September 10, 2002.

             Chemical Weapons: FEMA and Army Must Be Proactive in Preparing
             States for Emergencies. GAO-01-850. Washington, D.C.: August 13, 2001.

             Chemical Weapons Disposal: Improvements Needed in Program
             Accountability and Financial Management. GAO/NSIAD-00-80.
             Washington, D.C.: May 8, 2000.

             Chemical Weapons: DOD Does Not Have a Strategy to Address Low-Level
             Exposures. GAO/NSIAD-98-228. Washington, D.C.: September 23, 1998.

             Chemical Weapons Stockpile: Changes Needed in the Management of the
             Emergency Preparedness Program. GAO/NSIAD-97-91. Washington, D.C.:
             June 11, 1997.

             Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Key Factors Affecting Disposal Costs
             and Schedule. GAO/T-NSIAD-97-118. Washington, D.C.: March 11, 1997.

             Chemical Weapons Stockpile: Emergency Preparedness in Alabama
             Is Hampered by Management Weaknesses. GAO/NSIAD-96-150.
             Washington, D.C.: July 23, 1996.

             Chemical Weapons Disposal: Issues Related to DOD’s Management.
             GAO/T-NSIAD-95-185. Washington, D.C.: July 13, 1995.

             Chemical Weapons: Army’s Emergency Preparedness Program Has
             Financial Management Weaknesses. GAO/NSIAD-95-94. Washington, D.C.:
             March 15, 1995.

             Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Review. GAO/NSIAD-95-66R.
             Washington, D.C.: January 12, 1995.

             Chemical Weapons: Stability of the U.S. Stockpile. GAO/NSIAD-95-67.
             Washington, D.C.: December 22, 1994.

             Chemical Weapons Disposal: Plans for Nonstockpile Chemical Warfare
             Materiel Can Be Improved. GAO/NSIAD-95-55. Washington, D.C.:
             December 20, 1994.




             Page 37                                      GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
Related GAO Products




Chemical Weapons: Issues Involving Destruction Technologies.
GAO/T-NSIAD-94-159. Washington, D.C.: April 26, 1994.

Chemical Weapons Destruction: Advantages and Disadvantages of
Alternatives to Destruction. GAO/NSIAD-94-123. Washington, D.C.:
March 18, 1994.

Arms Control: Status of U.S.-Russian Agreements and the Chemical
Weapons Convention. GAO/NSIAD-94-136. Washington, D.C.:
March 15, 1994.

Chemical Weapon Stockpile: Army’s Emergency Preparedness Program
Has Been Slow to Achieve Results. GAO/NSIAD-94-91. Washington, D.C.:
February 22, 1994.

Chemical Weapons Storage: Communities Are Not Prepared to Respond
to Emergencies. GAO/T-NSIAD-93-18. Washington, D.C.: July 16, 1993.

Chemical Weapons Destruction: Issues Affecting Program Cost,
Schedule, and Performance. GAO/NSIAD-93-50. Washington, D.C.:
January 21, 1993.

Chemical Weapons Destruction: Issues Related to Environmental
Permitting and Testing Experience. GAO/T-NSIAD-92-43.
Washington, D.C.: June 16, 1992.

Chemical Weapons Disposal. GAO/NSIAD-92-219R. Washington, D.C.:
May 14, 1992.

Chemical Weapons: Stockpile Destruction Cost Growth and
Schedule Slippages Are Likely to Continue. GAO/NSIAD-92-18.
Washington, D.C.: November 20, 1991.

Chemical Weapons: Physical Security for the U.S. Chemical Stockpile.
GAO/NSIAD-91-200. Washington, D.C.: May 15, 1991.

Chemical Warfare: DOD’s Effort to Remove U.S. Chemical Weapons
From Germany. GAO/NSIAD-91-105. Washington, D.C.: February 13, 1991.

Chemical Weapons: Status of the Army’s M687 Binary Program.
GAO/NSIAD-90-295. Washington, D.C.: September 28, 1990.




Page 38                                     GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
           Related GAO Products




           Chemical Weapons: Stockpile Destruction Delayed at the Army’s
           Prototype Disposal Facility. GAO/NSIAD-90-222. Washington, D.C.:
           July 30, 1990.

           Chemical Weapons: Obstacles to the Army’s Plan to Destroy Obsolete
           U.S. Stockpile. GAO/NSIAD-90-155. Washington, D.C.: May 24, 1990.




(350340)   Page 39                                     GAO-03-1031 Chemical Weapons
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