oversight

Combating Terrorism: Interagency Framework and Agency Programs to Address the Overseas Threat

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-05-23.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States General Accounting Office
             Report to Congressional Requesters
GAO

May 2003
             COMBATING
             TERRORISM
             Interagency
             Framework and
             Agency Programs
             to Address the
             Overseas Threat




GAO-03-165
             a
Contents



Transmittal Letter                                                                              1


Executive Summary                                                                               4
                      Purpose                                                                   4
                      Background                                                                4
                      Results in Brief                                                          5
                      GAO’s Analysis                                                            6
                      Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                       10


Chapter 1                                                                                      12
                      Definitions for Terrorism and Combating Terrorism                        12
Introduction:         The Threat of Terrorism Overseas                                         15
Terrorism Overseas    The Federal Government’s Role and Resources for Combating
                        Terrorism Overseas                                                     30
and the Federal       Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                       34
Government’s Role

Chapter 2                                                                                      38
                      Policies, Plans, and Legislation                                         38
The Interagency       Roles and Responsibilities of Key Federal Agencies                       52
Framework for         Interagency Coordination Mechanisms                                      60
                      Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                       64
Combating Terrorism
Overseas

Chapter 3                                                                                      66
                      Intelligence Gathering and Analysis Help Detect
Federal Efforts to       Terrorist Activities                                                  66
Detect and Prevent    Protecting U.S. Government Facilities and Americans Abroad               77
                      Public Diplomacy Builds International Support for
Terrorism                U.S. Foreign Policy                                                   89
                      Visa and Border Controls Are Intended to Prevent Terrorists and
                         Their Materials from Entering the United States                       91
                      Coalition Capabilities Are Enhanced through Bilateral Programs
                         and Activities                                                       105
                      Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                      127




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Chapter 4                                                                                               128
                              Diplomatic Initiatives Strengthen International Cooperation               128
Federal Efforts to            Law Enforcement Efforts to Disrupt Terrorist Organizations                135
Disrupt and Destroy           Identifying and Freezing Terrorists’ Financial Assets Disrupts
                                Terrorist Organizations                                                 145
Terrorist Organizations       Military Operations Provide Means to Destroy Terrorist
                                Organizations                                                           154
                              Covert Actions Can Be Used to Disrupt and Destroy Terrorist
                                Organizations                                                           168
                              Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                        169


Chapter 5                                                                                               170
                              Advance Preparations for Terrorist Incidents                              170
Federal Efforts to            Response to a Terrorist Incident Overseas                                 173
Respond to Terrorist          Evaluations in the Aftermath of a Terrorist Incident                      182
                              Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                        183
Incidents Overseas

Appendixes
               Appendix I:    Matrix of Department of Defense Programs and Activities to
                              Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                 184
               Appendix II:   Matrix of Department of Homeland Security Programs and
                              Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                   209
              Appendix III:   Matrix of Department of Justice Programs and Activities to
                              Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                 215
              Appendix IV:    Matrix of Department of State Programs and Activities to
                              Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                 225
               Appendix V:    Matrix of Department of the Treasury Programs and
                              Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                   239
              Appendix VI:    United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and Resolutions
                              Related to Terrorism                                                      243
             Appendix VII:    Organizations Visited or Contacted                                        249
             Appendix VIII:   Comments from the Department of Defense                                   253
              Appendix IX:    Comments from the U.S. Agency for International
                              Development                                                               254
               Appendix X:    GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                    255




                              Page ii                                         GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
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Related GAO Products                                                                            256


Tables                 Table 1: Fiscal Year 2004 President’s Request for Funding to
                                 Combat Terrorism Domestically and Overseas
                                 (Gross Budget Authority)                                        32
                       Table 2: National Strategies Related to Combating Terrorism               43
                       Table 3: Goals and Objectives in the National Strategy for
                                 Combating Terrorism                                             49
                       Table 4: NSC-Sponsored Interagency Working Groups Under the
                                 Counterterrorism Security Group to Coordinate Efforts to
                                 Combat Terrorism Overseas                                       61
                       Table 5: Selected Members of the Interagency Intelligence
                                 Committee on Terrorism                                          75
                       Table 6: U.S. Nonproliferation Assistance Programs                       117
                       Table 7: Federal Agencies’ Roles in Investigating Terrorist-Related
                                 Incidents Overseas                                             137
                       Table 8: Reported Extraditions and Renditions of Terrorists to the
                                 United States, 1987-2001                                       140
                       Table 9: Significant Military Contributions by Selected Coalition
                                 Partners in and around Afghanistan in Support of
                                 Operation Enduring Freedom                                     164
                       Table 10: Department of Defense Programs and Activities to Combat
                                 Terrorism Overseas                                             184
                       Table 11: Department of Homeland Security Programs and Activities
                                 to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                   209
                       Table 12: Department of Justice Programs and Activities to Combat
                                 Terrorism Overseas                                             215
                       Table 13: Department of State Programs and Activities to Combat
                                 Terrorism Overseas                                             225
                       Table 14: Department of the Treasury Programs and Activities to
                                 Combat Terrorism Overseas                                      239
                       Table 15: UN Conventions and Protocols Related to Terrorism              243
                       Table 16: UN Security Council Resolutions Related to Terrorism           244
                       Table 17: UN General Assembly Resolutions Related to
                                 Terrorism                                                      246


Figures                Figure 1: The Pentagon in Flames Moments after International
                                 Terrorists Crash a Hijacked Aircraft into the Building on
                                 September 11, 2001                                              14
                       Figure 2: Total International Terrorist Attacks, 1981-2001                17



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Figure 3: Types of International Terrorist Attacks Against
           Americans by Percentage, 1988-2001                             18
Figure 4: Terrorist Attacks Against U.S. Targets during 2001 by
           Type of Targets Attacked                                       20
Figure 5: Terrorist Attacks Against U.S. Targets during 2001 by
           Region                                                         21
Figure 6: Aftermath of the al Qaeda Terrorist Bombing of the U.S.
           Embassy in Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, in August 1998             23
Figure 7: Relationships Between and Among National Strategies
           Related to Combating Terrorism Overseas                        47
Figure 8: Host Nation Police Use Buses to Cordon off a U.S.
           Embassy during a Heightened Threat Period                      81
Figure 9: 2nd Company, Georgian Commando Battalion, Perform a
           Combat Off Load With Members of the U.S. Army’s 10th
           Special Forces Group (Airborne) at a Training Range at
           Krtsanisi, Republic of Georgia                                124
Figure 10: U.S. Special Forces Soldier Shows a Filipino Soldier How
           to Adjust the Sights on His M-16 Rifle during
           Marksmanship Training in Tipo-Tipo Town, Basilan
           Island, Philippines                                           125
Figure 11: UN Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution
           1373, Calling for Wide-Ranging International Cooperation
           to Combat Terrorism                                           132
Figure 12: Air Force B-52H Bomber Drops a Load of M117 750 lb.
           Bombs                                                         157
Figure 13: U.S. Special Forces Troops Riding Horseback in
           Afghanistan With Members of the Northern Alliance
           during Operation Enduring Freedom                             158
Figure 14: British Troops Prepare to Board an Oil Tanker as Part of
           the Coalition’s Maritime Interception Operations in the
           Arabian Sea                                                   160
Figure 15: Camp X-Ray Used as a Temporary Holding Facility for
           Detainees Held at U.S. Naval Air Station Guantánamo
           Bay, Cuba                                                     162
Figure 16: NATO Member France Provided Six Mirage 2000 Aircraft
           to Fly Reconnaissance Missions in Support of Operation
           Enduring Freedom                                              166
Figure 17: USS Cole Damaged by a Terrorist Bomb Explosion While
           Refueling at the Port of Aden, Yemen                          176
Figure 18: Federal Response Teams That Could Respond to a
           Weapons of Mass Destruction Incident Overseas                 181




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Abbreviations

ATF                    Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
CIA                    Central Intelligence Agency
CLASS                  Consular Lookout and Support System
DARPA                  Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DOD                    Department of Defense
DOE                    Department of Energy
FARC                   Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
                       (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)
FBI                    Federal Bureau of Investigation
FEMA                   Federal Emergency Management Agency
FEST                   Foreign Emergency Support Team
FinCEN                 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
FISA                   Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
FLETC                  Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
G-8                    Group of Eight
GAO                    U.S. General Accounting Office
ICITAP                 International Criminal Investigative Training
                       Assistance Program
ILEA                   International Law Enforcement Academy
INS                    Immigration and Naturalization Service
INTERPOL               International Police Organization
NATO                   North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NSC                    National Security Council
OMB                    Office of Management and Budget
OPDAT                  Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance
                       and Training
USAID                  U.S. Agency for International Development
USA PATRIOT            Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing
                       Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and
                       Obstruct Terrorism
PDD                    Presidential Decision Directive
RDT&E                  research, development, test, and evaluation
UN                     United Nations
WMD                    weapons of mass destruction


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Page v                                                   GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Contents




Page vi    GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
A
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, D.C. 20548



                                    May 23, 2003                                                                  TranL
                                                                                                                      sm
                                                                                                                       ertalti




                                    The Honorable Henry J. Hyde
                                    Chairman
                                    The Honorable Tom Lantos
                                    Ranking Member
                                    Committee on International Relations
                                    House of Representatives

                                    The Honorable Christopher Shays
                                    Chairman
                                    Subcommittee on National Security,
                                      Emerging Threats, and International Relations
                                    Committee on Government Reform
                                    House of Representatives

                                    Coordination of federal programs to combat terrorism overseas became
                                    even more critical as a result of the terrorist attacks against the United
                                    States on September 11, 2001. In response to these attacks, the federal
                                    government has taken unprecedented political, diplomatic, legal, law
                                    enforcement, financial, military, and intelligence actions to combat
                                    terrorism abroad. Among these actions is the publication of a series of new
                                    national strategies to combat terrorism.

                                    You asked that we develop baseline information identifying and describing
                                    federal programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas. As agreed
                                    with your offices, this report describes the interagency framework and
                                    policies for planning and coordinating federal efforts to counter
                                    international terrorism. It identifies the relationships between and among
                                    the new national strategies to combat terrorism. It also describes the
                                    federal programs and activities governmentwide to detect and prevent
                                    terrorism, disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations, and respond to
                                    terrorist incidents overseas. Finally, it provides detailed matrices of
                                    selected departments’ programs and activities to combat terrorism
                                    overseas. We briefed your staffs previously on the preliminary results of
                                    our work and, at your request, issued an interim report on Combating
                                    Terrorism: Department of State Programs to Combat Terrorism Abroad
                                    (GAO-02-1021, Sept. 6, 2002). This report contains the final results of
                                    our review.

                                    The scope of this report was on combating terrorism overseas and did not
                                    include a comprehensive review of homeland security efforts within the



                                    Page 1                                         GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
United States or federal agencies’ efforts to combat terrorism domestically.
However, for this report, we did perform limited work on border security,
where homeland security and overseas efforts overlap. Also, we included
certain efforts to combat terrorism overseas that actually occur within the
United States, such as interagency coordination, intelligence analysis, and
law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Further, our analysis was
performed before the Department of Homeland Security began operations
in January 2003. Thus, many of the agencies, bureaus, offices, and federal
response teams discussed in this report had not yet transferred to the new
department from the Departments of Health and Human Services, Justice,
Transportation, and the Treasury.

Because of the large number of federal agencies and wide spectrum of
efforts involved in combating terrorism overseas, this “landscape” report
describes the governmentwide framework and programs and activities
rather than evaluating their effectiveness. Therefore, this report contains
no recommendations. We recognize that the effectiveness of the new
strategies and related programs that we describe will only be determined
through time as they are implemented. Some of our recent work on
combating terrorism indicates there are many implementation challenges
and we have designated some of these programs as high risk. Where we
have done evaluative work on relevant programs, we have identified the
appropriate GAO products and summarized their results in footnotes. In
addition, we include a comprehensive list of related GAO products at the
back of this report.




Page 2                                          GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
We are sending copies of this report to other interested congressional
committees. We also are sending copies to the Secretaries of Defense,
Energy, Homeland Security, State, Transportation, and the Treasury; and
the Attorney General. In addition, we are sending copies to the Director,
U.S. Agency for International Development; the Director of Central
Intelligence; the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; the
Director, Office of Homeland Security; and the Director, Office of
Management and Budget. We will make copies available to other interested
parties upon request. This report also will be available on GAO’s Web site at
http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your offices have any questions about matters discussed in this
report, please contact me at (202) 512-6020 or by e-mail at
deckerrj@gao.gov. Contacts and key contributors are listed in appendix X.




Raymond J. Decker, Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 3                                            GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Executive Summary



Purpose      In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the federal
             government has taken unprecedented political, diplomatic, legal, law
             enforcement, financial, intelligence, and military actions to combat
             terrorism abroad. Combating terrorism is now at the top of the national
             security agenda, and many changes have occurred in the government’s
             organization and strategies related to these matters. GAO was requested to
             produce this report to assist congressional committees with their
             responsibilities to oversee federal programs to combat terrorism overseas.
             Specifically, this report describes the interagency framework for planning,
             executing, and coordinating related federal efforts. In addition, this report
             identifies and describes the programs and activities to detect and prevent
             terrorist attacks, disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations, and respond
             to terrorist incidents.

             Given the number of federal agencies and the wide spectrum of activities
             involved in combating terrorism overseas, GAO limited its work to
             describing the interagency framework and programs and activities and did
             not evaluate their effectiveness. While there are several new strategies to
             combat terrorism, many of the programs they incorporate are long-
             standing. The strategies by themselves, no matter how cohesive and
             comprehensive, will not ensure an integrated and effective set of programs
             to combat terrorism overseas. The ability to ensure these things will be
             determined through time as the strategies and programs are implemented.
             Some of GAO’s recent work on combating terrorism demonstrates some of
             the challenges ahead.



Background   Although agencies have slightly different definitions, terrorism generally is
             defined as politically motivated violence to coerce a government or civilian
             population. Efforts to combat terrorism are further broken down into
             homeland security activities (those that occur domestically) and combating
             terrorism overseas (those that occur abroad)—the topic of this report.
             According to the Central Intelligence Agency, the threat of terrorist attacks
             against U.S. personnel, facilities, and interests overseas is greater now than
             ever before. Terrorists attacking the United States employ a variety of
             tactics, target a number of different interests, and strike in regions
             throughout the world. The federal government’s role in combating
             terrorism overseas includes political, diplomatic, legal, law enforcement,
             financial, military, and intelligence efforts. Funding for combating
             terrorism overseas has increased about 133 percent, growing from
             $4.9 billion in fiscal year 2001 to $11.4 billion requested in fiscal year 2004.



             Page 4                                             GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                   Executive Summary




                   In addition, DOD has spent about $30 billion on military operations
                   overseas against terrorism in the period roughly equivalent to fiscal year
                   2002.



Results in Brief   Combating terrorism overseas falls under an interagency framework of
                   plans, agency roles, and interagency coordination mechanisms. In general,
                   the National Security Council manages this interagency framework. The
                   President, National Security Council, and federal agencies have published a
                   series of related directives and new national strategies to guide federal
                   efforts. To implement the directives and strategies, various federal agencies
                   are assigned key roles and responsibilities based on their core missions.
                   Given the number of agencies involved, there are also a number of
                   interagency mechanisms to coordinate across agencies in both
                   Washington, D.C., and overseas. Within this framework, efforts to combat
                   terrorism overseas can generally be divided into programs and activities to
                   (1) detect and prevent terrorism, (2) disrupt and destroy terrorist
                   organizations, and (3) respond to terrorist incidents.

                   • Efforts to detect and prevent terrorism include activities to gather
                     intelligence on terrorist threats and organizations, protect facilities and
                     persons overseas, impact foreign opinion through public diplomacy,
                     prevent terrorists and their materials from entering the United States,
                     and improve other countries’ capabilities.

                   • Efforts to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations can occur in many
                     ways, to include diplomacy in both bilateral and multilateral forums; law
                     enforcement efforts to investigate, arrest, and prosecute terrorists;
                     financial and related measures to eliminate terrorist support; military
                     actions to destroy terrorists and regimes that harbor them; and covert
                     operations by intelligence agencies.

                   • Efforts to respond to an international terrorist incident consist of
                     advance preparations, managing the crisis and consequences of an
                     attack, and reviewing incidents to learn lessons and prevent or mitigate
                     future attacks.

                   GAO is making no recommendations in this report.




                   Page 5                                           GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                            Executive Summary




GAO’s Analysis

The Interagency Framework   The National Security Council and its Director for Combating Terrorism
for Combating Terrorism     develop and manage the interagency framework for combating terrorism
                            overseas. This framework consists of presidential directives, national
                            strategies, and related guidance. For example, the National Security
                            Council coordinated the overall National Security Strategy of the United
                            States of America, and the Director for Combating Terrorism coordinated
                            the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. There are other national-
                            level strategies related to combating terrorism. Examples of these include
                            the National Strategy for Homeland Security and the National Strategy to
                            Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. The various strategies were
                            developed for specific and separate purposes. There is a general hierarchy
                            among these overlapping strategies.

                            Another key element in the interagency framework for combating
                            terrorism overseas is the specific roles played by federal organizations and
                            agencies. Some play a coordinating role, others serve a lead role in specific
                            areas, and many others have support roles for specific activities. Some
                            individual agencies have positions designated within them to lead their
                            agencies’ terrorism-related programs. In addition, individual agencies have
                            their own strategic plans or develop interagency plans and related guidance
                            for specific functions. For example, the Department of Justice’s Strategic
                            Plan for Fiscal Years 2001-2006 and the Department of State’s 2002
                            Annual Performance Plan provide department-specific plans and goals
                            related to terrorism.

                            The interagency framework also consists of coordinating mechanisms and
                            groups to implement the functions and activities among all the federal
                            agencies involved. In Washington, D.C., the National Security Council plays
                            a major coordinating role by sponsoring a policy coordinating committee
                            called the Counterterrorism Security Group that has several subordinate
                            working groups on such topics as interagency exercises and assistance to
                            other countries. At U.S. embassies, there are interagency teams that meet
                            to coordinate bilateral efforts to combat terrorism. Similarly, regional
                            military commands have interagency coordination groups that coordinate
                            military operations with non-military tools to combat terrorism.




                            Page 6                                           GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                        Executive Summary




Efforts to Detect and   Gathering and analyzing intelligence outside of the United States are the
Prevent Terrorism       major activities to detect and prevent terrorist activities overseas and
                        generally are led by the Central Intelligence Agency. Under the overall
                        leadership of that agency, U.S. intelligence agencies gather information on
                        terrorist organizations, monitor terrorist threats, and share information
                        with other nations. The Departments of State, Justice, and Defense collect
                        and analyze intelligence through surveillance programs and liaisons with
                        foreign police. These intelligence activities support other preventative
                        efforts, such as protecting U.S. facilities and Americans overseas, and visa
                        and border controls.

                        Protecting U.S. facilities and Americans overseas is a major part of
                        preventing terrorism and is generally led by the Department of State. To
                        protect U.S. facilities and personnel abroad, State has programs that
                        include facility security, local guard forces, armored vehicles for embassy
                        personnel, and Marine Guards to protect sensitive information. The
                        Department of Defense has separate programs to protect its military forces
                        against terrorist attacks. For American citizens traveling and living abroad,
                        the State Department issues public travel warnings and public
                        announcements and operates warning systems to convey terrorist-related
                        information. State also uses overseas advisory councils—voluntary
                        partnerships between State and U.S. businesses—to exchange threat
                        information with private companies.

                        Improving the image of the United States to support U.S. foreign policy is
                        another activity to prevent terrorism. For example, in an attempt to reduce
                        possible negative perceptions of the United States and foster greater
                        understanding of U.S. policy in key international audiences, State conducts
                        public diplomacy through various media. Similarly, the Broadcasting Board
                        of Governors conducts international broadcasts to worldwide audiences to
                        help support U.S. strategic interests.

                        Keeping terrorists and their materials out of the United States also helps to
                        prevent terrorism. The State Department has a role in preventing terrorists
                        from entering the United States through its visa programs and related
                        efforts to screen out terrorists. Agencies that have recently transferred
                        from various departments to the Department of Homeland Security also
                        have a role in keeping terrorists and their contraband out of the United
                        States. These include the former Immigration and Naturalization Service,
                        the U.S. Border Patrol, the former U.S. Customs Service, and the U.S. Coast
                        Guard, which monitor the border at and between ports of entry.




                        Page 7                                           GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                         Executive Summary




                         Improving other countries’ capabilities is another part of preventing
                         terrorism and is generally led by the Department of State. The department
                         has overall leadership of bilateral relations, including programs to assist
                         foreign nations. Such programs consist of training, equipment, and other
                         assistance to improve foreign police and military capabilities. While the
                         State Department has the overall lead, many of these assistance programs
                         are implemented in conjunction with the Departments of Defense,
                         Homeland Security, Justice, Energy, and the Treasury. One example is the
                         Antiterrorism Assistance program, which is managed by State, but the
                         training might be delivered by other agencies, such as the Federal Bureau
                         of Investigation or the U.S. Secret Service. These assistance efforts not only
                         help to prevent terrorist attacks, they can improve the capabilities of other
                         countries to disrupt and destroy terrorists and to respond to terrorist
                         incidents.



Efforts to Disrupt and   Diplomacy and cooperation with other countries, led by the Department of
Destroy Terrorist        State, enables that department and other federal agencies to undertake a
                         number of efforts to combat terrorism. State manages bilateral and
Organizations
                         multilateral relationships to leverage opportunities for cooperation among
                         traditional and emerging allies. At the bilateral level, State helps
                         orchestrate other nations’ support and assistance for U.S. law enforcement
                         activities, financial operations, and military actions against terrorists. At
                         the multilateral level, State leads U.S. efforts in the United Nations and in
                         other international forums to combat terrorism. For example, State has
                         introduced and coordinated the passage of several related United Nations
                         Security Council Resolutions to combat terrorism.

                         Law enforcement efforts are also a key activity to disrupt and destroy
                         terrorist organizations and generally are led by the Department of Justice
                         and its Federal Bureau of Investigation. These include efforts, in
                         conjunction with other nations, to investigate terrorist incidents, make
                         arrests, arrange for the return of suspects to the United States, and
                         prosecute alleged terrorists. In such investigations, the Departments of
                         State and the Treasury and other law enforcement agencies support the
                         Department of Justice.

                         Taking action against the financial structure of terrorist organizations also
                         plays a key role in disrupting and destroying the organizations and
                         preventing future attacks. Numerous components of the Departments of
                         State, the Treasury, Homeland Security, Justice, and other agencies
                         participate in efforts to combat terrorist financing. Activities include



                         Page 8                                           GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                        Executive Summary




                        blocking or freezing assets of designated individuals and organizations
                        linked to terrorism and conducting investigations aimed at identifying,
                        tracing, and freezing assets tied to terrorist organizations.

                        Military operations are important in disrupting and destroying terrorist
                        organizations and generally are led by the Department of Defense with
                        support at the multilateral level provided by the Department of State.
                        Operations in Afghanistan bluntly illustrate the devastating nature of
                        military efforts to attack terrorist organizations. Many of the military
                        operations are conducted or coordinated with foreign militaries.

                        Another means of disrupting and destroying terrorists is to strike secretly
                        at terrorists through covert action, approved by the President and led by
                        the Central Intelligence Agency.



Efforts to Respond to   The federal government takes many advance preparations in anticipation
Terrorist Incidents     of a terrorist attack. For example, each diplomatic post has an Emergency
                        Action Committee and Emergency Action Plan. The committees are
                        required to exercise these plans periodically. To improve the
                        governmentwide responses to a terrorist incident, a number of federal
                        agencies participate in an interagency exercise program.

                        Federal efforts to respond to terrorist incidents are organized along a lead
                        agency concept. The State Department is the lead agency for responding to
                        the crisis and managing the consequences of a terrorist incident overseas.
                        In this role, State is responsible for marshaling all federal assets necessary
                        to respond. The U.S. ambassador would be the on-scene coordinator for
                        the U.S. response in the foreign nation, as was done, for example, after the
                        U.S. embassy bombing in Nairobi, Kenya. The State Department, with the
                        concurrence of the National Security Council, can lead a rapidly deployable
                        interagency advisory group called the Foreign Emergency Support Team.

                        As part of the response to an incident, the Department of Justice, through
                        the Federal Bureau of Investigation, would lead U.S. law enforcement
                        investigations in conjunction with local police in the immediate aftermath
                        of a terrorist incident overseas. Other federal law enforcement agencies—
                        such as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and the
                        State Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security—have expertise to
                        assist in investigations at the scene of an overseas attack.




                        Page 9                                           GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                      Executive Summary




                      Depending on the nature of the threat or incident, other federal agencies
                      may be called upon to support State in managing the consequences of a
                      terrorist attack. For example, the Department of State may request that the
                      Department of Defense provide military support as part of the
                      U.S. government’s efforts to assist in mitigating the consequences of a
                      terrorist incident overseas. The Department of State also may request U.S.
                      military support for the evacuation of embassy staff and other Americans,
                      should that be necessary in the aftermath of a terrorist incident. Many of
                      State Department’s efforts for managing the consequences of a terrorist
                      attack have focused on incidents involving weapons of mass destruction—
                      those involving chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials.
                      Several federal agencies could assist the State Department in responding to
                      such an incident. For example, the Department of Energy has a Nuclear
                      Emergency Search Team to provide technical expertise in resolving a
                      nuclear or radiological terrorist incident.

                      After a terrorist incident overseas, the Departments of State and Defense
                      generally conduct reviews of the incident, which identify actions to prevent
                      or mitigate future attacks. Examples of these include State’s Accountability
                      Review Boards for the 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in East Africa
                      and Defense’s Task Force on the 1996 bombing of the al-Khobar Towers
                      military housing facility in Saudi Arabia.



Agency Comments and   GAO provided a draft of the report to several federal agencies in March
                      2003 for their review and comment. Such agencies included the Executive
Our Evaluation        Office of the President (including the National Security Council, the Office
                      of Homeland Security, and the Office of Management and Budget); the
                      Departments of Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, Justice, State,
                      Transportation, and the Treasury; the Central Intelligence Agency; and the
                      U.S. Agency for International Development.

                      The Department of Defense and the U.S. Agency for International
                      Development provided written comments on a draft of this report. These
                      comments generally agreed with the accuracy of the report and they are
                      reproduced in appendixes VIII and IX, respectively. In addition, these
                      agencies provided technical comments, and we made revisions, as
                      appropriate. We also received technical comments from the Office of
                      Management and Budget; the Departments of Justice and State; Bureau of
                      Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives; the U.S. Secret Service; and
                      the Bureau for Immigration and Customs Enforcement. We made changes,
                      as appropriate, based upon these written and oral technical comments.



                      Page 10                                         GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Executive Summary




Our draft report reflected efforts to combat terrorism overseas just prior
to the transfer of certain agencies and functions to the new Department
of Homeland Security in March 2003. Therefore, many of the technical
comments concerned the creation of the new department and the transfer
of these agencies and functions from other departments into the
Department of Homeland Security. The Departments of Energy, Homeland
Security, Transportation, and the Treasury and the CIA had no comments
on a draft of this report.




Page 11                                        GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Chapter 1

Introduction: Terrorism Overseas and the
Federal Government’s Role                                                                                         Cha1pert




                      Terrorism generally is defined as politically motivated violence to coerce a
                      government or civilian population. Within that definition, there is domestic
                      terrorism and international terrorism, depending on the origin of terrorist
                      groups, where they launch their attacks, and who their victims are. Efforts
                      to combat terrorism are further broken down into homeland security
                      activities (those that occur domestically) and combating terrorism
                      overseas (those that occur abroad).1 According to the Central Intelligence
                      Agency (CIA), the threat of terrorist attacks against U.S. personnel,
                      facilities, and interests overseas is greater now than ever before. Terrorists
                      capable of attacking the United States can employ a variety of tactics, can
                      hit a number of different targets, and can strike in regions throughout the
                      world. Terrorism overseas is aggravated by a series of interrelated factors
                      and trends, such as technological advances and alliances with international
                      crime. The federal government’s role in combating terrorism overseas
                      includes political, diplomatic, legal, law enforcement, financial, military,
                      and intelligence efforts. Immediately after the 2001 terrorist attacks, the
                      Congress passed and the President signed into law an emergency
                      supplemental appropriation that increased funding to combat terrorism
                      overseas by at least $2 billion in fiscal year 2002. Funding for combating
                      terrorism overseas has increased about 133 percent, growing from
                      $4.9 billion in fiscal year 2001 to $11.4 billion requested in fiscal year 2004.
                      In addition, the Department of Defense (DOD) has spent about $30 billion
                      on military operations against terrorism in the period roughly equivalent to
                      fiscal year 2002.



Definitions for       “Terrorism” generally is defined as politically motivated violence to coerce
                      a government or civilian population. However, no single definition of
Terrorism and         terrorism has gained universal acceptance by the U.S. government and
Combating Terrorism   federal agencies’ definitions of terrorism vary somewhat based on their
                      functional roles and missions. For example, the Department of State and
                      the CIA define terrorism as “premeditated, politically motivated violence
                      perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or




                      1
                       In this report, we refer to programs outside of the United States as combating terrorism
                      overseas. This term is consistent with how the Executive Office of the President defines
                      terrorism-related programs to distinguish them from programs inside the United States—
                      also known as homeland security programs. For the purposes of this report, we use the
                      terms “overseas” and “abroad” interchangeably to refer to programs and activities that
                      occur outside of the United States.




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clandestine agents.”2 The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines it
more broadly as “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or
property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or
any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”3 The
FBI definition reflects its mission, identifying a terrorist incident as a
violation of the criminal laws of the United States and a suspected terrorist
would, therefore, be subject to arrest and prosecution. Finally, DOD
defines terrorism as “the calculated use of violence or the threat of violence
to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or try to intimidate governments or
societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or
ideological.”4 DOD’s definition of terrorism subsumes both definitions used
by the Department of State and the FBI. This definition was carefully
crafted to distinguish between terrorism and other kinds of violence.

Within the definition of terrorism, there is “domestic terrorism” and
“international terrorism,” depending on the origin of terrorist groups,
where they launch their attacks, and who their victims are. The FBI defines
domestic terrorism as the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or
violence by a terrorist group or individual based and operating entirely
within the United States or its territories without foreign direction. The
1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City,
for example, was an act of domestic terrorism. The State Department and
the CIA define international terrorism as terrorism involving citizens or the
territory of more than one country. International terrorist acts can occur
either inside or outside of the United States and may transcend national
boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the
persons they intend to coerce or intimidate, or the locale in which the
perpetrators operate or seek asylum. The 2001 coordinated terrorist
attacks against the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon
in Washington, D.C., for example, were acts of international terrorism.
Although the attacks occurred within the United States, the perpetrators
came from other countries and many of the World Trade Center victims


2
  This definition is derived from 22 U.S.C. § 2656f(d) (2002). “Noncombatant” includes not
only civilians, but also military personnel who, at the time of the incident, are unarmed
and/or are not on duty. State also considers as acts of terrorism attacks on U.S. military
installations or on armed military personnel when a state of military hostilities does not
exist at the incident site, such as terrorist bombings against U.S. military facilities. Since
1983, the U.S. government has used this definition for statistical and analytical purposes.
3
    This definition is derived from 28 C.F.R. § 0.85 (2002).
4
    DOD Directive 2000.12, DOD Antiterrorism/Force Protection Program, Apr. 13, 1999.




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were foreign nationals. Figure 1 shows the aftermath of an international
terrorist attack within the United States.



Figure 1: The Pentagon in Flames Moments after International Terrorists Crash a
Hijacked Aircraft into the Building on September 11, 2001




“Combating terrorism” refers to the full range of policies, strategies,
programs, and activities to counter terrorism both at home and abroad. The
distinction between “homeland security” and “combating terrorism
overseas” is based on where federal efforts to combat terrorism occur.
Federal programs and activities directed against terrorism within the
United States are considered homeland security, which is defined by the
federal government as “a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist
attacks within the United States, reduce America’s vulnerability to




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                     terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that do
                     occur.”5 This is a new term, used since the terrorist attacks on
                     September 11, 2001. In contrast, federal programs and activities directed
                     against terrorism outside of the United States are considered combating
                     terrorism overseas, which is the subject of this report.

                     Finally, within the term combating terrorism, some federal agencies make a
                     further distinction between “antiterrorism” and “counterterrorism” to
                     describe their programs and activities within the context of their functional
                     roles and missions. Antiterrorism generally refers to defensive measures.
                     The Department of State, for example, uses “antiterrorism” in the context
                     of law enforcement training, border security, critical infrastructure
                     protection, and embassy security. DOD uses the term “antiterrorism” to
                     mean the defensive measures, including force protection, taken to reduce
                     the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts. DOD uses the
                     term “counterterrorism” to mean offensive measures taken to prevent,
                     deter, and respond to terrorism. The FBI, meanwhile, uses the term
                     “counterterrorism” to refer to the full range of its activities directed against
                     terrorism, including preventive measures, incident response, and
                     investigative efforts. Finally, OMB tracks funding to combat terrorism
                     overseas, but does not include direct military operations in the figures
                     it reports.



The Threat of        International terrorists use a variety of tactics in their attacks against the
                     United States. The number of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens,
Terrorism Overseas   facilities, and interests overseas has declined in recent years, but the
                     lethality of the attacks has increased. Although terrorists use many
                     different tactics and methods to attack Americans, bombings are the
                     predominant type of attack in recent years. While the threat to Americans
                     varies by region, type of event, and targets attacked, bombing of U.S.
                     businesses in Latin America constituted the majority of attacks in 2001.
                     Also, international terrorism is aggravated by a series of interrelated
                     factors, such as globalization, technological advances, and troubling trends
                     that include, for example, a shift in terrorists’ tactics and the use of
                     unconventional weapons.




                     5
                       See Office of Homeland Security, National Strategy for Homeland Security, July 16, 2002,
                     p. 2.




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Terrorist Organizations Use       According to the CIA, the threat of terrorist attacks against U.S. personnel,
Variety of Tactics to Attack      facilities, and interests overseas is greater now than ever before because of
                                  the number and types of terrorist organizations, the lethality of terrorists’
American Targets                  tactics, and the ability of terrorists to operate worldwide. Terrorist
Worldwide                         organizations that threaten U.S. personnel, facilities, and interests at home
                                  and abroad come primarily from organized groups that have political,
                                  ethnic, or religious agendas; from state sponsors of terrorist organizations;
                                  and from transnational groups with broader goals. Islamic terrorist groups,
                                  which have become a growing threat in recent years, tend to be loosely
                                  organized, recruit their membership from many different countries, and
                                  obtain support from an informal international network.

Number and Lethality of Attacks   Worldwide, the number of international terrorist attacks has declined in
                                  recent years compared to the mid-1980s. However, the level of violence and
                                  lethality of such attacks have increased. According to the Department of
                                  State, the number of international terrorist attacks peaked at 666 incidents
                                  in 1987 and had declined to 348 in 2001. Yet, casualties resulting from
                                  international terrorist attacks during 2001 were the highest ever
                                  recorded—3,572 persons killed and 1,083 injured. Figure 2 shows the total
                                  number of international terrorist attacks over a 21-year period (1981-2001).




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Figure 2: Total International Terrorist Attacks, 1981-2001




The terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001,
represented the most lethal international terrorist attack ever. Three of
four separate, but coordinated aircraft hijackings, carried out by the
al Qaeda terrorist network, deliberately destroyed predetermined targets
that represented America’s political, economic, and military strength. (The
fourth hijacked aircraft crashed in Pennsylvania apparently as a result of
the passengers overpowering the terrorists, thus preventing the aircraft
from being used as a missile in the terrorists’ plan.) According to State’s
Office of International Information Programs, a total of 3,057 people were
killed in these four incidents.6 Citizens representing 78 different countries
perished at the World Trade Center site. These events clearly demonstrated
not only the lethality, but also the global reach of a terrorist organization



6
  This figure includes 2,666 persons killed in the coordinated terrorist attacks on
September 11, 2001, against the World Trade Center Towers in New York City, 125 killed in
the Pentagon, 92 killed aboard American Airlines flight 11 that crashed into the North Tower
of the World Trade Center, 65 killed aboard United Airlines flight 175 that crashed into the
South Tower of the World Trade Center, 64 killed aboard American Airlines flight 77 that
crashed into the Pentagon, and 45 killed aboard United Airlines flight 93 that crashed in
rural Pennsylvania.




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                             beyond any terrorist attack the United States had previously
                             experiencedat home or abroad.

Types of Terrorist Attacks   Terrorists employ a wide variety of tactics, to include violent
                             demonstrations, vandalism, arson, assault, kidnappings, ambushes, sniper
                             attacks, murder, and attacks with firearms, grenades, rockets, and bombs.
                             However, bombings are the most common type of attack. From 1988 to
                             2001, bombings accounted for 67 percent of all terrorist attacks against
                             Americans. Figure 3 shows the different types of international terrorist
                             attacks by percentage that were perpetrated against Americans over a
                             14-year period between 1988 and 2001.



                             Figure 3: Types of International Terrorist Attacks Against Americans by Percentage,
                             1988-2001




                             Note: "Other" consists of drugging, sabotage, physical harassment, mortar/landmine, bomb/rocket
                             hoax, banditry, sit-in, and other/incidental.




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                           In recent years, the United States and its interests have been the target of
                           several terrorist bombings overseas, to include the June 1996 truck
                           bombing of the al-Khobar Towers military housing facility near Dhahran,
                           Saudi Arabia; the August 1998 truck bombings of the U.S. embassies in
                           Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, and in Nairobi, Kenya; and the October 2000 ship
                           bombing of the guided missile destroyer USS Cole during a refueling stop in
                           Aden Harbor, Yemen. In 2001 (the most recent year that data is available),
                           bombings have become an even more prevalent type of tactic used by
                           terrorists against U.S. facilities and interests overseas. Of the 219 terrorist
                           attacks against U.S. citizens and facilities overseas during 2001, 207 (or
                           about 95 percent) were carried out by bombing the target.

Type of Targets Attacked   Terrorists attack American businesses most frequently. Of the 228 attacks
                           during 2001 against U.S. targets, 204 (or more than 89 percent) were against
                           American businesses. U.S. government, diplomatic, and military targets
                           tend to be more protected and represent hard targets; American
                           businesses, in contrast, are less protected, making them soft targets.
                           Figure 4 shows the number of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens,
                           facilities, and interests overseas during 2001 by type of target attacked.




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                              Figure 4: Terrorist Attacks Against U.S. Targets during 2001 by Type of Targets
                              Attacked




Terrorism Varies by Region,   Terrorism—both in the number of attacks and the nature of the threat—
With Most Attacks             varies by region. The overwhelming number of attacks have occurred in
                              Latin America. Of the 219 terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens and
Occurring in Latin America    facilities overseas during 2001, 191 (or 87 percent) were in Latin America.
                              Figure 5 shows the number of terrorist attacks against U.S. citizens,
                              facilities, and interests overseas during 2001 by region.




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Figure 5: Terrorist Attacks Against U.S. Targets during 2001 by Region




The following sections summarize, by region, the international threat of
terrorism to U.S. citizens and personnel; U.S. business, government, and
military facilities; and U.S. political, economic, and strategic interests. This
information is based on a review of key documents and interviews with
officials in the Departments of State and Defense, U.S. Central Command,
U.S. European Command, U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Special
Operations Command, and the CIA.




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Africa   In Africa, terrorism is a persistent and increasing threat to U.S. and other
         countries’ personnel, facilities, and interests. Most terrorist attacks in
         Africa, according to the State Department, stem from internal civil unrest
         and spillover from regional wars as African rebel movements and
         opposition groups use terrorist tactics to further their political, social, or
         economic objectives. For example, insurgent groups have used terrorist
         tactics and attacked civilians in recent years in the Democratic Republic of
         the Congo, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. In addition, international terrorist
         organizations with Islamic ties, such as al Qaeda and the Lebanese
         Hizballah, have established footholds in Africa and exploit the continent’s
         permissive operating environment to expand and strengthen their terrorist
         networks. The al Qaeda terrorist bombing of the U.S. embassies in Kenya
         and Tanzania in August 1998 demonstrated how vulnerable “lower risk”
         U.S. diplomatic facilities are on the continent compared with hardened
         embassies in the Middle East and elsewhere. Africa’s ungoverned areas,
         porous borders, regional conflicts, lax or non-existent financial systems,
         and the wide availability of weapons all contribute to an operating
         environment where terrorist organizations thrive. Similarly, terrorist
         organizations breed and find sanctuary in Africa’s “failed states,” such as
         Somalia, or those countries with weak central governments and poor or
         nonexistent law enforcement that cannot monitor, let alone control, the
         activities of terrorists and their supporters. Terrorists also are using the
         illegal trade in Africa in diamonds both to launder money and to finance
         their operations worldwide. 7 Finally, one African nation—Sudan—has
         been designated by the State Department as one of seven countries
         worldwide that sponsors terrorism.8 Figure 6 shows the aftermath of the
         1998 terrorist bombing of a U.S. embassy in East Africa.




         7
           For more information on the illegal diamond trade, see U.S. General Accounting Office,
         International Trade: Critical Issues Remain in Deterring Conflict Diamond Trade, GAO-
         02-678 (Washington, D.C.: June 14, 2002). We reported that the nature of diamonds and the
         operations of the international diamond industry create opportunities for illicit trade,
         including trade in conflict diamonds. We also reported that there are considerable
         challenges in establishing a system that will effectively deter this trade.




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             Figure 6: Aftermath of the al Qaeda Terrorist Bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Dar
             es-Salaam, Tanzania, in August 1998




South Asia   South Asia currently represents the primary (but by no means the only)
             focus of terrorism directed against the United States. Terrorist
             organizations, such as al Qaeda, continue to operate and garner support in
             the region. Afghanistan became the first military battleground in the “war
             on terrorism” in October 2001. Afghanistan, for example, had been used by
             Islamic extremists from around the world as a training ground and base of
             operations for their terrorist activities. The al Qaeda leadership used
             Afghanistan as a safe haven to recruit and train terrorists, manage

             8
              State sponsors of terrorism are those countries designated by the Secretary of State under
             section 40(d) of the Arms Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. § 2780(d). Moreover, each year,
             under the provisions of section 6(j) of the Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended
             (50 U.S.C. § 2405(j)), the Secretary of Commerce, in consultation with the Secretary of State,
             provides the Congress with a list of countries that support international terrorism. The
             Secretary of State may designate a government as a state sponsor of terrorism if that
             government has repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism, invoking
             economic sanctions. The seven countries currently on the list are Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya,
             North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. Various types of sanctions can be imposed on a government
             so designated, as discussed in more detail in chapter 4.




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            worldwide fundraising for the terrorist organization, plan terrorist
            operations, and conduct violent anti-American demonstrations to provoke
            extremists in other countries to attack U.S. interests worldwide. These
            activities culminated in the September 11, 2001, coordinated terrorist
            attacks against the United States.

East Asia   In East Asia, trafficking in narcotics, persons, and weapons—as well as
            organized crime and official corruption—are serious international crimes
            that terrorist organizations exploit to finance their operations. Southeast
            Asian terrorist organizations that have cells linked to al Qaeda were
            discovered in 2001 in Malaysia and Singapore and their activities,
            movements, and connections traverse the entire region. Multinational
            terrorist organizations and networks operate throughout the region,
            highlighting the lack of an effective regional counterterrorism mechanism.
            Most terrorist activity in East Asia is related to domestic political disputes.
            However, the Abu Sayyaf Group, an Islamic extremist organization in the
            Philippines, kidnapped two Americans and killed one of them in 2002. The
            United States remains concerned about Islamic extremists operating in and
            around western China who have received training, equipment, and
            inspiration from al Qaeda, the Taliban, and others in Afghanistan.

Eurasia     In Eurasia, the threat against the United States and its interests stems
            principally from the ongoing threat posed by al Qaeda-linked terrorists
            rather than by the influx of al Qaeda and Taliban fighters following
            coalition operations led by the United States in neighboring Afghanistan.
            The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, which is on the U.S. foreign terrorist
            organization list, seeks to overthrow the Uzbek government and create an
            Islamic state. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and
            Uzbekistan are five of the new U.S. partners in the “war on terrorism” and
            have provided the United States with access to their military facilities for
            U.S. offensive combat operations and/or humanitarian support in
            Afghanistan. Also of U.S. concern in Eurasia is the linkage between
            terrorism and other international crimes (specifically organized crime and
            trafficking in persons and drugs), ethnic separatism, and religious
            extremism. U.S. officials remain concerned about routes through Georgia.
            The international mujahidin with ties to terrorist organizations move
            people, money, and materiel throughout the Caucasus region in support of
            separatist fighters in Chechnya, Russia. Finally, the United States is so
            concerned about the terrorist threat in the region that it has provided
            Georgia with training to help it implement tighter counterterrorism
            controls in the Pankisi Gorge.9 (Chapter 3 discusses U.S. training to
            improve other countries’ capabilities to combat terrorism.)



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Europe          In Europe, U.S. diplomatic and military officials remain concerned about
                the terrorist threat to U.S. military and diplomatic facilities and personnel.
                Potential al Qaeda “sleeper cells” in Germany and elsewhere continue to
                pose a threat to U.S. interests. Domestic terrorist organizations in a number
                of countries (such as Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom)
                continue to function at varying levels of effectiveness. A wide-range of
                groups and individuals use terrorist tactics to protest globalization, often
                directing their demonstrations toward U.S. businesses. In the Balkans,
                according to the Department of State, although governments generally are
                committed to combating terrorism, terrorists and Islamic extremist groups
                have exploited inadequate border security and institutional weaknesses to
                support their operations. Also, Middle Eastern nongovernmental
                organizations identified as supporting terrorist activities remain in the
                Balkans, providing assistance to Islamic extremist groups. Terrorists also
                exploit some European countries’ liberal asylum laws; open land borders;
                and weaknesses in their investigative, prosecutorial, and procedural
                processes while using these countries as operational staging areas for
                international terrorist attacks. For example, according to the Department
                of State, the theft and forgery of passports in Belgium facilitated terrorists’
                ability to travel freely. State further reported that, while in the past, lenient
                Greek courts reduced sentences of suspected terrorists and overturned
                guilty verdicts of terrorist cases, Greek authorities are using new
                antiterrorism legislation passed in 2002 to more successfully prosecute
                terrorist cases. Greece effectively neutralized its most lethal terrorist
                group, Revolutionary Organization 17 November, in June 2002, and 19
                suspected members went on trial in March 2003. According to the State
                Department, U.S. and international officials are pleased with Greek
                cooperation on security preparations for the 2004 Olympic Summer Games
                in Athens, Greece.

Latin America   In Latin America, the transnational threats of terrorism, drugs and arms
                trafficking, illegal migration, and international organized crime are the
                greatest challenge to U.S. security interests in the region.10 These
                transnational threats are increasingly linked as they share common
                infrastructure, transit patterns, corrupting means, and illicit mechanisms.

                9
                  The Pankisi Gorge is a region in northern Georgia that Russia accuses Georgia of allowing
                Chechen terrorists (separatist fighters) and the international mujahidin to use as a safe
                haven.
                10
                 Testimony by General Gary Speer (U.S. Army), Acting Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Southern
                Command, before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate, Mar. 5, 2002.




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              International terrorists groups have established support bases in some
              South American countries that sustain their worldwide operations. For
              example, the triborder area where the borders of Argentina, Brazil, and
              Paraguay converge continues to be a safe haven for Hizballah—the
              Lebanese-based terrorist organization—and other terrorist organizations,
              such as HAMAS, where they raise funds to finance their operations through
              criminal enterprises. According to the Department of State, there are
              unconfirmed reports that al Qaeda support cells and sympathizers also are
              scattered throughout Latin America. A Colombian paramilitary
              organization has been added to the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations,
              and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known as the FARC
              (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia), pose a direct threat to
              U.S. personnel, facilities, and interests. Terrorist attacks against Columbia’s
              energy infrastructure (the Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline) has a severe
              impact. Even members of the Irish Republican Army were arrested in 2001
              for helping the FARC prepare for an urban terror campaign by providing
              explosives training. Bombings, kidnappings, extortions, and assassinations
              remain the most pervasive terrorism problems in the region. The major
              concern for U.S. officials is the nexus or linkage between the illegal
              narcotics trafficking and terrorism or narco-terrorism. In addition, land,
              maritime, and air smuggling routes and support networks across South
              America, Central America, and the Caribbean once used exclusively by
              criminals trafficking in illegal narcotics and humans are now being used by
              terrorists.

Middle East   In the Middle East, the greatest threat to U.S. interests comes from terrorist
              groups and state-sponsored terrorist organizations. Chief among the
              terrorist groups is Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda terrorist organization.
              According to the Department of State, Syria and Lebanon refuse to
              recognize Hizballah, HAMAS, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and other
              Palestinian rejectionist groups as terrorist organizations, believing that
              violent activities by these groups represent legitimate resistance. After
              decades of civil war and foreign occupation, Lebanese governmental
              control continues to be weak or non-existent in many areas of the
              country.11 This environment allows for the smuggling of small arms and
              explosives and training activities by terrorist organizations. Financing of
              terrorist organizations remains problematic in the Gulf countries. Joint


              11
                According to the State Department, this is not an issue of the Lebanese having the
              capability to enforce its will and choosing not to; it is an issue of Lebanese governmental
              incapacity after decades of Israeli and Syrian occupation of Lebanon.




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                                 efforts by the U.S. and Yemeni governments to disrupt and destroy al Qaeda
                                 elements in Yemen have been only partially successful, and al Qaeda nodes
                                 still exist in that country. Protecting U.S. citizens and personnel and
                                 facilities from terrorist attack is a high priority throughout the region. In
                                 addition, force protection of U.S. forces transiting the Suez Canal in Egypt
                                 has increased.

North America                    In North America, the greatest vulnerability to the United States is the
                                 porous borders with Canada and Mexico. The lack of adequate border
                                 security could allow terrorists to enter the United States unnoticed or
                                 unchallenged to carry out their activities and conduct their operations.
                                 Another threatening factor facing the United States in North America is a
                                 lack of effective mechanisms by neighboring countries to prevent terrorist
                                 from financing their operations. In Mexico, for example, new measures
                                 taken to counter terrorist financing include monitoring financial
                                 movements, exchanging information on unusual movements of capital, and
                                 more effective steps to combat money laundering.



Factors That Aggravate the       The increase in the level and severity of international terrorism (and other
Threat of Terrorism              international crimes) in recent years can be traced to a series of
                                 interrelated aggravating factors. These factors enable terrorist groups to
                                 operate more effectively. The factors, as identified by the FBI, are as
                                 follows.

Reduced International Barriers   The post-Cold War landscape provides terrorists and terrorist organizations
                                 with opportunities to exploit the advantages of reduced or collapsed
                                 political and economic barriers to move people, money, information, and
                                 materiel—including weapons of mass destruction (WMD)—across
                                 international borders.

Global Business Networks         The globalization of business networks also facilitates international
                                 terrorism. Like international criminals, international terrorists take
                                 advantage of global commercial, banking, transportation, and
                                 communication systems to plan, finance, and carry out their operations.
                                 Through these networks, terrorists and terrorist organizations often plan
                                 their operations in third countries, some of which provide safe havens.

Technological Advances           Technological advances, particularly in information technology and
                                 communications, also facilitate terrorist organizations’ global reach.
                                 Terrorists are becoming more sophisticated in their use of computer and



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                          telecommunications technology. For example, there is widespread use of
                          cell phones to plan, coordinate, support, and execute terrorist operations,
                          making antiterrorism measures challenging. In addition, cyber, or
                          computer-based, attacks are a real threat to the nation’s critical computer-
                          supported infrastructures, such as telecommunications, power
                          distribution, financial services, national defense, and critical government
                          operations. Terrorist organizations also are adept at using technology for
                          counterintelligence purposes and for tracking law enforcement activities.

Weak Law Enforcement      Institutional shortcomings in foreign countries exacerbate federal efforts
Institutions              to combat the spread of international terrorism (and other transnational
                          crimes). According to an interagency working group, local police and the
                          judicial systems in many countries in which terrorists and terrorist
                          organizations operate are ineffective.12 They lack adequate resources, have
                          limited investigative authorities, or are plagued by corruption. The working
                          group reported that many countries have outdated or even nonexistent
                          laws involving extradition, immigration, asset seizure, anti-money
                          laundering, computers, and anti-terrorism. According to the interagency
                          working group, many countries simply do not have adequate resources,
                          training, equipment, expertise, or the political will to carry out complex,
                          sustained investigations of international terrorism or to conduct
                          counterterrorism operations. Terrorists and terrorist organizations take
                          advantage of these institutional limitations and weaknesses to find and
                          establish sanctuaries, while governments and law enforcement remain
                          constrained by national boundaries.



Trends in International   In recent years, U.S. intelligence agencies have identified several important
Terrorism                 trends in international terrorism. Some of these trends are the result of
                          adaptations that terrorist organizations have made in response to the
                          aggravating factors discussed above. These trends are as follows:




                          12
                            See International Crime Threat Assessment (Dec. 2000). This global assessment was
                          prepared by an interagency working group in support of and pursuant to the President's
                          International Crime Control Strategy of the United States (The White House, May 1998).
                          The interagency working group included representatives from the Departments of State, the
                          Treasury, Justice, and Transportation; the CIA; the FBI; Drug Enforcement Administration;
                          U.S. Customs Service; U.S. Secret Service; Financial Crimes Enforcement Network;
                          National Drug Intelligence Center; the Office of National Drug Control Policy; and the
                          National Security Council.




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Decline in state-sponsorship of     Terrorists have become less dependent on sponsorship by sovereign states.
terrorism                           State-sponsors in the past had provided terrorists with a safe haven and
                                    political, financial, and logistical support. They provided intelligence,
                                    planning, and support for terrorist acts and may have had prior knowledge
                                    of such attacks. However, the threat of sanctions and retaliation have
                                    reduced the willingness of most states to sponsor terrorism. By the late
                                    1990s, according to the Director of Central Intelligence, a completely new
                                    phenomenon had emerged—a terrorist sponsoring a state. The Taliban
                                    actively aided Osama bin Laden by assigning him guards for security,
                                    permitting him to build and maintain terrorist camps, and refusing to
                                    cooperate with efforts by the international community to extradite him. In
                                    return, bin Laden invested vast amounts of money in Taliban projects and
                                    provided hundreds of well-trained fighters to help the Taliban consolidate
                                    and expand its control of Afghanistan. 13

Move to loosely affiliated groups   As dependency on state-sponsored terrorism decreases, terrorist groups
                                    operating on their own in loosely affiliated groups have increased. The
                                    resulting transnational and decentralized structure facilitates terrorists’
                                    avoiding detection. In particular, Islamic terrorist groups tend to be loosely
                                    organized, recruit their membership from many different countries, and
                                    obtain support from an informal international network of like-minded
                                    extremists.

Use of unconventional weapons       Tactics among international terrorists have shifted from aircraft hijackings
                                    and hostage taking to indiscriminate terrorist attacks that yield maximum
                                    destruction, casualties, and impact. Although the vast majority of terrorist
                                    attacks worldwide continue to be carried out with conventional weapons,
                                    such as firearms and bombs, there is a concern among U.S. intelligence
                                    community officials about terrorists using unconventional weapons,
                                    namely weapons of mass destruction to include chemical, biological,
                                    radiological, or nuclear weapons.

Alliance with transnational crime There has been a coalescence of terrorism and other transnational crimes,
                                    which provides terrorists with various types of international crime to
                                    finance their operations. These include, for example, illegal immigration,
                                    contraband smuggling, visa fraud, piracy, illegal trafficking in human


                                    13
                                      Written statement for the record by the Director of Central Intelligence before a Joint
                                    Hearing of the Joint Inquiry Committee of the House Select Committee on Intelligence and
                                    Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Oct. 17, 2002, p. 5.




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                                 beings, diamond smuggling, and tobacco diversion and associated tax
                                 fraud.



The Federal                      The federal government’s role in combating terrorism overseas involves
                                 many diplomatic, law enforcement, financial, military, and intelligence
Government’s Role and            activities. These roles span numerous departments, agencies, bureaus, and
Resources for                    offices. In fact, no single government agency possesses the authority,
                                 responsibility, and capability to effectively detect and prevent terrorism,
Combating                        disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations, deny terrorists safe haven, and
Terrorism Overseas               respond to terrorist incidents abroad. Therefore, the federal government
                                 combats terrorism overseas simultaneously on many different fronts by
                                 attempting to coordinate its interagency efforts. The federal government’s
                                 interagency framework for combating terrorism overseas, including federal
                                 agencies’ roles and responsibilities and how they coordinate with each
                                 other, is discussed in detail in chapter 2 and other chapters, as appropriate.
                                 The federal government has dedicated substantial resources to combating
                                 terrorism overseas.



Funding of Federal               Identifying funding to combat terrorism is inherently difficult, but the
Programs and Activities to       Office of Management and Budget (OMB), as required by law, has reported
                                 on these funds annually since 1998.14 Funding to combat terrorism overseas
Combat Terrorism Overseas
                                 only recently has been identified separately from other funding to combat
                                 terrorism (i.e., domestic spending for homeland security). The funding of
                                 federal programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas has increased
                                 dramatically since the terrorist attacks against the United States on
                                 September 11, 2001. Emergency supplemental appropriations increased
                                 funding by $2 billion in fiscal year 2002. Funding for combating terrorism
                                 overseas has increased about 133 percent, growing from $4.9 billion in
                                 fiscal year 2001 to $11.4 billion requested in fiscal year 2004. In addition to
                                 these amounts, DOD has spent about $30 billion on military operations
                                 against terrorism in the period roughly equivalent to fiscal year 2002.

Funding to Combat Terrorism Is   There are inherent challenges in identifying federal funding to combat
Difficult to Identify            terrorism. First, numerous federal agencies have some role in combating
                                 terrorism. Second, the agencies’ budgets often include both domestic and
                                 overseas components. Third, there are no separate appropriation accounts


                                 14
                                      P.L. 105-85 § 1051, Nov. 18, 1997, as amended by P.L. 105-261 § 1403, Oct. 17, 1998.




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                              specifically for combating terrorism and the many activities it entails.
                              Fourth, funding for these programs may be in accounts authorized to fund
                              programs and activities not specific to combating terrorism.

                              As required by law, OMB has issued an annual report to the Congress since
                              1998 on federal funding to combat terrorism. This report is to include such
                              information as a description of the programs and activities, the amounts to
                              be expended, program priorities, and areas of potential duplication.15 The
                              OMB report also has a classified annex providing additional detail on DOD
                              and intelligence activity funding. The most recent OMB report, issued in
                              June 2002, provides funding and programmatic information on 27 federal
                              entities (for example, departments, agencies, bureaus, and offices) that
                              have budgeted or spent combating terrorism funds.16 These entities are
                              responsible for the federal government’s efforts to combat terrorist activity
                              both domestically and overseas, including defense against terrorist
                              incidents involving weapons of mass destruction.

Funding to Combat Terrorism   In the June 2002 report, OMB for the first time separately identified funds
Overseas Now Identified       to combat terrorism domestically (for homeland security) from those to
Separately                    combat terrorism overseas. In prior reports, both domestic and overseas
                              activities were combined. However, as a result of the terrorist attacks on
                              September 11, 2001, and the emphasis on domestic protection, OMB
                              included a separate, detailed analysis of homeland security—which OMB
                              defined as activities to combat terrorism within the United States. For the
                              June 2002 report, OMB defined “overseas combating terrorism” as
                              activities outside of the United States, excluding direct military actions,
                              such as the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. Of the $52.74 billion budget
                              requested to combat terrorism in fiscal year 2004, $11.4 billion (or
                              22 percent) was for combating terrorism overseas. The remaining
                              $41.35 billion (or 78 percent) was requested for homeland security
                              activities (gross budget authority). Table 1 shows the President’s fiscal



                              15
                                For an evaluation of OMB’s annual reports, including an assessment of their usefulness to
                              the Congress, see U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Funding Data
                              Reported to Congress Should be Improved, GAO-03-170 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 26, 2002).
                              We reported on the difficulties in coordinating budgets to combat terrorism, limitations to
                              OMB’s annual reports, and recommended ways to improve OMB reporting to the Congress
                              on programs to combat terrorism.
                              16
                                See 2002 Report to Congress on Combating Terrorism, OMB, June 24, 2002. At the time
                              this report was being prepared, OMB had not issued the 2003 report.




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                                         year 2004 budget request to combat terrorism both domestically and
                                         overseas.



Table 1: Fiscal Year 2004 President’s Request for Funding to Combat Terrorism Domestically and Overseas
(Gross Budget Authority)

Dollars in millions
                                                                                                                        Total fiscal year 2004
                                        Fiscal year 2004 request for        Fiscal year 2004 request for               request for combating
                                                 homeland security                  overseas combating               terrorism (domestic and
Department or agency                                     (domestic)                            terrorism                             overseas)
Energy                                                           $1,361                                  $226                              $1,587
                                                                                                              a
Homeland Security                                                23,890                                                                    23,890
                                                                                                              a
Justice                                                            2,290                                                                    2,290
National Securityb                                                 6,717                                8,455                              15,172
State                                                                811                                1,555                               2,366
                                                                                                              a
Treasury                                                              91                                                                        91
International assistance programs                                       0                               1,158                               1,158
All other federal agencies                                         6,187                                      2                             6,189
Total                                                           $41,347                               $11,396                            $52,743
Source: GAO analysis of OMB data.
                                         a
                                          The Departments of Homeland Security, Justice, and the Treasury have some funds dedicated
                                         to activities to combat terrorism overseas. However, OMB includes these funds as part of
                                         homeland security.
                                         b
                                          National Security combines DOD and selected intelligence activities. These figures are combined to
                                         prevent the disclosure of classified intelligence spending. In addition, the amounts do not include direct
                                         military action.


                                         There are several qualifications to the figures reported by OMB. First, OMB
                                         officials said that there is not always a clear distinction between activities
                                         to combat terrorism and other related activities, nor between domestic
                                         activities and overseas activities. The OMB budget examiners must make
                                         judgment calls about how to characterize the funding. For example, some
                                         combating terrorism missions have multiple purposes and funding for
                                         these missions is co-mingled in accounts that can cover multiple purposes.
                                         OMB reports all of DOD’s military and civilian personnel costs associated
                                         with security as funds to combat terrorism—even if these individuals spend
                                         some portion of their time on security matters not related to combating
                                         terrorism. In contrast, OMB does not report the State Department’s public
                                         diplomacy activities as funds to combat terrorism—even if these activities
                                         have a major terrorism focus. As another example, OMB’s reported figures




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                              do not capture overseas law enforcement activities from the Departments
                              of Homeland Security, Justice, and the Treasury. Examples of these
                              activities include customs, legal and financial attachés stationed overseas,

                              training and assistance provided to other countries, or these departments’
                              support to International Law Enforcement Academies around the world.17
                              OMB includes the funding of such activities along with homeland security
                              (domestic) programs of the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice,
                              and the Treasury. Finally, as stated earlier, OMB’s reported figures for
                              combating terrorism overseas do not include direct military actions,
                              such as the war on terrorism in Afghanistan. For the purpose of this
                              report, we are including military actions against terrorists as part of
                              combating terrorism overseas. OMB has estimated military operations
                              against terrorism at $30 billion for the period roughly equivalent to fiscal
                              year 2002.18

Funding to Combat Terrorism   In response to the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11,
Overseas Increased            2001, the Congress appropriated a supplemental $40 billion to the
                              Emergency Response Fund.19 Of this amount, $12.9 billion was provided for
                              combating terrorism, including just over $2 billion for combating terrorism
                              overseas. The remaining $28 billion from that emergency supplemental
                              appropriation was made available to other missions, such as recovery
                              efforts at the World Trade Center Towers in New York City and at the
                              Pentagon.20 The President’s Budget requested additional funding for federal
                              programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas, which increased
                              from about $4.9 billion in fiscal year 2001 to almost $11.4 billion (or about
                              133 percent) in the President’s fiscal year 2004 budget request.21



                              17
                                   More details on these activities are provided in chapters 3 and 4.
                              18
                                   OMB Press Release 2002-61, Sept. 10, 2002.
                              19
                                See 2001 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Recovery from and Response
                              to Terrorist Attacks on the United States (P.L. 107-38), Sept. 18, 2001.
                              20
                                 A second supplemental appropriation totaling $29 billion was signed into law on August 2,
                              2002. Of that amount, some $14 billion was allocated to DOD, but none of it was for
                              combating terrorism overseas, according to OMB.
                              21
                                As discussed earlier, OMB only began reporting the overseas funding for combating
                              terrorism separately from domestic (homeland security) in its June 2002 report to the
                              Congress. However, in that report they estimated the overseas funding for the previous 2
                              years (fiscal years 2001 and 2002).




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                         While the level of funding for intelligence activities is classified—and
                         included with DOD funding to prevent the disclosure of classified data—
                         recent unclassified statements by the Director of Central Intelligence
                         provide information on the magnitude of increases in intelligence programs
                         related to terrorism.22 According to the Director, intelligence funding to
                         combat terrorism tripled between fiscal years 1990 and 1999. The Director
                         also said that the percent of the CIA’s budget dedicated to combating
                         terrorism increased from less than 4 percent in fiscal year 1994 to almost
                         10 percent in fiscal year 2002.



Objectives, Scope, and   Based upon your original requests and in subsequent discussions with your
                         offices, our overall objective was to identify and describe federal agencies’
Methodology              programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas. This report
                         discusses

                         • the federal government’s interagency framework to combat terrorism
                           overseas (see ch. 2);

                         • federal programs and activities to detect and prevent terrorism overseas
                           (see ch. 3);

                         • federal programs and activities to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                           organizations overseas (see ch. 4); and

                         • federal programs and activities to respond to terrorist incidents
                           overseas (see ch. 5).

                         In addition, the report discusses how federal agencies coordinate efforts in
                         Washington, D.C., and at U.S. missions and other locations abroad to
                         combat terrorism overseas. Where appropriate, it also discusses recent
                         changes since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Information on
                         coordination mechanisms and recent changes is discussed throughout the
                         report.

                         In preparing this report, we limited our scope to developing descriptive
                         information rather than conducting evaluations of individual programs and
                         activities. This was done, as agreed with our congressional clients, because

                         22
                           See Written Statement for the Record, Director of Central Intelligence, Before the Joint
                         Inquiry Committee, Oct. 17, 2002.




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of the large number of departments, agencies, bureaus, and offices as well
as the multitude of their programs and activities to combat terrorism
overseas. Where we have conducted related evaluative work, we have
identified the appropriate GAO products and their results in footnotes. In
addition, we include a list of related GAO products at the end of this report.
In addition, to make this report most useful for oversight, we limited our
discussion in this report to unclassified information.

The scope of this report included key federal departments and agencies
with programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas. Review work
was conducted in Washington, D.C., at the Executive Office of the
President, including the National Security Council (NSC), Office of
Homeland Security, and OMB; the Departments of Defense, Energy, Justice,
State, Transportation, and the Treasury; and at the CIA. We also conducted
review work at or met overseas with officials from the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF); Defense Intelligence Agency;
Drug Enforcement Administration; the FBI; Federal Law Enforcement
Training Center (FLETC); the former Immigration and Naturalization
Service (INS); USAID; the former U.S. Customs Service; U.S. Coast Guard,
and the U.S. Secret Service. In addition, fieldwork was conducted at the
U.S. Central Command, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; U.S. European
Command, Patch Barracks, Stuttgart/Vaihingen, Germany; U.S. Southern
Command, Miami, Florida; U.S. Special Operations Command, MacDill Air
Force Base, Florida; U.S. Embassy in Athens, Greece; and at the
International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary. We
included information on other departments and activities based on
previous and ongoing work by GAO. A complete listing of organizations
and locations visited or contacted is found in appendix VII.

While our scope was generally limited to combating terrorism overseas, we
included programs related to border security, which also are considered
part of homeland security. Also, we included certain efforts to combat
terrorism overseas that actually occur within the United States, such as
interagency coordination, intelligence analysis, and law enforcement
investigations and prosecutions. Our more comprehensive work on
homeland security is summarized in two recent reports.23 Most of our


23
  See U.S. General Accounting Office, Major Management Challenges and Program Risks:
Department of Homeland Security, GAO-03-102 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 1, 2003) and U.S.
General Accounting Office, Homeland Security: Management Challenges Facing Federal
Leadership, GAO-03-260 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 20, 2002).




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analysis for this report was performed before the creation of the
Department of Homeland Security in December 2002 and its initial
operations in January 2003. Therefore, when we conducted our review,
many of the agencies, bureaus, offices, and federal response teams
discussed in this report had not yet been transferred to the new department
from the Departments of Health and Human Services, Justice,
Transportation, and the Treasury.

For each objective, we interviewed agency officials, reviewed supporting
programmatic and budgetary documentation, and reviewed prior GAO
work.

To identify and describe the federal government’s interagency framework
and policies to combat terrorism overseas and how they have changed
since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, we conducted a
qualitative analysis of: (1) the current interagency framework and policies
for combating terrorism overseas; (2) the relationship between and among
various national strategies to combat terrorism overseas; (3) the roles,
responsibilities, and management structure of the NSC and its Policy
Coordinating Committees for international counterterrorism coordination
and the role of the Office of Homeland Security; (4) the roles,
responsibilities, and management structure of the lead federal agency
(Department of State) for crisis and consequence management of terrorist
incidents overseas and those of support agencies (Departments of Defense,
Justice, and the Treasury, and the intelligence community); (5) legislation
and agency plans, implementing guidance, concepts of operations, and
contingency plans; and (6) changes in the interagency framework, policies,
and implementing guidance since September 11, 2001.

To identify and describe federal programs and activities to combat
terrorism overseas, we conducted a qualitative analysis of these efforts in
the areas of: (1) preventing and detecting terrorism overseas;
(2) disrupting and destroying terrorist organizations; and (3) responding to
a terrorist incident overseas.

To identify and describe how federal agencies coordinate efforts in
Washington, D.C., and at U.S. missions abroad to combat terrorism
overseas, we conducted a qualitative analysis of: (1) interagency and
agencies’ roles and responsibilities; (2) interagency management
structures, policies, and procedures to coordinate international
counterterrorism at headquarters and at a selected U.S. mission abroad;
(3) U.S. missions’ roles, responsibilities, management structures, and



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procedures to coordinate international counterterrorism with headquarters
elements; and (4) changes in coordination policies and procedures that
resulted from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

We faced some limitations to our methodology during our review. For
example, the NSC’s National Strategy for Combating Terrorism was
released at the end of our review. In addition, agencies’ reorganizations and
creation of the Department of Homeland Security affected the
organization, management structure, roles and missions, programs, and
activities of numerous agencies involved in combating terrorism overseas.
Funding to combat terrorism overseas is not always identified as such and
may not be broken out neatly into specific functions. Additional terrorism-
related funding was appropriated in addition to funds requested in the
President’s budget, including supplemental appropriations, emergency
funding, and reprogrammed funding from other accounts. Also, there is not
always a clear distinction between programs and activities to combat
terrorism and other transnational crimes, such as money laundering, arms
trafficking, and piracy. Finally, many DOD and intelligence community’s
operations, programs, and activities are classified, which limited what we
could discuss in an unclassified report.

To mitigate these limitations, we relied on other key NSC policy and
planning documents and interviews with key officials until the national
strategy was released. Agencies’ reorganization and creation of the
Department of Homeland Security will have more of an impact on
combating domestic terrorism than terrorism overseas. OMB requested
that agencies identify terrorism-related funding and we reviewed that
process. We gathered information, where available, on funding for
programs and activities to combat terrorism overseas. Terrorism is one of
many transnational crimes, which often are used to fund terrorist
organizations’ operations. Where appropriate, we identified the nexus or
linkage between terrorism and other transnational crimes. Finally, we
worked with DOD and the CIA to accurately describe the threat and their
counterterrorism programs and activities in an unclassified manner. Given
our efforts to mitigate these factors, we do not believe they had a material
affect on our work.

We performed our review from December 2001 through March 2003 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 37                                          GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
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The Interagency Framework for Combating
Terrorism Overseas                                                                                            Cha2pert




                              The interagency framework for combating terrorism overseas consists of
                              policies and plans, agency roles and responsibilities, and interagency
                              coordination mechanisms developed and managed by the NSC and its
                              Director for Combating Terrorism. The policies and plans are articulated in
                              presidential directives, new national strategies, annual plans, and
                              operational guidance. These policies and plans lay out the roles and
                              responsibilities of individual federal agencies that lead or support specific
                              functions. In addition, many individual agencies have their own policies
                              and plans that direct their own activities to combat terrorism overseas. The
                              interagency framework also includes coordinating mechanisms to
                              implement combating terrorism functions and activities across federal
                              agencies. For example, the NSC—which plays a major coordinating role—
                              sponsors a policy coordination committee called the Counterterrorism
                              Security Group, which has several subordinate working groups on such
                              topics as interagency counterterrorism exercises, and assistance to other
                              countries. Overseas, U.S. embassies and regional military commands
                              coordinate activities through interagency teams that meet to coordinate
                              efforts to combat terrorism across agencies. In addition, interagency
                              coordination is facilitated by personnel exchanges and liaisons among
                              agencies. The effectiveness of this interagency framework will be
                              determined through time as the new strategies and programs are
                              implemented.



Policies, Plans, and          U.S. policies and plans for combating terrorism overseas have developed
                              over the past 17 years. These policies and plans consist of presidential
Legislation                   directives, national-level strategies, and operational guidance. Various laws
                              also address terrorism.

                              Subsequent chapters in this report provide details on how agencies are
                              implementing and coordinating these policies, plans, and legislation.



Policies and Plans in Place   According to the Department of State, four enduring policy principles guide
before Terrorist Attacks of   U.S. strategies to combat terrorism overseas. They are as follows:
September 11, 2001            • Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals.

                              • Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes.




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• Isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force
  them to change their behavior.

• Bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work
  with the United States and require assistance.

One of the earlier executive-level formalization of counterterrorism policy
occurred in 1986 under National Security Decision Directive 207. This
directive was in response to several terrorist attacks on U.S. facilities and
interests overseas in the early 1980s, and focused primarily on responding
to terrorism abroad. It designated the Department of State as the lead
agency for dealing with overseas terrorist incidents, and designated the FBI
as the lead agency for handling domestic terrorist incidents, unless
otherwise specified by the Attorney General. It also set up an interagency
working group on counterterrorism to coordinate efforts across the
different agencies.

The next major presidential directive on terrorism occurred in 1995 under
Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 39. Following the terrorist bombing
of a federal building in Oklahoma City, this directive had a more domestic
focus, outlining measures to be undertaken by federal agencies to reduce
domestic vulnerabilities to terrorism, deter and respond to terrorist acts,
and develop capabilities to effectively manage the consequences of a
terrorist attack. The directive designated the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA) as the lead agency for managing the
consequences of a terrorist incident within the United States. This directive
also detailed the responsibilities of other agencies expected to provide
support when requested by the lead agencies.

Counterterrorism policy was further developed in 1998 through PDDs
62 and 63. PDD 62 further clarified agency roles and responsibilities in
terrorism prevention, terrorist apprehension and prosecution,
transportation security, and protection of critical infrastructure. PDD
63 established critical infrastructure protection as a national goal and
described a strategy for cooperative efforts by government and the private
sector to protect the physical and cyber-based systems essential to the
minimum operations of the government and economy—such as
telecommunications, power distribution, financial services, national
defense, and critical government operations—from physical and cyber
attacks. To help manage these issues, these directives established a
National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and
Counterterrorism. This Coordinator was meant to coordinate relevant



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agency programs and activities on behalf of the NSC, as well as take the
lead in providing guidelines for interagency operations.

The previous administration issued a federal strategy for combating
terrorism in 1998—the Attorney General’s Five-Year Interagency
Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Plan.1 The Congress mandated
this plan, which was intended to serve as a baseline strategy for
coordination of national policy and operational capabilities to combat
terrorism both at home and abroad.2 It identified several high-level
counterterrorism goals and described the specific tasks of federal agencies
in responding to terrorist incidents. Although primarily domestic in focus,
one of the plan’s five major goals was to facilitate greater international
cooperation to combat terrorism. The Department of Justice issued annual
updates to the Five-Year Plan in 1999 and 2000, which did not revise the
basic plan but tracked agencies’ progress in implementing the original plan.
Justice Department officials told us they are no longer providing annual
updates because other interagency plans (discussed later in this chapter)
have been released.

Operational guidance on combating terrorism overseas (i.e., specific
agency roles and actions in a crisis) was drafted in 1996 by the Department
of State. This guidance, known as the International Guidelines, outlines
procedures for deploying emergency support teams and otherwise
coordinating federal operations overseas. Although the NSC did not
formally approve the International Guidelines until January 2001, agencies
had used them in draft form since 1996. Our previous examination of
operations to combat terrorism overseas found that agencies generally
followed the draft International Guidelines when performing their




1
  Another earlier and related plan was the International Crime Control Strategy, released in
May 1998. While not specific to terrorism, this plan had 8 overarching goals and 30
implementing objectives related to international crime. For more information, see U.S.
General Accounting Office, International Crime Control: Sustained Executive-Level
Coordination of Federal Response Needed, GAO-01-629 (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 13, 2001).
2
  Conference Committee Report (House Report 105-405), Nov. 13, 1997, accompanying the
Fiscal Year 1998 Appropriations Act for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State,
the Judiciary, and Related Agencies (P.L. 105-119), Nov. 26, 1997.




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                                respective roles in diplomacy, law enforcement, military planning, and
                                intelligence gathering.3



Current Policies and            Many federal policies and plans changed in the aftermath of the
Plans Include New Areas         September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. There were changes in both positions
                                and offices to manage terrorism-related programs, and changes through the
of Responsibility and           publishing of new strategies.
National Strategies

New Areas of Responsibilities   The President divided the responsibilities of the National Coordinator
Established                     for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counterterrorism, created in
                                PDD 62, among three new areas of responsibility.

                                • Efforts to combat terrorism domestically. Executive Order 13228, dated
                                  October 8, 2001, created a new Assistant to the President for Homeland
                                  Security, to head a new Office of Homeland Security responsible for
                                  coordinating efforts to combat terrorism inside the United States.
                                  Specific responsibilities included working with departments and
                                  agencies, state and local governments, and private entities to ensure the
                                  adequacy of the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The order
                                  detailed a number of other specific responsibilities for the Office of
                                  Homeland Security.4

                                • Efforts to combat terrorism overseas. National Security Presidential
                                  Directive 8, dated October 24, 2001, created a National Director for


                                3
                                  U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Issues to Be Resolved to Improve
                                Counterterrorism Operations, GAO/NSIAD-99-135 (Washington, D.C.: May 13, 1999). We
                                reported that with ongoing counterterrorism operations, federal agencies had not
                                completed interagency guidance and resolved command and control issues. Also, key
                                federal agencies did not capture lessons learned for all field and tabletop exercises in which
                                they led or participated.
                                4
                                  For information on the situation leading up to the creation of this position, including GAO’s
                                recommendations that a similar type of focal point be established, see U.S. General
                                Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Selected Challenges and Related
                                Recommendations, GAO-01-822 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 20, 2001). We reported on (1) the
                                current framework for leadership and coordination of federal agencies’ efforts to combat
                                terrorism, (2) progress the federal government made in developing and implementing a
                                national strategy to combat terrorism domestically, (3) the federal government’s capabilities
                                to respond to a domestic terrorist incident, (4) progress the federal government made in
                                helping state and local emergency responders, and (5) progress made in developing and
                                implementing a federal strategy for combating cyber-based attacks.




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                              Combating Terrorism, with responsibilities for activities to combat
                              terrorism overseas. The Director is located in the NSC and reports to the
                              Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs. Per the
                              directive, the Director also serves as the Deputy National Security
                              Advisor for Combating Terrorism. The Director chairs a policy
                              coordination committee named the Counterterrorism Security Group.
                              While not specified in the directive, this group has a number of
                              interagency working groups, which are described later in this chapter.
                              The director also reports to the Assistant to the President for Homeland
                              Security on matters relating to global terrorism inside the United States.

                           • Efforts to protect critical infrastructure. On February 28, 2003, the
                             President signed Executive Order 13286, which maintained “it is the
                             policy of the United States to protect against disruption of the operation
                             of information systems for critical infrastructure and thereby help to
                             protect the people, economy, essential human and government services,
                             and national security of the United States, and to ensure that any
                             disruptions that occur are infrequent, of minimal duration, and
                             manageable, and cause the least damage possible.”5 It also stated that
                             “implementation of this policy includes voluntary public-private
                             partnership, involving corporate and nongovernmental organizations.”
                             In addition, Executive Order 13286 replaced in its entirety Executive
                             Order 13231,6 thus dissolving the President’s Critical Infrastructure
                             Protection Board that was to coordinate cyber-related federal efforts
                             and programs associated with protecting the nation’s critical
                             infrastructures, and the board’s chair—the Special Advisor to the
                             President for Cyberspace Security—and related staff.

Series of New Strategies   A series of new national plans were developed and published to help guide
Published                  U.S. policy. Some of these plans—called national strategies—are specific to
                           combating terrorism, while others involve terrorism to lesser degrees. The
                           strategies most directly addressing terrorism are the National Security
                           Strategy of the United States of America, published in September 2002; the
                           National Strategy for Homeland Security, published in July 2002; and the
                           National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, published in

                           5
                             The White House, Executive Order 13286—Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other
                           Actions, in Connection With the Transfer of Certain Functions to the Secretary of Homeland
                           Security (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 28, 2003).
                           6
                             The White House, Executive Order 13231—Critical Infrastructure Protection in the
                           Information Age (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 16, 2001).




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                                              February 2003. Table 2 summarizes the functions of each of the various
                                              national strategies and how they relate to combating terrorism overseas.7



Table 2: National Strategies Related to Combating Terrorism

Strategy                                   Description of strategy
National Security Strategy of the United   This document provides a broad framework for strengthening U.S. security in the future. It
States of America                          identifies the national security goals of the United States, describes the foreign policy and
Issued by the President, September 2002    military capabilities necessary to achieve those goals, evaluates the current status of these
                                           capabilities, and explains how national power will be structured to utilize these capabilities. It
                                           devotes a chapter to combating terrorism that focuses on the disruption and destruction of
                                           terrorist organizations, the winning of the “War of Ideas,” the strengthening of homeland
                                           security, and the fostering of cooperation with allies and international organizations to
                                           combat terrorism.
National Strategy for Homeland Security    This document addresses the threat of terrorism within the United States by organizing the
Issued by the President, July 2002         domestic efforts of federal, state, local, and private organizations. Although mostly domestic
                                           in focus, this strategy mentions various initiatives related to combating terrorism overseas,
                                           including: negotiating new international standards for travel documents, improving security
                                           for international shipping containers, enhancing cooperation with foreign law enforcement
                                           agencies, expanding specialized training and assistance to allies, and increasing the security
                                           of transnational infrastructure. The strategy stresses the importance of expanding
                                           international cooperation in research and development and enhancing the coordination of
                                           incident response. Finally, the strategy recommends reviewing current international treaties
                                           and laws to determine where improvements could be made.
National Strategy for Combating Terrorism This document elaborates on the terrorism aspects of the National Security Strategy of the
Issued by the President, February 2003    United States of America by expounding on the need to destroy terrorist organizations, win
                                          the “War of Ideas,” and strengthen security at home and abroad. Unlike the National Strategy
                                          for Homeland Security that focuses on preventing terrorist attacks within the United States,
                                          the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism focuses on identifying and defusing threats
                                          before they reach the borders of the United States. In that sense, although it has defensive
                                          elements, this strategy is an offensive strategy to complement the defensive National
                                          Strategy for Homeland Security.




                                              7
                                                There are additional national strategies that have some discussion of terrorism that we
                                              have not included. For example, the National Drug Control Strategy, issued by the
                                              President in February 2003, cites the importance of a unified approach to fighting both
                                              drugs and terrorism, particularly in South America. The 2002 strategy highlighted drug
                                              revenue as a source of funding for 12 of the 28 international terrorist groups identified by
                                              the Department of State.




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(Continued From Previous Page)
Strategy                                       Description of strategy
National Military Strategy of the United       This document sets the strategic direction for all aspects of the U.S. Armed Forces. This
States of America                              includes force structure, acquisition, and doctrine, as well as the strategic environment. The
Issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs     1997 strategy notes the rising danger of asymmetric threats, such as terrorism. The strategy
of Staff, September 1997                       stresses the need for the military to adapt its doctrine, training, and equipment to ensure a
                                               rapid and effective joint and interagency response to these threats.

                                               There is also a more recent Defense Strategy, which was issued by the Secretary of Defense
                                               in September 2001. This strategy is part of DOD’s Quadrennial Defense Review and has
                                               relatively little discussion of terrorism.
National Military Strategic Plan for the War   This document provides a framework to guide the conduct of the “war on terrorism” by U.S.
on Terrorism                                   Armed Forces. It provides specific guidance from which regional commanders, the military
Issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs     services, and other agencies can formulate their own individual action plans. Individual
of Staff, October 2002                         regional commands drafted their own campaign plans in response to this plan. For example,
                                               one regional command plans to conduct maritime interception operations to disrupt
                                               terrorists’ use of commercial shipping to transport people and material.
National Strategy to Combat Weapons of         This document presents a national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction through
Mass Destruction                               three major efforts: (1) nonproliferation, (2) counterproliferation, and (3) consequence
Issued by the President, December 2002         management in WMD incidents. The plan addresses the proliferation of weapons of mass
                                               destruction among states, as well as the potential threat of terrorists using WMD agents.
National Money Laundering Strategy             This document presents a national strategy to combat money laundering and other financial
Issued by the Secretary of the Treasury        crimes. The strategy sets forth an action plan for how law enforcement, regulatory officials,
and the Attorney General, July 2002            the private sector, and the international community could take steps to make it harder for
                                               criminals to launder money generated from their illegal activities. In addition to addressing
                                               general criminal financial activities, the 2002 strategy presents the government’s plan to
                                               attack financing networks of terrorist entities. The strategy discusses the need to adapt
                                               traditional methods of combating money laundering to unconventional tools used by terrorist
                                               organizations to finance their operations.
National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace         This document is intended to provide an initial framework for both organizing and prioritizing
Issued by the President, February 2003         efforts to protect our nation’s critical cyber infrastructures. Also, it is to provide direction to
                                               federal departments and agencies that have roles in cyberspace security and to identify
                                               steps that state and local governments, private companies and organizations, and individual
                                               Americans can take to improve the nation’s collective cybersecurity. The strategy is
                                               organized according to five national priorities, with major actions and initiatives identified for
                                               each. These priorities are: (1) a National Cyberspace Security Response System,
                                               (2) a National Cyberspace Security Threat and Vulnerability Reduction Program,
                                               (3) a National Cyberspace Security Awareness and Training Program, (4) Securing
                                               Governments’ Cyberspace, and (5) National Security and International Cyberspace Security
                                               Cooperation. In describing the threats and vulnerabilities for our nation’s cyberspace, the
                                               strategy highlights the potential for damage to U.S. information systems by criminals, nation-
                                               states, and terrorists.




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(Continued From Previous Page)
Strategy                                     Description of strategy
National Strategy for the Physical           This document provides a statement of national policy to remain committed to protecting
Protection of Critical Infrastructures and   critical infrastructures and key assets from terrorist attacks, and it is based on eight guiding
Key Assets                                   principles, including establishing responsibility and accountability, encouraging and
Issued by the President, February 2003       facilitating partnering among all levels of government and between government and industry,
                                             and encouraging market solutions wherever possible and government intervention when
                                             needed. The strategy also establishes three strategic objectives. The first is to identify and
                                             assure the protection of the most critical assets, systems, and functions, in terms of national-
                                             level public health and safety, governance, and economic and national security and public
                                             confidence. The second is to assure protection of infrastructures and assets facing specific,
                                             imminent threats. The third is to pursue collaborative measures and initiatives to assure the
                                             protection of other potential targets that may become attractive over time.
Source: Published national strategies.

                                               Note: GAO analysis of published national strategies.




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New Strategies Provide   As we have recently testified, we view the new strategies, and the
Framework                framework they provide, as a positive step.8 The new strategies are
                         organized in some hierarchy, share common themes, and cross-reference
                         each other.

                         The strategies are organized in a hierarchy with the National Security
                         Strategy of the United States of America providing the overarching
                         strategy related to national security as a whole, including terrorism.
                         According to the administration, the National Security Strategy of the
                         United States of America and the National Strategy for Homeland
                         Security are top-level strategies that together address U.S. security both
                         overseas and domestically. According to the administration, these two
                         strategies establish a framework that takes precedence over all other
                         national strategies, plans, and programs. Our interpretation of the
                         hierarchy among strategies is somewhat different from how the
                         administration has presented it. We do not view the hierarchy as that
                         absolute because we see the National Strategy for Homeland Security and
                         the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism as roughly equivalent.
                         These two strategies provide, respectively, the strategies to combat
                         terrorism related to defensive domestic issues and offensive overseas
                         issues.9

                         Under this hierarchy, the other strategies provide further levels of detail on
                         the specific functions related to military operations, money laundering,
                         weapons of mass destruction, cyber security, and protection of physical
                         infrastructures. Intelligence is one of the critical functions that cuts across
                         all the other strategies, but does not have a strategy itself related to


                         8
                           For a more detailed discussion and evaluation of these collective strategies, see U.S.
                         General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Observations on National Strategies
                         Related to Terrorism, GAO-03-519T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 3, 2003). In this testimony, we
                         stated that the new strategies show cohesion in that they are organized in a hierarchy, share
                         common themes, and cross-reference each other. In addition, the collective strategies are
                         more comprehensive than the single strategy they replaced. However, we noted there will be
                         many challenges in implementing these strategies.
                         9
                           We recognize that this characterization of the strategies simplifies a complex relationship
                         among the two. Both strategies contain both defensive and offensive elements. For
                         example, while we characterize the National Strategy for Homeland Security as mainly
                         defensive, it includes offensive initiatives to target and attack terrorist financing, and to
                         track foreign terrorists and bring them to justice. Similarly, while we characterize the
                         National Strategy for Combating Terrorism as mainly offensive, it includes defensive
                         objectives to implement the National Strategy for Homeland Security and to protect U.S.
                         citizens abroad.




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terrorism, according to CIA officials with whom we spoke. Some of these
other strategies contain independent elements beyond national security
that do not overlap with the other strategies. For an example of the latter,
both the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Money
Laundering Strategy include some domestic criminal elements not
associated with national security or terrorism. Also, the National Strategy
to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical
Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets make a distinction
between threats to national security and threats to national economic
security and national public health and safety. Further, the National Drug
Control Strategy has relatively little overlap with these other strategies.
Figure 7 displays graphically how some of these national strategies fit into
a hierarchy and overlap.




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Figure 7: Relationships Between and Among National Strategies Related to Combating Terrorism Overseas




                                        Notes: GAO analysis of national strategies.
                                        This graphic is intended to show relationships and overlaps among these national strategies. The sizes
                                        and shapes of the boxes are not meant to imply the relative importance of the strategies.




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                                  The various strategies also share common themes. Among the strategies
                                  more relevant to combating terrorism overseassuch as the National
                                  Security Strategy of the United States of America, the National Strategy
                                  for Combating Terrorism, the National Strategy to Combat Weapons of
                                  Mass Destruction, and the National Military Strategy of the United States
                                  of Americaall contain either goals or objectives relating to strengthening
                                  international relationships; strengthening intelligence gathering and
                                  analysis capabilities; and improving capabilities to deter, prevent, and
                                  respond to weapons of mass destruction.

                                  In addition, the strategies have linkages among them in the form of
                                  citations and cross-references from one document to another. At least half
                                  of the strategies cite either the National Security Strategy of the United
                                  States of America or the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The
                                  most extensively linked strategies include the National Security Strategy
                                  of the United States of America, the National Strategy for Homeland
                                  Security, the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, and the
                                  National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. Strategies that
                                  cover topics beyond terrorism, such as criminal law enforcement, are less
                                  extensively linked to these documents. For example, the National Strategy
                                  to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical
                                  Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets solely cite each
                                  other and the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The National
                                  Drug Control Strategy and the National Money Laundering Strategy
                                  contain no explicit linkages to any of the other strategies, but are
                                  referenced in the National Strategy for Homeland Security. Some
                                  strategies contain broad themes that are covered in more detail by other
                                  strategies, but do not cite these documents. For instance, although the
                                  National Strategy for Combating Terrorism mentions the topic of terrorist
                                  financing, it does not mention the National Money Laundering Strategy.
                                  Nevertheless, it mentions the National Drug Control Strategy, a document
                                  with considerably less thematic overlap in terms of terrorism. The
                                  National Security Strategy of the United States of America covers many
                                  broad strategic themes, but refers to no other national strategies, although
                                  many of the strategies refer back to it.

National Strategy for Combating   The key strategy for overseas efforts is the National Strategy for
Terrorism                         Combating Terrorism, issued in February 2003. According to this strategy,
                                  terrorist groups can be categorized as those that operate primarily within a
                                  single country, those that operate regionally, and those with global reach.
                                  The document’s strategic intent calls for fighting terrorist organizations of
                                  global reach and reducing their scope and capabilities to the regional and



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                                                                then local levels. The goal is to reduce the scope of terrorism to make it
                                                                more localized, unorganized, and relegated to the criminal domain. The
                                                                strategy seeks to accomplish this through four goals and 15 subordinate
                                                                objectives. Together, these goals comprise the “4D Strategy” and are shown
                                                                in table 3.



Table 3: Goals and Objectives in the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism

Goal: Defeat terrorist organizations of global reach by attacking their sanctuaries; leadership command, control, and
communications; material support; and finances.
Objective: Identify terrorists and terrorist organizations.
Objective: Locate terrorists and their organizations.
Objective: Destroy terrorists and their organizations.
Goal: Deny further sponsorship, support, and sanctuary to terrorists by ensuring that other states accept their responsibilities
to take actions against these international threats within their sovereign territory.
Objective: End the state sponsorship of terrorism.
Objective: Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with regard to combating terrorism.
Objective: Strengthen and sustain the international effort to fight terrorism.
Objective: Interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists.
Objective: Eliminate terrorists’ sanctuaries and havens.
Goal: Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit by enlisting the international community to focus its
efforts and resources on the areas most at risk.
Objective: Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent the (re)emergence of terrorism.
Objective: Win the War of Ideas.
Goal: Defend the United States, its citizens, and its interests at home and abroad by both proactively protecting the homeland
and extending defenses to identify and neutralize the threat as early as possible.
Objective: Implement the National Strategy for Homeland Security.
Objective: Attain domain awareness.
Objective: Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical physical and information-based infrastructures
at home and abroad.
Objective: Integrate measures to protect U.S. citizens abroad.
Objective: Ensure an integrated incident management capability.
Source: National Strategy for Combating Terrorism, Feb. 2003.




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New Strategies Will Not   As we have testified, the strategies by themselves, no matter how cohesive
Guarantee Success         and comprehensive, will not ensure an integrated and effective set of
                          programs to combat terrorism.10 The ability to ensure these things will be
                          determined through time as the strategies are implemented. In addition,
                          these new strategies reflect a host of long-standing themes and programs.
                          For example, certain themes and related programs contained in the new
                          strategiespreventing and deterring terrorism, maximizing international
                          cooperation to combat terrorism, and improving crisis and consequence
                          planning and management—were included in the Attorney General’s 1998
                          Five-Year Interagency Counterterrorism and Technology Crime Plan.
                          Some of the related policies and programs have been in place for decades.
                          For example, the State Department’s Antiterrorism Assistance program,
                          which provides assistance to other countries to improve their capabilities,
                          has existed since 1983. Given that these strategies are relatively new,
                          GAO has not yet evaluated their implementation, either individually or
                          collectively. However, we have done work that demonstrates the federal
                          government will face many implementation challenges. For example, we
                          have designated the implementation and transformation of the Department
                          of Homeland Security—which will have some responsibilities for
                          combating terrorism overseas—as a high-risk federal activity.11 We have
                          also identified cyber security as a high-risk area.12



Various Laws Address      While there is no single, comprehensive federal law explicitly dealing with
Terrorism                 terrorism, the Congress passed and the President signed a series of laws
                          dealing with various aspects of terrorism before the September 11, 2001,
                          terrorist attacks. The Congress passed these laws to ensure that the


                          10
                               GAO-03-519T.
                          11
                             We designated the implementation and transformation of the department as a high risk for
                          three reasons. First, the size and complexity of the effort make the challenge especially
                          daunting, requiring sustained attention and time to achieve the department’s mission in an
                          effective and efficient manner. Second, components being merged into the department
                          already face a wide variety of existing challenges that must be addressed. Finally, the
                          department’s failure to effectively carry out its mission exposes the nation to potentially
                          very serious consequences. For more details, see GAO-03-102; GAO-03-260; and U.S. General
                          Accounting Office, Highlights of a GAO Forum: Mergers and Transformation: Lessons
                          Learned for a Department of Homeland Security and Other Federal Agencies, GAO-03-
                          293SP (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 14, 2002).
                          12
                            See U.S. General Accounting Office, High-Risk Series: Protecting Information Systems
                          Supporting the Federal Government and the Nation’s Critical Infrastructures, GAO-03-121
                          (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 1, 2003).




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perpetrators of certain terrorist acts are subject to punishment no matter
where the acts occur; require or permit sanctions on countries and
organizations supporting or sponsoring terrorism; delineate agency roles
and responsibilities; and authorize and/or appropriate funding for agencies
to carry our their responsibilities.

Responding to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Congress
passed and the President signed into law legislation affecting the way the
United States combats terrorism overseas and domestically. The Congress
enacted these laws to improve intelligence sharing, enhance airport
security, and strengthen border control, among other goals. To provide the
intelligence community and law enforcement with additional means to
fight terrorism worldwide and prevent future terrorist attacks, the
Congress enacted the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing
Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA
PATRIOT) Act.13 In addition to broadening the definition of “terrorist
activity” and “terrorist organization,” and addressing international money
laundering, the act also authorizes the Secretary of State to share sensitive
visa information with foreign government officials, where appropriate. In
addition, the Congress recently enacted legislation to implement the
obligations of the United States under the International Convention for the
Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the International
Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings.14

Another major piece of legislation that has greatly impacted the war on
terrorism, both overseas and domestically, is the Homeland Security Act of
2002.15 The act created the Department of Homeland Security, an agency
whose primary mission includes preventing terrorist attacks within the
United States and reducing the vulnerability of the United States to
terrorism. The act combined many of the federal agencies involved in
combating terrorism into the new department, including those discussed in
this report.16 In addition, the act contains a number of provisions that



13
     P.L. 107-56, Oct. 26, 2001.
14
     Terrorist Bombings Convention Implementation Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-197), Jun. 25, 2002.
15
     P.L. 107-296, Nov. 25, 2002.
16
 See appendix II for the Matrix of Department of Homeland Security Programs and
Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas.




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                          encourage the sharing of information between the intelligence and law
                          enforcement communities.17

                          Recent legislation further addressed the issues of border and aviation
                          security. The Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002
                          increased the number of authorized INS inspectors and support staff to
                          prevent terrorist suspects from entering the United States.18 It also
                          addressed the need for increased interagency data sharing pertaining to the
                          admission of and ability to remove aliens. The Aviation and Transportation
                          Security Act created the Transportation Security Administration within the
                          Department of Transportation to strengthen security at U.S. national and
                          international airports.19



Roles and                 Another key element in the interagency framework for combating
                          terrorism overseas is the delineation of roles played by federal
Responsibilities of Key   organizations and agencies. Some play a coordinating role, others serve as
Federal Agencies          leads in specific areas, and many others provide various kinds of support.
                          Some agencies also have positions designated within them to lead their
                          agencies’ terrorism-related programs and have agency-specific plans. The
                          roles and responsibilities of the key organizations and agencies are
                          described below.

                          Subsequent chapters provide additional information on these agencies’
                          roles in the areas of diplomacy, law enforcement, intelligence, international
                          finance, military operations, and other activities to combat terrorism
                          overseas. In addition, appendixes provide further details on selected
                          agencies’ programs and activities.




                          17
                            For example, Subtitle I of the act, the Homeland Security Information Sharing Act,
                          requires that, under procedures prescribed by the President, all appropriate agencies,
                          including the intelligence community, shall share homeland security information with
                          federal agencies and appropriate state and local personnel, subject to certain protections.
                          18
                               P.L. 107-173, May 14, 2002.
                          19
                               P.L. 107-71, Nov. 19, 2001.




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National Security Council     Located within the Executive Office of the President, the NSC advises and
Leads Coordination Across     assists the President on national security and foreign policy. It serves as a
                              forum for the discussion and debate of national security issues between the
Agencies                      President, presidential advisors, and cabinet officials. It is also the
                              President’s instrument for coordinating policy among government agencies
                              on crosscutting issues, such as terrorism. Beyond the NSC principals
                              committee—consisting of secretaries of the cabinet departments or
                              equivalent heads of independent agencies—the Council is composed of a
                              professional staff and various policy coordination committees. The policy
                              coordination committee that deals with terrorism is the Counterterrorism
                              Security Group. The National Director for Combating Terrorism chairs this
                              group, which has subordinate working groups discussed later in this
                              chapter. The NSC is the lead for developing the National Security Strategy
                              of the United States of America and the National Strategy for Combating
                              Terrorism—the key strategies that address combating terrorism overseas.



Office of Homeland Security   The Office of Homeland Security, also located within the Executive Office
Coordinates Related           of the President, coordinates efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect
                              against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United
Domestic Issues
                              States. Similar to NSC, the Office of Homeland Security has several
                              interagency working groups (called policy coordination committees) to
                              manage crosscutting issues.20 Although mainly domestic in scope, the
                              Office is involved in functions that intersect with combating terrorism
                              overseas, such as border security. The Director for Homeland Security
                              heads this office, which developed the National Strategy for Homeland
                              Security—the key strategy for combating terrorism domestically.



Office of Management          The Office of Management and Budget, also located in the Executive Office
and Budget Tracks Funding     of the President, assists the President in overseeing the preparation of the
                              federal budget and supervises its administration in Executive Branch
for Combating Terrorism

                              20
                                For more information on the Office of Homeland Security and its role and coordination
                              mechanisms related to combating terrorism domestically, see U.S. General Accounting
                              Office, Homeland Security: Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership, GAO-03-
                              260 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 20, 2002). We reported that additional actions to clarify
                              missions and activities across agencies involved in homeland security will be necessary and
                              some agencies will need to determine how best to support both homeland security and non-
                              homeland security missions. Also, more emphasis on collaboration and coordination with
                              the state and local governments and the private sector will be needed to meet overall goals.




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                              agencies. Since 1998, OMB has issued its Annual Report to Congress on
                              Combating Terrorism, which provides funding and programmatic
                              information on the federal government’s efforts to combat terrorism and, in
                              the most recent report, breaks out funding for combating terrorism
                              overseas separately from homeland security initiatives. The report
                              summarizes data for three fiscal years--the most recent prior year, current
                              operating year, and the President’s budget year request—by department,
                              agency, and mission area.



Department of State Leads     Below the Executive Office of the President, the State Department is the
Overall Efforts Overseas      lead federal agency for U.S. government activities to combat terrorism
                              overseas. The activities that State leads include diplomatic efforts on both
                              the bilateral and multilateral levels, protecting U.S. facilities and personnel
                              abroad, protecting American civilians traveling and working abroad,
                              limited law enforcement functions, and providing assistance to other
                              countries to improve their capabilities to combat terrorism. The State
                              Department also has the lead in responding to terrorist attacks on U.S.
                              interests overseas. In such a terrorist incident, State would lead and
                              coordinate measures to alleviate damage, protect health, and provide
                              emergency assistance. Other federal agencies would provide support under
                              State’s direction.

                              The Coordinator for Counterterrorism—an ambassador rank position—
                              heads the State Department’s efforts to combat terrorism. The
                              department’s objectives for combating terrorism are delineated in the State
                              Department’s 2002 Annual Performance Plan. This plan describes the
                              State Department’s objective as to reduce international terrorist incidents,
                              especially against the United States. Key goals in the plan are to (1) reduce
                              the number of attacks, (2) bring terrorists to justice, (3) reduce or eliminate
                              state-sponsored terrorist acts, (4) delegitimize the use of terror as a
                              political tool, (5) enhance the international response, and (6) strengthen
                              international cooperation and operational capabilities to counter terrorism.



Department of Justice Leads   The Department of Justice has the lead in law enforcement and criminal
Arrest and Prosecution of     matters related to terrorism—both domestically and overseas. The
                              department has responsibility for investigating, indicting, and prosecuting
Terrorists
                              terrorists. In addition, the department administers training for foreign law
                              enforcement and security services through a variety of programs. These
                              responsibilities are distributed among a number of components within
                              Justice. For example, the department’s efforts to prosecute terrorists are


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led by the Counterterrorism Section of Justice’s Criminal Division, and its
Office of International Affairs works with the State Department to
negotiate treaties and agreements with other countries that promote
international cooperation, including cooperation in terrorism cases. The
department’s plans and goals for combating terrorism are documented in
its Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2001-2006.

The FBI leads Department of Justice efforts to investigate international
terrorism. Specifically, the FBI is responsible for the apprehension and
rendition of foreign terrorists who are suspected of violating U.S. statutes.21
According to the FBI, it also has the primary responsibility to collect
foreign intelligence and counterintelligence information, including that
related to terrorism, within the United States. In a terrorist incident
overseas, the FBI could support the State Department in resolving the
crisis. Within the FBI, efforts related to international terrorism are led by
the Counterterrorism Division, which has two International Terrorism
Operations Sections that investigate terrorist crimes against U.S. interests,
along with a Terrorism Financing Operations Section that investigates
terrorism financing. In addition, the FBI legal attachés overseas work with
foreign services. The FBI’s strategic plan is currently under revision to
reflect FBI’s recent reorganization, done in part to reflect new priorities to
include terrorism.22

Other agencies within the department have important roles. For example,
the ATF leads or supports investigations related to firearms and explosives,
including terrorist incidents overseas. This bureau transferred from the
Department of the Treasury to the Department of Justice in January 2003.
Some of the Department of Justice’s functions related to border security,
such as those conducted by the former Immigration and Naturalization
Service, transferred to the new Department of Homeland Security in
March 2003.




21
  According to the FBI, in cases where the United States lacks an extradition treaty, the U.S.
government can capture suspected terrorists through an overseas arrest called a rendition.
State’s Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, in conjunction with State’s Office of
the Legal Adviser, the Department of Justice, and other agencies, would coordinate State’s
role in negotiating and conducting these arrests. Since 1987, there have been 11 reported
renditions (see table 8 in ch. 4 for a complete list of reported extraditions and renditions of
terrorists to the United States between 1987 and 2001).
22
     GAO currently has additional work under way to evaluate the FBI’s efforts to reorganize.




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New Department of            The new Department of Homeland Security also has selected
Homeland Security Has        responsibilities for combating terrorism overseas. It has an Office of
                             International Affairs with responsibilities to promote information and
Variety of Functions to      education exchange with foreign nations with respect to best practices and
Combat Terrorism             technologies related to homeland security. The department also has the
                             responsibility of coordinating the federal government’s lines of
                             communications with state and local public safety agencies and the general
                             public, including monitoring threats from terrorists (including international
                             terrorists) and keeping the nation alerted via the color-coded Homeland
                             Security Advisory System.

                             In addition, the Department of Homeland Security assumed many
                             responsibilities for combating terrorism overseas when certain agencies
                             and their functions transferred into the department in March 2003. Many of
                             these responsibilities relate to border security. For example, the U.S.
                             Customs Service (formerly under the Department of the Treasury) and the
                             Immigration and Naturalization Service (formerly under the Department of
                             Justice) and their functions are now part of the department’s Bureau of
                             Customs and Border Protection and Bureau of Immigration and Customs
                             Enforcement. The U.S. Coast Guard (formerly under the Department of
                             Transportation) is responsible for maintaining border security at certain
                             maritime borders between ports of entry. In addition, the U.S. Coast Guard
                             tracks suspicious vessels and works with DOD to conduct maritime
                             interception operations. The Bureau of Immigration and Customs
                             Enforcement also has some responsibilities to track and investigate
                             terrorist financing. The Department of Homeland Security has a number of
                             other functions as well. For example, the U.S. Secret Service (formerly
                             under the Department of the Treasury) protects the President and certain
                             other senior officials when they travel abroad. In addition, the department
                             has several disaster response teams (formerly with a variety of other
                             department and agencies) that have a domestic mission but could be
                             deployed abroad in a terrorist incident overseas. Further, the department’s
                             responsibilities include enhancing the security of the nation’s cyber and
                             physical public and private infrastructures essential to national security,
                             national economic security, and/or national public health and safety.



Department of the Treasury   The Department of the Treasury has a number of important roles in
Identifies and Blocks        combating terrorism overseas. The department has a key role, working
                             with other agencies, in efforts to prevent money laundering and to disrupt
Terrorist Financing
                             and dismantle the financial support of terrorist organizations. The



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                            Financial Crimes Network and the Office of Foreign Assets Control provide
                            support to the Treasury and other law enforcement agencies in
                            investigating and freezing terrorist financial assets. Treasury’s plans for
                            financial operations against terrorist finances are included in the National
                            Money Laundering Strategy, issued jointly with the Department of Justice.
                            Treasury’s Office of International Affairs coordinates the department’s
                            assistance to other countries. The Department of the Treasury recently
                            transferred selected agencies and functions to the Departments of Justice
                            and Homeland Security, as discussed above.



Department of Defense       DOD is the lead agency for military operations against terrorist
Leads Military Operations   organizations and states that sponsor them. If directed by the President,
                            DOD can use military forces to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations
Against Terrorists          and operations. DOD also is responsible for protecting its worldwide forces
                            from terrorist attacks. In a terrorist incident overseas, DOD could support
                            the State Department in resolving the crisis. DOD has a broad array of
                            capabilities—from tactical units to transportation assets to
                            decontamination units—that could help manage a terrorist incident,
                            including those involving WMD agents. DOD also leads the U.S.
                            government’s international counterterrorist response exercise program.
                            DOD agencies are part of the intelligence community and have a mutually
                            supportive relationship with the CIA. While DOD provides training and
                            equipment to foreign governments to improve their capabilities to combat
                            terrorism, the Department of State retains overall statutory authority for
                            training and equipping foreign personnel.

                            The Secretary of Defense establishes policy and guidance for DOD’s
                            operations to combat terrorism overseas. The Secretary of Defense’s senior
                            policy advisor on terrorism is the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special
                            Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
                            Staff ensures implementation of the Secretary’s guidance by issuing
                            direction to combatant commanders, defense agencies, and the military
                            services as members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Within the Joint Staff, the
                            Chairman has a number of directorates of dedicated staff with expertise to
                            conduct the war on terrorism, including the Deputy Director for the War on
                            Terrorism in the Directorate for Strategic Plans and Policy (J-5), the War on
                            Terrorism Branch within the Special Operations Division of the Directorate
                            for Operations (J-3), and several elements within the Directorate for
                            Intelligence (J-2).




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                              Staff representing the Secretary of Defense and Chairman of the Joint
                              Chiefs of Staff work together with other agencies to develop and
                              implement DOD plans and operations. U.S. military forces, in coordination
                              with other U.S. government agencies and/or allied forces, carry out
                              operations. These forces are under the command of one of the geographic
                              or functional combatant commanders who have specific areas of
                              responsibility. DOD’s plans to combat terrorism are included in the
                              National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism, which is
                              implemented by the combatant commands’ campaign plans.



Department of Energy Has      DOE is responsible for responding to radiological terrorist incidents and
Role in Radiological Issues   preventing the proliferation of WMD materials. DOE’s response programs
                              consist of special teams that could deploy overseas to follow State
                              Department’s lead in a terrorist crisis. Specifically, these DOE response
                              teams could provide threat assessments, search operations, diagnostic and
                              device assessments, containment relocation and storage of special nuclear
                              material, and post-incident cleanup. DOE’s non-proliferation programs,
                              implemented in conjunction with the State Department and other agencies,
                              provide assistance and training to foreign countries. These programs are
                              primarily focused on nations in the former Soviet Union and are aimed at
                              keeping weapons of mass destruction out of the hands of terrorists and
                              rogue states by preventing the smuggling of nuclear materials.

                              No single DOE official is in charge of coordinating the department’s efforts
                              to combat terrorism. However, the Administrator of the department’s
                              National Nuclear Security Administration is responsible for supervising
                              both response and non-proliferation programs. While the department has
                              no agency specific strategic plan for combating terrorism, the department’s
                              response teams have contingency and operational plans. According to
                              officials from the National Nuclear Security Administration, they are
                              currently developing plans specific to their counterterrorism and non-
                              proliferation missions.



Central Intelligence Agency   The CIA has the lead for gathering, analyzing, and disseminating
Leads Overseas Intelligence   intelligence on foreign terrorist organizations. This information is used to
                              produce a wide variety of intelligence products for policymakers and
Activities
                              operational agencies, ranging from quick-reaction briefings to long-term
                              research studies. These efforts broadly support diplomatic, legal, financial,
                              and military operations against terrorism. Additionally, the CIA Director is




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                            charged with promoting coordination and information sharing between all
                            intelligence community agencies.23 The CIA also has the lead for covert
                            action and other special activities used to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                            organizations.

                            CIA efforts to combat terrorism are coordinated in its Counterterrorist
                            Center, which is located at the agency’s headquarters. The center, which
                            includes representatives from a number of other federal agencies, is the
                            CIA’s central coordination center for agency and governmentwide
                            intelligence activities related to foreign terrorists.



U.S. Agency for             USAID has roles in providing immediate emergency assistance after a
International Development   terrorist incident and in providing long-term assistance to strengthen other
                            countries’ capabilities to combat terrorism. USAID, working under the
Helps with Disasters and
                            leadership of the Department of State, coordinates U.S. government efforts
Institution Building        to manage the consequences of a terrorist incident. In the aftermath of a
                            terrorist incident, USAID could respond with humanitarian relief and
                            rehabilitation activities. Within USAID, the Office of Foreign Disaster
                            Assistance leads agency efforts to provide such assistance. In addition,
                            several USAID programs provide assistance to other countries in
                            developing their law enforcement and judicial systems. For example,
                            USAID supports programs to (1) train foreign law enforcement,
                            prosecutors, and judges and (2) assist in rewriting legislation and criminal
                            sentencing guidelines. These programs, which are discussed in chapter 3,
                            could help these countries bring terrorists to justice.



Other Federal Agencies      Other federal agencies have more limited roles in combating terrorism
Could Provide Specialized   overseas. These agencies generally have a domestic focus, but have unique
                            capabilities to provide technical advice or special response teams. These
Assistance

                            23
                              The intelligence community includes the Office of the Director of Central Intelligence;
                            Central Intelligence Agency; the National Security Agency; the National Imagery and
                            Mapping Agency; the National Reconnaissance Office; the Defense Intelligence Agency and
                            other offices within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national
                            intelligence through reconnaissance programs and the intelligence elements of the Army,
                            the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps; the FBI; the Department of the Treasury; the
                            Department of Energy; the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research; and
                            such other elements of any department or agency as may be designated by the President or
                            jointly by the Director of Central Intelligence and the head of the department or agency
                            concerned.




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                              teams could deploy overseas to support the State Department in managing
                              a terrorist WMD incident or in other activities related to terrorism. Such
                              agencies include the following:

                              • The Department of Health and Human Services has expertise and
                                capabilities related to the health and medical consequences of terrorist
                                WMD incidents, particularly biological agents.

                              • The Department of Veterans Affairs has expertise and capabilities
                                related to the health and medical consequences of radiological agents.

                              • The Environmental Protection Agency has expertise and capabilities
                                related to identifying and cleaning up hazardous materials, including
                                chemical agents.



Interagency                   Another part of the interagency framework to combat terrorism overseas is
                              coordination. Interagency coordination is important because of the large
Coordination                  number of agencies and multiple functions involved. Agencies involved in
Mechanisms                    combating terrorism participate in various interagency mechanisms used
                              to coordinate their activities. In Washington, D.C., NSC policy coordination
                              committees and interagency working groups coordinate higher-level policy
                              issues. Overseas, U.S. missions and regional military commands coordinate
                              their activities through a combination of working groups and operational
                              plans. Agencies also achieve interagency coordination through personnel
                              exchanges and cross-agency liaisons.

                              Subsequent chapters provide more information on how coordination
                              occurs in the specific functions of diplomacy, intelligence, law
                              enforcement, financial operations, and military operations against
                              terrorism overseas.



NSC Oversees Interagency      Formal interagency coordination of national policy and operational issues
Coordination in Washington,   to combat terrorism overseas occurs through the NSC. The NSC heads a
                              policy coordination committee called the Counterterrorism Security
D.C.                          Group. 24 The group is comprised of high-level representatives (at the


                              24
                               The Counterterrorism Security Group was formerly known as the Coordinating Sub-
                              Group of the NSC Deputies’ Committee.




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                                                            assistant secretary level) from key federal agencies that combat terrorism
                                                            such as the Departments of State, Justice, and Defense and other agencies,
                                                            to include the FBI and the CIA. Other departments or agencies might be
                                                            invited to participate in meetings of the group as needed, such as the
                                                            Departments of the Treasury, Transportation, Health and Human Services,
                                                            Energy, and FEMA. The group develops and tries to reach consensus on
                                                            terrorism policy and operational matters and makes recommendations to
                                                            the President. The Counterterrorism Security Group has a number of
                                                            subordinate interagency working groups that coordinate efforts related to
                                                            specific issues in combating terrorism overseas. Table 4 describes these
                                                            subordinate groups and their functions.



Table 4: NSC-Sponsored Interagency Working Groups Under the Counterterrorism Security Group to Coordinate Efforts to
Combat Terrorism Overseas

Working group (Chair)                           Functions of working group
Exercise and Readiness                          This long-standing group promotes interagency planning, implementation, and evaluation of exercises
Sub-Group.                                      to combat terrorism. The State Department, the FBI, and FEMA co-chair the group, taking
Chairs: State Department, the                   responsibility for planning exercises. The group has regular meetings where agencies address
FBI, and FEMA                                   interagency issues, plan future exercises, and compare and resolve schedule conflicts in agency
                                                exercises.
Terrorist Financing Working                     This group coordinates U.S. government efforts to identify and deny terrorist financing. It coordinates
Group.                                          policy, strategy, and operations to disrupt terrorist networks by freezing terrorist accounts. The group
Chair: Treasury Department                      also helps to develop strategies and activities for working with other countries.
Training and Assistance Sub-                    This group coordinates the different programs to provide terrorism-related training and assistance to
Group.                                          foreign governments and their officials. This training can include technical assistance, classroom
Chair: State Department                         courses, or field training. The group works to prioritize countries that should receive assistance. The
                                                group reviews assistance programs of the various agencies to ensure they are properly sequenced,
                                                avoid duplication, and ensure that they are implemented in collaboration with or reinforce other efforts,
                                                as appropriate.
Counterterrorism Finance                        This is a subgroup of the above Training and Assistance Sub-Group that focuses on assistance to
Training and Technical                          other countries to eliminate terrorist funding. The group focuses on providing related finance training
Assistance Working Group.                       and technical assistance to a set of priority countries, and attempts to ensure that the delivery of such
Chair: State Department                         assistance by different agencies does not conflict and is used effectively and efficiently.
Hostage Crisis Working Group                    This group develops and coordinates the U.S. government’s hostage crisis policy. The group meets on
Chair: NSC                                      an emergency basis to monitor and plan actions related to overseas crises or incidents where
                                                Americans are taken hostage by terrorists.
Technical Support Working                       This long-standing group conducts the national interagency research and development program for
Group.                                          combating terrorism. It operates under the policy oversight of the State Department and the
Chair: State Department                         management and technical oversight of DOD. This group coordinates research and development
                                                across nine categories of terrorism-related products, amounting to $165 million in fiscal year 2003.
Source: GAO discussions with NSC and agency officials.

                                                            Note: Until recently, there was also a National Strategy Working Group chaired by NSC. This group
                                                            was formed to develop, write, and coordinate the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. It
                                                            disbanded when the strategy was published in February 2003.




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                        Some terrorism-related groups formerly under the NSC have been
                        transferred to the Office of Homeland Security. For example, the NSC had
                        interagency working groups related to issues such as WMD consequence
                        management, aviation security, and assistance to state and local
                        governments. These functions are now covered by the Office of Homeland
                        Security, which has its own interagency working groups (called policy
                        coordination committees) to coordinate these and other domestic issues.
                        Our work in producing this report did not evaluate the implications of the
                        new Department of Homeland Security, but it also will participate in some
                        of these policy coordination committees under the sponsorship of the
                        Office of Homeland Security.



Coordination Occurs     At U.S. embassies overseas, programs to combat terrorism are coordinated
Overseas through U.S.   through various plans and working groups. Each embassy has a mission
                        performance plan to coordinate embassy activities across agencies. The
Missions
                        mission performance plans list each embassy’s priorities and include
                        implementation and budgeting plans. In cases where combating terrorism
                        is a priority, the plan might include specific goals and actions to counter
                        that threat. For example, one embassy has goals to both reduce the threat
                        of terrorists against Americans in that country and to keep the host
                        government an active and effective member of the international coalition
                        against terrorism.

                        In addition, embassies have a “country team” that can be used to
                        coordinate efforts to combat terrorism. The country team, which includes
                        representatives from all of the agencies with representatives at the
                        embassy, sometimes have subgroups related to terrorism. For example,
                        selected embassies have country team subgroups dedicated to law
                        enforcement matters, chaired by the deputy chief of mission. These groups
                        consist of agency representatives at the embassy with law enforcement
                        duties, such as the regional security officer, FBI legal attaché, Treasury
                        Department financial attaché, and officials from other agencies. The
                        country teams and their subgroups meet regularly and on an ad hoc basis
                        for crises or time-sensitive matters. The ambassador works with the
                        country teams in developing the mission performance plan discussed
                        above.




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Regional Military          U.S. regional military commands also have plans and interagency working
Commands also Provide      groups to coordinate their military operations with other agencies to
                           combat terrorism overseas. These regional commands include the U.S.
Interagency Coordination   Central Command, U.S. European Command, U.S. Southern Command, and
Overseas                   U.S. Pacific Command.25 All of these commands have Campaign Plans and
                           Theater Security Cooperation Plans to coordinate their activities. The
                           Campaign Plans are the regional commanders’ strategies for implementing
                           DOD’s National Military Strategic Plan for the War on Terrorism in their
                           specific geographic area of responsibility. These plans include efforts to
                           coordinate both military and non-military operations. In addition, the
                           commands’ Theater Security Cooperation Plans lay out strategies for
                           working with other countries in the region to further U.S. foreign policy
                           and military goals. Command officials told us that since September 11,
                           2001, these plans have additional emphasis on coordinating efforts to
                           combat terrorism with other countries.

                           These regional commands also have new interagency working groups to
                           help coordinate activities to combat terrorism across different agencies.
                           DOD created these interagency groups on an experimental basis right after
                           the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and NSC formally approved them
                           in January 2002. The working groups coordinate military operations with
                           nonmilitary activities, to include diplomacy, law enforcement, intelligence,
                           and others. The groups include representatives from the Department of
                           State, Department of Justice (including the FBI), Department of Homeland
                           Security (including the U.S. Secret Service), the intelligence community
                           (including the Defense Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, and
                           National Imagery and Mapping Agency), and other agencies (including
                           USAID). These interagency working groups include agencies with long-
                           standing representatives at the commands as well as newcomers. For
                           example, some of the defense components of the intelligence community
                           have long had liaisons at the regional commands. In contrast, law
                           enforcement agencies have only recently assigned staff to the regional
                           commands on a full- or part-time basis.




                           25
                            We did not include the newly created U.S. Northern Command in our review because of its
                           domestic focus. The Northern Command is responsible for homeland defense within the
                           United States and at its borders.




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Interagency Coordination   Agencies also accomplish interagency coordination and information
also Facilitated via       sharing through personnel exchanges and agency liaisons. Such exchanges
                           occur at all levels and can be extensive. For example, the FBI and the CIA
Personnel Exchanges        routinely detail senior-level officers to the counterterrorism office of their
                           counterpart. The Deputy Chief of the CIA’s Counterterrorist Center is an
                           FBI official, while the Deputy Section Chief in the FBI’s Counterterrorism
                           Division is a CIA official. Additionally, the staff of the newly instituted
                           Office of Intelligence at the FBI is headed by a CIA official and includes
                           25 staff on detail from the CIA.

                           The staff exchanges provide a valuable service to both their assigned and
                           home agencies. Besides contributing their own expertise, part of the job of
                           these detailees is to provide their agency hosts with timely verbal briefings,
                           especially during crisis situations when interagency liaison is critical. For
                           example, CIA officers detailed to the counterterrorism offices of other
                           agencies maintain direct contact with their primary assignments at the
                           CIA’s Counterterrorist Center. State Department political advisors detailed
                           to U.S. regional military commands help coordinate with both State
                           Department headquarters in Washington, D.C., and with U.S. embassies
                           overseas.

                           Personnel also learn about other agencies by taking orientation and
                           training courses. One new initiative is a training program where new CIA
                           chiefs of station are introduced to FBI perspectives and capabilities. New
                           FBI legal attachés receive reciprocal training at the CIA. Through these
                           types of initiatives, personnel are able to better understand their
                           counterparts’ roles, responsibilities, and authority and thus promote better
                           coordination.

                           Coordination through personnel exchanges also occurs at the international
                           level. For example, U.S. officials are detailed to international multilateral
                           organizations, such as the International Police Organization (INTERPOL)
                           and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).



Agency Comments and        The Departments of Defense, Justice, and State and USAID provided
                           technical comments on this chapter, generally relating to their roles in
Our Evaluation             combating terrorism overseas. Based upon these comments, we made
                           revisions, as appropriate. We also made revisions regarding the creation of
                           the Department of Homeland Security and the transfer of various agencies
                           and functions from other departments into that department.



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Federal Efforts to Detect and Prevent
Terrorism                                                                                                   Cha3pert




                         The federal government has an important mission to protect Americans
                         abroad from terrorist attacks. A critical component in performing that
                         mission is detecting terrorists and preventing their attacks against
                         U.S. interests. By protecting Americans abroad, the federal government
                         helps protect the homeland. Federal efforts to detect and prevent terrorism
                         involve a wide range of programs and activities. Efforts to detect terrorism
                         are led by the CIA and the intelligence community, which gather, analyze,
                         and share intelligence on terrorist threats. Efforts to protect U.S. interests
                         abroad are led by the State Department and other agencies, which have
                         programs to protect U.S. government facilities and personnel as well as
                         American civilians living, working, and traveling overseas. Preventing
                         terrorism through public diplomacy is led by the State Department, which
                         seeks to shape foreign opinion and garner support for U.S. foreign policy.
                         Efforts to prevent terrorists from entering the United States are conducted
                         by several federal agencies, which operate visa and border controls. Efforts
                         to prevent terrorism also include several agencies’ programs to improve
                         coalition partners’ capabilities through training, equipment, security, and
                         economic assistance, and assistance in providing security for special
                         international events. This chapter describes the relevant federal programs
                         in place and is not an evaluation of their effectiveness.



Intelligence             The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes objectives to
                         identify and locate terrorists and terrorist organizations. There is also an
Gathering and Analysis   objective to attain domain awareness—the knowledge of all activities,
Help Detect              events, and trends within any specified domain (air, land, sea, and cyber)
                         that could threaten the United States. Intelligence gathering and analysis
Terrorist Activities     are key functions toward these objectives. Intelligence gathering and
                         analysis are critical in detecting terrorist activities and generally are led by
                         the CIA. Under the overall leadership of that agency, U.S. intelligence
                         agencies gather information on terrorist organizations, monitor terrorist
                         threats, and share information with other nations. The Departments of
                         State and Defense collect and analyze intelligence and participate in
                         surveillance programs and liaisons with foreign police at the local level.
                         These intelligence activities support other preventative efforts, such as
                         protecting U.S. facilities and Americans overseas, public diplomacy, and
                         border controls.

                         Federal efforts to combat terrorism are supported by the work of the
                         U.S. intelligence community, which is a group of government agencies that
                         play various roles in intelligence gathering, analysis, and distribution.
                         That intelligence provides policymakers with valuable information about



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                             terrorist organizations and forms the basis for threat assessments and
                             warnings. Also, it generally supports operations against terrorist
                             organizations. In the wake of September 11, 2001, many intelligence
                             agencies have sought to reduce barriers to the flow of such intelligence
                             between and within agencies. The CIA and various interagency bodies
                             manage the coordination of these agencies.



CIA Leads Intelligence       The CIA leads the intelligence community in efforts to collect, analyze,
Community Collection         and disseminate information on terrorist incidents and groups. This
                             information and analysis is used to inform government decision makers
and Analysis of Foreign
                             and supports diplomatic, legal, and military operations against terrorism. It
Intelligence from Overseas   can include such things as how terrorist groups are organized, who their
                             leaders are, what their objectives are, what weapons and tactics they use,
                             and whether they receive support from state sponsors of terrorism.

                             Such information is collected through various means. Signals intelligence
                             can be collected through intercepted communications, radar, and telemetry
                             signals. Imagery intelligence can be derived from visual photography,
                             infrared sensors, lasers, and electro-optics. Human intelligence is collected
                             directly from human sources, sometimes through clandestine collection
                             operations. Open source intelligence is gathered from media sources open
                             to the public, such as foreign newspapers or trade journals. A considerable
                             volume of intelligence information has been produced by the current
                             military campaign in Afghanistan. According to the CIA, this information
                             has provided policymakers with a better understanding of al Qaeda’s
                             leadership, structure, and capabilities.

                             Raw intelligence on terrorist groups, such as the previous example, is
                             combined and analyzed by various agencies, but most notably by staff of
                             the Counterterrorist Center within the CIA. Dissemination of finished
                             intelligence occurs through various intelligence community products,
                             including periodicals, daily reports, daily briefings, and warning
                             memorandums. The products are delivered to national-level policymakers
                             including the President, Cabinet- and sub-Cabinet-level officers, Members
                             of Congress, U.S. military commands, and law enforcement agencies. Some
                             products are short-range, such as the President’s daily intelligence brief,
                             while more long-range forecasts are made through National
                             Intelligence Estimates.




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FBI Has Key Role in          In addition to law enforcement functions, the FBI is designated as an
Collection and Analysis of   intelligence agency by Executive Order 12333. 1 As such, according to the
                             FBI, it has the primary responsibility for the collection of foreign
Foreign Intelligence from    intelligence and counterintelligence information within the United States.
Domestic Sources             In this role, the FBI monitors the activities of terrorist groups (including
                             those of foreign origin) operating within the United States. Within FBI,
                             these activities are coordinated through the FBI’s Counterterrorism
                             Division. Intelligence information collected by the FBI’s Counterterrorism
                             Division is used to protect against international terrorism by identifying
                             terrorist groups, their members, their plans, and the means by which they
                             communicate and conceal their activities. The FBI gathers this information
                             through Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act investigations, recruited
                             sources, double agents, and undercover operations. The FBI also monitors
                             the activities of terrorist groups operating outside the United States.
                             For example, FBI Legal Attachés overseas acquire and disseminate
                             information on terrorists through liaison with foreign services. In addition
                             to using FBI intelligence, the Counterterrorism Division utilizes
                             intelligence information from other agencies such as the CIA, the Defense
                             Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, and the State Department.
                             Eighteen federal agencies are represented in the division, including the
                             CIA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the Department of State. The FBI’s Threat
                             Assessment/Prevention Unit also assists international terrorism personnel
                             with assessing the potential threats existing in the short- and long-term
                             environments. In addition, the FBI’s Office of Intelligence supports
                             counterterrorism and counterintelligence programs through strategic and
                             tactical intelligence capacity.

                             Information from these various sources is collected, analyzed, and shared
                             with policymakers and investigators. Raw intelligence collected by the
                             intelligence community also is compared with investigative data
                             accumulated by the FBI to determine the feasibility and credibility of threat
                             information received in various venues. The Counterintelligence Division
                             coordinates investigative matters concerning foreign counterintelligence,
                             including activities related to investigations into espionage, overseas
                             homicide, protection of foreign officials and guests, and nuclear extortion.
                             The FBI’s goal in these intelligence activities is to assemble a picture of the
                             threats posed by international terrorist groups and provide a basis for
                             neutralizing those groups before they commit acts of terrorism.


                             1
                                 Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, Dec. 4, 1981.




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Other Agencies also Have       The State Department also has a major role in gathering, analyzing, and
Important Intelligence Roles   disseminating intelligence on terrorist groups. The department’s Bureau for
                               Intelligence and Research prepares intelligence reports and related policy
                               guidance for the Secretary of State and other department officials. In
                               addition, this bureau provides intelligence products, such as threat
                               information, to ambassadors at U.S. embassies. This bureau also conducts
                               foreign public opinion surveys related to terrorism. For example, it
                               conducted surveys in several Arab countries to gauge public reaction to the
                               September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and public perceptions of Osama bin
                               Laden. The department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security gathers
                               information through its contacts with foreign police, security, and
                               intelligence officials. Through these contacts and related investigations,
                               this bureau’s regional security officers—located at U.S. embassies—may be
                               the first to recognize potential terrorist activities and threats. The bureau
                               also analyzes terrorist and related threats and publishes their results in
                               Significant Incidents of Political Violence Against Americans, and
                               Terrorist Tactics and Security Practices: Lessons Learned and
                               Issues in Global Crime. In addition, the departments’ Coordinator for
                               Counterterrorism, in conjunction with the intelligence community, studies
                               terrorist groups and state sponsors of terrorism, and provides a review of
                               the international terrorism situation in the annual publication Patterns of
                               Global Terrorism.2 These publications are disseminated to, among others,
                               department offices and U.S. embassies for their use in developing policies
                               and programs to combat terrorism.

                               DOD also plays a significant role in intelligence collection and analysis.
                               The Defense Intelligence Agency provides military intelligence to
                               warfighters, policymakers, and force planners involved in combating
                               terrorism. The National Security Agency collects and processes foreign
                               signals intelligence for national leadership and warfighters. The National
                               Reconnaissance Office coordinates collection and analysis of information
                               from space and airborne reconnaissance by the CIA and the military
                               services. In addition, the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine
                               Corps intelligence agencies each collect and process intelligence relevant
                               to their particular service’s needs. Regional command officials told us that
                               DOD’s combined intelligence activities are increasingly focused on
                               protecting deployed military forces, supporting military operations against


                               2
                                 The State Department prepares this annual publication for the Congress as
                               required by 22 U.S.C. § 2656f (2002).




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                      terrorists, and providing intelligence to other federal agencies that combat
                      terrorism overseas.

                      The Department of Homeland Security also has a role in analysis of
                      information related to terrorism threats because the nation’s critical cyber
                      and physical infrastructures are vulnerable to attack from international
                      sources. According to the Homeland Security Act, the Department of
                      Homeland Security’s Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection
                      Directorate is responsible for accessing, receiving, and analyzing law
                      enforcement information, intelligence information, and other threat and
                      incident information from respective agencies of federal, state, and local
                      governments and the private sector and for combining and analyzing such
                      information to identify and assess the nature and scope of terrorist threats.3
                      The directorate also is tasked with coordinating with other federal agencies
                      to administer the Homeland Security Advisory System to provide specific
                      warning information along with advice on appropriate protective measures
                      and countermeasures.



Threat Assessments    Threat assessments and warnings play a crucial role in the dissemination
Allow Government to   effort, helping to inform and prioritize security planning. When the threat of
                      terrorism becomes pronounced, warnings are issued to the public and
Take Preemptive or
                      policy community. One of the more visible threat assessments by the
Preventive Actions    intelligence community is the Homeland Security Advisory System. The
                      warning function for the counterterrorism community is housed within the
                      Community Counterterrorism Board, which produces Terrorist Alerts and
                      Advisories on a need-to-know basis for a wide government audience.

                      “Strategic warning” is used to describe instances in which the intelligence
                      community has very broad indications that an attack may occur but does
                      not have the specifics as to where, when, or how the attack will be
                      carried out. Strategic warning enables policymakers and government
                      decision makers to take steps to strengthen anti-terrorist defenses and
                      initiate other counterterrorist actions. Strategic warnings could include, for
                      example, the Department of Homeland Security adjusting its threat levels
                      and DOD adjusting its Force Protection Conditions. “Tactical warnings”
                      may be issued when the intelligence community has more detailed
                      information on where, when, or how an attack might be carried out.


                      3
                          Section 201, P.L. 107-296, Nov. 25, 2002.




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                          Tactical warnings can lead to immediate, direct preventive action against
                          specific individuals who may be involved in the planned attack and to
                          implement appropriate protective action for specific targets. For instance,
                          in early September 2002, the State Department was able to act on credible
                          and specific threat information by closing many U.S. embassies in Asia and
                          reviewing their security postures.



Intelligence Supports     Intelligence information supports the efforts of other agencies involved in
Diplomatic, Law           combating terrorism overseas. It enhances the diplomatic efforts of the
                          Department of State, for example, by providing essential information to the
Enforcement, and
                          TIPOFF database intended to prevent terrorists from obtaining entry visas
Military Actions          into the United States. Intelligence information also augments the security
                          of U.S. military facilities abroad, for instance through the CIA’s
                          Counterterrorist Center. The center maintains a liaison staff to provide
                          military commands worldwide with up-to-date information on the modus
                          operandi of terrorist groups in their geographic areas of responsibility.
                          Investigations by the FBI and other law-enforcement agencies also derive
                          support from intelligence information. Finally, military operations against
                          terrorist organizations often rely on intelligence information. For example,
                          the 1998 cruise missile attack against an al Qaeda training camp in
                          Afghanistan relied on data from the intelligence community.

                          Actions undertaken by the U.S. diplomatic, law enforcement, financial,
                          military, and intelligence communities supported by intelligence
                          information are discussed further in chapter 4.



Efforts to Reduce         Before September 11, 2001, much information sharing was handled through
Barriers to Information   staff detailed to other agencies and interagency liaison. For example, in
                          early 2001, 10 percent of the CIA Counterterrorist Center’s staff
Sharing Within the        complement had been detailed from outside agencies. Recent efforts to
Federal Government        improve data sharing have focused primarily on data access and
                          availability. According to recent testimony by the Director of Central
                          Intelligence, the State Department currently is working with the CIA to
                          renovate the current TIPOFF all-source watchlist into a National Watchlist
                          Center that will serve as a base for all watchlists in the U.S. government.4 In


                          4
                           Written Statement for the Record of the Director of Central Intelligence before the
                          Joint Inquiry Committee, Oct. 17, 2002.




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the interim, the Community Counterterrorism Board is providing secure
access to State’s current watchlist database via a secure system known as
“CT Link.” Furthermore, the CIA currently is developing a multi-agency,
common repository for classified and unclassified information accessible
to the entire intelligence community as well as to state and local
law enforcement.

To improve intelligence sharing both within and among agencies,
intelligence agencies are reevaluating their own internal data management
procedures. The FBI plans to fully convert to a new data management
system by December 2003 and currently is in the process of consolidating
its various databases. The CIA also is attempting to improve its database
procedures. These improvements include: consolidating terrorist identity
information, lowering the threshold for nominating individuals for
watchlist status, lowering the threshold for dissemination of information
previously regarded as “operational,” and increasing managerial oversight
through periodic reviews of the system.

Efforts also are under way to improve information sharing between
members of the intelligence community and the law enforcement
community. The FBI’s Criminal Division develops evidence for possible
prosecution, while the CIA and other intelligence agencies develop
intelligence to assess and counter threats. The collection and use of
intelligence information on individuals for domestic law enforcement
purposes is constrained by the application of constitutional protections,
statutory controls, and rules of evidence. For instance, to obtain a search
warrant in a criminal investigation, the government, in general, is required
to establish probable cause to believe that an individual has committed, is
committing, or is about to commit a particular predicate offense.5 The rules
are different for domestic collection of foreign intelligence. In general, the
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) requires that a FISA
Court judge find probable cause to believe that a suspect target is a foreign
power or an agent of a foreign power, and that the places at which the
surveillance is directed are being used, or are about to be used, by a foreign




5
 Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (P.L. 90-351),
Jun. 19, 1968, as amended.




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                             power or an agent of a foreign power.6 As a result of these different
                             standards, there are situations in which it is possible to obtain a foreign
                             intelligence surveillance order that would not satisfy the standards for a
                             criminal search warrant or electronic surveillance order.7 FISA has been
                             interpreted as requiring a separation or “wall” that limits coordination
                             between domestic law enforcement and foreign intelligence investigations
                             and the use of information collected by foreign intelligence agents in
                             criminal prosecutions.8 Various provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act seek to
                             improve the sharing of information between the intelligence and law
                             enforcement communities.9 For example, the USA PATRIOT Act amended
                             FISA to provide more flexibility to federal investigators in sharing
                             information obtained under FISA.10



International Intelligence   U.S. intelligence operations also are augmented by the efforts of
Sharing and Cooperation      U.S. friends and allies. Historically, the United States often has participated
                             in beneficial bilateral intelligence cooperation with other countries. The
                             Director of Central Intelligence formulates policy governing the liaison,
                             coordination of relationships, and cooperative intelligence arrangements
                             between members of the intelligence community and the intelligence or
                             security branches of foreign governments. These relationships can take the
                             form of reciprocating collection and analysis activities, joint collection
                             operations, exchange of analysts or technicians, or even training furnished
                             by the United States in return for services rendered by the foreign
                             intelligence service. In one such training program, the CIA’s
                             Counterterrorist Center is involved in training foreign agencies to better
                             prevent terrorist attacks. According the Director of Central Intelligence,


                             6
                                 P.L. 95-511, Oct. 25, 1978, as amended.
                             7
                               See U.S. General Accounting Office, FBI Intelligence Investigations: Coordination Within
                             Justice on Counterintelligence Criminal Matters Is Limited, GAO-01-780 (Washington,
                             D.C.: July 16, 2001).
                             8
                               A second type of “wall” continues to limit the use of foreign intelligence information in
                             criminal prosecutions. In this respect, intelligence analysts are concerned that primary
                             sources and methods could be disclosed, namely in criminal court. This may cause them to
                             release intelligence information to the FBI for lead purposes only, rather than fully share
                             information that could be used for evidentiary purposes.
                             9
                                 P.L. 107-56. For example, see sections 203, 218, and 504.
                             10
                               Also see the recent decision of the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
                             of Review In re: Sealed Case No. 02-001, Nov. 18, 2002, which addresses these issues.




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                              these foreign security services arrest terrorists on the basis of
                              U.S. intelligence. For example, terrorist groups planning attacks on
                              American and local interests in Europe were identified and disrupted
                              through cooperation between the CIA and various European governments.
                              Intelligence liaison has also greatly augmented U.S. efforts against
                              al Qaeda.



Coordination Mechanisms       Executive responsibility for coordination and information sharing among
for Intelligence Activities   the intelligence community agencies lies with the Director of Central
                              Intelligence.11 The Director serves as the President’s principal
                              intelligence advisor and serves as both head of the CIA and the greater
                              U.S. intelligence community. The Director’s coordination duties include
                              being the intelligence community’s spokesman to the Congress,
                              establishing services of common concern within the intelligence
                              community, and promoting common administrative practices—most
                              notably on classification issues. The Director also has full responsibility for
                              the production, interagency sharing, and timely dissemination of foreign
                              intelligence information, and carries the authority to assign specific
                              analytical tasks to specific intelligence community member agencies. The
                              Director also governs requirements and priorities for the collection of
                              foreign intelligence.

Interagency Intelligence      The lead forum for coordination of intelligence activities across agencies is
Committee on Terrorism        the Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism. The committee,
                              established in 1990, advises and assists the Director of Central Intelligence
                              in coordinating the intelligence community over the long term. It facilitates
                              the Director’s use of intelligence resources to resolve long-term policy
                              coordination issues in combating terrorism. It is composed of
                              representatives of the intelligence, law enforcement, and regulatory
                              communities, and it also oversees several subcommittees. These
                              subcommittees conduct research and develop solutions to intelligence
                              issues, including Intelligence Requirements, Information Handling,
                              Technical Countermeasures, Training, Warning, and Unconventional
                              Weapons. Leadership within the committee is provided by the Community
                              Counterterrorism Board, which serves as the committee’s executive
                              secretariat. The board also manages “CT Link,” a secure network for
                              counterterrorism research, coordination, and communication available on


                              11
                                   See Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, Dec. 4, 1981.




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                                             the individual desktops of all member agencies. Committee members
                                             assess indications of terrorist threats and share information on the
                                             activities of terrorist groups and countries that sponsor terrorism. Table 5
                                             shows selected members of the Interagency Intelligence Committee
                                             on Terrorism.



Table 5: Selected Members of the Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism

Organization                                                   Organization
Central Intelligence Agency                                    Department of State
Department of Defense                                          Department of Justice
• Office of the Secretary of Defense                           • Criminal Division
• Defense Intelligence Agency                                  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
• National Security Agency                                     • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
• National Reconnaissance Office                               • Drug Enforcement Administration
• National Imagery and Mapping Agency                          • U.S. Marshals Service
• Defense Information Systems Agency                           Department of Transportation
• Defense Threat Reduction Agency                              • Federal Aviation Administration
• Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
• White House Communications Agency                            •   Department of Homeland Security
• White House Military Office                                  •   U.S. Secret Service
• Joint Chiefs of Staff                                        •   U.S. Coast Guard
• Unified Commands                                             •   Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement
• U.S. Army                                                    •   Bureau of Customs and Border Protection
• U.S. Air Force                                               •   Federal Emergency Management Agency
• U.S. Marine Corps                                            Environmental Protection Agency
• U.S. Navy
• Chemical, Biological Incident Response Force                 Executive Office of the President
                                                               • National Security Council
                                                               • Office of Homeland Security
                                                               • Executive Office of the Vice President
                                                               U.S. Postal Service
                                                               Federal Reserve Board
                                                               National Communications System
                                                               Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Department of Commerce                                         U.S. Capitol Police
Department of Energy
Department of Health and Human Services
Source: CIA.




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Counterterrorist Center at CIA   The primary link between the long-term interagency coordination needs
                                 of the Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism and the more
                                 immediate coordination needs of intelligence operations is the Director of
                                 Central Intelligence’s Counterterrorist Center. The center was established
                                 at CIA Headquarters in 1986 to coordinate intelligence operations across
                                 agencies. Many agencies represented in the center are also members of the
                                 Interagency Intelligence Committee on Terrorism. All information on
                                 terrorists is channeled to the center. This intelligence collection is fused
                                 with analysis and operational capabilities to give the center the speed to
                                 seize fleeting opportunities. The center is, therefore, somewhat unique
                                 among intelligence “centers,” in that it combines intelligence analysis,
                                 planning, operational support, and also serves as a general platform for
                                 carrying out general U.S. counterterrorism policy.

                                 The interagency coordination managed by the Counterterrorist Center is
                                 intended to support U.S. efforts to penetrate, preempt, disrupt, and
                                 ultimately destroy terrorist organizations worldwide. The center carries
                                 out a number of responsibilities against terrorism: analysis, warning, and
                                 activities in support of diplomatic, legal, and military operations against
                                 terrorism. For example, it often plays a key role in the tracking and
                                 rendition of terrorist suspects, usually in concert with the FBI or foreign
                                 law enforcement agencies. The center also prepares intelligence reports on
                                 terrorist groups and countries that support terrorism that are made
                                 available to other intelligence and law enforcement agencies. For example,
                                 the center issues a monthly, classified review of international terrorism
                                 developments and provides other analysis on terrorist groups, capabilities,
                                 or incidents as needed. Smaller units within the center develop specialized
                                 intelligence on specific terrorist groups. As mentioned earlier, the center
                                 makes extensive use of personnel exchanges to facilitate greater
                                 coordination. Counterterrorist Center staff work closely with other agency
                                 counterparts in Washington, D.C., and with intelligence assets in the field.

                                 Beyond the operational coordination of the Counterterrorist Center and the
                                 long-term coordination initiatives of the Interagency Intelligence
                                 Committee on Terrorism, the intelligence community uses no overarching
                                 strategic plan to coordinate its efforts. There are, however, operational
                                 plans for intelligence campaigns against specific targets, such as Osama
                                 bin Laden.




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New Terrorist Threat   In January 2003, the President announced the creation of a Terrorist Threat
Integration Center     Integration Center to coordinate intelligence activities across agencies. The
                       President instructed the leaders of the FBI, CIA, and Departments of
                       Defense and Homeland Security to develop the center to merge and analyze
                       all threat information in a single location. The center is to have access to all
                       terrorist threat information available to the U.S. government and will seek
                       to minimize any seams between analysis of terrorism intelligence collected
                       overseas and in the United States. It is to conduct threat analysis,
                       institutionalize information sharing across agency lines, and provide
                       comprehensive threat assessments. The center also is intended to play a
                       lead role in tasking the intelligence community to gather intelligence and it
                       will maintain an up-to-date database of known and suspected terrorists. It
                       will not conduct intelligence collection or operations. The Terrorist Threat
                       Integration Center will eventually be collocated with the Director of
                       Central Intelligence's Counterterrorist Center and the FBI's
                       Counterterrorism Division to improve collaboration among agencies.
                       However the Director of Central Intelligence's Counterterrorist Center and
                       the FBI's Counterterrorism Division will retain their distinctive operational
                       capabilities. The head of the center will report to the Director of Central
                       Intelligence. The Director of Central Intelligence will appoint the head of
                       the center in consultation with the Attorney General, the Secretaries of
                       Defense and Homeland Security, and the Director of the FBI. In February
                       2003, the President announced a plan for implementing the new center,
                       starting in May 2003.



Protecting             The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes an objective to
                       integrate measures to protect U.S. citizens abroad. According to the
U.S. Government        strategy, the Department of State will take the lead and, in conjunction with
Facilities and         appropriate agencies, partner with industry to establish cost-effective best
                       practices and standards to maximize security. Toward this objective, the
Americans Abroad       Department of State conducts multifaceted activities in its effort to prevent
                       terrorist attacks on Americans abroad. For example, to protect
                       U.S. officials, property, and information abroad, State operates programs
                       that include local guards for U.S. missions, armored vehicles for embassy
                       personnel, U.S. Marine security guards to protect sensitive information,
                       and plans to evacuate Americans in emergencies. DOD has similar
                       programs to protect its military forces against terrorist attacks. The
                       U.S. Secret Service and State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security protect
                       senior U.S. government officials when traveling overseas. For Americans
                       traveling and living abroad, State issues public travel warnings and public
                       announcements and operates warning systems to convey terrorism-related



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                        information. For U.S. businesses and universities operating overseas, State
                        uses the Overseas Security Advisory Councils—voluntary partnerships
                        between the State Department and the U.S. private sector—to foster the
                        exchange of security and threat information, implement security programs,
                        and provide a forum to address security concerns. These efforts are
                        coordinated both at the headquarters level in Washington, D.C., and at
                        individual U.S. missions abroad.



U.S. Mission Security   The Department of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security is responsible
                        for providing a secure environment worldwide for the conduct of
                        American diplomacy. The bureau manages a broad range of programs
                        to create and maintain appropriate levels of security for more than
                        50,000 U.S. government personnel, staff, and dependents, who work and
                        live at 260 embassies, consulates, and other U.S. missions overseas. The
                        bureau can dispatch Diplomatic Security teams to threatened overseas
                        missions. At each U.S. mission, the regional security officer is responsible
                        for implementing Diplomatic Security measures and coordinating
                        protection with host government authorities.

                        The Bureau of Diplomatic Security also reviews standards and risk
                        management. It develops, evaluates, and applies security standards for a
                        broad range of categories. These include (1) physical protection for office
                        and residential buildings, (2) access to communication equipment,
                        (3) intrusion detection devices, (4) secure conference rooms, and
                        (5) armored vehicles. These standards are intended to allow the bureau
                        to identify and address threats posed by terrorism, political violence,
                        human intelligence, and technical intelligence penetration of facilities.
                        The bureau uses these elements to target resource allocations to identified
                        threats at each mission or location. The bureau is required to provide to the
                        Congress each year a ranking of the U.S. missions abroad most vulnerable
                        to terrorist attack.12 These standards also help target additional security
                        funding to the highest threat missions, as in the case of Emergency Security



                        12
                           See U.S. General Accounting Office, Embassy Construction: Better Long-Term Planning
                        Will Enhance Program Decision-Making, GAO-01-11 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 22, 2001). In
                        this report, we note that the Department of State has ranked the more than 180 facilities that
                        it proposes to replace and/or provide with major security enhancements into groups or
                        “bands” of 20 in order from the most vulnerable to the least vulnerable to terrorist attack.
                        The ranking, which is provided to the Congress annually, is intended to serve as a guide for
                        which embassies and consulates State would replace first.




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                               Supplemental and Worldwide Security Upgrade funds to meet the most
                               pressing security needs.

                               The State Department conducts multifaceted activities in an effort to
                               prevent terrorist attacks against U.S. missions. Following the August 1998
                               bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es-Salaam,
                               Tanzania, State upgraded security for all of its missions. As we have
                               reported previously, there are a number of U.S. embassy security programs
                               and activities to prevent terrorism overseas, which generally are managed
                               by State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security.13

Embassy threat assessments     This Bureau of Diplomatic Security program helps the Bureau of Overseas
                               Buildings Operations develop embassy security measures. The Bureau of
                               Diplomatic Security develops, with other elements in State, threat
                               assessments that State uses to prioritize which U.S. missions are most in
                               need of new, safer embassy buildings.

Embassy construction program   This Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations program is attempting to
                               replace State Department’s less secure facilities on an accelerated basis
                               with new, secure embassies and consulates that meet current security
                               standards, such as having a 100-foot setback from streets surrounding
                               embassies. State has a 6-year Long-Range Overseas Buildings Plan, which
                               includes both new construction and the major renovation and
                               rehabilitation of existing facilities.

Worldwide Security             The Bureau of Diplomatic Security and Bureau of Overseas Buildings
Upgrade Program                Operations jointly are responsible for the Worldwide Security Upgrade
                               Program, which provides a physically secure environment for all
                               U.S. government personnel under the jurisdiction of the chief of mission.
                               The Bureau of Diplomatic Security, through its physical security program,
                               strengthens building exteriors, lobby entrances, and the walls and fences
                               around embassies and consulates.14 Inside an embassy or consulate,
                               closed-circuit television monitors, explosive-detection devices,
                               walk-through metal detectors, and hard-line walls and security doors
                               provide protection. These are intermediate measures—only new embassies
                               will address all security concerns.



                               13
                                 See U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Department of State
                               Programs to Combat Terrorism Abroad, GAO-02-1021 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 6, 2002).




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Residential Security program     The Residential Security program provides for security upgrades to the
                                 residences of U.S. employees assigned to overseas diplomatic and consular
                                 missions. Prior to occupancy, all newly acquired residential facilities are
                                 equipped with appropriate security features, such as locks, alarms, shatter-
                                 resistant window film, and reinforced doors, based on the level of the
                                 threats.

Overseas Protection of           The Overseas Protection of Information program implements a
Information program              comprehensive set of information protection programs. These programs
                                 are intended to protect national security information discussed at meetings
                                 in secure conference rooms or on secure telephones, processed and stored
                                 on computers, and preserved and communicated on paper documents. This
                                 program includes (1) personnel investigations for security clearances,
                                 (2) courier protection for diplomatic pouches, (3) construction security
                                 and access control equipment, (4) U.S. Marine security guards controlling
                                 access to embassies at 130 U.S. missions overseas, (5) locks for containers
                                 holding classified material, (6) secure conference rooms, (7) detection and
                                 containment of emanations from processing equipment,
                                 (8) counterintelligence investigations and briefings, and
                                 (9) computer security.

Surveillance Detection Program   The Surveillance Detection Program utilizes plainclothes security agents
                                 to provide surveillance detection measures around U.S. embassies,
                                 consulates, and residences of embassy employees. The program is used
                                 to identity suspicious activity, such as terrorists’ casing embassy
                                 facilities or personnel, and includes capabilities intended to resolve all
                                 suspicious activity.

Local Guard Services             Local Guard Services augment host government resources for protecting
                                 overseas diplomatic and consular office facilities and residences of
                                 U.S. government employees and dependents of all agencies under the chief
                                 of mission.




                                 14
                                    The USAID Overseas Management Office is responsible for ensuring security at all
                                 USAID facilities that are not collocated with U.S. missions (approximately 58 of 95, as of
                                 January 2002), although it coordinates these security arrangements with the Bureau of
                                 Diplomatic Security in Washington and with the regional security officers in country.
                                 Additionally, the Office of Security handles USAID building construction issues,
                                 coordinating extensively with State’s Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations, which
                                 constructs buildings for USAID’s tenancy.




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Overseas Protective Vehicles   The Overseas Protective Vehicles program provides light and heavy armor
                               vehicles to protect embassy personnel. Currently, all chief-of-mission
                               vehicles have been ordered and are being armored and 94 percent of
                               these vehicles already have been delivered to missions.

Host Nation Security Support   Host nations also provide critical support in preventing terrorist attacks
                               against U.S. missions. Based on its capabilities—and sometimes
                               willingness—host nation security support could include, for example,
                               sharing intelligence about threats with the regional security officer,
                               providing bodyguards for U.S. officials, stationing local police guards
                               outside of a U.S. mission, closing roads adjacent to a U.S. mission,
                               controlling crowds, responding first to a terrorist incident, and conducting
                               an investigation of a terrorist attack. Figure 8 shows how a host
                               government provides perimeter security for a U.S. embassy.



                               Figure 8: Host Nation Police Use Buses to Cordon off a U.S. Embassy during a
                               Heightened Threat Period




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Military Force                    The threat of terrorism is one of the most pervasive challenges facing DOD,
Protection Efforts                making the protection of U.S. forces against terrorist attacks a top priority
                                  for the department.15 The June 1996 truck bombing of the al-Khobar Towers
                                  military housing facility near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 19 Americans
                                  and wounding hundreds of others prompted DOD to reexamine its
                                  programs to protect both its forces and installations overseas. However,
                                  U.S. forces remained vulnerable to terrorist attacks as demonstrated by the
                                  October 2000 al Qaeda bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen that killed
                                  17 U.S. sailors.

Overall Management at DOD,        The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and
Joint Staff, and Service Levels   Low-Intensity Conflict is responsible for developing antiterrorism
                                  guidance, providing policy oversight, and ensuring compliance with these
                                  policies. In June 2001, the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense
                                  for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict established standards
                                  addressing antiterrorism planning, training requirements, physical security
                                  measures, and related issues.16 This office had earlier issued a handbook in
                                  1993 containing detailed guidance on antiterrorism policies and practices,
                                  including guidance on assessment methodology.17

                                  The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Deputy Director for
                                  Global Operations in the Joint Chiefs of Staff Directorate for Operations
                                  (J-3) help implement the policy of the Assistant Secretary by reviewing
                                  services’ budgets, developing standards, making vulnerability assessments,
                                  and representing regional commands on force protection issues. The Joint
                                  Staff issued an installation-planning template to help installations prepare
                                  their antiterrorism plans in July 1998 and currently manages the Integrated
                                  Vulnerability Assessment Program. This program has teams, also consisting
                                  of staff from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, that travel to military


                                  15
                                    For a more detailed discussion and our evaluation of DOD force protection efforts, see
                                  U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Actions Taken but Considerable
                                  Risks Remain for Forces Overseas, GAO/NSIAD-00-181 (Washington, D.C.: July 19, 2000);
                                  Combating Terrorism: Actions Needed to Improve DOD Antiterrorism Program
                                  Implementation and Management, GAO-01-909 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 19, 2001); and
                                  Combating Terrorism: Actions Needed to Guide Services’ Antiterrorism Efforts at
                                  Installations, GAO-03-14 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 1, 2002).
                                  16
                                       DOD Instruction 2000.16, DOD Antiterrorism Standards, June 14, 2001.
                                  17
                                     DOD Handbook O-2000.12-H, Protection of DOD Personnel and Activities
                                  Against Acts of Terrorism and Political Turbulence, Feb. 19, 1993.




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                             installations (including those overseas) to conduct vulnerability
                             assessments and support installation commanders and local
                             anti-terrorism/force protection managers in writing force protection
                             and WMD response plans.

                             Each military service headquarters is responsible for implementing the
                             DOD antiterrorism program with assistance from the Joint Staff. Although
                             regional commands and installations directly implement force protection
                             policy, service headquarters control funding and personnel resources for
                             individual installations overseas. The services base their final funding and
                             staffing decisions on a review of the antiterrorism priorities and
                             requirements submitted by each combatant commander. The majority of
                             funding for force protection activities is for personnel, operations, and
                             maintenance appropriations for each service. The Chairman of the Joint
                             Chiefs of Staff’s Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiative Fund provides
                             additional funding. This fund is managed by the Joint Staff and supports
                             emergency or other unforeseen high-priority combating terrorism needs.
                             The services also issue regulations, orders and instructions to establish
                             their own specific antiterrorism policies and standards.

Regional and Installation    Regional commands merge and prioritize the antiterrorism requirements
Commander Responsibilities   submitted by their respective installation commanders. They use this
                             information to develop general antiterrorism policy for installations in their
                             geographic areas of responsibility. Such guidance takes precedence over
                             broader DOD or service guidance from Washington. They also determine
                             the type of threats their forces face, identifying the money and manpower
                             needed to achieve sufficient force protection, and work with the services to
                             provide the necessary resources.

                             Local installation commanders assume primary responsibility for the
                             protection of the forces, assets, and installations under their command
                             from terrorist attacks. They combine, adapt, and implement the force
                             protection standards established by DOD, combatant commanders, and the
                             service headquarters into an installation antiterrorism plan. Local
                             installation commanders, in concert with the installation’s designated
                             anti-terrorism/force protection manager, compose a prioritized list of
                             antiterrorism requirements that they submit to their respective
                             major commands.




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DOD Uses Risk         When making these plans and listing their requirements, installation
Management Approach   commanders employ a “risk management” approach.18 This approach is a
                      systematic, analytical process to determine the likelihood that a threat will
                      negatively impact physical assets, individuals, or operations and identify
                      actions to reduce risk and mitigate the consequences of an attack. The
                      principles of risk management acknowledge that although risk generally
                      cannot be eliminated, it can be significantly reduced by enhancing
                      protection from known or potential threats. Installation commanders also
                      rely on annual DOD assessments of threat, vulnerability, and criticality
                      of assets.

                      • Threat Assessment. This identifies and evaluates potential terrorist
                        threats on the basis of such factors as threats’ capabilities, intentions,
                        and past activities. It represents a systematic approach to identify
                        potential threats before they materialize. It is performed by the services’
                        investigative and intelligence agencies, which compile and examine all
                        available information concerning potential terrorist groups and criminal
                        activity that could affect the installation. The threat assessment may not
                        adequately capture all emerging threats, even in cases where the
                        assessment is frequently updated. The risk management approach,
                        therefore, uses vulnerability and criticality assessments as additional
                        inputs to the risk management decision-making process.

                      • Vulnerability Assessment. This identifies weaknesses that may be
                        exploited by terrorists and suggests options that address those
                        weaknesses. Teams of multidisciplinary experts in such areas as
                        structural engineering, physical security, and installation preparedness
                        review the installation’s antiterrorism program, including antiterrorism
                        plans, counterintelligence, law enforcement liaison, physical security,
                        and incident response measures.

                      • Criticality Assessment. This evaluates and prioritizes assets and
                        functions to identify which assets and missions are relatively more
                        important to protect from attack. They might consider a number of
                        factors, such as importance to the military mission, significance as a
                        target, accessibility by terrorists, construction, ease of reconstruction,
                        and monetary value.




                      18
                           See GAO-03-14.




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                               The risk management approach and these annual assessments form the
                               foundation of each installation’s antiterrorism plan and support decision-
                               making to improve resource allocations.

DOD Personnel at               Some DOD personnel overseas do not fall under the direct command of the
Diplomatic Posts               regional commands. For example, DOD personnel assigned to diplomatic
                               post would be protected as part of U.S. mission security (discussed in the
                               previous section). To clarify who is responsible for the protection of these
                               military personnel, DOD and State have signed a Memorandum of
                               Understanding, and regional commands have signed over 146 country-level
                               Memorandums of Agreement with their local U.S. ambassadors.



U.S. Programs and Activities   Federal agencies also have programs to protect senior-level officials from
to Protect Senior-Level        terrorism during international travel. The U.S. Secret Service, which
                               recently transferred from the Department of the Treasury to the
Officials
                               Department of Homeland Security, provides protection to a limited number
                               of senior-level U.S. officials (for example, the President) at all times, which
                               includes travel overseas. In addition, the Secret Service protects official
                               representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad.19
                               The U.S. Secret Service has advance teams that work with host countries to
                               coordinate security of these U.S. officials that travel overseas. In addition,
                               if a protected person attends a special event abroad, such as a bilateral or
                               multilateral political or athletic event, then the U.S. Secret Service works
                               with the event security coordinators. Even in cases where the President is
                               not necessarily going to attend but a number of other U.S. citizens will, the
                               U.S. Secret Service also provides consulting to help host nations provide
                               for event security. For example, the U.S. Secret Service, working with the
                               State Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security, is assisting the Greek
                               and Chinese governments in preparing for upcoming Olympic Summer
                               Games in Athens in 2004 and Beijing in 2008, respectively. To support this
                               protective mission, as well as other missions, the U.S. Secret Service
                               maintains 18 offices overseas.




                               19
                                  The U.S. Secret Service is authorized under 18 U.S.C. § 3056(a) to protect the President,
                               Vice President, their immediate families, former Presidents, visiting heads of state, and
                               other distinguished foreign visitors as directed by the President, among others.




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The U.S. Secret Service also provides security for heads of foreign
governments and other foreign distinguished guests while visiting the
United States. In addition, the U.S. Secret Service provides security for
foreign visitors when they attend certain international events in the United
States.20 An example would be the 50th anniversary NATO summit held in
Washington, D.C., in April 1999, which included foreign heads of state,
ministers, and military leaders. For this one event, there were over 1,000
escorts for dignitary motorcades. The U.S. Secret Service, through its
Uniformed Division’s Foreign Mission Branch, provides exterior security
for over 400 foreign diplomatic facilities (embassies, chanceries,
consulates, and ambassador residences) in the Washington, D.C., area. To
support its protective mission, the U.S. Secret Service has an Intelligence
Division that oversees the identification, assessment, and management of
threats in support of domestic and foreign protectee visits and events of
national significance.

The State Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security also provides
protection to senior-level officials during international travel. These
officials are less senior than those protected by the U.S. Secret Service and
include the Secretary of State, Deputy Secretary, selected ambassadors,
and others U.S. officials overseas. Diplomatic Security agents provide
protection to other foreign dignitaries (other than heads of state and
certain others protected by the U.S. Secret Service) when they visit the
United States. These agents participate in more than 150 foreign and
domestic dignitary details each year, protecting such diverse individuals as
the Secretary General of NATO, President of the Palestine National
Authority, and the Dalai Lama. Also, the bureau provides security to
selected foreign officials residing in the United States. These protective
details are based upon the level of threat. The bureau also provides for
security in special international events in the United States. For the 50th
anniversary NATO summit (discussed above), the bureau’s Dignitary
Protective Division was part of the security preparations and provided
48 protective details. For the 1996 Olympic Summer Games in Atlanta, the
bureau protected 14 foreign individuals from Israel, India, and
Saudi Arabia.


20
   PDD 62 established a process to designate certain special events as National Security
Special Events, which warrant greater federal planning and protection than other special
events. This designation is based upon the nomination of the National Security Council and
certified by the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security. In these events,
the U.S. Secret Service, the FBI, and Federal Emergency Management Agency have specific
roles for preventing and responding to a terrorist incident.




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                             According to State Department officials, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security
                             is providing protective assistance to two heads of government in their own
                             countries—President Hamid Karzai in Afghanistan and President Alvaro
                             Uribe Velez in Colombia. According to bureau officials, they are providing
                             security and/or advisors and training to these leaders because of the
                             extreme threat of assassination from terrorist groups and the relatively
                             weak capabilities for senior official protection in each country.



Protecting American          The Department of State has several programs to help warn Americans
Civilians Living, Working,   living and traveling abroad against potential threats, including those posed
                             by terrorists. State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs provides travel warnings,
and Traveling Abroad
                             public announcements, and Consular Information Sheets to American
                             civilians who are living, working, and traveling abroad. The bureau seeks to
                             provide important threat warnings and security information to U.S. citizens
                             and assets abroad in a timely and effective manner based on the “No
                             Double Standard” policy on dissemination of specific, credible terrorist
                             threat information that has not or cannot be countered (i.e., it is the policy
                             of the U.S. government that official Americans cannot benefit from receipt
                             of information that might equally apply to the public, but is not available to
                             the public).

                             In fiscal year 2001, for example, the bureau issued 64 travel warnings,
                             134 public announcements, and 189 Consular Information Sheets. The
                             bureau’s Internet Web site received 117.9 million inquiries, 30.7 million
                             more than in fiscal year 2000. According to bureau data, 90 percent of the
                             users found the information helpful. The bureau also held 69 briefings for
                             stakeholder groups, including international student program participants,
                             travel agents, and others.

                             The bureau also maintains a warden system for notifying Americans who
                             have registered with the U.S. embassy or consulate of potential terrorist
                             threats. Warden networks consist of telephone-calling trees, e-mails, fax
                             systems, and other systems, as appropriate. The warden system covers
                             both U.S. embassy and consulate personnel and other registered
                             Americans. The system usually works by alerting major employers or
                             compounds with high concentrations of Americans. It is used for a variety
                             of communications purposes, from passing out voter information to
                             notifying wardens and their wards of U.S. embassy evacuations.

                             The Bureau of Diplomatic Security manages the Overseas Security
                             Advisory Councils, which provide security support to U.S. businesses and



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                             private-sector organizations worldwide. The councils are a joint effort
                             between State and the private sector. They foster exchange of security and
                             threat information, implement security programs, and provide a forum to
                             address security concerns. Embassy regional security officers coordinate
                             with council headquarters in Washington, D.C., to set up, develop, and
                             maintain councils in country. Presently, councils are active in 47 countries
                             worldwide.



Coordination Mechanisms      The Department of State is responsible for maintaining an effective
for Protecting               security program at U.S. diplomatic missions worldwide and for
                             coordinating all federal agencies’ efforts to protect U.S. government
U.S. Government Facilities
                             facilities and Americans abroad. At U.S. missions, the country team is the
and Americans Abroad         primary coordinating mechanism. It typically consists of the ambassador,
                             deputy chief of mission, and key functional personnel, including
                             representatives from other federal agencies represented at the
                             U.S. mission. The regional security officer has primary coordinating
                             responsibility for security programs and activities at U.S. missions.

                             In addition, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security provides security liaison
                             officers to DOD’s regional military commands: the U.S. Central Command
                             at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; U.S. European Command in Stuttgart-
                             Vaihingen, Germany; U.S. Pacific Command at Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii;
                             and U.S. Southern Command in Miami, Florida. These officers coordinate
                             with the commands on theater threat assessments, contingency planning,
                             and implementation of Department of State and DOD agreements on
                             overseas security support.

                             In Washington, D.C., the Overseas Security Policy Board considers,
                             develops, coordinates, and promotes standards and agreements in overseas
                             security operations, programs, and projects, which affect all federal
                             agencies under an ambassador’s authority abroad. The board, which is
                             chaired by the Director of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security, consists
                             of representatives from the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce,
                             Defense, Justice, State, Transportation, and the Treasury; USAID; the CIA;
                             Peace Corps; Federal Aviation Administration; and OMB. Since 1990, the
                             board has issued 37 standards for U.S. missions overseas. The standards
                             address the full spectrum of security programs pertaining to terrorism
                             and other threats. These standards range from armored vehicles and
                             protective details for ambassadors to emergency plans and exercises and
                             residential security.




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Public Diplomacy         The National Security Strategy of the United States of America and the
                         National Strategy for Combating Terrorism call for the United States to
Builds International     wage a “War of Ideas” against international terrorism, through effective
Support for              public diplomacy. Toward these objectives, the State Department and
                         Broadcasting Board of Governors conduct efforts to improve the image of
U.S. Foreign Policy      the United States and support U.S. foreign policy. For example, to forestall
                         possible negative perceptions of the United States and foster greater
                         understanding of U.S. policy for key international audiences, State
                         conducts public diplomacy through various media. Similarly, the
                         Broadcasting Board of Governors conducts international broadcasts to
                         worldwide audiences to help support U.S. strategic interests.



State Department         The State Department helps build and influence international opinion in
Programs Promote         support of U.S. foreign policy objectives. Since the terrorist attacks on the
                         United States on September 11, 2001, State has encouraged international
Anti-Terrorism Support
                         support for efforts to combat terrorism overseas. For example, its
                         programs have generated over 240 newspaper, 100 radio, and 150 television
                         interviews, and over 300 opinion-editorial articles in newspapers either
                         signed or prepared for U.S. ambassadors. Almost 60 U.S. speakers have
                         traveled abroad on State-funded programs addressing September 11,
                         2001-related issues. U.S. embassies have sponsored over 100 panel
                         discussions and over 220 speeches on combating terrorism. In addition,
                         Network of Terrorism, a department-produced print and electronic
                         pamphlet, is available in 36 languages and 1.3 million print copies are
                         in circulation.



Broadcasting Board of    The Congress passed the United States International Broadcasting Act of
Governors Promotes       1994 with the goal of reorganizing and consolidating U.S. international
                         broadcast efforts.21 The act created a bipartisan Broadcasting Board of
U.S. Foreign Policy on   Governors (the Board) to oversee and coordinate the efforts of all
Combating Terrorism      nonmilitary international broadcasting. The Board manages the operations
                         of three federal broadcast entities—the Voice of America, WORLDNET
                         Television and Film Service, and the Office of Cuba Broadcasting. The
                         board also has supervisory authority over two non-profit corporations—
                         Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty and Radio Free Asia. These broadcast



                         21
                              Title III, P.L. 103-236, Apr. 30, 1994.




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                         entities reach more than 125 markets worldwide in 65 different languages.
                         With a fiscal year 2003 appropriated budget of $514 million, the Board
                         employs 3,400 journalists, producers, technicians, and support personnel in
                         Washington, D.C., and throughout 90 news bureaus and offices worldwide.

                         The Board’s over-arching goal is to reach significant audiences worldwide
                         in areas of strategic interest to the United States where freedom of the
                         press does not fully exist. The board’s strategic plan includes an objective
                         to “pioneer anti-terrorism broadcasting” to counter terrorists use of
                         media coverage that inflict fear and panic in the public.22 One project
                         supporting anti-terrorism is the Middle East Radio Network (known as
                         “Radio Sawa” in the region) that broadcasts and analyzes news and
                         explains U.S. policies. Other recent initiatives in the region include the
                         Afghanistan Radio Network and a service targeted at young adults in Iran
                         called Radio Farda. Finally, the Congress has approved an initial round of
                         funding for a new Middle East Television Network, which is expected to
                         launch later in 2003.



Coordination of Public   The newly created Office of Global Communications was designed to
Diplomacy Activities     coordinate public diplomacy activities, including those related to terrorism.
                         The Office was established under Executive Order 13283 on January 21,
                         2003, and will advise the President, heads of offices within the Executive
                         Office of the President, and senior government officials on the most
                         effective means of promoting the interests of the United States abroad.
                         According to the Executive Order, the office will coordinate messages that
                         reflect the strategic communications framework and priorities of the
                         United States. The office is designed to facilitate the development of a
                         strategy among federal agencies to help communicate such messages. The
                         office will coordinate the deployment of “information teams” worldwide in
                         areas of high global interest and media attention. These teams are intended
                         to disseminate information to the on-site news media and assist media
                         personnel in obtaining access to information, individuals, and events. Prior
                         to any deployments abroad, the office is to consult with the Departments of
                         State and Defense and notify the NSC.




                         22
                          Marrying the Mission to the Market: Strategic Plan 2002-2007, Broadcasting
                         Board of Governors.




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Visa and Border         Visa and border controls are additional tools that are designed to help
                        detect and prevent terrorism by keeping terrorists and their materials out
Controls Are Intended   of the United States. The National Strategy for Homeland Security has an
to Prevent Terrorists   objective to ensure the integrity of borders and prevent the entry of
                        unwanted persons. It also has an objective to increase the security of
and Their Materials     international shipping containers. According to the strategy, of the annual
from Entering the       500 million people who enter the United States legally, 330 million are not
United States           citizens.23 Some of these non-citizens need visas to enter the United States.
                        The Department of State uses various tools to screen visa applicants to
                        identify potential terrorists. Intelligence and law enforcement agencies
                        support this visa screening process by maintaining databases and watch
                        lists of suspected terrorists and making that information available to the
                        State Department. Factors such as a visa applicant’s country of origin can
                        affect the level of scrutiny they receive. Visitors from certain countries
                        (known as visa waiver countries) are not required to have visas because the
                        Departments of State and Homeland Security have determined that they
                        represent a low risk. State investigates visa and passport fraud to help
                        maintain the integrity of travel documents and thus prevent terrorists from
                        receiving visas or entering the country under false names. Further, the
                        United States shares a 5,525-mile border with Canada, a 1,989-mile border
                        with Mexico, and possesses 95,000 miles of shoreline. The Department of
                        Homeland Security guards the borders at and between almost 400 ports of
                        entry, seeking to interdict terrorists and their materials at the border.
                        Finally, international cooperation is an important factor in strengthening
                        international visa and border controls. For example, the State Department
                        shares information on suspected terrorists with other countries to enhance
                        their border controls.




                        23
                           The actual number of different travelers into the United States is unknown
                        because some people enter the country many times a year.




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Visa Controls Designed          State’s Bureau of Consular Affairs, provides overall supervision to consular
to Keep Terrorists Out of the   officers at U.S. missions overseas. Consular officers adjudicate visa
                                applications from foreign citizens who wish to visit the United States.24
United States                   These consular officers aim to facilitate travel for those eligible to receive
                                visas and deny visas to those who are ineligible. For the most common
                                categories of nonimmigrant visas, an applicant must demonstrate that
                                they (1) have a residence abroad, which they do not intend to abandon,
                                (2) intend to leave the United States after a limited period of time, and
                                (3) intend to engage in legitimate activities related to that nonimmigrant
                                category. The most common nonimmigrant visas are those for temporary
                                stays for business or pleasure (79 percent), special worker visas
                                (4.6 percent), student visas (4.2 percent), and exchange visas (4 percent).

                                All applicant information is entered into the Consular Consolidated
                                Database before it is reviewed. The Bureau of Consular Affairs manages
                                this database. After being entered into the database, applicant information
                                is reviewed by a consular officer at a U.S. embassy or consulate. At that
                                point, the consular officer may call the applicant in for an interview. The
                                consular officer will conduct a name check on all applicants who ultimately
                                receive a visa. In addition, some applicants may undergo a special security
                                review if they fall into one of many special categories of visa applicants. A
                                visa can be refused at any stage after it is entered into the database.

                                Besides supporting the bureau’s visa mission, the Consular Consolidated
                                Database also supports the work of law enforcement agencies. In fiscal
                                year 2002, for example, the bureau performed numerous searches of
                                nonimmigrant visa records at the request of federal law enforcement task
                                forces investigating the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. In
                                addition, the bureau’s Passport Services office provided law enforcement
                                with 305 records. The bureau used facial recognition software to compare
                                the photographs on the visa applications of the September 11, 2001,
                                hijackers in the database against other visa photographs.




                                24
                                  A visa enables a person to apply at a port of entry to enter the United States, but it does
                                not guarantee that a person will be able to enter the United States. For a more detailed
                                discussion of the nonimmigrant visa application process, see U.S. General Accounting
                                Office, Border Security: Visa Process Should Be Strengthened as an Antiterrorism Tool,
                                GAO-03-132NI (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 21, 2002). This report evaluates the visa process
                                before September 11, 2001, and what changes have been made since then. It makes several
                                recommendations to strengthen the visa process.




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Various Databases Are Used to   The Consular Lookout and Support System (CLASS) name check system
Screen for Terrorists           is the primary means through which consular officers determine if a visa
                                applicant is suspected of being a terrorist or could pose other security
                                risks. Sources for information in CLASS include the State Department’s
                                database of visa refusals, the State Department’s interagency watch list
                                for terrorists, known as TIPOFF, and several other law enforcement and
                                intelligence sources. CLASS also uses Arabic and Russian/Slavic language
                                algorithms to help increase the likelihood that the name check will find
                                a person’s name if it is in the database. Consular officers must run an
                                applicant’s name through CLASS before issuing a visa.

                                The CLASS name check system includes information from the TIPOFF
                                terrorist watch list, which is managed by State’s Bureau of Intelligence and
                                Research. This list contains declassified biographical information, such as
                                name, birth date, or passport number on thousands of suspected terrorists.
                                This information is drawn from sensitive all-source intelligence and law
                                enforcement data provided by the FBI, the CIA, and other intelligence
                                community agencies. When a consular officer using CLASS receives a
                                TIPOFF “hit” on an applicant’s name, the officer refers the case to the
                                TIPOFF staff at the Department of State. The TIPOFF staff will then make
                                available the classified information supporting the TIPOFF entry to
                                authorized consular and legal experts within the Department of State, who
                                then determine whether the evidence is sufficient to deny the visa request.
                                The consular officer may not issue a visa until the Bureau of Consular
                                Affairs has responded with its security advisory opinion. TIPOFF “hits”
                                through the CLASS system are coordinated with the FBI and other
                                agencies. Foreknowledge of pending terrorist travel has, in the past,
                                enabled authorities to arrest terrorist suspects at ports of entry, or to
                                conduct surveillance of them inside the United States.

                                The Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General, also
                                updated the Terrorist Exclusion List and the Foreign Terrorist Organization
                                lists, which designate groups as terrorist organizations. Members or
                                supporters of these organizations are to be denied entrance at U.S. ports of
                                entry and deported if found within the United States.




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                                    The State Department also strengthened its oversight over visa operations
                                    by instituting new inspection measures. An embassy’s nonimmigrant visa
                                    chief, the visa chief, or the consular section chief is now required to
                                    periodically conduct spot checks of approved visa applications, in addition
                                    to the spot checks for CLASS name check compliance that are already
                                    in place.25

Level of Visa Screening Varies by   Depending on their nationality, a visa applicant may require a special
Risk Level of Country of Origin     security review. Special clearance procedures and interagency name
                                    checks for visa applicants from certain countries were originally designed
                                    during the Cold War to screen out individuals who could pose a threat to
                                    U.S. interests, primarily through espionage. After the September 11, 2001,
                                    terrorist attacks, the Departments of State and Justice revised these
                                    procedures. As a result, all male visa applicants aged 16 through 45 from
                                    certain national groups received a 20-day computerized hold on their
                                    applications, during which a visa physically could not be issued. The
                                    application information was then electronically submitted to the FBI for
                                    the actual name check. Once 20 days had passed, the computer unlocked
                                    the applicant case. If a negative response had not been received from either
                                    the State Department or the FBI by this time, then the consular officer was
                                    permitted to issue a visa. This 20-day computerized hold requirement
                                    ended in October 2002, when another program—the Visa Condor
                                    program—became fully functional.

                                    The Visa Condor program is a name check procedure that is initiated when
                                    an applicant fulfills certain classified criteria. To help the consular officer
                                    determine whether Visas Condor criteria have been met, the State
                                    Department, in January 2002, began to require all 16- to 45-year old males
                                    from certain national groups to fill out a supplemental visa application
                                    form. This new form provides additional information such as an applicant’s
                                    travel and educational history, employment information, and military
                                    service. Under the Visas Condor process, the post sends an applicant’s
                                    information to the FBI National Name Check Program, where it is run
                                    against FBI databases. Some of the information in these databases comes
                                    from the FBI’s Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force.26 In the event of a
                                    possible match, the information is sent back to the State Department. The
                                    consular officer cannot issue a visa to an applicant meeting Visas Condor
                                    criteria without an affirmative response from the Department of State. In


                                    25
                                         See GAO-03-132NI.




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                                   July 2002, the Visas Condor procedure became mandatory for all applicants
                                   over the age of 16 from countries listed as state sponsors of terrorism.

Visitors from Selected Countries   The Visa Waiver Program allows persons to enter the United States for
Do Not Need Visas                  tourism or business for 90 days or less without applying for a visa if they
                                   are a citizen from one of 27 participating countries.27 Citizens from
                                   participating countries would still be required to have a passport from their
                                   home country and, upon arrival, pass through standard border controls
                                   (discussed below). This program was created to improve U.S. foreign
                                   relations and encourage foreign travel to the United States without posing a
                                   threat to national security.28 It also allowed the State Department to
                                   perform greater visa screening in high-risk countries, while scaling back its
                                   visa operations in low-risk countries. Country participation is contingent
                                   upon a Department of Homeland Security and Department of State review
                                   of the country’s political, social, and economic situation; the quality and
                                   security of its passport system; its border controls and immigration laws;
                                   its law enforcement policies and practices; as well as other relevant
                                   matters. (Prior to March 1, 2003, the Department of Justice performed this
                                   review with State.) Visa waiver countries also must have a low
                                   nonimmigrant visa refusal rate for their citizens, the ability to supply
                                   machine-readable passports, and must offer visa-free travel for
                                   U.S. citizens and nationals. The Secretary of Homeland Security, in
                                   consultation with the Secretary of State, may terminate a country’s
                                   participation in the program in the event of an emergency that threatens
                                   U.S. security or law enforcement interests, such as severe economic


                                   26
                                     The FBI Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force is composed of personnel from a range of
                                   agencies, including the Department of Justice’s FBI and the Department of Homeland
                                   Security’s Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement. It coordinates a multi-agency
                                   effort to identify, locate, and deny entry to or remove terrorists and their supporters from
                                   the United States.
                                   27
                                     The 27 countries are Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brunei, Denmark, France,
                                   Finland, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the
                                   Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain,
                                   Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
                                   28
                                     For a more detailed discussion and our evaluation of this program, see U.S. General
                                   Accounting Office, Border Security: Implications of Eliminating the Visa Waiver
                                   Program, GAO-03-38 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 22, 2002). We reported on the process used to
                                   assess countries’ eligibility to participate in the Visa Waiver Program and the implications in
                                   eliminating the program. Such implications could affect U.S. relations with other countries,
                                   U.S. tourism, and State Department resources abroad; however, the impact on national
                                   security is unclear.




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                        collapse or a breakdown of the rule of law within a country.29 Previously,
                        the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of State, had this
                        authority. While the Justice Department has not systematically collected
                        data on how frequently potential terrorists and other criminals have
                        entered the United States, anecdotal information indicates that such
                        individuals have entered the United States under the Visa Waiver Program
                        as well as with valid U.S. visas. Participating countries must certify by
                        October 26, 2004, that they have a program to issue tamper-resistant,
                        machine-readable passports that contain biometric and document
                        authentication identifiers.30 This is required by the Enhanced Border
                        Security Act of 2002, which also conditioned participation on a country’s
                        timely reporting of its stolen blank passports to the United States.31



State Department        The National Strategy for Homeland Security has an objective to combat
Investigates Visa and   fraudulent travel documents. Toward this objective, the State Department
                        attempts to impede terrorist entry into the United States through its
Passport Fraud          investigations of visa and passport fraud. The Bureau of Diplomatic
                        Security investigates more than 3,500 passport and visa fraud cases
                        annually, resulting in more than 500 arrests each year. A number of
                        suspects have been linked to terrorism. The bureau has 450 special agents
                        in over 160 countries and approximately 700 special agents assigned
                        throughout the United States. State’s Office of the Inspector General also
                        conducts visa and passport investigations.




                        29
                             GAO-03-38.
                        30
                          For a more detailed description and evaluation of biometrics in this context, see
                        U.S. General Accounting Office, Technology Assessment: Using Biometrics for Border
                        Security, GAO-03-174 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 15, 2002). In this report, we identified
                        important policy trade-offs between increasing security and the impact on areas such as
                        privacy, economy, traveler convenience, and international relations. Also, we reported that
                        biometric technology can play a role in associating a person with travel documents such as
                        visas and passports. When used at a border inspection, biometrics can help determine
                        whether to admit a traveler into the United States.
                        31
                             Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-173),
                        May 14, 2002.




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Border Controls Attempt to   Border controls staffed by officers from the Department of Homeland
Deter Entry of Terrorists    Security also play a role in deterring terrorists and their materials from
                             entering the United States. All visitors, whether they have visas or are
and Their Materials          seeking to enter the United States under the Visa Waiver Program, are
                             to undergo inspections at U.S. ports of entry. The Border Patrol and
                             U.S. Coast Guard work between U.S. ports of entry to detect and
                             prevent terrorists and their materials from entering the United States.
                             On March 1, 2003, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, Border
                             Patrol, U.S. Customs Service and U.S. Coast Guard became part of the
                             new Department of Homeland Security.

Immigration Controls         Department of Homeland Security immigration inspectors are to conduct a
                             primary inspection of travelers arriving at a U.S. port of entry. During these
                             inspections, the immigration inspector observes the applicant, examines
                             their passport, and utilizes automated databases to judge admissibility. The
                             inspector should either permit travelers to enter or refer them to secondary
                             inspection, where a more detailed examination of travel documents or
                             further questioning can be conducted. People may be refused entry for the
                             same reasons they may be refused a visa. Immigration inspectors use the
                             Interagency Border Inspection System—a multi-agency database of
                             lookout information that alerts inspectors of conditions that may make
                             travelers inadmissible to the United States. It also provides information
                             about warrants for U.S. citizens who may be wanted by U.S. law
                             enforcement. Data sharing between this system and the TIPOFF database
                             began in 1991 and, since then, it has enabled immigration inspectors to
                             intercept 290 terrorists from 82 countries at 84 different ports of entry. In
                             fiscal year 2001, immigration inspectors using TIPOFF through the
                             Interagency Border Inspection System had 86 matches from the terrorism
                             database at ports of entry. Of these, 38 were denied entry and 1 was
                             arrested. During primary inspection, the tools used by immigration
                             inspectors differ according to type of entry.

                             • Air Ports of Entry. At the 155 air ports of entry, commercial airline
                               carriers are required to transmit passenger and crew manifests to
                               immigration inspectors through the Advance Passenger Information
                               System for flights into the United States. This information includes a
                               passenger’s name, date of birth, nationality, and passport number. With
                               this information, immigration inspectors can analyze intelligence on
                               passengers before flights arrive and identify passengers who will require
                               referral to secondary inspection. Immigration inspectors at air ports of
                               entry have access to the Interagency Border Inspection System.



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• Sea Ports of Entry. At the 86 sea ports of entry, primary inspection at
  stations equipped with the Interagency Border Inspection System
  functions much the same as airports. Where this system is not available,
  immigration inspectors board ships with the Portable Automated
  Lookout System. This system contains lookout information, which
  immigration inspectors use to conduct name checks and examine
  documents of all aliens aboard a vessel.

• Land Ports of Entry. At the 154 land ports of entry, immigration
  inspectors can query the Interagency Border Inspection System with a
  traveler’s name, passport, or license plate number. Documents and
  names of a vehicle’s driver are checked randomly or when an inspector
  suspects that something is wrong.

An immigration inspector can refer a traveler to secondary inspection at
any port of entry. In secondary inspection, inspectors are to review a
traveler’s documents for accuracy and validity and check various databases
for any information that could affect the traveler’s entry, including criminal
history information from the FBI and non-immigrant visa issuance data
from State Department. An immigration inspector conducting a secondary
inspection can also utilize a fingerprint identification system to determine
whether a traveler has been previously apprehended for an immigration
offense or is wanted by U.S. law enforcement. As mentioned above, a
traveler may be refused entry for the same reasons they can be denied
a visa.32

A number of new immigration initiatives were started after September 11,
2001. The predominant focus of these initiatives has been to establish
relationships with other countries to coordinate with their border, law
enforcement, and intelligence officials on immigration matters.

• Operation Global Shield. For this operation, the former Immigration and
  Naturalization Service deployed “immigration control officers” to a
  number of overseas transit points around the world to push out the


32
  For a more detailed discussion and our evaluation of INS border security processes, see
GAO-03-174 and U.S. General Accounting Office, Illegal Aliens: INS’ Processes for Denying
Aliens Entry into the United States, GAO-02-220T (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 13, 2001). In this
testimony, we discussed INS’ processes for denying aliens entry at land and airports of
entry, including the expedited removal and credible fear processes. In addition, see our
testimony Weaknesses in Screening Entrants into the United States, GAO-03-438T
(Washington, D.C.: Jan. 30, 2003).




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                        U.S. line of defenses against illegal immigration related to terrorism.
                        These officers, who have no law enforcement authority in these foreign
                        countries, have an advisory and consultative role. The specific functions
                        of Operation Global Shield are to disrupt and deter the smuggling of
                        select aliens, prevent the movement of persons who are security risks,
                        provide advance notice of passengers warranting closer inspection upon
                        arrival, collect law enforcement intelligence, cooperate on
                        apprehensions and prosecutions, and provide training on fraudulent
                        travel documents.

                   • Operation Southern Focus. For this operation, the former Immigration
                     and Naturalization Service deployed special agents and intelligence
                     analysts abroad to target key smuggling organizations in Latin America
                     and the Caribbean. These U.S. personnel have been working with
                     authorities in Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, and the Dominican
                     Republic, as well as other U.S. personnel stationed overseas to identify,
                     investigate, and prosecute regional smuggling organizations. According
                     to officials, undercover operations are ongoing in several areas to
                     capture key smugglers and return them to the United States.

Customs Controls   At ports of entry, Department of Homeland Security customs inspectors
                   look for illegal materials, such as drugs, currency, and explosives, whether
                   or not the contraband is intended for terrorism. While most of the customs
                   inspection equipment was developed and acquired to detect drugs, the
                   majority of this equipment does not detect specific substances but detects
                   anomalies in general. For example, X-ray machines may alert an inspector
                   to something unusual about an item being examined and, therefore, the
                   possible concealment of materials.33

                   The Department of Homeland Security also utilizes export controls to
                   prevent illegal exporters, terrorist groups, and international criminal
                   organizations from (1) trafficking in weapons of mass destruction and their
                   components; (2) obtaining and illegally exporting controlled commodities,
                   technologies, conventional munitions, and firearms; (3) exporting stolen
                   property from the United States; and (4) engaging in financial and other

                   33
                     For a more detailed description and evaluation of these efforts, see U.S. General
                   Accounting Office, Container Security: Current Efforts to Detect Nuclear Materials, New
                   Initiatives and Challenges, GAO-03-297T (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 18, 2002). In this
                   testimony, we reported that programs in place to detect certain terrorist materials were
                   limited in a number of respects and rely heavily on the availability of quality information for
                   targeting those cargoes posing the greatest risk.




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transactions that support these activities or that violate U.S. sanctions
and embargoes.

A number of new customs initiatives were started after September 11, 2001.
The predominant focus of these initiatives has been to establish additional
lines of security in the supply chain of international commerce. Examples
of these initiatives are below.

• Container Security Initiative. This program, initiated by the former
  U.S. Customs Service, seeks to extend customs inspections beyond
  U.S. ports of entry rather than waiting for these goods to arrive in
  U.S. ports for screening and inspection. Begun in January 2002, its goal
  is to place U.S. customs personnel at ports of origin or transit to screen
  cargo containers and select high-risk containers for inspection by the
  host country’s customs administration. As one of its first steps, the
  United States entered into negotiations with governments of the top 20
  “mega-ports” that handle 66 percent of the containers destined for the
  United States. As of the end of January 2003, 11 governments
  representing 16 of the top 20 mega-ports have signed arrangements, and
  the United States has placed customs officers in 2 of these ports.34 The
  United States also has placed customs officers at 3 ports in Canada,
  which are not among the top 20 mega-ports. Other elements of the
  Container Security Initiative include improving security criteria to
  identify high-risk containers, expanding the use of technology in the
  United States and foreign ports to examine high-risk containers, and
  developing the use of smart and secure containers.

• Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism. This program, also
  initiated by the former U.S. Customs Service, focuses on efforts by
  importers and others to enhance security procedures along their supply
  chains in exchange for certain benefits, such as reduced likelihood of
  inspections. As part of this initiative, which began in April 2002,
  importing businesses, freight forwarders, carriers, and other logistics
  providers enter into agreements with the United States to voluntarily
  undertake measures that will reduce security vulnerabilities.


34
   The 11 governments and their ports are Belgium (port of Antwerp), France (port of Le
Havre), Germany (ports of Bremerhaven and Hamburg), China (port of Hong Kong), Italy
(ports of Genoa and La Spezia), Japan (ports of Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe, and Yokahama), the
Netherlands (port of Rotterdam), Singapore, South Korea (port of Pusan), Spain (port of
Algeciras), and United Kingdom (port of Felixstowe). As of January 2003, the Department of
Homeland Security had placed customs officers at the ports of Rotterdam and Le Havre.




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                                  • Project Shield America. This industry outreach program was launched
                                    by the former U.S. Customs Service in December 2001 and seeks the
                                    cooperation of companies involved in the manufacture, sale, and/or
                                    export of U.S.-origin technology and munitions items in identifying
                                    suspicious or unusual inquiries or orders. Customs agents have visited
                                    over 5,000 companies since the inception of Project Shield America and
                                    have initiated dozens of criminal investigations based on information
                                    gathered during these visits.

Border Patrol Between Ports       Between U.S. ports of entry, the Department of Homeland Security’s
of Entry                          Border Patrol has the mission to detect and apprehend illegal aliens and
                                  smugglers (including potential terrorists). The Border Patrol, formerly part
                                  of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, has a workforce of about
                                  9,500 agents and is responsible for patrolling about 6,000 miles of Mexican
                                  and Canadian international land borders and 2,000 miles of coastal waters
                                  surrounding the Florida Peninsula and the island of Puerto Rico. Agents
                                  patrol these borders utilizing various vehicles, including aircraft, marine
                                  vessels, all-terrain vehicles, and horse units. Border Patrol agents also
                                  conduct traffic checks on selected major highways leading away from the
                                  border. They also maintain bike patrols in some urban areas near ports of
                                  entry. In fiscal year 2002, Border Patrol agents made nearly 1 million
                                  apprehensions of aliens attempting to enter or reside in the
                                  country illegally.

Maritime Controls Outside Ports   The U.S. Coast Guard, which transferred from the Department of
of Entry                          Transportation to the Department of Homeland Security in March 2003,
                                  participates in efforts to detect terrorists and their materials outside
                                  maritime ports of entry. Shortly after the September 11, 2001, terrorist
                                  attacks, the U.S. Coast Guard modified its ship arrival notification
                                  requirements as part of its screening process for identifying and boarding
                                  vessels of special interest or concern. The modification requires all vessels
                                  over 300 gross tons to contact the U.S. Coast Guard 96 hours—up from
                                  24 hours—before they are scheduled to arrive at a U.S. port. Each vessel
                                  must provide information on its destination, its scheduled arrival, the cargo
                                  it is carrying, and a roster of its crew. This information, which is processed
                                  and reviewed by the U.S. Coast Guard’s National Vessel Movement Center,
                                  is used in conjunction with intelligence data to identify “high interest”
                                  vessels. Decisions on appropriate actions to be taken with respect to such
                                  vessels, such as whether to board, escort, or deny entry are based upon
                                  established criteria and procedures.




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International Cooperation    International cooperation is an essential tool in restricting terrorist
Efforts to Strengthen Visa   movements around the globe. State’s Office of the Coordinator for
                             Counterterrorism uses the Terrorist Interdiction Program to enhance
and Border Controls          border security by providing participating foreign governments with a
                             computerized database that allows border control officials to identify and
                             detain or track individuals of interest. The program currently is installed
                             in 2 foreign countries, with another 60 countries under consideration.
                             State plans to install the program in up to five new countries per year.
                             Additionally, the USA PATRIOT Act authorizes the Secretary of State to
                             share sensitive visa information with foreign government officials
                             where appropriate.

                             International cooperation is also important in preventing terrorist materials
                             from entering the United States. As mentioned, the Department of
                             Homeland Security is working with other countries to place its customs
                             agents overseas as part of the Container Security Initiative. In addition, the
                             United States is working with several international organizations in setting
                             standards and procedures for cargo security.

International Maritime       The International Maritime Organization is responsible for improving
Organization                 maritime safety, including combating acts of violence or crimes at sea.
                             Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the organization
                             started drafting new regulations needed to enhance ship and port security
                             and to prevent shipping from becoming a target of international terrorism.
                             The International Maritime Organization adopted port and ship security
                             measures in December 2002 at its conference of the parties to the
                             International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.35

World Customs Organization   The World Customs Organization is an independent, intergovernmental
                             body whose mission is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of


                             35
                               The International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea amendments and its
                             accompanying International Ship and Port Facility Security Code include a number of
                             measures, such as (1) shipboard automatic identifier systems; (2) ship-to-shore alert
                             systems; (3) port state control over ships; (4) continuous maintenance of ship registry,
                             ownership, and operational control information; and (5) clear responsibilities for threat
                             assessments and security plans. In November 2002, the President signed the Maritime
                             Transportation Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-295), Nov. 25, 2002, that, according to the State
                             Department, tracks very closely with these international measures. The U.S. Coast Guard
                             currently is developing regulations to implement the International Convention for the Safety
                             of Life at Sea, International Ship and Port Facility Security Code, and the Maritime
                             Transportation Security Act.




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                                   customs administrations. In September 2002, the organization established a
                                   task force to develop new guidelines for supply chain security.
                                   U.S. customs agents are participants in this task force, which is scheduled
                                   to complete its work in June 2003. The task force will examine numerous
                                   security related topics, including enhancing in-transit controls, improving
                                   technology, and better data for selecting which cargoes to inspect.

International Organization         The International Organization for Standardization is another important
for Standardization                international body involved in improving supply chain security. It is a
                                   worldwide nongovernmental federation of national standard bodies from
                                   more than 140 countries that attempts to standardize various activities and
                                   products related to international trade. The organization currently is
                                   participating in a pilot project dealing with electronic seals on
                                   cargo containers.

International Labor Organization   The International Labor Organization is a United Nations (UN) agency that
                                   sets requirements for seafarer identification documents. Such documents
                                   are important for checking on the background of crewmembers who are
                                   transporting cargo destined for the United States. Since February 2002, this
                                   organization and the International Maritime Organization have been
                                   working on the issue of seafarer documents.

UN Subcommittee of Experts on      The UN Subcommittee of Experts on Transportation of Dangerous
Transportation of                  Materials provides advice on international regulations concerning the
Dangerous Materials                transport of dangerous materials. U.S. Department of Transportation
                                   delegates to the subcommittee have worked collaboratively with other
                                   governments to develop a consensus on new security requirements.

International Civil                The International Civil Aviation Organization is working to set improved
Aviation Organization              security standards for travel documents, such as passports and visas.



Coordination Mechanisms            Border security is an issue that crosses both homeland security and
Related to Border Security         combating terrorism overseas. The Office of Homeland Security (the
                                   domestic equivalent of the NSC with respect to terrorism) coordinates
                                   issues across agencies through a number of policy coordination
                                   committees. The office has a specific policy coordination committee for
                                   Key Asset, Border, Territorial Waters, and Airspace Security. In addition,
                                   the overall strategy for border security is described in the National
                                   Strategy for Homeland Security and includes ensuring the integrity of
                                   borders and preventing the entry of unwanted persons. In addition, the new



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Department of Homeland Security serves a coordination role by
consolidating several agencies that were formerly under separate
departments including the Immigration and Naturalization Service,
U.S. Border Patrol, U.S. Customs Service, and U.S. Coast Guard. The
new department has a Directorate of Border and Transportation Security
charged with preventing the entry of terrorists and securing the borders:
territorial waters; ports; terminals; waterways; and air, land, and sea
transportation systems of the United States.

Agencies also attempt to coordinate border security activities by sharing
selected information on their various watch lists. Nine federal agencies
develop and maintain 12 watch lists of suspected and known criminals and
terrorists.36 As mentioned above, the Department of State provides
information from CLASS to the Interagency Border Inspection System. This
enables State, law enforcement and intelligence agencies, and immigration
officials to share information on individuals who should not receive
U.S. visas. State also provides information on lost and stolen U.S. passports
to the Department of Homeland Security.

Efforts to prevent terrorist materials from entering the United States are
coordinated through an Interagency Container Working Group. This group
is co-chaired by the Departments of Transportation and the Treasury. The
Secretary of Transportation established this group to address the security
issues surrounding the movement of marine cargo containers through the
international transportation system. For example, the group has made
recommendations to improve the security of container transportation.
These recommendations include such measures as improving the
coordination of government and business container security activities,
enhancing cargo data collection, and improving the physical security
of containers.




36
   For a more detailed description and evaluation of these watch lists, see
U.S. General Accounting Office, Information Technology: Terrorist Watch Lists
Should Be Consolidated to Promote Better Integration and Sharing, GAO-03-322
(Washington, D.C.: Apr. 15, 2003). We reported that the federal government’s
approach to using watch lists in performing its border security mission is
decentralized and nonstandard and recommended that the Secretary of the
Department of Homeland Security, in collaboration with the heads of other
agencies that have and use watch lists, lead an effort to consolidate and
standardize the federal government’s watch list structures and policies.




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Coalition Capabilities        One of the enduring policy principles that guides U.S. strategies to combat
                              terrorism overseas is bolstering the counterterrorist capabilities of those
Are Enhanced through          countries that work with the United States and require assistance. The
Bilateral Programs            National Security Strategy of the United States of America calls for
                              ensuring that other nations have the political, law enforcement, financial,
and Activities                and military tools to combat terrorism within their borders. In addition, the
                              National Strategy for Homeland Security calls for the United States to help
                              foreign nations combat terrorism. These efforts to improve other countries’
                              capabilities are another part of preventing terrorism led by the Department
                              of State. The department has overall leadership of bilateral relations,
                              including programs to assist foreign nations. Such programs consist of
                              training, equipment, and other assistance to improve foreign police and
                              military capabilities. While State has the overall lead, many of these
                              assistance programs are implemented in conjunction with the Departments
                              of Defense, Justice, and the Treasury. For example, the Antiterrorism
                              Assistance program is managed by State while some training is provided by
                              other agencies, such as the FBI, Drug Enforcement Administration, and
                              U.S. Secret Service. Such training by other agencies is provided under
                              the direction and oversight of the Bureau of Diplomatic Security’s
                              Antiterrorism Assistance program. These assistance efforts seek to not
                              only prevent terrorist attacks, but also improve the capabilities of other
                              countries to disrupt and destroy terrorists and to respond to
                              terrorist incidents.



Training to Improve Other     Many U.S. coalition partners that want to eliminate terrorism in their own
Countries’ Law                countries do not have the capability to combat terrorism effectively in the
                              areas of law enforcement and security. Many are developing countries
Enforcement Capabilities to
                              that lack human and other resources needed to establish and maintain an
Combat Terrorism              effective antiterrorism program and infrastructure. U.S. law enforcement
                              training programs and facilities help build the capacity of coalition
                              partner nations to combat terrorism overseas and augment their
                              existing capabilities by providing training, relevant support equipment,
                              and technical advice. These programs and facilities include the
                              (1) Antiterrorism Assistance program, (2) International Criminal
                              Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), (3) Office of
                              Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance and Training (OPDAT),
                              (4) Countering Terrorist Financing, (5) FLETC, and (6) International Law
                              Enforcement Academies (ILEA).




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Antiterrorism Assistance   The Bureau of Diplomatic Security’s Office of Antiterrorism Assistance
Program                    designs, manages, implements, provides oversight, and evaluates the
                           Antiterrorism Assistance program. The program provides training to
                           approved foreign national participants in five areas: (1) law enforcement,
                           (2) protection of national leadership, (3) control of borders, (4) protection
                           of critical infrastructure, and (5) crisis management. Since its inception in
                           1983 as a major initiative against international terrorism, the program
                           through fiscal year 2001 has trained more than 28,000 foreign law
                           enforcement and security personnel representing 124 countries in crisis
                           management, dignitary protection, bomb detection, airport security, border
                           control, kidnap intervention, terrorist financing, pipeline security, and
                           response to incidents involving weapons of mass destruction. These
                           foreign law enforcement and security personnel can help protect
                           Americans living, working, and traveling abroad, because they are
                           responsible for taking offensive action against international terrorist cells
                           and networks that target Americans overseas and in the United States.
                           They also have the primary responsibility for responding to and mitigating
                           the impact of terrorist attacks—including those directed against
                           U.S. targets—that occur in their home countries.

                           State’s Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism provides policy
                           guidance to the program and ensures that the training assistance reflects
                           U.S. national objectives and priorities. According to State’s Office of the
                           Coordinator for Counterterrorism, antiterrorism assistance is considered
                           on a priority basis for countries that meet one or more of the following
                           criteria: (1) the country is categorized as a critical or high-threat for
                           terrorism and cannot adequately protect U.S. facilities and personnel in the
                           country with their own resources, (2) a substantial U.S. presence exists in
                           the country, (3) the country is served by a U.S. air carrier or is the last point
                           of departure for airline flights to the United States, (4) important bilateral
                           policy interests are at stake, and/or (5) the country is not in violation of
                           human rights legislation. Training may be initiated by the U.S. government
                           or requested by the potential participant government. Once State makes a
                           policy determination that antiterrorism assistance is needed, the
                           U.S. mission in that country determines if such assistance is feasible. A
                           Bureau of Diplomatic Security-led team of experts assesses the country’s
                           civil police antiterrorism capabilities and identifies specific training needs.
                           The team considers five basic areas that are fundamental in any nation’s
                           defense against terrorism. Collectively, they establish the framework for
                           determining a country’s ability to deter and/or respond to terrorist threats.
                           The team assesses the host government’s ability to (1) enforce the law,
                           preserve the peace, and protect life and property; (2) protect its national



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leadership, the seat and functions of government, and the resident
diplomatic corps; (3) control its international borders; (4) protect its
critical infrastructure; and (5) manage crises having national implications.

Finally, State’s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor helps
determine a country’s eligibility to participate in the program based on the
country’s human rights record. U.S. missions abroad screen each training
candidate to ensure that no human rights abusers or foreign officials
involved in corrupt practices are included.

Most of the antiterrorism assistance involves U.S.-based training, technical
consultations, seminars, in-country training, exercises, and program
reviews. Training is tailored to meet a country’s specific needs in various
police and internal security disciplines. While the program does not
provide basic police training, it does provide courses designed to improve
functional police skills, mid-level supervisory skills, and senior-level
management and leadership skills. Training is provided at various federal,
state, local, and private contractor venues in the United States. In addition,
the Antiterrorism Assistance program proposes to build a Center for
Antiterrorism and Security Training at the U.S. Army’s Aberdeen Proving
Ground, Maryland, which would be a consolidated state-of-the-art facility
for training in antiterrorism disciplines. In addition to meeting the
program’s growing demands for classroom space, the facility, if approved
by the Congress, would include shooting and explosives ranges, a tactical
driving track, and an extensive urban tactical training complex. Overseas
training is conducted in the participant country to help sustain program
effectiveness. Training is done by a variety of federal agencies. For
example, the ATF supports the Antiterrorism Assistance program through
its explosives enforcement officers, who have traveled to more than
43 countries to evaluate foreign governments explosives incidents
countermeasures and response capabilities, and ability to neutralize
explosives threats.

The program also provides non-standard assistance—if there is a
compelling need. Courses, consultations, or advisory assistance to address
significant security threats can include police administration, management,
and organizational effectiveness; police instructor training; police academy
development; judicial security; interview and investigative techniques; and
integrated exercises. Recent technical consultations, for example, focused
with Egypt on explosive detector dogs, with Greece on security
preparations for the 2004 Olympic Summer Games in Athens, and with
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                   The Antiterrorism Assistance program also provides participant countries
                   with grants to purchase equipment directly related to the training. For
                   example, grants might be used to procure airport passenger and baggage
                   screening equipment, crime scene investigation kits, bomb render-safe
                   tools, and tactical and communication equipment. To provide control over
                   the transfer of such equipment, the regional security officer at the
                   U.S. mission provides the equipment to the appropriate foreign government
                   end-user(s). Once a participant country has received a significant amount
                   of assistance and has had sufficient opportunity to incorporate it into its
                   security operations, State conducts a program review to determine if the
                   assistance should be expanded, refocused, or curtailed.

                   The effectiveness of the Antiterrorism Assistance program, according to
                   the Department of State, rests in its ability to reduce the threat of terrorism
                   toward U.S. facilities overseas and U.S. personnel living, working, and
                   traveling abroad. U.S. missions operating in participant countries
                   experience a close working relationship with the host nation’s law
                   enforcement and security forces. The program also is intended to provide
                   the participant country police and security forces with a cadre of trained
                   officers, familiar with American values and thinking, with whom the
                   regional security officer and other U.S. mission personnel can rely on
                   during a crisis. For example, in preparation for the 2004 Olympic Summer
                   Games in Athens, Greek law enforcement officials have used the
                   Antiterrorism Training program and equipment grants to improve their
                   security preparations by participating in explosive ordnance and vital
                   installation security training. Antiterrorism Assistance program-trained
                   explosive detection dogs also are being requested from surrounding
                   countries to assist the Greek police. These K-9 units have the potential to
                   assist with the protection of U.S. interests during the 2004 Olympic
                   Summer Games.

Mobile Emergency   After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Antiterrorism Assistance
Training Team      program officials realized that key “front line” states in the war on
                   terrorism often did not have adequate personnel to send anyone to the
                   United States for training at the program’s U.S.-based facilities. Pakistan,
                   for example, declined all Antiterrorism Assistance training offers for
                   months for that reason. In response to the urgency surrounding training
                   support requirements of “front line” countries, program officials decided to
                   forego the U.S. training experience and provide more in-country training,
                   because participants may have to be withdrawn to handle operational
                   crises. Thus, the program established the Mobile Emergency Training Team
                   that can be airborne on 72 hours notice to provide this training in the



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                         participant country. Instructors will be trained in four key disciplines: VIP
                         protection, critical response team (special weapons and tactics)
                         operations, bomb disposal operations, and high-risk police patrol/firearms
                         instructor training.

International Criminal   The purpose of ICITAP, which is located in Justice’s Criminal Division, is to
Investigative Training   provide training and development assistance to foreign police agencies
Assistance Program       worldwide in the form of technical advice, training, mentoring, equipment
                         donation, and internships with criminal justice organizations. The mission
                         of ICITAP is to support U.S. foreign policy and criminal justice goals by
                         helping foreign governments develop the capacity to provide modern
                         professional law enforcement services based on democratic principles and
                         respect for human rights. ICITAP also has direct antiterrorism applications,
                         which are discussed below.

                         Specific ICITAP activities or projects are initiated at the request of the
                         NSC, Department of State, and/or USAID in agreement with the foreign
                         governments requesting the assistance. Priority is to be given to countries
                         in transition to democracy, where unique opportunities exist for major
                         restructuring and refocusing of police and investigative resources toward
                         establishment of the rule of law. Currently, ICITAP is managing programs in
                         18 countries and a regional program in the Newly Independent States.37

                         Although focused primarily on supporting U.S. criminal justice goals
                         internationally, according to the Department of Justice, ICITAP also has a
                         number of direct antiterrorism applications to include: (1) infrastructure
                         development training and technical assistance, (2) criminal investigator
                         training, (3) training academy development, (4) information acquisition,
                         management, and analysis, (5) forensics technical assistance and training,
                         (6) professional responsibility, (7) border control, (8) civil disorder
                         management and control, and (9) managing significant events.




                         37
                            ICITAP’s Newly Independent States Regional Assistance Program includes
                         Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and
                         Uzbekistan.




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Office of Overseas Prosecutorial   Created in 1991, OPDAT provides justice-sector institution-building
Development, Assistance            assistance, including training of foreign judges and prosecutors in
and Training                       coordination with various government agencies and U.S. embassies.
                                   Although part of Justice’s Criminal Division, OPDAT programs are funded
                                   principally by the Department of State and USAID.38

                                   OPDAT programs take place in South America, the Caribbean, Central and
                                   Eastern Europe, Russia, the new independent states of the former Soviet
                                   Union, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the Pacific region. In many of
                                   these countries, OPDAT has placed resident legal advisors. The advisors
                                   are experienced prosecutors who are intended to interact with local
                                   justice-sector officials and direct OPDAT assistance projects. These
                                   projects seek to strengthen the legislative and regulatory criminal justice
                                   infrastructure within the host country, and enhance the capacity of that
                                   country to investigate and prosecute crime more effectively, consistent
                                   with the rule of law.

                                   USAID’s Center for Democracy and Governance has an agreement with
                                   Justice that allows USAID missions around the world to access OPDAT for
                                   help in activities such as conducting justice sector assessments, reviewing
                                   laws and legislation, designing rule of law programs, and providing other
                                   technical assistance.

                                   In response to the August 1998 terrorist bombings of the two
                                   U.S. embassies in East Africa—and at the suggestion of State’s Office of the
                                   Coordinator for Counterterrorism, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security’s
                                   Antiterrorism Assistance program sponsored (in cooperation with OPDAT,
                                   Justice’s Counterterrorism Section, and the FBI) the development of the
                                   Financial Underpinnings of Terrorism Program specifically to assist
                                   U.S. coalition partners in identifying and attacking terrorism’s financial
                                   aspects. Because the motive behind terrorist crimes is often political or
                                   ideological rather than financial, terrorists’ revenues, expenditures, and
                                   methods of moving funds differ from profit-oriented organized crime
                                   networks. Thus, this program takes a somewhat different approach to
                                   combating money laundering and organized criminal activity. The program
                                   conducts one session for senior policy level officials and a second session


                                   38
                                     USAID also supports programs to train foreign law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges
                                   and to assist in rewriting legislation and criminal sentencing guidelines. USAID missions
                                   and State’s Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance have rule-of-law
                                   and governance programs in about 60 of the 85 countries where USAID has a presence.




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for front-line investigators, analysts, judges, and prosecutors. Senior
officials receive training on the methods of financing terrorism, financial
investigation as a means of combating terrorism, and legal and operational
impediments, while the front-line officials conduct practical exercises and
receive training focused on developing best practices for investigating and
prosecuting those engaged in providing financial support to terrorists.
According to OPDAT, sessions to date, for example, have helped strengthen
Philippine money-laundering laws, which enhance the Philippine’s ability
to detect and disrupt terrorist financing; provided assistance to Azerbaijan
on counter-terrorist legislation; and helped State conduct a counter-
terrorism assessment in Pakistan.

Working with the State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for
Counterterrorism and the Antiterrorism Assistance program, OPDAT
organized a series of seven seminars in Washington, D.C., to help provide
guidelines to countries in strengthening their counterterrorism legislation
and regulations and in complying with UN Security Council Resolution
1373. U.S. government experts, as well as presenters from the United
Nations, Australia, Canada, Germany, and the United Kingdom, conducted
the seminars for 36 participating countries. The Office of the Coordinator
for Counterterrorism and OPDAT also provided a similar seminar in
Botswana in March 2003 to southern African countries.

A key element in protecting Americans against the threat of terrorism is
U.S. assistance to its coalition partners in strengthening their capacity to
investigate terrorist activity and prosecute and adjudicate overseas
terrorist criminal acts, consistent with the rule of law. OPDAT’s Counter-
Terrorism Project takes a comprehensive, institution-building approach
seeking to strengthen a country’s capability to investigate, prosecute, and
adjudicate terrorist activity. To meet that goal, OPDAT’s Counter-Terrorism
Project tries to (1) assist the host country in building or strengthening the
legislative and regulatory infrastructure necessary to address threats from
terrorist activity; (2) enhance, through development of relevant skills, the
capacity39 of host country officials to counter terrorist groups;
(3) strengthen the capacity of host country to prevent, investigate, and
prosecute terrorist groups through team building, cooperative and regional



39
   The term “capacity” means the potential of the host country’s justice sector
human resources—its prosecutors and judges, police and other investigative
personnel, and court and penal system officials.




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                                 approaches; and (4) sustain results achieved through the development of
                                 permanent structures.

Countering Terrorist Financing   State’s Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Bureau for
                                 International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, along with the
                                 Departments of Justice and the Treasury, have a program called Countering
                                 Terrorist Financing. This program provides training and assistance to
                                 foreign governments to strengthen their financial and regulatory regimes to
                                 reduce terrorist financing.

Federal Law Enforcement          The Department of Homeland Security’s FLETC, headquartered in Glynn
Training Center                  County (“Glynco”), Georgia, serves as an interagency law enforcement
                                 training organization for federal law enforcement agencies. The center also
                                 provides services to state and local and international law enforcement
                                 agencies. FLETC offers selected, specialized training programs for foreign
                                 law enforcement personnel through its International Programs Division.
                                 These offerings are designed to meet training needs not generally available
                                 to these agencies and to enhance networking and cooperation throughout
                                 the law enforcement community. The Department of Homeland Security
                                 supervises FLETC’s administrative and financial activities, while FLETC’s
                                 partner organizations40 have considerable input regarding training issues
                                 and operational and functional aspects of the center. Representatives from
                                 these agencies take part in regular curriculum review and development
                                 conferences as well as the development of FLETC policies and directives.

                                 As administered under FLETC’s International Programs Division, training
                                 is provided at the center through State’s Antiterrorism Assistance program
                                 and overseas through the U.S. government’s Law and Democracy Program
                                 and the International Law Enforcement Academies. To date, law
                                 enforcement officials from the Middle East, Africa, Central and South
                                 America, and Asia have attended antiterrorism courses at the center.
                                 However, since September 11, 2001, the center has placed its emphasis on
                                 training U.S. law enforcement officials at its Glynco, Georgia, facility.
                                 Since that time, training of foreign law enforcement officials is conducted
                                 primarily overseas through the Law and Democracy Program,



                                 40
                                   Federal partner organizations are made up of 31 departments and independent agencies.
                                 Selected partner organizations include the Departments of Defense, Energy, Health and
                                 Human Services, Justice, State, and the Treasury; the CIA; and the Federal Emergency
                                 Management Agency, among others.




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                        Antiterrorism Assistance program, and the International Law Enforcement
                        Academies.

International Law       Much of the technical assistance that the United States provides to other
Enforcement Academies   nations for fighting international crime—including terrorism—involves
                        training at law enforcement academies established abroad. International
                        Law Enforcement Academies provide law enforcement training to foreign
                        governments. State’s Bureau for International Narcotics and Law
                        Enforcement Affairs funds and manages the U.S. government’s interagency
                        regional ILEAs in Europe (in Budapest, Hungary), Southeast Asia (in
                        Bangkok, Thailand), and Southern Africa (in Gaborone, Botswana) and a
                        graduate-level ILEA (in Roswell, New Mexico), in a cooperative effort with
                        the Departments of the Treasury and Justice, including the FBI. In addition,
                        the bureau plans to establish another regional ILEA in the Western
                        Hemisphere (in San Jose, Costa Rica). In fiscal year 2003, the bureau is
                        scheduled to provide law enforcement training to some 12,000 officials,
                        doubling the number trained in fiscal year 2001. The National Strategy for
                        Combating Terrorism calls for broadening the scope and strength of
                        the ILEAs.

                        To achieve overall coordination of the ILEAs domestically, a Policy Board
                        was established that is comprised of members from each department and
                        appointed by the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the
                        Secretary of the Treasury. The mission of these academies has been to
                        support emerging democracies; help protect U.S. interests through
                        international cooperation; and promote social, political, and economic
                        stability by combating crime. ILEAs also are to encourage strong
                        partnerships among regional countries to address common problems
                        associated with criminal activities.

                        • ILEA Europe. In 1995, the United States and the Government of Hungary
                          cooperated to create the first ILEA in Budapest, Hungary, under FBI
                          leadership. ILEA Budapest’s purpose is to train law enforcement officers
                          from Central Europe and the newly independent states of the former
                          Soviet Union. The academy offers two categories of courses. An 8-week
                          core course—a personal and professional development program—
                          focuses on leadership, personnel and financial management issues,
                          ethics, the rule of law, and management of the investigative process.
                          According to the State Department, approximately 250 to 300 mid-level
                          police officers and managers receive this training annually, which is
                          provided by various U.S. agencies and Hungarian and Western European
                          law enforcement agencies. Specialized short-term courses provide law



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   enforcement officers with training on combating various types of crime,
   such as organized crime, financial crime, corruption, nuclear smuggling,
   illegal migration, and terrorism—including training on prosecuting
   criminal cases. According to the State Department, about 850 police,
   prosecutors, immigration specialists, and others participate in these
   courses annually.

• ILEA Southeast Asia. ILEA Southeast Asia—located in Bangkok,
  Thailand—opened in March 1999 under Drug Enforcement
  Administration leadership. Like the ILEA Budapest program, the
  purpose of ILEA Bangkok is to strengthen regional law enforcement
  cooperation and improve performance. According to the State
  Department, this academy’s curriculum and structure are similar to
  those of ILEA Budapest, with the exception of a shorter core course (6
  weeks). In 1999, over 700 law enforcement personnel representing 10
  countries participated in courses at the academy.

• ILEA Southern Africa. In July 2000, the State Department announced an
  agreement with the Government of Botswana to establish the ILEA for
  Southern Africa in Gaborone, under the leadership of FLETC. Similar in
  overall format to the other academies, ILEA Gaborone is to follow the
  model developed for ILEAs in Budapest and Bangkok by providing
  courses on a wide range of law enforcement skills, including police
  survival, forensics, basic case management, fighting organized crime,
  supervisory police training, police strategy, narcotics identification and
  evidence handling, customs interdiction, illegal migration, and public
  corruption. ILEA Gaborone’s curriculum also addresses special topics,
  such as stolen vehicles, money laundering, crimes against women,
  domestic violence, terrorism, and other critical topics such as human
  rights and policing.

• ILEA Roswell, New Mexico. In September 2001, State opened a new
  ILEA in Roswell, New Mexico. This new facility, which will be open to
  graduates of the regional ILEAs, will offer shorter-term (4 weeks versus
  8 weeks) advanced training with a greater focus on an academic versus
  practical or operational curriculum.

• ILEA Western Hemisphere. Tailored to the regional needs of officials
  from Central and South America and the Dominican Republic, pilot
  courses of a new Western Hemisphere ILEA already have been
  conducted at a temporary site in Panama. However, activities were




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                        suspended until a permanent location could be selected. State plans to
                        establish ILEA San Jose in Costa Rica.



U.S. Assistance to   The National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction calls for
Other Countries to   active nonproliferation diplomacy. It also discusses the importance of
                     international cooperation in reducing threats and controlling nuclear
Detect Weapons of    materials. Toward these efforts, the United States has a number of
Mass Destruction     programs that provide assistance to other countries to prevent the
                     proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These nonproliferation
                     programs are intended to, among other things, keep terrorists from
                     acquiring and using weapons of mass destruction. Currently, these
                     programs are divided among several federal agencies including the
                     Departments of State, Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, and Justice.
                     U.S. assistance began in the mid-1990s under DOD’s Cooperative Threat
                     Reduction program and then expanded to the Departments of State and
                     Energy and other DOD programs.

                     The agencies have provided a range of assistance, including installing
                     security equipment around nuclear facilities, conducting research and
                     development on nonproliferation and verification technologies, as well
                     as providing conventional equipment and training. DOE has been leading
                     many of these efforts. For example, over the last 7 years, Energy has
                     worked cooperatively with Russia to install modern nuclear security
                     systems at Russia's nuclear material sites. These security upgrades consist
                     of (1) physical protection systems, such as fences and metal doors;
                     (2) material control systems, such as seals attached to nuclear material
                     containers and badge systems that only allow authorized personnel into
                     areas containing nuclear material; and (3) material accounting systems,
                     such as inventories of nuclear material and computerized databases. In
                     addition, Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration has been
                     conducting research and development on new technologies that are
                     intended to improve U.S. capabilities in nuclear explosion monitoring,
                     proliferation detection, and response to chemical or biological attacks.
                     Furthermore, as part of their nonproliferation assistance programs, Energy
                     and the other five agencies have been providing equipment and training to
                     Russia and other countries—mostly in Central and Eastern Europe.
                     Radiation detection equipment is one of the many types of assistance that
                     the U.S. agencies are providing. Other equipment ranges from simple hand
                     tools for taking apart and searching different compartments of a vehicle for




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hidden contraband to boats and vehicles for conducting patrols.
Similarly, training ranges from hands-on instruction in using the
equipment and conducting searches to high-level technical exchanges on
establishing the legal and regulatory basis for preventing illicit trafficking
and trade in sensitive goods and materials that terrorists could use in a
nuclear weapon.41

While the Departments of Defense, Energy, and State receive their own
funding for their assistance programs, the Departments of Homeland
Security and Justice receive their funding from State and/or DOD. Energy
also receives part of its funding from State. Table 6 lists each specific
U.S. nonproliferation assistance program and activity.




41
  For a more detailed discussion and an evaluation of these programs, see U.S. General
Accounting Office, Nonproliferation R & D: NNSA's Program Develops Successful
Technologies, but Project Management Can Be Strengthened, GAO-02-904 (Washington,
D.C.: Aug. 23, 2002). We reported that research areas of the Nonproliferation and
Verification Research and Development Program lack a formal process to identify users’
needs. See U.S. General Accounting Office, Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help
Other Countries Combat Nuclear Smuggling Need Strengthened Coordination and
Planning, GAO-02-426 (Washington, D.C.: May 16, 2002). We reported that U.S. assistance is
not effectively coordinated and lacks an overall governmentwide plan to guide it, because
agencies do not always coordinate their efforts through an interagency group chaired by the
Department of State. U.S. General Accounting Office, Nuclear Nonproliferation: Security of
Russia’s Nuclear Material Improving; Further Enhancements Needed, GAO-01-312
(Washington, D.C.: Feb. 28, 2001). We reported that hundreds of metric tons of nuclear
material continue to lack improved security systems and no mechanism is in place to
monitor the effectiveness of the systems once they are installed.




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Table 6: U.S. Nonproliferation Assistance Programs

Agency                 Program                                       Activity description
Department of Energy Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Installs improved security systems for nuclear material at civilian
                     program                                      nuclear sites, naval fuel sites, and nuclear weapons laboratories
                                                                  throughout Russia. These security upgrades have consisted of
                                                                  (1) physical protection systems, such as fences and metal doors;
                                                                  (2) material control systems, such as seals attached to nuclear
                                                                  material containers and badge systems that only allow authorized
                                                                  personnel into areas containing nuclear material; and (3) material
                                                                  accounting systems, such as computerized databases. In
                                                                  addition, Energy is providing sites with long-term assistance
                                                                  through equipment warranties, operating procedure development,
                                                                  and training.
                       Second Line of Defense program                Provides and installs radiation detection equipment, such as
                                                                     portal monitors, at Russian border crossings, including a Moscow
                                                                     airport. Energy may expand the program beyond Russia to
                                                                     include countries of the former Soviet Union.
                       International Export Control program          Provides funds to help countries of the former Soviet Union
                                                                     control the export of goods and technologies that could be used in
                                                                     the development of nuclear weapons. The program provides
                                                                     assistance to prevent legitimate enterprises, such as businesses
                                                                     that were affiliated with the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons
                                                                     complex, from intentionally or unintentionally engaging in illicit
                                                                     trade in such goods and technologies.
                       Nonproliferation and Verification Research    Manages projects that cover a wide spectrum of activities to
                       and Development program                       improve U.S. capabilities in the areas of nuclear explosion
                                                                     monitoring, proliferation detection, and chemical and biological
                                                                     response. Projects range from manufacturing specialized satellite-
                                                                     based sensors that detect nuclear explosions to developing and
                                                                     delivering sensor technologies that detect the spread of nuclear,
                                                                     chemical, and biological weapons, materials, and technologies
                                                                     worldwide.
                       Installs radiation detection equipment in countries of the former Soviet Union (other than Russia) and Central
                       and Eastern Europe.
Department of State    Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund         Provides radiation detection equipment and other assistance for
                                                                     interdicting nuclear smuggling to the former Soviet Union and
                                                                     Central and Eastern Europe.
                       Export Control and Related Border Security Provides radiation detection equipment, such as vans equipped
                       Assistance program                         with radiation detectors, and other assistance for interdicting
                                                                  nuclear smuggling to countries of the former Soviet Union and
                                                                  Central and Eastern Europe. (The program took over
                                                                  Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund radiation detection
                                                                  assistance beginning in fiscal year 2002.)
                       Republic of Georgia Border Security and       Provides a wide range of assistance to the Republic of Georgia's
                       Law Enforcement program                       border guards and customs service to interdict nuclear smuggling;
                                                                     fight other crimes, such as drug smuggling; and develop border
                                                                     infrastructure.




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(Continued From Previous Page)
Agency                             Program                                                Activity description
Department of                      Cooperative Threat Reduction program                   Provides funds to various countries for the (1) purchase of
Defense                                                                                   radiation detection equipment, such as pedestrian portal monitors
                                                                                          to screen people and (2) handheld radiation detection monitors
                                                                                          and other equipment to enable the countries to better patrol their
                                                                                          borders, conduct searches for smuggled contraband, and equip
                                                                                          their border posts.
                                   International Counterproliferation program             Provides funds to the Department of Homeland Security and the
                                                                                          FBI for training and equipment for countries of the former Soviet
                                                                                          Union and Central and Eastern Europe.
Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of Customs and Border                             With funding provided by the Departments of Defense and State,
Protection (formerly run by the U. S. Customs Service under the                           provides training and equipment to customs agencies and border
Department of the Treasury)                                                               guards in other countries. The equipment includes radiation
                                                                                          pagers (small detectors that can be worn on a belt to continuously
                                                                                          monitor radiation levels or used as a handheld device to pinpoint
                                                                                          the location of radioactive material detected by a portal monitor)
                                                                                          as well as a variety of other high- and low-technology tools to
                                                                                          conduct searches and detect sensitive goods and materials.
                                                                                          Training includes assistance in operating the x-ray vans equipped
                                                                                          with radiation detectors and providing hands-on instruction in
                                                                                          using equipment to detect nuclear smuggling.
Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Coast Guard                                         Through funding provide by the State Department's Export
                                                                                          Control and Related Border Security Assistance program,
                                                                                          provides assistance for maritime interception of nuclear smuggling
                                                                                          to countries of the former Soviet Union. Assistance provided has
                                                                                          included boats with spare parts and the stationing of an in-country
                                                                                          U.S. Coast Guard advisor.
Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation                                    Through DOD's International Counterproliferation program, trains
                                                                                          and equips foreign law enforcement agencies to investigate and
                                                                                          respond to actual seizures of smuggled nuclear or other material.
                                                                                          Training has included seminars for high-level officials and courses
                                                                                          on conducting investigations and managing a crime scene where
                                                                                          a seizure has taken place. Equipment provided as part of the
                                                                                          training has included hazardous material suits to make handling of
                                                                                          seized material safer, evidence collection and sampling kits, and
                                                                                          chemical detection equipment.
Source: Departments of Defense, Energy, and State; U.S. Coast Guard; and the FBI.




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U.S. Security and Economic   U.S. security and economic assistance programs, which are managed by
Assistance Seeks to          the Department of State, can enhance the capabilities of coalition partners
                             in combating terrorism overseas. Long-standing U.S. security and
Enhance                      economic assistance programs have attempted to support the “global war
Coalition Capabilities       on terrorism” in general and Operation Enduring Freedom in particular.
                             They include the following:

Foreign Military Financing   The Foreign Military Financing program provides financial grants through
                             the Department of State to foreign governments to purchase U.S.-made
                             weapons and military training. It is intended to promote U.S. national
                             security interests by contributing to global and regional stability,
                             strengthening military support for democratically elected governments,
                             and containing transnational threats, including terrorism. As such, the
                             program can be a key economic assistance tool in supporting U.S. coalition
                             partners in combating terrorism overseas. The Department of State
                             provides grants for the acquisition of U.S. defense equipment, services, and
                             training that enable key allies and friends to improve their defense
                             capabilities. Improved capabilities are expected to (1) strengthen
                             multilateral coalitions with the United States and its allies, (2) improve
                             bilateral military relationships between the United States and the recipient
                             nations, and (3) allow U.S. friends and allies increased interoperability with
                             U.S. forces. Many of the grants during fiscal year 2003 will be used to help
                             combat terrorism overseas. For example, grants will be used to (1) target
                             security requirements linked to the “war on terrorism” in Jordan, Oman,
                             and Yemen; (2) assist Colombia’s effort to defend its economy by
                             supporting a brigade to protect its oil pipeline; (3) support India and
                             Pakistan in their efforts in the war on terrorism; (4) continue efforts to
                             integrate recent NATO members and sustain support for Partnership for
                             Peace countries in Central Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus (especially
                             Georgia), and in the Central Asian countries; and (5) sustain the
                             Philippine’s military capability, particularly in its effort to address the
                             terrorist threat.

Foreign Military Sales       The Foreign Military Sales program is used by the United States to sell
                             weapons, weapons systems, and military equipment to foreign countries to
                             maintain close ties with neighbors and key allies, maintain stable and
                             secure regional partners, and ensure regional stability. Additionally, State’s
                             Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, through FMS and other security
                             assistance, helps new members of NATO upgrade their military capabilities
                             and achieve greater interoperability with U.S. and other alliance forces and
                             helps to strengthen the security and defense capabilities of key Central



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                                   Asian and Caucasus partners, whose support is crucial to combating
                                   terrorism.

International Military Education   The International Military Education and Training program was established
and Training                       in 1976 as a low-cost security assistance program intended to foster the
                                   development of more professional militaries around the world through
                                   training and education of foreign military and civilian personnel.42 The
                                   program provides training on a grant basis to some 10,000 students
                                   annually from 133 allied and friendly countries. Formal instruction is
                                   provided through more than 2,000 courses taught at about 150 U.S. military
                                   schools and installations. In many of these countries, it is the only military
                                   engagement tool available to the United States. According to the
                                   Department of State, the program advances U.S. interests in furthering
                                   regional stability by enhancing military alliances, building coalitions, and
                                   strengthening efforts to combat terrorism abroad. State determines the
                                   political advisability of providing training to individual countries and funds
                                   the program through its International Affairs budget. DOD plans and
                                   manages the program through its Defense Security and Cooperation
                                   Agency, which works with the various military departments and unified
                                   military commands to implement the program. Coordination of the
                                   program overseas is handled by DOD’s security assistance offices located
                                   in U.S. embassies around the world, which field requests from their host
                                   countries to participate in the program. All foreign applicants are screened
                                   before being admitted to the program. Enhancing military professionalism
                                   is intended to make militaries more efficient, effective, and interoperable
                                   with U.S. and NATO forces as well as regional coalitions. Also, it seeks to
                                   foster a better understanding of democratic values, including civilian rule
                                   of the military, belief in the rule of law, and respect for internationally
                                   recognized civil and human rights. Finally, the program’s development of
                                   professional and personal military-to-military relationships provide
                                   U.S. access and influence to a critical sector of society that can help
                                   support U.S. access to foreign military bases and facilities—a critical
                                   component in efforts to combat terrorism overseas.

Economic Support Funds             Economic Support Funds are used to promote security and stability
                                   overseas, particularly in emergency situations, where the United States has
                                   vested interests. The funds are provided to foreign nations in grant form,


                                   42
                                      The International Military Education and Training program was established as part of the
                                   International Security Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976 (22 U.S.C. § 2751 et
                                   seq.), Jun. 30, 1976.




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                          often without restrictions on the money’s use. Though not intended for
                          military use, the money allows foreign governments to free up other funds
                          for military use or other purposes. The Economic Support Fund is intended
                          to promote the economic and political foreign policy interests of the United
                          States by providing assistance to allies and countries in transition to
                          democracy, supporting the Middle East peace negotiations, and financing
                          economic stabilization programs, frequently in a multi-donor context.
                          USAID, with overall foreign policy guidance from the Department of State,
                          implements most Economic Support Fund programs. By promoting
                          economic growth, good governance, and strong democratic institutions,
                          the Economic Support Fund is intended to eradicate the economic and
                          political disparity that often underlies social tension and can lead to
                          radical, violent reactions against government institutions. Thus, these
                          economic assistance programs focus on mitigating the root causes of
                          terrorism.

Peacekeeping Operations   In addition to its contributions to UN peacekeeping operations, the United
                          States maintains a Peacekeeping Operations program of its own that is
                          designed to promote increased involvement of regional organizations and
                          some individual countries in regional and international peacekeeping
                          operations. Peacekeeping operations support U.S. national interests by
                          promoting human rights, democracy, and regional security. They facilitate
                          humanitarian responses to crisis situations. Also, they support the
                          increased involvement of regional organizations in conflict resolution,
                          multilateral peace operations, and sanctions enforcement through
                          provision of logistics support, peacekeeping training, and peacekeeping
                          equipment. The United States has a strong interest in enhancing the ability
                          of other nations to lead or participate in voluntary peacekeeping and
                          humanitarian operations in order to reduce the burden on the United
                          States. Finally, peacekeeping operations can help address the root causes
                          of terrorism by reducing the likelihood of hostile interventions by other
                          powers, preventing the proliferation of small conflicts, facilitating the
                          stability necessary for the establishment and growth of new market
                          economies, containing the cost of humanitarian emergencies, and limiting
                          refugee flows. This is accomplished through the separation of adversaries;
                          facilitation of the delivery of humanitarian relief; repatriation of refugees
                          and displaced persons; demobilization, disarmament, and reconciliation of
                          combatants; and creation of conditions under which political reconciliation
                          may occur and democratic elections may be held.




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Additional Assistance          In addition to the security and economic assistance programs mentioned,
through Military-to-Military   DOD provides military-to-military training to other countries to improve
                               their abilities to prevent and detect terrorism and, if necessary, disrupt and
Training                       destroy terrorist organizations. These bilateral programs are part of the
                               regional commands’ Theater Security Cooperation Plans to improve
                               U.S. allies’ capabilities to combat terrorism.

Joint Combined Exchange        DOD’s Joint Combined Exchange and Training program provides
and Training                   U.S. special operations forces opportunities to develop and maintain their
                               skills and to train foreign militaries and other groups to combat terrorism
                               overseas, among other missions. U.S. special operations forces generally
                               are organized into small units for military action focused on strategic or
                               operational goals. They are tasked with a variety of missions ranging from
                               training, advising, and organizing foreign groups for unconventional
                               warfare to training coalition forces for multinational military operations,
                               including combating terrorism overseas. These missions require special
                               skills that conventional forces do not have, such as the ability to speak
                               foreign languages, understand regional cultural and environmental
                               characteristics, and quickly deploy and operate unsupported in sometimes
                               hostile or politically sensitive areas. The U.S. Special Operations Command
                               believes that the best way its forces can train for these types of missions is
                               to train with the people in the places where they may have to operate.

                               In 1991, the Congress clarified DOD’s authority to spend training funds in
                               connection with special operations forces training overseas with friendly
                               foreign forces, as long as the primary purpose was to train U.S. forces.43
                               Since the enactment of this legislation, such training has commonly been
                               referred to as Joint Combined Exchange Training.44 Special operations
                               forces are charged with nine principal missions and, on the basis of their
                               unique capabilities, conduct a variety of other activities. The principal
                               missions are to (1) train and otherwise assist foreign militaries to combat
                               insurgency and other threats to stability (foreign internal defense);


                               43
                                National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993 (P.L. 102-190),
                               Dec. 5, 1991.
                               44
                                 For a more detailed description and GAO’s evaluation of the JCET program, see
                               U.S. General Accounting Office, Military Training: Management and Oversight of Joint
                               Combined Exchange Training, GAO/NSIAD-99-173 (Washington, D.C.: July 23, 1999). We
                               reported that DOD had complied with the statutory requirement for conducting JCETs.
                               However, DOD had not accurately reported to the Congress the number of JCETs that were
                               conducted, their costs, or their relationship to counternarcotics and counterterrorism.




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                                   (2) train, advise, and otherwise assist local forces for guerilla warfare
                                   (unconventional warfare); (3) protect against and prevent the spread of
                                   nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (counterproliferation); (4) use
                                   offensive and defensive measures to prevent or resolve terrorist incidents
                                   (combating terrorism); (5) obtain information concerning capabilities and
                                   activities of actual or potential adversaries (special reconnaissance);
                                   (6) inflict damage on an adversary or recover personnel or material (direct
                                   action); (7) target an adversary’s information system while defending
                                   U.S. systems (information operations); (8) establish, maintain, or
                                   strengthen relations between U.S. and allied governments to facilitate
                                   military operations (civil affairs); and (9) influence attitudes of foreign
                                   audiences (psychological operations). Specific Joint Combined Exchange
                                   and Training operations and activities are classified.

U.S. Special Operations            The U.S. European Command initiated the Georgia Train and Equip
Forces Training for the Republic   Program to enhance Georgia’s counter-terrorism capabilities. The
of Georgia                         program’s goal is to build strong effective staff organizations capable of
                                   creating and sustaining standardized operating procedures, training plans,
                                   operational plans, and a property accounting system. The curriculum
                                   consists of performance-oriented training and exercises. The time-phased
                                   training will be conducted by U.S. Special Forces to build upon the
                                   military-to-military relationship developed between the two countries. The
                                   program will consist of command center staff training for members of the
                                   Georgian Ministry of Defense as well as training for units of the Land
                                   Forces Command. Border Guards and other Georgian security agencies
                                   will be included to ensure interoperability among Georgia’s security forces.
                                   Almost 200 Georgians have completed the staff-training phase and about
                                   500 Georgians are completing the light-infantry tactics training. Military
                                   equipment to be provided will include uniform items, small arms and
                                   ammunition, communications gear, training gear, medical gear, fuel, and
                                   construction material.

                                   Figure 9 shows members of 2nd Company, Georgian Commando Battalion,
                                   performing a combat off load at a training range at Krtsanisi, Republic of
                                   Georgia. The U.S. Army’s 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne) is in
                                   Georgia conducting the Georgia Train and Equip Program, which will
                                   enhance Georgian soldiers' abilities in various battlefield techniques.




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                                 Figure 9: 2nd Company, Georgian Commando Battalion, Perform a Combat Off Load
                                 With Members of the U.S. Army’s 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne) at a Training
                                 Range at Krtsanisi, Republic of Georgia




U.S. Special Operations Forces   The U.S. Pacific Command is assisting the Republic of the Philippines in
Training for the Philippines     developing a counter-terrorist capability within their armed forces through
                                 the Foreign Military Financing program. The U.S. Pacific Command
                                 deployed a Joint Task Force advisory team to the southern Philippines to
                                 begin preparations. The Joint Task Force advisory team, composed of
                                 U.S. Special Operations personnel is providing training at the command
                                 level at headquarters down through the company level in the field. The
                                 training emphasizes joint operations and tactics to help eliminate terrorist
                                 threats. Training includes counter-terrorism campaign planning,
                                 intelligence fusion, psychological operations, civil-military operations, and
                                 field tactics. U.S. Special Operations personnel completed training with
                                 25 field companies and provided equipment that included aircraft,
                                 U.S. Coast Guard cutters, and helicopters.




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                            Figure 10 shows a U.S. Special Forces soldier demonstrating to a Filipino
                            soldier how to adjust the sights on his M-16 rifle during marksmanship
                            training in Tipo-Tipo Town, Basilan Island, Philippines. U.S. forces
                            currently are in the Philippines participating in joint combating-terrorism
                            training with their Filipino counterparts.



                            Figure 10: U.S. Special Forces Soldier Shows a Filipino Soldier How to Adjust the
                            Sights on His M-16 Rifle during Marksmanship Training in Tipo-Tipo Town, Basilan
                            Island, Philippines




                            Source: Jason Carter of the Pacific Stars and Stripes. © 2003 Stars and Stripes.




Assisting Other Countries   Some special events overseas, such as presidential summit meetings
with International          and the Olympic games, have international significance and thus may
                            attract terrorist attacks. These international special events receive
Security Events             U.S. security protection, whether through the U.S. Secret Service providing
                            protective security to senior U.S. officials, Diplomatic Security protecting
                            U.S. personnel and facilities, or the military standing by to respond, if
                            needed, to terrorist incidents involving weapons of mass destruction or
                            to evacuate Americans.




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Unlike domestic special security events, there is no process to coordinate
federal agencies’ roles and responsibilities for special security events held
outside of the United States.45 Nevertheless, the United States can provide
assistance to other countries for special security events. For example, the
Department of State coordinated and managed federal agencies’ assistance
for the 1992 Olympic Summer Games in Barcelona, Spain; the 1994 Olympic
Winter Games in Lillehammer, Norway; and the 1994 Commonwealth
Games in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. For the upcoming 2004
Olympic Summer Games in Athens, Greece, the Department of State is
coordinating federal agencies’ assistance at the headquarters level in
Washington, D.C., and at the U.S. Embassy in Athens, Greece. In
Washington, D.C., the State Department’s Office of the Coordinator for
Counterterrorism and Bureau of Diplomatic Security established an
interagency group and at the U.S. Embassy in Athens, the bureau
established an Olympic Security Coordinator and an Olympic Security
Advisory Team to coordinate federal assistance. The advisory team is
composed of agency officials from DOD, the FBI, the CIA, and the Federal
Aviation Administration. As discussed earlier in this chapter, one initiative
includes counterterrorism training for Greek law enforcement authorities
through State’s Antiterrorism Assistance program.

Security planning for the 2004 Olympic Summer Games in Athens is a
multilateral effort. The Government of Greece requested Olympic security
expertise from seven countries: the United States, the United Kingdom,
France, Spain, Israel, Germany, and Australia. These countries make up the
Olympic Security Advisory Group, which reports to the Greek Minister of
Public Order on security issues at the strategic level. The group also
provides advice on technical support issues at the operational level. The
range of issues includes intelligence, planning, training and exercises,
technology, command and control coordination, and venue security.




45
   For domestic situations, PDD 62 created a category of special events called National
Special Security Events, which are events of such significance that they warrant greater
federal planning and protection than other special events. For these events, the directive
reaffirmed the FBI’s lead federal agency role for crisis management and designated the U.S.
Secret Service as lead federal agency for security design, planning, and implementation. The
directive also reaffirmed the Federal Emergency Management Agency as responsible for
consequence management.




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Coordination Mechanisms     Programs to assist other countries are coordinated through a variety of
for Assistance to Enhance   forums. For those aimed at improving other countries’ capabilities to
                            combat terrorism, coordination across agencies is done in working groups
Coalition Capabilities      under the NSC’s Counterterrorism Security Group (discussed in chapter 2).
                            Specifically, the State Department chairs a Training and Assistance Sub-
                            Group that coordinates the different programs to provide terrorism-related
                            training and assistance to foreign governments and their officials. The
                            group works to prioritize countries that should receive assistance. The
                            group reviews assistance programs of the various agencies to ensure they
                            are properly sequenced, avoid duplication, and ensure that they are
                            implemented in collaboration with or reinforce other efforts as
                            appropriate. This group has a subordinate group, also chaired by the
                            Department of State, called the Counterterrorism Finance Training and
                            Technical Assistance Working Group. This group focuses on providing
                            related finance training and technical assistance to a set of priority
                            countries and attempts to ensure that the delivery of such assistance by
                            different agencies does not conflict and is used effectively and efficiently.
                            Within the State Department, the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the
                            Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism work with other agencies to
                            decide how to spend Antiterrorism Training Assistance funds. In the field,
                            the embassy country teams are also involved in coordinating programs
                            from the various agencies with headquarters and negotiating the assistance
                            packages with the foreign government.



Agency Comments and         The Departments of Defense, Justice, and State and the former
                            Immigration and Naturalization Service provided technical comments on
Our Evaluation              the matters covered throughout this chapter. Based upon these comments,
                            we made revisions, as appropriate. We also made revisions (primarily to the
                            section on border security) based upon the creation of the Department of
                            Homeland Security and the transfer of various agencies and functions from
                            other departments into that department.




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                         Federal agencies attempt to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations
                         through diplomatic initiatives, law enforcement efforts, financial
                         operations to freeze assets, military operations, and covert action.
                         Diplomatic initiatives, led by the Department of State, strengthen
                         international cooperation and capabilities through bilateral and
                         multilateral agreements. The State Department’s diplomatic leadership
                         and agreements allow other agencies to cooperate more closely with
                         foreign countries on specific types of efforts. Other multilateral
                         agreements, including UN resolutions and conventions, also help to
                         strengthen international cooperation. Law enforcement efforts, led by
                         the Department of Justice, disrupt terrorist organizations through
                         investigations, arrests, and prosecutions of terrorists. As a principal
                         investigative agency of the federal government, the FBI conducts
                         investigations on acts of terrorism against U.S. persons and property
                         overseas. Operations to identify and freeze terrorists’ financial assets
                         are conducted by the Departments of the Treasury, Justice, and State
                         and involve tracking monies, accounts, and wire transfers of terrorist
                         organizations. Military operations, led by DOD, destroy terrorist
                         organizations and complement other methods—diplomatic, legal, and
                         economic—to prevent or disrupt terrorist organizations. DOD and its
                         coalition partners are conducting Operation Enduring Freedom in
                         Afghanistan and surrounding regions to destroy al Qaeda and the Taliban
                         regime. Captured combatants—who are not considered prisoners of war
                         by the U.S. government—have been detained and interrogated to provide
                         intelligence information. Finally, covert actions, led by the CIA, have
                         been used to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations. This chapter
                         describes the relevant federal programs in place and is not an evaluation
                         of their effectiveness.



Diplomatic Initiatives   The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes an objective to
                         strengthen and sustain international efforts to combat terrorism. There is
Strengthen               also an objective to establish and maintain an international standard of
International            accountability with regard to combating terrorism. The strategy also gives
                         the Department of State the lead in developing specific regional strategies
Cooperation              for combating terrorism overseas, as well as policy action plans to deal
                         with state sponsors of terrorism. Diplomatic initiatives, led by the
                         Department of State, are key to achieving these objectives. Such diplomatic
                         efforts help strengthen international cooperation in the effort to disrupt
                         and destroy terrorists and their organizations. State helps to orchestrate
                         other nations’ bilateral support to assist the United States in conducting
                         law enforcement cooperation, financial operations, and military



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                        operations. State negotiated a number of bilateral and multilateral
                        agreements with foreign countries to support these operations. State
                        also solicited international cooperation by actively trying to enlist
                        multilateral organizations in the fight against terrorism. These efforts
                        include multilateral agreements and conventions, resolutions, and
                        international summits involving the United Nations and other international
                        organizations. Various State Department offices, bureaus, and missions
                        overseas—in conjunction with other federal agencies—coordinate these
                        diplomatic initiatives.

                        U.S. officials, from several agencies at both the headquarters and overseas,
                        told us that bilateral agreements with individual nations are the most
                        productive type of cooperation. However, they noted that multilateral
                        agreements provide an important framework that, in the eyes of other
                        countries, legitimizes their bilateral cooperation with the United States.



Bilateral Cooperation   The Department of State strengthens international cooperation through
Supports Variety of     agreements, consultations, and negotiations with other countries to assist
                        other U.S. government agencies in their efforts to enforce laws, deny
Activities by U.S.      terrorist financing, and carry out military operations against terrorists
Government Agencies     and their organizations. The Department of State leads periodic
                        U.S. delegations—consisting of a number of U.S. agencies—that meet
                        with other nations to discuss and cooperate on terrorism issues of mutual
                        bilateral concern. For example, State Department’s Coordinator for
                        Counterterrorism recently led one of these U.S. delegations to meet with
                        French officials. Through its diplomacy, the department facilitates
                        cooperation in a variety of areas.

Law enforcement         The Department of State negotiates formal bilateral agreements to
                        strengthen law enforcement cooperation with other individual countries.
                        For example, there are a number of law enforcement-related treaties
                        negotiated by the Department of State, in conjunction with the Department
                        of Justice, related to legal assistance and extradition. These agreements
                        promote increased cooperation with foreign law enforcement authorities
                        for the exchange of evidence and apprehension of terrorist suspects.

Terrorist financing     The Departments of State and the Treasury have worked with a number of
                        countries on a bilateral basis to strengthen measures to deny terrorists
                        access to financial support. Since September 11, 2001, the United States, in
                        conjunction with other countries, designated a number of individuals and



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                               organizations as sponsors of terrorism. At individual embassies, State
                               Department economic officers work with their counterparts to improve
                               joint efforts to disrupt terrorist financing.

Military operations            The State Department worked to negotiate a number of bilateral
                               agreements for military cooperation to combat terrorism. In the wake of
                               the September 11, 2001, attacks, State worked with DOD to establish
                               bilateral agreements to support military operations in Afghanistan and
                               surrounding regions. Ultimately, 89 countries agreed to provide over-flight
                               rights for U.S. military aircraft and 76 agreed to provide landing and/or
                               bed-down rights for U.S. military aircraft. In addition, 23 countries
                               agreed to host U.S. and coalition forces involved in military operations in
                               Afghanistan. These later agreements, reached with neighboring countries,
                               such as Pakistan and the Central Asian republics, were particularly
                               significant in that they provided secure staging areas for U.S. and coalition
                               military forces to carry out their missions. These bilateral agreements are
                               in addition to other countries actually conducting military operations with
                               the United States.



Multilateral Cooperation       The Department of State works with international organizations to
through the UN Provides        enhance multilateral support to disrupt and destroy terrorists and their
                               organizations. Foremost of these organizations is the United Nations. Its
Political Support for          Counterterrorism Committee reviews international efforts to combat
Coalition Efforts              terrorism. The State Department works with the United Nations and its
                               member states to establish a broad array of resolutions and conventions
                               to create a multilateral framework for combating international terrorism.
                               This UN-based multilateral framework falls into three broad categories of
                               documents or agreements (as described below). Appendix VI provides a
                               listing of protocols, conventions, and resolutions that the United Nations
                               has identified as related to terrorism.1

UN Conventions and Protocols   There are 10 UN conventions and 2 protocols dating back to 1963 that
                               are related to terrorism. An example of these is the 1997 International
                               Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings. The State


                               1
                                 In addition to those listed in appendix VI, there are other UN efforts indirectly related to
                               terrorism. According to ATF, these include efforts to combat illicit trafficking in firearms,
                               ammunition, and explosives used not only by common criminals but also terrorists. UN
                               efforts include the UN Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in
                               Firearms and the UN Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons.




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                                  Department, through its diplomatic efforts in Washington and around the
                                  world, has urged countries to agree to these conventions and protocols.
                                  Before September 11, 2001, only 2 countries were parties to all
                                  12 instruments. As of November 2002, 16 countries, including the
                                  United States, are a party to each of the 12 conventions and protocols.

UN Security Council Resolutions   The UN Security Council consists of 5 permanent members with veto
                                  authority (China, France, Russia, the United States, and the United
                                  Kingdom) and 10 rotating members.2 Under Chapter VII of the UN Charter,
                                  mandatory provisions in resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council
                                  form a legal basis for taking actions against terrorists. There are numerous
                                  UN Security Council Resolutions dating back to 1970 that are related to
                                  terrorism. For example, UN Security Council 1373, which is a wide-ranging
                                  measure calling for international cooperation against terrorist financing.
                                  Among other things, this resolution calls for member nations to report back
                                  on their activities to combat terrorism. According to the National Strategy
                                  for Combating Terrorism, UN Security Council Resolution 1373 is one
                                  example of the United States enlisting the international community to
                                  establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with
                                  regard to combating terrorism.

                                  Figure 11 shows the UN Security Council voting on a terrorism-related
                                  resolution in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks against the United States
                                  on September 11, 2001.




                                  2
                                    The current 10 rotating members of the UN Security Council are Angola, Bulgaria,
                                  Cameroon, Chile, Germany, Guinea, Mexico, Pakistan, Spain, and Syria.




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                             Figure 11: UN Security Council Unanimously Adopts Resolution 1373, Calling for
                             Wide-Ranging International Cooperation to Combat Terrorism




UN General Assembly          The UN General Assembly consists of the entire membership, currently
Resolutions                  numbering 189 nations. Resolutions from the General Assembly are
                             adopted based upon the votes of the entire UN membership but, unlike UN
                             Security Council Resolutions, are not binding. There are numerous UN
                             General Assembly resolutions dating back to 1972 related to terrorism. An
                             example of these is UN General Assembly Resolution 39/159 from 1984,
                             which condemned all policies and practices of terrorism between states as
                             a method of dealing with other states.



State Department Works       In addition to the United Nations, the State Department is working with
With Variety of Other        a number of other international organizations to promote multilateral
                             cooperation to combat terrorism. The memberships of these other
International Multilateral   international organizations overlap, with several nations (including
Organizations                the United States) belonging to several of them. Examples of these
                             international organizations and some of their related activities are
                             as follows.



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North Atlantic Treaty           The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is a political and security alliance
Organization                    of 19 nations from North America and Europe.3 In the wake of the
                                September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, NATO members invoked Article V—a
                                collective defense provision of the 1949 Washington Treaty. The provision,
                                invoked for the first time in NATO’s history, states that an armed attack on
                                any ally is considered an attack against all. NATO approved eight measures
                                to expand its options in the campaign against terrorism, including the
                                deployment of its Standing Naval Forces to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
                                and its Airborne Early Warning force.

European Union                  The European Union is a group of 15 countries forming a political and
                                economic union. The European Union has taken steps to improve
                                cooperation between European and U.S. law enforcement officials,
                                coordination of the freezing of terrorist assets, and to provide a framework
                                for cooperation on border security issues.

The Group of Eight              The Group of Eight (G-8) is a group of major industrialized democracies
                                that meet periodically on a number of political, economic, and security
                                issues.4 The G-8 has been an active forum for supporting measures against
                                terrorists and their organizations. Several of the group’s summits have
                                resulted in joint declarations that condemn terrorism and pledge to
                                improve member countries individual and collective efforts to combat
                                terrorism, including endorsing international recommendations to combat
                                terrorist financing.

The Organization for Security   The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe consists of
and Cooperation in Europe       55 nations from Europe, Central Asia, and North America that discuss
                                human rights, economic development, and security issues. The
                                organization has incorporated combating terrorism financing into its
                                work plan and agenda, urging its members to implement certain
                                recommendations to combat terrorist financing.




                                3
                                  NATO’s current membership includes Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark,
                                Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
                                Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In
                                addition, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia have been
                                invited to begin accession talks to join NATO in May 2004.
                                4
                                  G-8 members include Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom,
                                and the United States.




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The Organization of American     The Organization of American States consists of 35 nations from the
States                           Western Hemisphere. The organization adopted the Inter-American
                                 Convention against Terrorism requiring, among other things, that each
                                 signatory state establish a legal and regulatory regime to combat the
                                 financing of terrorism. Parties also agreed to improve controls at banks and
                                 other financial institutions.

Other international groups       Other international groups provide collective support to specific functions
                                 related to terrorism. These include the Financial Action Task Force and the
                                 Egmont Group, which both are involved in disrupting terrorist financing.
                                 The membership of these groups overlaps with many of the other groups
                                 mentioned above. In addition, the State Department has sponsored and/or
                                 attended a number of international meetings to discuss terrorism outside
                                 the forums described above. An example includes terrorism summits at
                                 Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, in 1994. These international summits resulted in
                                 declarations of support for national and international efforts to combat
                                 terrorism.



Coordination Mechanisms          The State Department generally is in charge of efforts to coordinate
for Bilateral and Multilateral   diplomatic initiatives related to combating terrorism overseas. Overall, the
                                 department’s Coordinator for Counterterrorism coordinates both bilateral
Diplomacy
                                 and multilateral initiatives. Within the coordinator’s office, officers are
                                 assigned specific regional areas to coordinate activities. The department’s
                                 regional and functional bureaus also are involved in coordination of
                                 diplomatic initiatives, as are other federal agencies, as appropriate.

                                 For bilateral diplomatic initiatives, the department’s regional bureaus,
                                 functional bureaus, country desks, and U.S. embassies play a major role in
                                 coordination. For example, U.S. efforts with the Philippines to combat
                                 terrorism would involve the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, the Bureau
                                 of East Asian Affairs, the Bureau of Political Military Affairs, the
                                 Philippines country desk, and the U.S. Embassy in Manila. Other federal
                                 agencies with specific programs would also be involved in coordination,
                                 such as DOD in the case of military assistance to the Philippines related to
                                 combating terrorism. Another example would the Department of Justice’s
                                 involvement in negotiations of bilateral agreements related to mutual legal
                                 assistance or extradition, which is discussed later in this chapter.

                                 For multilateral diplomatic initiatives, the department’s Bureau of
                                 International Organization Affairs, working with the Coordinator for
                                 Counterterrorism, has the lead in coordinating activities with international



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                          organizations. Similar to regional bureaus, the bureau has individual desks
                          for individual international organizations. Similar to U.S. embassies, the
                          United States maintains diplomatic missions to international organizations,
                          such as the U.S. Mission to the United Nations in New York; the U.S.
                          Mission to NATO in Brussels, Belgium; and the U.S. Mission to the
                          European Union, also in Brussels, Belgium. The department’s Bureau of
                          International Narcotics and Law Enforcement coordinates multilateral law
                          enforcement programs, such as the International Law Enforcement
                          Academies. Again, other federal agencies with specific programs also are
                          involved in coordination, such as the Department of the Treasury’s
                          programs to disrupt terrorist financing and DOD’s European Command
                          involvement in the case of NATO naval support to maritime operations in
                          the Mediterranean. The State Department also participates in multilateral
                          negotiations of treaties and other agreements relating to terrorism.



Law Enforcement           One of the enduring policy principles that guides U.S. strategies to combat
                          terrorism overseas is to bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. The
Efforts to Disrupt        National Strategy for Combating Terrorism has an objective to destroy
Terrorist Organizations   terrorists and their organizations, in part, by expanding law enforcement
                          efforts to capture, detain, and prosecute known and suspected terrorists. In
                          addition, the National Strategy for Homeland Security has an objective to
                          intensify international law enforcement cooperation.

                          Such law enforcement efforts are led by the Department of Justice and
                          attempt to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations overseas. The
                          Department of Justice, working with the Department of State, will expand,
                          where appropriate, its law enforcement presence abroad to further
                          counterterrorism interdiction, investigation, and prosecution. The
                          Department of State coordinates U.S. efforts to improve international
                          counterterrorism cooperation, including the diplomatic aspects of law
                          enforcement. United States law enforcement efforts overseas involve
                          investigating terrorism-related crimes and the apprehension and
                          prosecution of terrorists. The Department of Justice, through the FBI, leads
                          U.S. investigations of terrorist incidents overseas. Such investigations,
                          although conducted by FBI, are done under the authority of the
                          ambassador at the relevant U.S. embassy. Depending upon the nature of the
                          terrorist incident, other federal agencies, such as the State Department and
                          its embassies, also may participate in or support terrorism investigations.
                          The Department of Justice, in conjunction with the State Department, leads
                          the federal government’s efforts to apprehend terrorists overseas for
                          prosecution. Suspected terrorists who are apprehended overseas are



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                              brought back to the United States for prosecution through extraditions and
                              renditions. Foreign governments, through both bilateral and multilateral
                              devices, provide key assistance with investigations, arrests, and
                              prosecutions of terrorists. The Department of Justice coordinates its
                              efforts to combat terrorism overseas through various mechanisms,
                              including its legal attachés located in U.S. missions overseas, Joint
                              Terrorism Task Forces, and Anti-Terrorism Task Forces. Efforts to identify,
                              disrupt, and freeze terrorist assets are a related law enforcement activity
                              and are covered in more detail in the next section.



Investigations of Terrorist   As a principal investigative agency of the federal government for terrorism
Incidents Overseas Are Led    matters, the FBI is responsible for detecting and investigating acts of
                              terrorism committed against U.S. citizens and property overseas.
by the FBI                    According to the FBI, extraterritorial jurisdiction is the principle that
                              allows the bureau to expand its investigative authority outside U.S. borders
                              and deploy FBI personnel to work in conjunction with host government
                              law enforcement agencies to make arrests and prosecutions. The FBI
                              undertakes these investigations under the authority of the ambassador at
                              the relevant U.S. embassy abroad.

                              According to the FBI, its role in investigating terrorist crimes overseas was
                              expanded through a series of congressional acts in the mid-1980s. For
                              example, the FBI cited the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 19845 and
                              the Omnibus Diplomatic Security and Antiterrorist Act of 1986,6 which
                              expanded the federal jurisdiction of the United States to terrorist crimes,
                              including hostage taking, homicide, conspiracy to commit homicide, or
                              physical violence committed against U.S. national or interest anywhere in
                              the world. The FBI also noted that the Antiterrorism and Effective Death
                              Penalty Act of 19967 granted authority to designate foreign terrorist
                              organizations, prohibits the providing of material support or resources to a
                              foreign terrorist organization, and makes it a federal crime to participate in
                              certain international terrorism activities. These changes were the result of
                              concerns that terrorists who committed the attacks against U.S. nationals



                              5
                                  P.L. 98-473, Oct. 12, 1984.
                              6
                                  P.L. 99-399, Aug. 27, 1986.
                              7
                                  P.L. 104-132, Apr. 24, 1996, as amended.




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                                               overseas would escape justice and flee to countries that oppose the
                                               United States.



Other Federal Law                              Depending upon the nature of a terrorist incident, other federal agencies
Enforcement Agencies                           also may participate in or support terrorism investigations overseas. For
                                               example, several agencies in the Department of the Treasury might support
Support Terrorism                              the FBI in conducting overseas investigations and in combating terrorism.
Investigations                                 Table 7 shows key federal investigative agencies that have a role in
                                               investigating acts of terrorism overseas.



Table 7: Federal Agencies’ Roles in Investigating Terrorist-Related Incidents Overseas

Federal agency                                      Agency role
Department of Justice                               Leads law enforcement and criminal matters related to terrorism both domestically
                                                    and overseas. Responsible for investigating, indicting, and prosecuting terrorists.
Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of            Leads efforts to investigate terrorist crimes domestically and overseas. Responsible
Investigation                                       for the apprehension, extradition, and rendition of foreign terrorists who are
                                                    suspected of violating U.S. statutes.
Department of Justice, Bureau of Alcohol,        Investigates terrorist bombings and explosive blasts overseas using its International
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (formerly under Response Team and explosive experts. Special agents with post-blast expertise,
the Department of the Treasury)                  forensic chemists, and bomb technicians are used to overcome difficulties inherent
                                                 in investigations of large-scale fire or explosives crime scenes.
Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic           Leads investigations of selected incidents involving U.S. diplomatic facilities and/or
Security                                            personnel. Participates in investigations of terrorist incidents against U.S. diplomatic
                                                    personnel and other persons under its protection. Also investigates passport and
                                                    visa fraud.
Department of the Treasury, Financial Crimes        Supports lead investigative agencies in determining actual or suspected terrorist
Enforcement Network                                 financial transactions and money laundering.
Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of          Investigates suspected terrorists or materials crossing U.S. borders, including illegal
Customs and Border Protection (includes parts of    movement of arms, munitions, and WMD components. Also investigates violations
former U.S. Customs Service under the               of economic sanctions, embargoes, and money laundering related to financing
Department of the Treasury)                         designated international terrorist organizations.
Department of Homeland Security, Bureau of          Investigates cases of terrorists crossing U.S. borders. Also, it investigates cases of
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (includes       terrorists using transnational smuggling organizations, using illicit document
parts of former Immigration and Naturalization      vendors, and entering the United States illegally. Has officers stationed intermittently
Service under the Department of Justice)            for flexible periods of time at key choke point airports to disrupt the smuggling and
                                                    trafficking of persons, including terrorists, to the United States.




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(Continued From Previous Page)
Federal agency                                                           Agency role
Department of Homeland Security, United States                           Investigates terrorists' threats against officials under its protective mission overseas,
Secret Service (formerly under the Department of                         including the President and Vice President.
the Treasury)
Department of Defense                                                    Investigates acts of terrorism committed against DOD personnel or facilities
                                                                         overseas.
Source: Departments of Defense, Justice, State, and the Treasury.

                                                                    Note: GAO analysis of agency documents.




United States Works With                                            In conducting terrorist investigations, the United States works with other
Other Countries in                                                  countries to gather or share evidence. Much information and evidence are
                                                                    exchanged informally through law enforcement channels. When a formal
Conducting Investigations                                           request for assistance is necessary, and where there is no bilateral treaty,
                                                                    executive agreement, or applicable multilateral convention with another
                                                                    country, the United States often must rely upon letters rogatory to obtain
                                                                    international assistance. A letter rogatory is a request from a judicial
                                                                    official in one country to a judicial official in another country seeking
                                                                    assistance. Letters rogatory usually include background on the nature and
                                                                    targets of the criminal investigation, relevant facts about the case or
                                                                    investigation, the type of assistance needed, statutes alleged to have been
                                                                    violated, and a promise of reciprocity.

                                                                    Department of Justice officials said that they prefer to use the more
                                                                    modern, more reliable, and more expeditious Mutual Legal Assistance
                                                                    Treaty process than the more cumbersome letters rogatory process. Mutual
                                                                    Legal Assistance Treaties strengthen law enforcement by permitting direct
                                                                    communication between appropriate executive branch law enforcement
                                                                    officials in the United States and foreign countries rather than relying upon
                                                                    the letters rogatory process with its judge-to-judge communications
                                                                    transmitted through the diplomatic channel. Mutual Legal Assistance
                                                                    Treaties provide for the exchange of valuable evidence, often in a form that
                                                                    is admissible at trial. They enable the Justice Department to obtain foreign
                                                                    financial records, obtain statements or testimony of foreign witnesses,
                                                                    conduct search and seizure of foreign evidence, and in some cases, freeze
                                                                    and recover the forfeiture of proceeds of U.S. crimes committed abroad.
                                                                    The Department of State, in conjunction with the Department of Justice, is
                                                                    responsible for negotiating the treaties. Once a Mutual Legal Assistance
                                                                    Treaty is in force, the Department of Justice is responsible for making
                                                                    specific requests to other countries for assistance under the treaty. As of
                                                                    January 2003, the United States had bilateral Mutual Legal Assistance
                                                                    Treaties covering 47 foreign jurisdictions. In addition, many modern


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                              multilateral law enforcement conventions, including those dealing
                              with terrorism and terrorist financing, contain broad mutual legal
                              assistance articles.



Return of Overseas            The Department of Justice, in coordination with the Department of State,
Terrorists via Extraditions   is responsible for obtaining the arrest and return of accused persons who
                              commit acts of terrorism against U.S. persons and property overseas. The
and Renditions
                              United States sometimes uses extradition treaties to obtain custody of
                              accused terrorists. Extradition treaties provide for the request by one party
                              to the treaty to the other party for the arrest and surrender of a person
                              accused or convicted of a crime in the country making the request. The
                              Department of Justice is currently working with the Department of State
                              to renegotiate a number of extradition treaties to further broaden their
                              coverage of terrorist-related crimes. Modern extradition treaties contain a
                              “dual criminality” clause, which makes any offense considered a crime in
                              both countries extraditable under the treaty. Thus, such modern treaties
                              provide for growth and development in the criminal law, so that when
                              countries criminalize new activity (including terrorist activity), those new
                              crimes will be extraditable without the need to renegotiate the existing
                              treaty. Often, before an alleged terrorist can be formally extradited to the
                              United States, a number of factors must exist. Specifically:

                              • An extradition treaty must usually be in force between the United States
                                and the country in which the fugitive terrorist is located.

                              • The extradition treaty must cover the crime or crimes for which the
                                terrorist is wanted in the United States (either because it is an offense
                                “listed” in the treaty, or because it meets the “dual criminality”
                                requirement set out in the treaty; i.e., it is considered a crime in both
                                countries).

                              • All requirements of the applicable extradition treaty must have been met
                                (for example, the quantum of evidence required by the treaty has been
                                provided in the formal extradition documents).

                              • The fugitive terrorist is otherwise extraditable (e.g., a national of a
                                third country).

                              Once the extradition proceedings in the foreign country are complete and
                              the fugitive terrorist is ready for surrender, the Justice Department sends
                              escort agents, usually from the United States Marshals Service, to collect



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                                           and return the fugitive to the United States. As shown below in table 8, the
                                           U.S. government has obtained the extradition of six terrorists operating
                                           overseas since 1987, one of the most recent being an accused terrorist
                                           who was extradited from Germany in December 1998 for his role in the
                                           August 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings in East Africa. As of January 2002,
                                           the United States had extradition treaties in force with more than
                                           100 foreign jurisdictions.

                                           The United States also can obtain custody of an individual without the
                                           formalities of an extradition treaty by agreeing to have the host nation
                                           render the individual to the United States for trial or deport the individual
                                           out of the country. The United States used renditions in 11 cases since 1987
                                           to obtain custody of suspected terrorists operating overseas. As shown in
                                           table 8, the most recent reported rendition used by the United States to
                                           apprehend a suspected terrorist was in September 2001 when a terrorist
                                           suspect was taken into custody from an undisclosed country for
                                           perpetrating the hijacking of Pan American flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan.
                                           That individual will stand trial in the United States for the terrorist attack
                                           in which 22 persons, including two U.S. citizens, were killed and at least
                                           100 persons were injured. Table 8 shows reported extraditions and
                                           renditions of terrorist suspects to the United States over the last 15 years,
                                           as reported by the State Department and the FBI.



Table 8: Reported Extraditions and Renditions of Terrorists to the United States, 1987-2001

                                                                                    Extradition or
Month and year           Name and crime(s)                                          rendition                Country
September 1987           Viken Tcharkhutian                                         Extradition              Greece
                         (May 1982 bombing of an Air Canada aircraft)
September 1987           Fawaz Younis                                               Rendition                Cyprus
                         (June 1985 hijacking of a Royal Jordanian Airlines
                         aircraft)
January 1991             Khalid al Jawary                                        Extradition                 Italy
                         (March 1973 bombing of three vehicles in New York City)
March 1993               Mahmoud Abu Halima                                         Extradition              Egypt
                         (February 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in
                         New York City)
July 1993                Mohammed Ali Rezaq                                         Rendition                Nigeria
                         (November 1985 hijacking of Egyptair flight 648)




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                                                                                                                             Extradition or
Month and year                           Name and crime(s)                                                                   rendition                                Country
February 1995                            Ramzi Ahmed Yousef                                                                  Extradition                              Pakistan
                                         (January 1995 Far East bomb U.S. airlines plot;
                                         February 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in
                                         New York City)
April 1995                               Abdul Hakim Murad                                                                   Rendition                                Philippines
                                         (January 1995 Far East U.S. airlines bomb plot)
August 1995                              Eyad Mahmoud Ismail Najim                                                           Extradition                              Jordan
                                         (February 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in
                                         New York City)
December 1995                            Wali Khan Amin Shah                                                                 Rendition                                Country not disclosed
                                         (January 1995 Far East U.S. airlines bomb plot)
September 1996                           Tsutomu Shirosaki                                                                   Rendition                                Country not disclosed
                                         (May 1986 attack on the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta,
                                         Indonesia)
June 1997                                Mir Aimal Kansi                                        Rendition                                                             Country not disclosed
                                         (January 1993 shooting at CIA headquarters in Langley,
                                         Virginia)
June 1998                                Mohammed Rashid                                                                     Rendition                                Country not disclosed
                                         (August 1982 bombing of a Pan American aircraft)
August 1998                              Mohamed Rashed Daoud al-Owhali                                                      Rendition                                Kenya
                                         (August 1998 bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi,
                                         Kenya)
August 1998                              Mohamed Sedeek Odeh                                                                 Rendition                                Kenya
                                         (August 1998 bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi,
                                         Kenya)
December 1998                            Mamdouh Mahmud Salim                                                                Extradition                              Germany
                                         (August 1998 bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi,
                                         Kenya)
October 1999                             Khalfan Khamis Mohamed                                                              Rendition                                South Africa
                                         (August 1998 bombing of the U.S. Embassy in
                                         Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania)
September 2001                           Zayd Hassan Abd al-Latif Masud al-Safarini                                          Rendition                                Country not disclosed
                                         (1986 hijacking of Pan American flight 73 in Karachi,
                                         Pakistan)
Source: Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001, Department of State, May 2002 and Terrorism in the United States, 1999, the FBI, 1999. There may be additional renditions since September 11, 2001, that have
not been reported because they are classified.


                                                                    INTERPOL is a multilateral organization that, among other things,
                                                                    facilitates the arrest of terrorist suspects to bring them to the United States
                                                                    (or elsewhere) for trial. INTERPOL was established to promote
                                                                    international police cooperation to help officers from different police
                                                                    forces, countries, languages, and cultures work with each other to solve
                                                                    crimes. Although INTERPOL has a world headquarters in Lyon, France,
                                                                    every member country has its own INTERPOL office called a National



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                           Central Bureau. This bureau is the single point-of-contact for foreign
                           governments requiring assistance with overseas investigations. Each
                           member country employs its own officers to operate on its own territory in
                           accordance with its own national laws. INTERPOL provides criminal
                           intelligence with its member countries and plays a number of roles in
                           information exchange, such as encouraging member countries to use
                           shared automated systems and issuing international wanted notices for
                           fugitives. When the whereabouts of a suspected terrorist is unknown or the
                           United States seeks an immediate arrest of a terrorist suspect, the
                           Department of Justice can request their arrest through a “Red Notice.”
                           These notices are issued through INTERPOL with the intent to follow up
                           with an extradition. While law enforcement authorities in some countries
                           are authorized to make an immediate arrest of a suspected terrorist based
                           on a Red Notice, other countries require an official provisional arrest or
                           formal extradition request.



Rewards for Justice        The State Department’s Rewards for Justice Program provides a tool to law
Program Leads to Arrests   enforcement for arresting and prosecuting terrorist suspects. The program
                           was established under the 1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism8 and
and Prosecutions           is administered by the Department of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security.
                           The program generally offers rewards up to $5 million for information that
                           leads to the arrest or conviction in any country of any individual for
                           conspiring, aiding, abetting, or committing an act of international terrorism
                           against U.S. persons or property or the prevention, frustration, or favorable
                           resolution of such an act. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 authorizes the
                           Secretary of State to offer or pay rewards of greater than $5 million if the
                           Secretary determines that a greater amount is necessary to combat
                           terrorism or to defend the United States against terrorist acts. The
                           Secretary authorized a reward of up to $25 million for information leading
                           to the capture of Osama bin Laden and other key al Qaeda leaders.

                           Information provided through the Rewards for Justice Program has been
                           used to apprehend and arrest suspected terrorists. In the past 7 years, the
                           United States has paid over $9.5 million to 23 individuals who provided
                           credible information leading to the arrest of international terrorists. The
                           program played a significant role in the arrest of a suspected terrorist in
                           February 1995 for the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993. In


                           8
                               P.L. 98-533, Oct. 19, 1984.




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                          addition, the program provided key information about a planned terrorist
                          attack against airline ticket counters. As a result, the United States and the
                          host nation prevented the terrorist act from being carried out.



Department of Justice     Suspected terrorists apprehended and arrested overseas for crimes
Prosecutes Suspected      committed against U.S. citizens or interests are prosecuted in the United
                          States by the Department of Justice. The U.S. Attorney for the District of
Terrorists
                          Columbia, together with the Department of Justice’s Counterterrorism
                          Section, ordinarily prosecute the offense. In some cases, the prosecutions
                          are led by other U.S. Attorneys. For example, on October 18, 2001, the
                          Department of Justice successfully prosecuted four al Qaeda members in
                          the Southern District of New York for their roles in the bombings of two
                          U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, which killed 224 persons, including
                          12 U.S. citizens. The court sentenced the four suspects to life in prison.



Coordination Mechanisms   Investigations of terrorist incidents, including those related to international
for Law Enforcement       terrorism, are coordinated through the National Joint Terrorism Task
                          Force. This task force serves as a coordinating mechanism for sharing
                          information on suspected terrorists, including those of foreign origin. It
                          operates out of the FBI’s Strategic Information Operations Center in
                          Washington, D.C. In addition, such investigations also are coordinated
                          through the FBI’s 66 local Joint Terrorism Task Forces. The FBI established
                          these task forces to coordinate law enforcement efforts among federal,
                          state, and local law enforcement agencies. Depending on the nature of
                          terrorist activities in each location, the task forces may include
                          representatives from other federal agencies such as the ATF, CIA, the
                          Department of Homeland Security (to include the U.S. Secret Service,
                          U.S. Coast Guard, the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement,
                          and the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection) and the State
                          Department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security. One of the most robust Joint
                          Terrorism Task Forces is in Washington, D.C., which has representatives
                          from 15 federal agencies. These task forces serve as the coordinating
                          mechanisms that combine the international and national investigative
                          resources of the federal government with the street-level expertise of local
                          law enforcement agencies. This “cop-to-cop” relationship enables law
                          enforcement agencies to share information on suspected terrorists,
                          including those of foreign origin.




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To coordinate strategic long-term planning and policy in areas related to
national security efforts to combat terrorism, the Department of Justice
established the National Security Coordination Council.9 In areas related to
prosecutions, the Department of Justice also established Anti-Terrorism
Task Forces to integrate and coordinate the anti-terrorism activities in
each of the judicial districts within the United States. The task forces are
comprised of federal prosecutors from the U.S. Attorney’s Office, members
of the federal law enforcement agencies, as well as the primary state and
local enforcement officials in each district. They are intended to serve as
a national network that coordinates closely with the Joint Terrorism
Task Forces in the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information.
The Anti-Terrorism Task Forces also are intended to develop the U.S.
investigative and prosecution strategy in terrorism cases.

Overseas, coordination within the federal government and with foreign
governments is led by the Department of Justice, in coordination with
Justice officials stationed at U.S. embassies. The FBI has legal attachés at
overseas posts that work closely with law enforcement agencies of the
host country on common crime problems. They also play a large role in
facilitating the international battle against terrorism by enlisting the
cooperation of foreign law enforcement, enabling the arrest of U.S.
terrorist suspects, and solving crimes against U.S. citizens. For example,
in the aftermath of the August 1998 bombings of two U.S. embassies in
East Africa, the FBI was able to take immediate steps to initiate a joint
investigation with local law enforcement authorities and to preserve the
crime scene and critical evidence. The legal attachés also played a key
role in the investigation, in that they were the first FBI agents to arrive in
Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es-Salaam, Tanzania, in the immediate aftermath
of the terrorist bombings. The legal attachés also assist in coordinating
investigations with federal law enforcement overseas by disseminating
information to key U.S. federal agencies stationed abroad. They routinely
share information on investigations with liaisons serving with DOD
components overseas. Currently, there are FBI legal attachés stationed
at 45 overseas posts, and additional positions have been approved. They
sometimes serve multiple countries in a region. For example, the legal
attaché at the U.S. Embassy in Athens not only covers Greece but also
Turkey, Cyprus, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan.



9
  This is separate from the NSC, which is part of the Executive Office of the President and
was discussed in more detail in chapter 2.




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                       The State Department’s regional security officers at U.S. embassies also
                       play a key role overseas in coordinating with federal law enforcement
                       agencies and with foreign governments. These officers, part of the
                       department’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security, are stationed at all
                       U.S. embassies. The regional security officers work with foreign law
                       enforcement officials at the national, regional, and local level. They often
                       serve as liaisons when other federal law enforcement agencies request
                       assistance with investigations. They play a particularly important role at
                       U.S. embassies not served by FBI legal attachés. They also work with
                       foreign officials to monitor terrorist threats in the host country, and take
                       preemptive measures as appropriate. For example, if the threat level
                       increases against U.S. interests in a particular country, the regional security
                       officer could request that local police forces adopt a higher threat posture
                       around the U.S. embassy.



Identifying and        The National Security Strategy of the United States of America calls for
                       the United States to work with its allies to disrupt the financing of
Freezing Terrorists’   terrorism by identifying and blocking the sources of funding for terrorists
Financial Assets       and denying them access to the international financial system. In addition,
                       the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes an objective to
Disrupts Terrorist     interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists, including their
Organizations          financial support. Moreover, one of the enduring policy principles that
                       guides U.S. strategies to combat terrorism overseas is isolating and
                       applying pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change
                       their behavior. The Departments of State, the Treasury, Homeland Security,
                       and Justice conduct activities to deny terrorists and their sponsors access
                       to financial assets. In some cases, the federal government designates
                       terrorists and terrorist organization before the Departments of the
                       Treasury, Justice, and State attempt to deny them financing and financial
                       services. The United States also works with several international
                       organizations to disrupt terrorist financing. Coordination occurs through
                       interagency working groups or operations sponsored by the NSC and
                       various departments. As of November 2002, the government reported that
                       over $113 million in terrorist related assets had been frozen, including
                       $35 million in the United States and $78 million in other countries.




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Designation of Terrorist          As a prelude to freezing terrorist assets, the U.S. government can designate
Organizations and Their           a terrorist organization as a Foreign Terrorist Organization and the states,
                                  organizations, and individuals that sponsor or support them as State-
Sponsors and Supporters           sponsors of terrorism, or organizations or individuals that support
Permits Action to Block           terrorism, respectively. Different processes exist for designating such
Assets                            organizations and states and those who support them. Those processes and
                                  related sanctions are described below.

Foreign Terrorist Organizations   Under the authority provided by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death
                                  Penalty Act of 1996, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, the
                                  Secretary of State, in consultation with the Attorney General and the
                                  Secretary of the Treasury, designates foreign terrorist organizations.10 The
                                  Secretary is authorized to designate an organization as a foreign terrorist
                                  organization if it is (1) a foreign organization, (2) the organization engages
                                  in terrorist activity or retains the capability and intent to engage in terrorist
                                  activity or terrorism,11 and (3) the terrorist activity or terrorism of the
                                  organization threatens the security of U.S. nationals or the national security
                                  of the United States. Designating these organizations allows the Treasury to
                                  block the assets of these organizations in U.S. financial institutions. It also
                                  makes it a crime to knowingly provide funds and other forms of material
                                  support to the designated groups and allows the blocking of visas for their
                                  members without having to show that the individual was involved in
                                  specific terrorist activities. As of April 2003, 36 groups had been designated
                                  as foreign terrorist organizations.

State Sponsors of Terrorism       The Secretary of State designates a government as a State Sponsor of
                                  Terrorism if that government has repeatedly provided support for acts of
                                  international terrorism. The United States imposes various sanctions on
                                  designated state sponsors of terrorism, such as (1) a ban on defense-related
                                  exports and sales, (2) certain controls over exports of dual use items,
                                  (3) restrictions on foreign assistance, and (4) imposition of financial and
                                  other restrictions, including U.S. opposition to loans by or other use of
                                  funds by the World Bank and other international financial institutions and
                                  amendments to the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act to lift sovereign
                                  immunity in civil litigation in U.S. courts. The Secretary of State has

                                  10
                                       P.L. 104-132, Apr. 24, 1996, as amended.
                                  11
                                    For the purposes of this designation, “terrorist activity” as defined in 8 U.S.C.
                                  1182(a)(3)(B) (the Immigration and Nationality Act) or “terrorism” as defined in 22 U.S.C.
                                  2656f(d)(2).




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                                designated seven countries as State Sponsors of Terrorism: Cuba, Iran,
                                Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria. All of these countries have held
                                such a designation for several years.

Organizations and Individuals   Executive Order 13224 establishes policies and procedures for designating
That Support Terrorism          terrorists, their organizations, and others who provide financial support or
                                other services to them.12 The executive order authorizes the Department of
                                the Treasury, in consultation with the Department of State and the Attorney
                                General, to block assets of individuals and organizations supporting
                                terrorists in any financial institution in the United Sates or assets held by
                                any U.S. person. As of September 2002, provisions under Executive Order
                                13224 had identified 236 organizations and individuals that support
                                terrorism.



Department of the Treasury      Since PDD 39 in June 1995, the Secretary of the Treasury has been
Efforts to Identify, Track,     responsible for identifying and blocking terrorist financing. These efforts
                                were stepped up after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when the
and Block Terrorist
                                President signed Executive Order 13224. This order directed the Secretary
Financial Assets                of the Treasury, in consultation with the Secretary of State and the Attorney
                                General, to deny financing and financial services to terrorists and terrorist
                                organizations. The executive order authorizes the blocking of assets of
                                those designated individuals and organizations linked to global terrorism. It
                                also prohibits transactions with designated terrorist groups, leaders, and
                                corporate and charitable fronts. The Department of the Treasury also is
                                working with key federal agencies in implementing key statutory
                                provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act to permit more information sharing
                                among law enforcement entities and financial institutions. A number of
                                organizations within the Department of the Treasury are involved in these
                                efforts.




                                12
                                 Executive Order 13224 “Blocking Property and Prohibiting Transactions with Persons
                                Who Commit, Threaten to Commit, or Support Terrorism,” Sept. 23, 2001.




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Executive Office for Terrorist     The Executive Office for Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes was
Financing and Financial Crimes     created in March 2003 and assumed selected functions of the former Office
                                   of Enforcement.13 The office is charged with coordinating Treasury
                                   Department’s efforts to combat terrorist financing both in the United States
                                   and abroad. The new office is responsible for the following specific duties:
                                   (1) developing and implementing U.S. government strategies to combat
                                   terrorist financing domestically and internationally, (2) developing and
                                   implementing the National Money Laundering Strategy, (3) participating
                                   in the department’s development and implementation of U.S. government
                                   policies and regulations in support of the USA PATRIOT Act, (4) joining in
                                   representation of the United States in international bodies dedicated to
                                   fighting terrorist financing, and (5) developing U.S. government policies
                                   related to financial crimes. The office will work with other Treasury
                                   elements to include the International Affairs Task Force on Terrorism, the
                                   Office of Foreign Assets Control, and the Financial Crimes Enforcement
                                   Network (all described below).

International Affairs Terrorist    The International Affairs Terrorist Financing Task Force works with other
Financing Task Force               countries in an effort to implement and improve mechanisms for blocking
                                   terrorist assets globally and thereby deny terrorists access to formal and
                                   informal financial systems. The task force tracks global progress in
                                   blocking terrorist assets and attempts to coordinate these efforts with
                                   various international organizations.

Office of Foreign Assets Control   The Office of Foreign Assets Control administers economic sanctions and
                                   embargo programs against specific foreign countries or groups (including
                                   designated terrorists, terrorist organizations, state sponsors, and
                                   individuals supporting those organizations) to further U.S. foreign policy
                                   and national security objectives. The office imposes control on financial
                                   transactions and freezes foreign assets, denying the targeted country,
                                   individual, or organization.

Financial Crimes Enforcement       The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has a mission is to
Network                            (1) support law enforcement investigative efforts and foster interagency
                                   and global cooperation against domestic and international financial crimes


                                   13
                                      The Department of the Treasury’s Office of Enforcement had been responsible for the
                                   policy, development, guidance, and coordination of Treasury’s law enforcement entities to
                                   combat money laundering, including terrorists financing. The office had also been involved
                                   in negotiating international agreements to engage in joint law enforcement operations and
                                   exchange financial information and records.




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                                 and (2) provide U.S. policymakers with strategic analyses of domestic and
                                 worldwide money-laundering developments, trends, and patterns. The
                                 network supports law enforcement investigations to prevent and detect
                                 terrorist financing, money laundering and other financial crimes.



Department of Homeland           The new Department of Homeland Security also has a role in tracking
Security Has Role Related to     terrorist financing and conducting related investigations. The department’s
                                 Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Secret
Terrorist Financing
                                 Service are involved in these activities.

Bureau of Immigration and        The Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, consisting in part of
Customs Enforcement              the former U.S. Customs Service, has a mission to target current terrorist
                                 funding sources and identify possible future sources. The bureau has a
                                 multi-agency entity called Operation Green Quest to bring together federal
                                 agency expertise across departments and bureaus to identify systems,
                                 individuals, and organizations that serve as sources of terrorist funding.
                                 According to Operation Green Quest officials, their investigations have
                                 resulted in a number of arrests, indictments, convictions, and seizures.
                                 Operation Green Quest is working in tandem with other federal law
                                 enforcement agencies in pursuing several specific cases related to terrorist
                                 financing.

U.S. Secret Service              The U.S. Secret Service is responsible for enforcement of laws relating to
                                 securities of the United States and financial crimes. Its efforts to combat
                                 international terrorism rest primarily on the investigation of counterfeiting
                                 of currency and securities.



Department of Justice and        The Department of Justice and the FBI also have efforts under way to
the FBI also Track and           disrupt terrorist financing. According to the department, the FBI has the
                                 lead in law enforcement and criminal matters related to terrorism, and
Investigate Terrorist Assets
                                 terrorist financing is one element of overall terrorist investigations and
                                 prevention efforts. There are two major organizations within the
                                 department that are involved in these efforts.

Terrorist Financing Task Force   The Department of Justice established a Terrorist Financing Task Force to
                                 coordinate the terrorist financing enforcement efforts. Within Justice’s
                                 Criminal Division, the task force works with prosecutors around the
                                 country as well as with the FBI’s Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force and




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                                 Terrorist Financing Operation Section to disrupt groups and individuals
                                 representing terrorist threats.

Terrorist Financing Operations   In response to the events of September 11, 2001, the FBI established the
Section                          interagency Terrorist Financing Operations Section within its
                                 Counterterrorism Division to work jointly with the law enforcement and
                                 intelligence communities to identify, investigate, disrupt, dismantle, and
                                 prosecute, as appropriate, terrorist-related financial and fund-raising
                                 activities. With access to FBI and CIA intelligence and criminal databases
                                 and connectivity to terrorism investigations, the section is a focal point for
                                 efforts to identify and target terrorist financing. According to the FBI, the
                                 Terrorist Financing Operations Section brings the bureau’s financial
                                 expertise to bear in identifying terrorist financing methods and movement
                                 of money into and out of the United States in support of terrorist activity.
                                 The section works with other agencies and partners in the law
                                 enforcement, intelligence, financial, and international sectors. To help
                                 prevent terrorist attacks, the section developed a centralized terrorist
                                 financial database to identify potential terrorist-related activity in the
                                 United States and abroad. This database is utilized in conjunction with a
                                 number of initiatives, which include working with the financial sector in
                                 developing predictive models and conducting data mining analysis to
                                 facilitate a proactive approach in identifying previously unknown “sleeper”
                                 terrorist suspects. According to the FBI, information developed by the
                                 section is shared within the law enforcement and intelligence community.



International Cooperation        The Departments of State, the Treasury, and Justice work with other
to Identify and Freeze           countries on a bilateral and multilateral basis to identify and freeze
                                 terrorist assets. At the State Department, the Office of the Coordinator for
Terrorist Assets                 Counterterrorism and the Office of International Narcotics and Law
                                 Enforcement have the lead in coordinating capacity building to combat
                                 terrorist financing in other countries. Offices from other agencies lend their
                                 expertise on a bilateral and multilateral basis to provide technical
                                 assistance and training to countries to assist these countries in meeting
                                 international standards to combat terrorist financing. For example, the
                                 Treasury’s Office of International Affairs takes the lead in working with
                                 other countries. Treasury’s Office of Technical Assistance is working with a
                                 number of countries to assess their capabilities and provide technical
                                 support to disrupt terrorist financing. In another example, the Department
                                 of Justice’s Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Section provides
                                 assistance to other countries in drafting money-laundering legislation.
                                 Types of U.S. government technical assistance and training cover both the



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                 legal aspects (from drafting laws and implementing regulations to training
                 prosecutors and judges) and financial aspects (from developing financial
                 intelligence units to conducting financial investigations). Additional
                 information on training and assistance was provided in chapter 3.

                 As of November 2002, 208 countries and jurisdictions have pledged their
                 support for the financial war on terrorism and 165 countries and
                 jurisdictions have issued orders in force to freeze terrorist assets. Since
                 September 11, 2001, the international community has frozen millions of
                 dollars in terrorist-related assets under UN Security Council Resolutions
                 1267, 1390, 1373, and 1455. Other countries improved their legal and
                 regulatory systems to help block terrorist funds.

                 On a bilateral basis, U.S. embassy officials representing the Departments
                 of State, the Treasury, and Justice work with individual host countries on
                 matters of terrorist financing. State economic officers, Treasury financial
                 attachés, and FBI legal attachés all play roles in this type of bilateral
                 cooperation. In 2002, the State Department required that each U.S. embassy
                 establish a Terrorist Financing Task Forces, an initiative to further
                 coordinate the activities of these agencies. The Department of Homeland
                 Security’s Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (formerly
                 U.S. Customs Service) provides expertise on import/export issues. The
                 Embassy’s Deputy Chief of Mission generally leads these task forces.

                 On a multilateral basis, the U.S. government works with several
                 international organizations, to increase international cooperation to
                 combat terrorist financing. Examples of these include:

United Nations   Several UN Security Council Resolutions call on UN member states to take
                 actions against terrorist financing. Resolution 1373 is the broadest of these
                 and it, among other things, obligates member states to prevent and
                 suppress the financing of terrorist acts, freeze funds and other financial
                 assets or economic resources of persons who commit or attempt to commit
                 terrorist acts, and criminalize the collection or provision of funds intended
                 for use in carrying out terrorist acts. In addition, UN Security Council
                 Resolution 1455 requires member states to continue sanctions against the
                 Taliban, Osama bin Laden, and al Qaeda. It requires states to implement
                 sanctions to include freezing economic resources, preventing the supply or
                 sale of weapons, and preventing members of al Qaeda or the Taliban from
                 entering or traveling through their territories.




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Financial Action Task Force   The Financial Action Task Force is another international group that
                              cooperates in efforts against terrorist financing and support. The task
                              force—consisting of 31 members—has served as the preeminent
                              multilateral organization to combat money laundering since 1989. The
                              Financial Action Task Force established a Terrorist Financing Working
                              Group, which is co-chaired by Spain and the United States (through the
                              Department of the Treasury). The working group is to identify members
                              that will need assistance to come into compliance with the
                              recommendations on terrorist financing. The task force issued eight special
                              recommendations on terrorist financing, requiring all members to (1) ratify
                              the UN International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of
                              Terrorism and implement relevant UN Security Council Resolutions against
                              terrorist financing; (2) criminalize the financing of terrorism, terrorist acts,
                              and terrorist organizations; (3) freeze and confiscate terrorist assets;
                              (4) require financial institutions to report suspicious transactions linked to
                              terrorism; (5) provide the widest possible assistance to other countries’
                              law enforcement and regulatory authorities for terrorist financing
                              investigations; (6) impose anti-money laundering requirements on
                              alternative remittance systems; (7) require financial institutions to include
                              accurate and meaningful originator information in money transfers; and
                              (8) ensure that non-profit organizations cannot be misused to finance
                              terrorism. The task force also requires members to provide closer scrutiny
                              of transactions with non-cooperative countries and prohibits financial
                              transactions with these members’ jurisdictions.

Egmont Group                  The Egmont Group is an international group that cooperates in efforts
                              against terrorist financing and support. There are 69 members, with each
                              member designating one of its agencies as its Financial Intelligence Unit to
                              act as a central resource for collecting information and cooperating with
                              the other Egmont members. For the United States, the Department of the
                              Treasury has designated FinCEN as the Financial Intelligence Unit. The
                              intelligence units work collectively to (1) eliminate impediments to
                              information exchange, (2) make terrorist financing a form of suspicious
                              activity to be reported by all financial sectors to their respective
                              intelligence unit, and (3) undertake joint studies of money laundering
                              vulnerabilities, especially those having some bearing on terrorism. The
                              intelligence units foster interagency global cooperation in the efforts to
                              combat international financial crimes. This includes sharing information on
                              training and expertise with foreign law enforcement officials. FinCEN
                              maintains country specific expertise of financial crimes, promotes the
                              development of Financial Intelligence Units in other countries, and
                              facilitates investigative exchanges with them.



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International Organization of   International cooperation related to money laundering also occurs through
Supreme Audit Institutions      the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions, which
                                represents 184 UN member nations’ top accountability organizations
                                related to government audit and oversight. The U.S. General Accounting
                                Office and its counterparts from all parts the world are working
                                cooperatively to improve their oversight capacity for government
                                departments and regulatory financial institutions. This work takes the
                                form of publishing and disseminating standards and guidelines in critical
                                areas such as auditing, internal control, financial reporting, information
                                technology, and public debt. In addition, the organization recently
                                established a task force charged with studying the national audit offices’
                                role in helping prevent and detect money laundering and sharing
                                information and experiences with each other. The organization also has
                                established partnerships with organizations such as the World Bank and
                                the International Federation of Accountants to strengthen its impact in
                                these areas.



Coordination Mechanisms         At the strategy and policy level, interagency coordination of U.S.
for Efforts to Disrupt          government efforts to deny terrorists financing is intended to occur
                                through a NSC-sponsored working group chaired by the Department of the
Terrorist Financing and
                                Treasury. The interagency group helps to coordinate operations to disrupt
Support                         terrorist networks by freezing terrorist accounts and seizing assets. The
                                interagency group also helps to develop strategies and activities to deny
                                terrorist financing with other countries. The highest-level interagency
                                planning document is the National Money Laundering Strategy. The
                                Departments of the Treasury and Justice jointly published this July 2002
                                strategy. The strategy sets forth an action plan for how law enforcement,
                                regulatory officials, the private sector, and the international community
                                could take steps to make it harder for criminals to launder money
                                generated from their illegal activities. In addition to addressing general
                                criminal financial activities, the 2002 strategy presents the government’s
                                plan to attack financing networks of terrorist entities. The strategy
                                discusses the need to adapt traditional methods of combating money
                                laundering to unconventional tools used by terrorist organizations to
                                finance their operations.

                                At the operations level, interagency coordination occurs through the
                                Department of Homeland Security’s Operation Green Quest and the FBI’s
                                Terrorist Financing Operations Section and Joint Terrorism Task Forces.
                                These organizations, particularly Operation Green Quest and the Terrorist
                                Financing Operations Section, were established to investigate and pursue



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                      terrorist cells and networks, including the financing of such networks.
                      They act as both operational units and coordination mechanisms by
                      pooling information and expertise from participating agencies, such as the
                      Department of Homeland Security’s Bureau of Immigration and Customs
                      Enforcement and U.S. Secret Service; the Department of Justice’s FBI and
                      ATF; the Department of the Treasury’s Internal Revenue Service, FinCEN,
                      and Office of Foreign Assets Control; and the CIA.

                      Overseas coordination occurs at U.S. embassies through recently
                      established Terrorist Financing Task Forces. The U.S. embassy’s deputy
                      chief of mission leads these task forces with important roles also being
                      played by Department of State economic officers, Department of the
                      Treasury financial attachés, FBI legal attachés, and Department of
                      Homeland Security customs attachés.



Military Operations   The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes objectives to
                      destroy terrorists and their organizations and to deny them sanctuaries
Provide Means to      and havens. According to the strategy, the intelligence community, in
Destroy Terrorist     conjunction with the Departments of State and Defense, will conduct an
                      annual review and assessment of international terrorist sanctuaries and
Organizations         develop plans to address them. Military operations, led by DOD, provide a
                      means to meet these objectives that complement other means—political,
                      diplomatic, legal, economic, and financial. Following the coordinated
                      terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, DOD
                      has deployed forces worldwide in military operations against terrorists
                      and their supporters. As part of those deployments, DOD led Operation
                      Enduring Freedom with its coalition partners to disrupt and destroy global
                      terrorist organizations. U.S. Special Operations Forces worked on the
                      ground in Afghanistan with the Northern Alliance to help coordinate naval
                      and air attacks against the Taliban regime and al Qaeda in Afghanistan.
                      U.S. and coalition maritime interception operations disrupt terrorist
                      organizations’ transport of terrorists and shipping of materiel and illegal
                      contraband to help support their operations. Members of al Qaeda and
                      Taliban forces captured during Operation Enduring Freedom have been
                      designated as combatants without prisoner of war status and are being
                      detained by the United States and its coalition partners for interrogation
                      and potential prosecution. A number of military contributions made by the
                      U.S. coalition partners helped support Operation Enduring Freedom. Some
                      of these contributions included aircraft to support the air campaign over
                      Afghanistan, ground troops inside the country, including special operations




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                               forces, and naval forces dispatched to the North Arabian Gulf and
                               Indian Ocean.



DOD Deployed Worldwide         According to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. forces now
in Military Operations         are deployed to an unprecedented number of locations in the wake of
                               the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.14 One of the most visible
Against Terrorists and Their   deployments relate to operations in and around Afghanistan, discussed
Supporters                     in more detail below. In addition, military forces have been deployed on
                               missions related to terrorism in a number of other countries, including
                               Colombia, Cuba, Georgia, the Philippines, and Yemen.



DOD Leads Operation            Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, the Secretary of Defense
Enduring Freedom and           directed the preparation of “credible military options” to respond to
                               international terrorism. The U.S. Central Command—DOD’s regional
Topples Taliban Regime         military command whose area of responsibility includes Afghanistan and
                               surrounding geographic areas—devised a plan to destroy the al Qaeda
                               network inside Afghanistan along with the Taliban regime, which was
                               harboring and protecting terrorists. On October 7, 2001, 26 days after the
                               attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon,
                               Operation Enduring Freedom was launched on a global scale as a broad
                               and sustained campaign to disrupt and destroy terrorists and terrorist
                               organizations. According to the Secretary of Defense, the objectives of the
                               military operations were as follows:

                               • Make clear to the Taliban leaders and their supporters that harboring
                                 terrorists is unacceptable and carries a price.

                               • Acquire intelligence to facilitate future operations against al Qaeda and
                                 the Taliban regime that harbors the terrorists.

                               • Develop relationships with groups in Afghanistan that oppose the
                                 Taliban regime and the foreign terrorists that they support.

                               • Make it increasingly difficult for the terrorists to use Afghanistan freely
                                 as a base of operations.


                               14
                                  Posture Statement of General Richard B. Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
                               before the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, February 5, 2003.




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• Alter the military balance over time by denying to the Taliban the
  offensive systems that hamper the progress of various opposition
  forces.

• Provide humanitarian relief to Afghans suffering oppressive living
  conditions under the Taliban regime.

Military operations were conducted in Afghanistan in conjunction with
U.S. coalition with the goal of removing the Taliban from power and
destroying the al Qaeda network within Afghanistan. U.S. forces and its
coalition partners combined operations with the Northern Alliance fighters
(primarily from the Tajik and Uzbek ethnic groups) and the Southern
Alliance fighters in the defeating the Taliban forces.

A series of bombing sorties were launched against the Taliban’s air defense,
command and control, and mobility capabilities. U.S. Special Operations
Forces on the ground worked with the Northern Alliance fighters to
identify targets for a coordinated air attack. Long-range air strikes using
advanced laser-guided weapons were launched from aircraft carriers in the
Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, and from regional land bases. U.S. Navy,
Marine, and Air Force pilots delivered in excess of 18,000 munitions, of
which more than 10,000 were precision-guided bombs. As shown in
figure 12, B-52 long-range bombers launched from Diego Garcia (a British
archipelago in the Indian Ocean) also were used during the air campaign.




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Figure 12: Air Force B-52H Bomber Drops a Load of M117 750 lb. Bombs




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U.S. forces conducted surveillance of Afghanistan and the movement of
enemy forces through a combination of intelligence assets. U.S. Special
Operations Forces on the ground provided human intelligence while
manned and unmanned surveillance aircraft patrolled the skies, providing
information on sites, facilities, and troop concentrations. Figure 13 shows
U.S. Special Operations Forces adapting to their environment by riding on
horseback to conduct operations in northern Afghanistan.



Figure 13: U.S. Special Forces Troops Riding Horseback in Afghanistan With
Members of the Northern Alliance during Operation Enduring Freedom




These operations have resulted in the destruction of the Taliban regime,
although U.S. forces continue to locate and engage remaining pockets of
terrorists and their supporters to improve security and stability in
Afghanistan. According to U.S. Central Command officials, many al Qaeda
members, including their operational planners, facilitators, and
logisticians, have been captured or killed. In addition, al Qaeda training



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                           facilities in Afghanistan have been destroyed, command and control
                           capabilities have been disrupted, and the remaining al Qaeda leaders are on
                           the run.

                           As of April 2003, according to the U.S. Central Command, the initial
                           objectives of Operation Enduring Freedomto destroy the base of the
                           al Qaeda terrorist organization in Afghanistan and replace the Taliban
                           regime that supported al Qaedalargely have been met. Combined Joint
                           Task Force 180, which took direct control of operations in Afghanistan in
                           June 2002, continues this mission. It also is conducting operations to
                           ensure that Afghanistan will not again be a safe haven for terrorists and to
                           facilitate the reintroduction of Afghanistan into the community of nations.

                           The U.S. Central Command’s operations in Afghanistan have been
                           complemented by cooperative efforts with Pakistan to eliminate the
                           al Qaeda organization in that country. According to the U.S. Central
                           Command, these efforts have led to the capture of hundreds of al Qaeda
                           and Taliban members, including very senior members of the al Qaeda
                           organization. This cooperation continues to degrade the al Qaeda
                           organization and is a critical component in the terrorist organization’s
                           destruction.



DOD and U.S. Coast Guard   The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes an objective to
Conduct Maritime           interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists. As part of this
                           objective, U.S. military forces, in conjunction with coalition partners,
Interception Operations    conduct maritime interception operations to disrupt shipping by terrorist
                           organizations. According to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the
                           President approved expanded maritime interception operations in July
                           2002, authorizing commanders to stop, board, and search merchant ships
                           identified to be transporting terrorists and/or terrorist-related material.15
                           These operations have been concentrated in the areas of responsibility of
                           the U.S. European Command and U.S. Central Command. In support of
                           Operation Enduring Freedom, U.S. naval forces conducted maritime
                           interception operations with a number of coalition partners. Operations by
                           the U.S. European Command include NATO maritime and air forces. These
                           operations resulted in more than 16,000 vessels being queried and about
                           200 vessels being boarded and searched. One operation led to the detention

                           15
                              Posture Statement of General Richard B. Myers, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff,
                           before the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, Feb. 5, 2003.




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of four suspected al Qaeda members in the Gulf of Oman as navy vessels
and aircraft from Canada, France, Italy, and the Netherlands targeted,
intercepted, and boarded two vessels. The four captured al Qaeda
members were transported to the detainee facility at Bagram Air Base,
Afghanistan. Figure 14 shows coalition forces conducting such operations
in the Arabian Sea.



Figure 14: British Troops Prepare to Board an Oil Tanker as Part of the Coalition’s
Maritime Interception Operations in the Arabian Sea




The U.S. Coast Guard also participates in maritime interception operations.
In its role as a military service, the U.S. Coast Guard supports regional
military commands, which have requested and received U.S. Coast Guard
cutters to conduct such operations. A 1995 Memorandum of Agreement
between the Departments of Defense and Transportation identified the
appropriate roles, missions, and functions of the U.S. Coast Guard to
support the national military and naval strategies of the United States. The
agreement recognized that the U.S. Coast Guard maintains many
proficiencies and platforms directly applicable to maritime interception
operations and that is it appropriate and desirable for the U.S. Coast Guard



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                            to participate in such operations. To accomplish its missions to combat
                            terrorism, both domestic and overseas, the U.S. Coast Guard developed a
                            U.S. Coast Guard Maritime Strategy for Homeland Security. This strategy
                            puts a premium on identifying and intercepting threats well before they
                            reach U.S. shores by conducting layered, multi-agency, maritime security
                            operations that include surveillance and reconnaissance, tracking, and
                            interception.



Detainees Held by DOD for   Throughout the military operations in Afghanistan, U.S. forces and military
Intelligence Gathering      coalition partners captured over 5,000 Taliban and al Qaeda forces and
                            confiscated laptop computers and cell phones. DOD holds some al Qaeda
                            fighters who had information about operational methodology and future
                            operations in Kandahar and Bagram, Afghanistan. DOD transported other
                            detainees to detention facilities at Naval Air Station Guantánamo Bay,
                            Cuba. Over 500 detainees from 44 countries were transported to
                            Guantánamo Bay. Figure 15 shows part of the newly constructed detention
                            facility at Naval Air Station Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.




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Figure 15: Camp X-Ray Used as a Temporary Holding Facility for Detainees Held at
U.S. Naval Air Station Guantánamo Bay, Cuba




The U.S. Southern Command activated Joint Task Force 160 to staff the
maximum-security installation and provide security and support functions
at Naval Air Station Guantánamo Bay. The detainees, originally housed in
the wire enclosures at Camp X-Ray, are now housed in a more permanent
facility, known as Camp Delta. The U.S. Southern Command also
established Joint Task Force 170 to coordinate U.S. military and
government agency interrogation efforts in support of Operation Enduring
Freedom. A Joint Interagency Interrogation Facility was established to
support interrogations focused on intelligence collection, force protection,
and planned terrorist activities. These efforts also support law enforcement
agencies and military tribunal efforts.

The detainees are not considered to be prisoners of war. The President
determined that the Geneva Convention of 1949 applies to the conflict with
the Taliban in Afghanistan because Afghanistan is a state and signatory of
the Geneva Convention. However, the President determined that the
Taliban detainees do not have prisoner of war status because they fail to
meet the criteria under article 4 of the Geneva Convention. For example,



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                             throughout combat in Afghanistan, the Taliban did not wear distinctive
                             signs, insignias, symbols, or uniforms, and were not organized into military
                             units with identifiable chains-of-command. In addition, the President
                             determined that the Geneva Convention of 1949 does not apply to al Qaeda
                             detainees because they are considered to be a non-state terrorist network.

                             DOD’s Military Order issued on November 13, 2001, permits military
                             commissions to try non-U.S. citizens accused of terrorism against the
                             United States and DOD has announced procedural draft guidelines for
                             those commissions. Non-U.S. citizens selected by the President, to include
                             al Qaeda and Taliban members, those involved in acts of international
                             terrorism against the United States, and those members or actors who
                             knowingly harbor such terrorist may be tried. According to the order, the
                             Secretary of Defense will appoint members to each commission, which will
                             have three to seven members. One commission memberthe presiding
                             officerwill ensure discipline and the decorum and dignity of the
                             proceedings. As of March 2003, no trials have been held.



Coalition Partners Support   Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, the Department of State led
U.S. Military Operations     efforts to build a coalition to support the global war on terrorism. About 90
                             nations made contributions to Operation Enduring Freedom including
                             intelligence, personnel, equipment, and military assets. In the U.S. Central
                             Command’s area of responsibility, coalition partners deployed more than
                             16,000 troops. In Afghanistan, coalition partners contributed more than
                             8,000 troops to both Operation Enduring Freedom and to the UN-mandated
                             International Security Assistance Force in Kabul, which represented over




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                                           half of the 15,000 non-Afghan forces in Afghanistan.16 Some 9 countries
                                           provided ground forces to serve in Afghanistan and 21 countries deployed
                                           forces to support the International Security Assistance Force in
                                           Afghanistan. Other key military contributions included support to aircraft
                                           in the air campaign over Afghanistan, ground troops inside Afghanistan,
                                           including special operations forces, and naval forces dispatched to the
                                           North Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean for maritime surveillance and
                                           interception operations. Table 9 summarizes the military contributions
                                           made by selected coalition partners to support Operation Enduring
                                           Freedom. These contributions are in addition to the basing and overflight
                                           agreements negotiated by the State Department and discussed under
                                           diplomatic initiatives at the beginning of this chapter.



Table 9: Significant Military Contributions by Selected Coalition Partners in and around Afghanistan in Support of Operation
Enduring Freedom

Type of operations                    Contributions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom
Ground operations
Special operations forces             Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom
                                      deployed special operations forces in Afghanistan and surrounding regions to perform the full
                                      spectrum of missions.
Infantry support                      Canada, France, Italy, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom deployed infantry and
                                      equipment in Afghanistan and surrounding regions to perform security and combat operations.
Naval operations
Maritime interception                 Australia, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom deployed
operations                            ships, aircraft, and forces in the Arabian Gulf and surrounding areas to support maritime
                                      interception operations.
Logistical support                    Japan, India, and Poland deployed ships for logistical support, such as refueling and escort
                                      assistance.
Combat operations                     France, Italy, Turkey, and the United Kingdom deployed ships to support combat operations in
                                      the region. Denmark and the Netherlands also deployed naval ships to relieve U.S. units in the
                                      U.S. Southern Command.




                                           16
                                             UN Security Council Resolution 1386 (Dec. 20, 2001) authorized the establishment of the
                                           International Security Assistance Force to provide assistance and maintain security in
                                           Kabul, Afghanistan, and its surrounding areas.




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(Continued From Previous Page)
Type of operations                Contributions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom
Air operations
Combat air patrol                 Denmark, France, and Norway deployed fighter aircraft in Afghanistan and surrounding regions
                                  to support combat air patrol missions. Australia deployed fighter aircraft to perform combat air
                                  patrol missions at Diego Garcia in support of the U.S. Pacific Command. The Czech Republic
                                  and the United Kingdom deployed personnel and aircraft in support NATO airborne warning
                                  and control systems missions.
Strategic airlift                 Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, and Norway deployed aircraft in Afghanistan and
                                  surrounding regions to support strategic airlift operations. Japan also deployed aircraft to
                                  support re-supply and transport requirements within the U.S. Pacific Command’s area of
                                  responsibility.
Logistical support                Australia, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Turkey, and the United Kingdom
                                  deployed aircraft to Afghanistan and surrounding regions to conduct logistical support,
                                  including aerial refueling.
Surveillance and reconnaissance   France and United Kingdom deployed aircraft in Afghanistan and surrounding regions to
                                  provide support to intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions.
Other support
Mine clearing operations          Denmark, Jordan, Norway, Poland, and the United Kingdom deployed personnel and
                                  equipment in Afghanistan to conduct mine clearing missions.
Civil-military support            Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand,
                                  Norway, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom deployed civil
                                  military personnel, aircraft, and equipment to support the UN International Security Assistance
                                  Force in Afghanistan.
Humanitarian support              Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, the
                                  Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Turkmenistan, and the
                                  United Kingdom provided humanitarian support to Afghanistan.
Consequence                       Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom provided consequence management
management support                teams (nuclear, biological, and chemical teams) in Afghanistan and surrounding regions.
Source: DOD.

                                       Note: GAO analysis of DOD data.


                                       Forces from NATO countries played a key role in the effort to end
                                       Afghanistan’s role as a safe haven for terrorists and terrorist organizations
                                       by providing direct and indirect military support to the United States. As
                                       shown above, NATO members providing support included Belgium,
                                       Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
                                       Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the
                                       United Kingdom. In addition, forces under direct NATO control were
                                       deployed to support U.S. forces. For example, NATO deployed five
                                       airborne warning and control systems aircraft to the continental United
                                       States to patrol the skies and free up similar U.S. aircraft for missions over
                                       Afghanistan. The alliance also sent its Standing Naval Force to the
                                       Mediterranean Sea to establish a NATO presence in the region. NATO’s
                                       support in the region helped provide enhanced intelligence sharing, access




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                          to ports and airfields, increased security for U.S. bases on allied territory,
                          and backfill for selected U.S. and allied military assets withdrawn from
                          NATO’s area of responsibility. Figure 16 shows aerial reconnaissance
                          support provided by a NATO country.



                          Figure 16: NATO Member France Provided Six Mirage 2000 Aircraft to Fly
                          Reconnaissance Missions in Support of Operation Enduring Freedom




Coordination Mechanisms   At the headquarters level, military operations are coordinated at DOD.
for Military Operations   Within the Joint Staff’s various directorates for intelligence, operations,
                          logistics, and planning, there are sections dedicated to military operations
                          against terrorism. For example, the Joint Staff’s Directorate for Planning
                          (J-5) has a special section for planning the worldwide campaign against
                          terrorism. This section developed DOD’s National Military Strategic Plan
                          for the War on Terrorism. DOD currently coordinates its worldwide,
                          military operations through various regional and functional commands.
                          The regional commands—responsible for a specific geographic area of




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responsibility—include the U.S. Central Command, the U.S. European
Command, the U.S. Northern Command, the U.S. Pacific Command, and
the U.S. Southern Command.17 DOD’s functional commands include the
U.S. Joint Forces Command, the U.S. Special Operations Command,
U.S. Strategic Command, U.S. Space Command, and U.S. Transportation
Command. The U.S. Special Operations Command is preparing to take a
lead role in the war on terrorism in future operations and will transition
from a “supporting” to a “supported” command in this role. As discussed
previously, the State Department’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs and
various regional bureaus are involved in headquarters coordination of
military operations with other countries, particularly when diplomatic
negotiations are required to obtain coalition support.

At the field level, military operations are coordinated by DOD’s regional
commands. Depending on the operation, the regional and functional
commands are either “supported commands” (having the lead for that
operation) or “supporting commands” (providing support to the lead
command). For example, for operations in Afghanistan, the U.S. Central
Command was the supported command, in charge of planning and
executing operations. It got help from supporting commands to include the
U.S. Transportation Command (which supplies airlift), the U.S. Special
Operations Command (which supplies special operations forces), and
other commands. These commands also have subordinate headquarters or
forward operating bases overseas to coordinate military operations in
the field.

The regional commands also coordinate their activities through
interagency working groups and various plans. DOD created interagency
working groups following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the
United States and they include agencies representing diplomacy,
intelligence, and law enforcement. Some of the agencies had long-standing
liaisons at the commands, while other agencies established liaisons for the
first time. An example of a long-standing liaison would be State
Department political advisors with the rank of ambassador, who help the
commands coordinate diplomatic activities with the department in
Washington, D.C., and with U.S. embassies in the command’s area of
responsibility. Regional military commands also have command-specific


17
  The U.S. Northern Command became operational in October 2002. Its focus is on
homeland security and, therefore, was not covered in this report on efforts to combat
terrorism overseas.




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                        campaign plans to implement DOD’s National Military Strategic Plan for
                        the War on Terrorism in their geographic area of responsibility. They also
                        have Theater Security Cooperation Plans to lay out the command’s
                        strategies for working with other countries in the region to further U.S.
                        foreign policy and military goals.



Covert Actions Can      Another tool that can be used to disrupt and destroy terrorist organizations
                        is covert action by the intelligence community.18 By executive order and
Be Used to Disrupt      statute, the CIA specifically is authorized to initiate such actions that are
and Destroy Terrorist   individually authorized by the President.19 Other federal agencies and
                        departments also may be tasked to support covert action, with a separate
Organizations           presidential authorization. The Intelligence Authorization Act of 1991
                        allows the President to authorize covert actions if they are necessary to
                        support the foreign policy objectives of the United States. According to the
                        act, any new covert action must be justified according to this standard in a
                        written finding that the President must submit to the House and Senate
                        Select Committees on Intelligence, unless the President determines that it
                        is necessary to limit access to the finding to meet extraordinary
                        circumstances affecting vital U.S. interests. This finding must specify the
                        government agencies participating in the action, can never be retroactive,
                        and may not authorize any action that would violate the U.S. Constitution
                        or U.S. statute. In extraordinary circumstances, the President may restrict
                        access to findings to certain congressional officials, but such reasons for
                        the restriction must be submitted to the committees. Finally, the President
                        must notify the committees of any significant change to a previously
                        approved covert action. The Congress has supported such actions in the
                        past, urging the President to “use all necessary means, including covert
                        action, to disrupt, dismantle and destroy infrastructure used by
                        international terrorists, including overseas terrorist training facilities and
                        safe havens.”20




                        18
                           Covert action is an operation designed to influence governments, events, organizations, or
                        persons in support of foreign policy in a manner that is not necessarily attributable to the
                        United States. It may include political, economic, propaganda, or paramilitary activities.
                        19
                             Executive Order 12333, Dec. 4, 1981 and P.L. 102-88, Aug. 14, 1991.
                        20
                             P.L. 104-132 § 324, Apr. 24, 1996.




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                      The Director of Central Intelligence, in discussing covert actions in an
                      unclassified forum, provided several examples of CIA efforts to disrupt
                      terrorist organizations.21 By 1993, the U.S. intelligence community already
                      had recognized al Qaeda as a significant threat and began operations
                      to reduce its capabilities. These efforts included hitting al Qaeda’s
                      infrastructure, working with foreign security services, disrupting and
                      weakening Osama bin Laden’s businesses and finances, and recruiting or
                      exposing operatives. By 1999, these efforts had coalesced into a concerted
                      offensive disruption campaign against the al Qaeda network. During the
                      millennium threat period, CIA and FBI disruption operations identified 36
                      terrorist agents and successfully targeted 21. A parallel operation in East
                      Asia led to the arrest or detention of 45 members of Hizballah. Later, during
                      the Ramadan threat period (winter of 2000), terrorist cells planning attacks
                      on U.S. and foreign military and civilian targets in the Persian Gulf were
                      broken up and their equipment seized. This equipment included hundreds
                      of pounds of explosives as well as anti-aircraft missiles. The operation also
                      netted proof that some Islamic charitable organizations had been either
                      hijacked or created to provide support to terrorists operating in other
                      countries. Finally, in the spring and summer of 2001, the CIA helped break
                      up a terrorist cell in Jordan, disrupted a plan to attack U.S. facilities in
                      Yemen in concert with a foreign partner, and mounted a broad disruption
                      effort that substantially delayed attacks, including one planned on the
                      U.S. military in Europe.



Agency Comments and   The Departments of Defense, Justice, and State and ATF provided technical
                      comments on the matters covered throughout this chapter. Based upon
Our Evaluation        these comments, we made revisions as appropriate. We also made revisions
                      (primarily to the sections on law enforcement and terrorist financing)
                      based upon the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the
                      transfer of various agencies and functions from the Department of the
                      Treasury into that department.




                      21
                       These unclassified examples are from the Written Statement for the Record of the
                      Director of Central Intelligence before the Joint Inquiry Committee, Oct. 17, 2002.




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                          The National Strategy for Combating Terrorism includes an objective to
                          ensure a fully integrated incident management capability. In addition, the
                          National Strategy for Homeland Security calls for the United States to
                          improve international cooperation in response to terrorist attacks. Further,
                          the National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction calls for
                          the United States to be prepared to manage the consequences of a WMD
                          attack, including those that occur overseas. Federal efforts to respond to
                          terrorist incidents overseas consist of actions taken before, during, and
                          after a terrorist incident. Advance preparations include contingency plans
                          and exercises in anticipation of terrorist attacks. Incident response is
                          managed by the State Department through interagency task forces at
                          agencies’ headquarters, the ambassador at a U.S. embassy, and special
                          emergency support teams. The FBI leads law enforcement aspects of crisis
                          management to investigate incidents and obtain evidence for prosecution.
                          The State Department, in conjunction with USAID and other agencies,
                          manages the consequences of an attack—including those involving WMD
                          agents. After a terrorist attack, federal agencies review the incident to
                          determine whether security procedures were followed, establish
                          accountability within the government, and provide lessons learned to
                          prevent or mitigate future attacks. This chapter describes the relevant
                          federal programs in place and is not an evaluation of their effectiveness.



Advance Preparations      In anticipation of terrorist incidents overseas, the federal government takes
                          a number of preparations in advance. The State Department requires that
for Terrorist Incidents   overseas posts prepare and exercise emergency contingency plans. In
                          addition, a number of other agencies participate in exercises—generally
                          sponsored by DOD—to test their responses to an overseas terrorist
                          incident.



Contingency Planning at   As lead agency for interagency coordination of international terrorist
Overseas Posts            incidents, the Department of State has prepared a variety of contingency
                          arrangements and plans in the event of a terrorist attack. State’s
                          Emergency Planning Handbook serves as a consolidated source of
                          guidance for overseas posts on how to plan for and deal with emergencies
                          abroad. The handbook explains post mechanisms for crisis management,
                          identifies post emergency management responsibilities, discusses
                          emergency and crisis management mechanisms within State and with
                          other U.S. government agencies; highlights the kinds of information
                          the post will need to plan for specific emergencies; and provides



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                              action-oriented checklists that posts may use to ensure rapid, clear, and
                              complete responses in emergencies.

                              Every diplomatic post overseas is required to have an operative Emergency
                              Action Plan designed to provide procedures on how to deal with
                              foreseeable contingencies specific to the post. The post plan is written by
                              members of the Emergency Action Committee, which translate guidance
                              issued by State into a post-specific action plan for managing a crisis event.
                              The ambassador establishes the Emergency Action Committee and
                              designates personnel responsible for specific crisis-related functions.
                              Every U.S. diplomatic post is required to have an Emergency Action
                              Committee.



Exercises Practice Incident   PDD 39 requires key federal agencies to maintain well-exercised
Response                      capabilities to combat terrorism. Exercises test and validate policies and
                              procedures, test the effectiveness of response capabilities, increase the
                              confidence and skill levels of personnel, and identify strengths and
                              weaknesses in responses before they arise in actual incidents.

                              The State Department conducts internal exercises at overseas posts to
                              test their Emergency Action Committees and Emergency Action Plans, and
                              to generally prepare them for crisis management. The department
                              conducts exercises designed to expose posts to issues of decision-making,
                              contingency planning, implementation of plans and formulation, and
                              interpretation and coordination of policy. These exercises may cover a
                              wide range of contingencies related to terrorism, such as hostage
                              barricades, terrorist threats, and bombings. The State Department has been
                              running these at post exercises since 1983. In addition to these department-
                              led exercises, the post-level Emergency Action Committee is to prepare,
                              execute, and evaluate post-level crisis exercises. These exercises are
                              designed to test individuals’ understanding of their roles under all
                              foreseeable crises. They seek to identify gaps or ambiguities in the plan or
                              in department guidance.




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The Department of State, in conjunction with other federal agencies, also
coordinates an interagency exercise program to combat terrorism
overseas.1 Coordination of the exercises program is done through NSC’s
Counterterrorism Security Group and its Exercise and Readiness
Subgroup. The interagency exercise program is designed to strengthen the
U.S. government’s overall ability to deal with terrorist attacks. On an
annual basis, about four to six full-scale interagency overseas field
exercises are conducted. The exercises involve the actual movement of
response teams in a scenario that simulates a realistic overseas terrorist
incident. In addition, tabletop exercises are held periodically to practice
the coordination and management of a terrorism crisis without the expense
of actually deploying special teams of people. The scenarios and agencies
differ from exercise to exercise to develop and improve U.S. capabilities to
deal with a variety of situations. Some exercises are conducted in overseas
location with host government participation.

DOD sponsors many interagency exercises to prepare for terrorist
incidents overseas. For example, every year DOD sponsors no-notice
interagency field exercises. These exercises require regional commanders
to execute their own response plans and test interagency interoperability.
DOD also sponsors periodic senior-level interagency tabletop exercises.
These exercises emphasized interagency coordination among agency
officials for a crisis incident. DOD’s exercises also have included the
Departments of State, Health and Human Services, and Energy; the FBI;
the Environmental Protection Agency; and USAID.

DOD also has exercises for its forces outside the interagency exercise
program. Some require the regional commander to exercise all levels of
their response capabilities—tabletop sessions with their staff, response
forces, and integration with Special Operations Forces. In addition, DOD
runs exercises related to evacuations of U.S. diplomatic personnel and


1
 For a more detailed description and evaluation of these exercises, see GAO/NSIAD-99-135
and U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating Terrorism: Analysis of Federal
Counterterrorist Exercises, GAO/NSIAD-99-157BR (Washington, D.C.: June 25, 1999). In
this report, we reported that federal agencies had increased the number of counterterrorism
exercises, but only a few included no-notice deployments of personnel and equipment. More
than two-thirds of the exercises had WMD scenarios, while others had more likely scenarios
involving conventional arms and explosives. Also, very few exercises dealt with the likely
situation of both crisis and consequence management occurring simultaneously. Also, we
found that State Department used DOD- and DOE-led exercises to practice its leadership
role. These exercises were well developed and enhanced the preparedness of the federal
government to respond to terrorist incidents overseas.




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                          other Americans. Some of these may include some participation of other
                          agencies. For example, since 1991, the State Department has
                          participated in the U.S. Marine Corps’ Special Operations Capable Exercise
                          Program to help train Marine Expeditionary Units in Noncombatant
                          Evacuation Operations.



Response to a Terrorist   PDD 39 divided incident response into crisis management and consequence
                          management. Crisis management includes efforts to stop a terrorist
Incident Overseas         attack, respond to the attack itself, and arrest and prosecute terrorists.
                          Consequence management includes efforts to provide medical treatment
                          and emergency services and evacuate people from dangerous areas. When
                          terrorist attacks occur without threat warning, crisis and consequence
                          management will be concurrent activities. The presidential decision
                          directive specified that the Department of State is the lead federal agency
                          for interagency coordination of international terrorist incidents, to include
                          both crisis and consequence management.2 The State Department is to
                          manage the incident through interagency task forces at headquarters and
                          through the ambassador at the appropriate U.S. embassy. The Department
                          of Justice, through the FBI, would lead the law enforcement aspects of
                          crisis management, potentially deploying its response teams to investigate
                          incidents and obtain evidence for prosecution purposes. As the lead agency
                          for a terrorist incident, State also is responsible for marshaling the federal
                          assets necessary to manage the consequences of an attack. A number of
                          other federal agencies have response teams that can be deployed overseas
                          to support the response. State, in conjunction with other agencies, has
                          capabilities and contingency plans for WMD incidentsthe kind of
                          incident most likely to overwhelm host government capabilities.



Incident Management at    In managing a crisis overseas, the Department of State coordinates
Headquarters              operations through its 24-hour global Operations Center at the department
                          in conjunction with the NSC. During a crisis, the department’s Operations
                          Center establishes a 24-hours task force to coordinate the flow of


                          2
                            For international incidents, the distinction between crisis management and consequence
                          management is less significant than for domestic incidents. In a domestic incident, the FBI
                          leads crisis management and FEMA leads consequence management. As a domestic
                          incident progresses, federal leadership in an incident can transfer from the FBI to FEMA. In
                          an international incident, the State Department leads both crisis and consequent
                          management, thus there is no transfer of command from one agency to another.




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                         communication and instructions between the department, relevant
                         agencies involved, overseas posts, and foreign governments. The task force
                         would be chaired by the Coordinator for Counterterrorism and would
                         include relevant State bureaus as well as other U.S. government agencies.
                         The global watch is the initial point of contact for posts experiencing
                         emergency crises overseas. The 24-hour global watch and crisis
                         management support staff is maintained within the Operations Center.



Incident Management at   In an overseas incident, the ambassador—working with the Emergency
Overseas Posts           Action Committee—would act as the on-scene coordinator for the
                         U.S. government. Interagency and State Department teams could
                         provide assistance. For example, the Department of State can deploy an
                         interagency Foreign Emergency Support Team (FEST) in coordination
                         with the NSC to assist the host government and the ambassador at the
                         post. The FEST primarily is an advisory team and serves as the single
                         point-of-contact for the ambassador in coordinating all U.S. government
                         support during a terrorist incident. The FEST will not enter the host
                         country unless requested by the ambassador, with the host government’s
                         permission. Depending upon the type of incident overseas and the host
                         governments’ capabilities, the FEST can be tailored with expertise to
                         manage the crisis. The FEST can tailor its team to include experts on
                         managing specific types of WMD incidents, such as nuclear, biological, and
                         chemical threats. For example, the FEST can provide (1) guidance on
                         terrorist policy and incident management, (2) dedicated secure
                         communications to support the U.S. embassy throughout the incident, and
                         (3) special expertise and equipment not otherwise available, including a
                         professional hostage negotiations adviser. According to the National
                         Strategy for Combating Terrorism, the Departments of State and Defense
                         (and other relevant agencies) will ensure adequate staffing for the FEST.
                         Procedures for deploying the FEST are outlined in the interagency
                         International Guidelines, which were issued in January 2001.

                         State also maintains its own security response teams that can deploy in
                         anticipation of a terrorist crisis. The Bureau of Diplomatic Security has
                         Mobile Training Teams and Security Support Teams to respond to
                         increased threats or critical security needs at posts. These teams can
                         provide special training or assistance to plan or implement a draw down or
                         evacuate post personnel. These teams are to provide supplemental support
                         to regional security officers and stand ready for immediate deployments to
                         any post worldwide.




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Law Enforcement               Crisis management has an important law enforcement function, including
Investigations for Overseas   efforts to gather evidence, and arrest and prosecute terrorists. PDD 39 and
                              PDD 62 affirmed the role of the Department of Justice, through the FBI, to
Incidents                     coordinate the efforts of law enforcement agencies in preventing terrorist
                              attacks and investigating those attacks when they occur in international
                              waters or against U.S. persons and interests overseas.

                              According to the FBI, the bureau has a number of capabilities it can deploy
                              overseas to coordinate large scale investigations. In cases when an incident
                              occurs overseas, the FBI initially deploys its legal attachés to respond to
                              the crime scene to communicate initial reports to the FBI’s main
                              deployment team. In the interim, an advance team will depart from
                              Washington, D.C., and will include (1) a command element, (2) an
                              investigative component, (3) logistics personnel, (3) Critical Incident
                              Response Group, (4) physical security specialists to report on the
                              continuing threat to responding FBI personnel, and (5) communicators.
                              And, if needed and allowed by the host nation, the FBI will deploy a Rapid
                              Deployment Team overseas to provide additional investigative support,
                              including language specialists and expert forensics personnel from an FBI
                              laboratory. The Rapid Deployment Teams were established following the
                              1998 bombings of the two U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania so that
                              more capabilities and additional personnel could be deployed to crime
                              scenes in nations that are receptive to joint investigations. Based on the
                              needs at the incident site and with the concurrence of the host nation, the
                              FBI will deploy additional agents to assist with the investigation. Figure 17
                              shows the damage inflicted to the USS Cole by a terrorist bomb explosion.
                              The FBI deployed its response teams to Aden to investigate the bombing.




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                            Figure 17: USS Cole Damaged by a Terrorist Bomb Explosion While Refueling at the
                            Port of Aden, Yemen




                            As discussed in chapter 4, other federal agencies may assist the FBI in its
                            terrorism investigations overseas. For example, the ATF has significant
                            explosives investigation capability, which can support FBI investigations of
                            bombings. When needed, the bureau can deploy its International Response
                            Team to help gather evidence and identify the cause and origin of an
                            explosion or fire.



Managing the Consequences   PDD 39 affirmed State as the lead agency for consequence management
of a Terrorist Incident     overseas, responsible for ensuring that the U.S. government is prepared to
                            respond to a foreign incident. Consequence management predominantly is
                            an emergency management function and includes efforts to provide
                            medical treatment and emergency services, evacuate people from
                            dangerous areas, and restore services. The responsibility for managing the
                            consequences of a terrorist incident remains with the host nation, although



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                the United States may provide assistance under certain circumstances. If
                the ambassador determines that the host government is unable to cope
                with managing the incident without outside help, the United States can
                provide assistance if it is requested and it is in U.S. interests to provide it.

                A foreign consequence management event is an incident that occurs abroad
                and involves chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear contamination. It
                is not limited to a terrorist incident; it also can be caused by a war, natural
                cause, or accident. In other words, a consequence management event is not
                defined by how the release of a WMD agent occurred, only that a release
                occurred. The terrorist bombings of the USS Cole and the U.S. embassies
                in East Africa, for example, were not foreign consequence management
                events. In addition, a foreign consequence management event must
                threaten to overwhelm existing host-nation response capabilities and
                prompt a host-nation request for immediate international assistance.
                According to the Department of State, the release of chemical, biological,
                radiological, or nuclear contaminants is required by international
                agreements to be reported, regardless of how the agent was released.
                Finally, consequence management of an incident is the sole responsibility
                of the host nation. The United States may be asked to provide assistance
                only.

                Depending upon the type of incident overseas, the Department of State
                may also deploy a Consequence Management Support Team. The team is
                tailored to meet the specific emergency situation or condition in the host
                country and may deploy as an integral part of the NSC-directed FEST. The
                team leader normally would be from State’s Bureau of Political-Military
                Affairs and would be responsible for coordinating consequence
                management activities and for keeping the ambassador informed about
                ongoing relief activities. The team leader serves as a primary liaison
                between the ambassador, FEST, and team’s technical experts. The team
                also would coordinate U.S. government consequence management
                activities with the authorities of the host country. According to the
                Department of State, the Consequence Management Support Team
                deployed several times, most recently to the Persian Gulf, but had not yet
                deployed with the FEST.

Role of USAID   PDD 39 designated USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance as the
                lead agency for coordinating the U.S. government humanitarian relief and
                rehabilitation activities overseas for incidents involving weapons of mass
                destruction. The office facilitates a coordinated U.S. government response
                for an incident through the U.S. ambassador in support of the affected host



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                        country. The office responds to these incidents at the request of the
                        U.S. ambassador to the affected country and works through the host
                        nation, U.S. government, international organizations, other donor
                        governments, and nongovernmental organizations. In a crisis incident
                        overseas, the State Coordinator for Counterterrorism may request an
                        Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance representative to deploy as part of
                        the FEST and assist in the development of a consequence management
                        strategy for the humanitarian response. Also, if necessary, the office will
                        provide guidance and liaison to the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs-led
                        Consequence Management Support Team and work in conjunction with the
                        team in the development of a humanitarian strategy.

                        The Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance can respond to virtually any type
                        of disaster abroad, including a terrorist incident. USAID is the focal point
                        for U.S. government disaster relief and humanitarian assistance overseas.
                        After a U.S. ambassador’s disaster declaration, the Office of Foreign
                        Disaster Assistance can respond with humanitarian relief items or by
                        providing funds to the United Nations, international organizations, or local
                        and international non-governmental organizations to perform humanitarian
                        relief activities. The office can also provide damage and needs assessment
                        specialists and a wide variety of disaster management consultants, should
                        the post require them. The office has stockpiles of basic disaster relief
                        items, such as tents, plastic sheeting, and blankets. These stockpiles
                        are strategically located around the world and can be used to provide
                        humanitarian assistance in the event of a terrorist incident, as is the
                        procedure for any other humanitarian disaster that overwhelms local
                        capacity. These stockpiles are used frequently, and due to changing stock
                        levels, the office determines how to best support a specific disaster and
                        when to release stockpile material. To help manage the humanitarian relief
                        activities on the ground, the office can deploy its Disaster Assistance
                        Response Team to carry out sustained response activities in the field and a
                        Response Management Team in Washington, D.C., that is responsible for
                        providing support to the Disaster Assistance Response Team and assisting
                        with the information management and coordination of the event from an
                        interagency operations center. The activities of these teams will vary
                        depending upon the type, size, and complexity of the disaster.

Role of DOD Is Unique   If ongoing military operations permit, DOD supports the Department of
                        State for crisis and consequence management functions overseas in the
                        event of a terrorist incident. DOD is unique in that it has the greatest depth
                        and breadth of worldwide response capabilities. Specific types of support
                        include threat assessments, technical advice, operational support, tactical



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                              support, and transportation. In the event of a terrorist incident overseas,
                              DOD also provides force protection to the Department of State. DOD and
                              State have memorandums of understanding on the coordination and
                              implementation of plans for the protection of U.S. citizens abroad in
                              emergencies, and on the protection and evacuation of U.S. citizens and
                              designated aliens abroad. A pending or actual terrorist crisis may require
                              the evacuation of U.S. government employees, as well as other Americans
                              in the area. These evacuations—known as Noncombatant Evacuation
                              Operations—may be necessary in the face of continued terrorist attacks or
                              in an attack involving weapons of mass destruction.

                              DOD support for the Department of State for a foreign consequence
                              management operation is not automatic and is either approved or
                              disapproved by the Secretary of Defense. DOD assets, albeit unique and
                              robust compared to those of other U.S. government agencies, are finite.
                              According to DOD, ongoing military operations may preclude DOD support
                              for a foreign consequence management operation.

Weapons of Mass Destruction   U.S. government efforts to provide consequence management overseas
                              have focused on WMD incidents, which are the most likely to overwhelm
                              host nation capabilities. In PDD 39, the President directed the State
                              Department, in coordination with DOD and USAID’s Office of Foreign
                              Disaster Assistance, to develop a plan to provide assistance to foreign
                              populations that are victims of terrorist WMD attacks. In response, the
                              State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs wrote draft guidelines for a
                              consequence management response to an international WMD incident.
                              The guidelines provide a framework of planning guidance for all types of
                              deliberate or accidental chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear
                              incidents. They outline operational concepts for a U.S. response overseas
                              and provide a foundation for operational plans and procedures. They also
                              identify procedures by which the United States, partner nations, host
                              nations, and international response agencies can most effectively unify and
                              synchronize their response actions. The guidelines require that State (along
                              with the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services
                              and USAID) maintain the capability to respond rapidly to any incident
                              when approved by the NSC. The response would be authorized subject to
                              the concurrence of the ambassador and host government.




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The guidelines also identify various federal response teams and detail
their deployment and employment considerations. As discussed above,
State maintains a standing Consequence Management Support Team
that would manage the consequences of a WMD emergency overseas.
The Consequence Management Support Team, through its USAID
representative, would coordinate all U.S. government consequence
management activities with the appropriate authorities of the host country,
as well as the international organizations, private voluntary organizations,
and non-government organizations that may be involved in the emergency.
The same federal agencies that would provide consequence management in
a domestic WMD incident could also respond overseas. While some of
these agencies have a more domestic focus, they have unique capabilities
that could be deployed overseas.3 Figure 18 shows federal agency response
teams that could be called upon in an overseas WMD incident. Several of
these response teams transferred into the Department of Homeland
Security on March 1, 2003, from a variety of other departments.




3
  For more details on these teams, see U.S. General Accounting Office, Combating
Terrorism: Federal Response Teams Provide Varied Capabilities; Opportunities Remain
to Improve Coordination, GAO-01-14 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 30, 2000). We reported that
federal response teams do not duplicate one another; however, agencies lack a coherent
framework to develop and evaluate budget requirements for teams. Because most response
teams have multiple missions, federal agencies do not track the resources for their teams
based on their roles in combating terrorism.




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Figure 18: Federal Response Teams That Could Respond to a Weapons of Mass Destruction Incident Overseas




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Evaluations in the    After a terrorist attack, the federal government reviews the facts leading
                      up to the incident. These reviews are done to determine whether security
Aftermath of a        procedures were followed; to establish accountability within the
Terrorist Incident    government, if appropriate; and to provide lessons learned to prevent or
                      mitigate future attacks.



Reviewing Terrorist   The Secretary of State convenes an Accountability Review Board in cases
Incidents Against     involving acts of terrorism against U.S. diplomatic installations and
                      personnel abroad that involve serious injury, loss of life, or significant
Diplomatic Posts      destruction of property.4 These boards investigate the facts and
                      circumstances surrounding the damage to determine whether security
                      measures systems and procedures were adequate and implemented. The
                      boards also propose recommendations aimed at saving lives and improving
                      security systems and procedures, including those aimed at improving crisis
                      management. Each board consists of five membersfour appointed by the
                      Secretary of State and one appointed by the Director of Central
                      Intelligence.

                      State convened two Accountability Review Boards following the August
                      1998 bombings of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es-Salaam,
                      Tanzania, to examine the facts and circumstances surrounding the near
                      simultaneous bombings. The boards examined a number of security
                      measures and procedures including (1) whether the incidents were
                      security related, (2) whether security systems and procedures were
                      adequate and implemented properly, (3) the impact of intelligence and
                      information availability, (4) whether any employee of the U.S. government
                      or member of uniformed services breached his or her duty, and (5) whether
                      any other facts or circumstances in these cases may be relevant to security
                      management of U.S. missions abroad.




                      4
                        Required by the 1986 Omnibus Diplomatic and Anti-Terrorism Act (P.L. 99-399), Aug. 27,
                      1986.




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Reviewing Incidents         DOD also has convened ad hoc commissions to evaluate terrorist incidents
Against Military Targets    aimed at its overseas military facilities. For example, following the June
                            1996 truck bombing of the al-Khobar Towers military housing facility near
                            Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, the Secretary of Defense directed a task force to
                            assess facts and circumstances surrounding the attack, including the
                            security policies, infrastructures, and systems.5 The Secretary also asked
                            the team to recommend measures to minimize casualties and damage from
                            such attacks in the future. The task force’s report made a number of
                            recommendations to improve security at military facilities overseas.



Past Incidents Studied to   In addition to reviewing individual incidents, the State Department’s
Provide Lessons Learned     Bureau of Diplomatic Security analyses numerous past incidents and
                            related exercises to provide more general lessons learned. Since 1987, the
                            bureau has analyzed various threats and incidents, including terrorist
                            attacks, and published its results. This annual publication, done with the
                            assistance of other federal agencies, is called Political Violence Against
                            Americans. It focuses on major incidents based upon, among other things,
                            their lethality, property damage, and use of unusual tactics or weapons. The
                            publication is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of political
                            violence against U.S. interests. In addition, the bureau conducts an annual
                            longer-term analysis covering a number of years that provide lessons
                            learned in crisis management.6 These promote awareness of basic crisis
                            management principles.



Agency Comments and         The Departments of Defense and State and USAID provided technical
                            comments on the matters covered throughout this chapter. Based upon
Our Evaluation              these comments, we made revisions, as appropriate. We also made
                            revisions (primarily to the figure on WMD response teams) based upon the
                            creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the transfer of
                            various response teams and functions into that department.




                            5
                              The Downing Assessment Task Force, also known as the Downing Commission because it
                            was headed by General Wayne Downing, issued its report on Aug. 30, 1996.
                            6
                             For example, see U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Lessons
                            Learned in Crisis Management 1983-1994, Feb. 1995, and Terrorist Tactics and Security
                            Practices: Lessons Learned and Issues in Global Crime, 1994.




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Appendix I

Matrix of Department of Defense Programs                                                                                            Append
                                                                                                                                         xeis




and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                                                          AppenIx
                                                                                                                                           di




                                            The Department of Defense (DOD) supports the Department of State,
                                            which is the lead federal agency for coordinating U.S. government efforts
                                            to combat terrorism overseas. Within the department, the military services
                                            as well as multiple offices and agencies manage various programs and
                                            activities to combat terrorism abroad. DOD also works with other
                                            U.S. government agencies, foreign government military organizations and
                                            agencies, and international organizations in carrying out these programs
                                            and activities. Some of these activities directed at combating terrorism
                                            overseas (e.g., coordination) may actually occur in the United States.

                                            Appendix I identifies and describes the following:

                                            • the strategic framework of DOD’s efforts to combat terrorism overseas;

                                            • DOD’s programs and activities to detect and prevent terrorism overseas;

                                            • DOD’s programs and activities to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                                              organizations overseas; and

                                            • DOD’s programs and activities to respond to terrorist incidents
                                              overseas.



Table 10: Department of Defense Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas

Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity            Description of program or activity
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
Agency head’s role in combating terrorism
Office of the Secretary of   The Secretary of Defense is    The Secretary of Defense is responsible for supporting (1) the lead
Defense                      the principal defense policy   federal agency—the Department of State—in responding to a terrorist
                             advisor to the President.      incident overseas, (2) the Department of Justice (through the Federal
                                                            Bureau of Investigation (FBI)) for crisis management of a domestic
                             The Office of the Secretary of terrorist incident, and (3) the Federal Emergency Management Agency
                             Defense is the principal staff (FEMA) for consequence management of a domestic terrorist incident.
                             element of the Secretary of
                             Defense in the exercise of
                             policy development, planning,
                             resource management, fiscal,
                             and program evaluation
                             responsibilities.




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                                                  Matrix of Department of Defense Programs
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(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of Defense
office or military service       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Special agency official or office in charge of combating terrorism
Office of the Assistant          Special operations and           Serves as the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of
Secretary of Defense for         low-intensity conflict           Defense and to the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy for the broad
Special Operations and Low-                                       spectrum of combating terrorism policy and support.
Intensity Conflict
Office of the Assistant to the   Civil support                    Serves as the focal point for the coordination of DOD efforts in
Secretary of Defense for                                          preparation for requests from civilian agencies on weapons of mass
Homeland Defense                                                  destruction (WMD) consequence management. The Assistant to the
                                                                  Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense provides civilian oversight
                                                                  for the Joint Task Force for Civil Support.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs     Principal military advisor to    Serves as the principal advisor and focal point to the Secretary of
of Staff                         the President, Secretary of      Defense for all DOD antiterrorism issues.
                                 Defense, and the National
                                 Security Council
Office of the Under Secretary    Acquisition, technology, and     Responsible for the development, application, testing, and evaluation of
of Defense for Acquisition,      logistics                        new and commercial-off-the-shelf technology for combating terrorism.
Technology and Logistics
Office of the Assistant          Command, control,                Provides policy guidance and oversight for information, information
Secretary of Defense for         communications, and              technology and physical security programs, security and investigative
Command, Control,                intelligence                     matters, counterintelligence, DOD foreign counterintelligence,
Communications, and                                               intelligence, and information operations programs.
Intelligence
Office of the Assistant          Reserve affairs                  Provides policy direction and oversight of the military departments’
Secretary of Defense for                                          Reserve Component readiness/training policies and funding for Reserve
Reserve Affairs                                                   Component domestic and overseas combating terrorism preparedness.
                                                                  The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs also exercises
                                                                  policy direction and oversight for the Domestic Preparedness Program.
Office of the Assistant          Health affairs                   Supports the federal interagency process with medical research and
Secretary of Defense (Health                                      development programs and interfaces with the National Disaster Medical
Affairs)                                                          System.
Service Secretaries              Military services                Establish and provide resources for combating terrorism programs,
(Secretaries of the Army, the                                     incorporating existing physical security, base defense, and law
Navy, and the Air Force)                                          enforcement initiatives, which address terrorism as a potential threat to
                                                                  DOD elements and personnel, to include the Reserve Components.
Office of the Assistant to the   Domestic Preparedness            Develops and implements the Domestic Preparedness Program’s “first
Secretary of Defense for         Program and Consequence          responder” training and exercise missions and manages the
Homeland Defense                 Management Program               Consequence Management Program Integration Office.
                                 Integration Office
Commanders of the                Command policies and             Establish command policies and programs for the protection of all forces
combatant commands               programs                         (military, civilian, and family members) and facilities in their area of
                                                                  responsibility to include assigned personnel, those under operational
                                                                  control, and individuals that fall under memorandums of understanding.
Joint Task Force for Civilian    Support to civilian agencies     Responsible, through the Commander, Joint Forces Command, for
Support                                                           marshalling the capabilities of the Armed Forces in support of civilian
                                                                  agencies responding to domestic consequence management
                                                                  contingencies involving weapons of mass destruction.




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                                              Matrix of Department of Defense Programs
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(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of Defense
office or military service     Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Directors of defense agencies Providing resources for      The directors establish and provide resources for combating terrorism
and field activities          combating terrorism programs programs, incorporating existing physical security programs with
                                                           antiterrorism awareness, which address terrorism as a potential threat to
                                                           DOD elements and personnel.
Agency plans or strategies to combat terrorism
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs   National Military Strategy of   Sets the strategic direction for all aspects of the Armed Forces for 3-5
of Staff                       the United States of America    years. This document includes objectives, force structure, capabilities,
                               (Sept. 1997)                    and the strategic environment. The most recent strategy (issued in
                                                               September 1997) notes the rising danger of asymmetric threats,
                                                               including terrorism. It stresses the need for the military to adapt its
                                                               doctrine, training, and equipment to ensure a rapid and effective joint
                                                               and interagency response to these threats.
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs   National Military Strategic     Provides the strategic framework to guide the conduct of the global war
of Staff                       Plan for the War on Terrorism   on terrorism by the U.S. Armed Forces. This classified plan discusses
                               (Oct. 19, 2002)                 the strategic environment and outlines national guidance to (1) defeat
                                                               terrorists and terrorist organizations; (2) deny sponsorship, support, and
                                                               sanctuary to terrorists; (3) diminish the underlying conditions that permit
                                                               terrorism; and (4) defend the United States, its citizens, and its interests
                                                               at home. This plan also provides defense guidance, including the
                                                               national defense strategy and concept for the global war on terrorism. It
                                                               lays out the strategic approach for the war on terrorism, identifies
                                                               strategic military objectives, and provides the strategic military approach
                                                               to carry out the war on terrorism over an extended period of time. The
                                                               plan addresses planning for and establishing administrative and logistics
                                                               systems and command and control for each contingency.

                                                               Rather than prescribing specific battle plans or future operations, the
                                                               plan provides combatant commanders with principles for planning their
                                                               military operations as well as specific tasks and initiatives to combat
                                                               terrorism overseas. Also, it provides a framework from which regional
                                                               commanders, the military services, and other agencies can formulate
                                                               their own individual action plans. In response to this plan, individual
                                                               regional commands have drafted their own classified campaign plans to
                                                               combat terrorism overseas.
Office of the Assistant        Combating Terrorism Program Includes all actions—(1) antiterrorism (defensive measures taken
Secretary of Defense for                                   to reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts), (2) counterterrorism
Special Operations and                                     (offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism),
Low-Intensity Conflict                                     (3) terrorism consequence management (preparation for and response
                                                           to the consequences of a terrorist incident/event), and (4) intelligence
                                                           support (collection and dissemination of terrorism-related information as
                                                           the first line of defense)—taken to oppose terrorism throughout the entire
                                                           threat spectrum, to include terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction
                                                           and/or high explosives.




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                                            Matrix of Department of Defense Programs
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(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Office of the Assistant       DOD Directive 2000.12, DOD     This directive (1) changes the name of the DOD Combating Terrorism
Secretary of Defense for      Antiterrorism/ Force           Program to the DOD Antiterrorism/Force Protection Program,
Special Operations and Low-   Protection Program (Apr. 13,   (2) updates DOD policies and assigns responsibilities for implementing
Intensity Conflict            1999)                          the program, (3) authorizes publication of DOD standards and related
                                                             guidance, (4) establishes the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as the
                                                             principal advisor and focal point for antiterrorism/force protection issues,
                                                             and (5) defines antiterrorism/force protection responsibilities of the
                                                             military departments, commanders of the combatant commands, and
                                                             defense agencies.

                                                             This directive also establishes DOD policy, among other things, (1) to
                                                             protect DOD elements and personnel from terrorist acts, (2) that
                                                             antiterrorism/force protection is the commander’s responsibility, (3) to
                                                             maintain a Combating Terrorism Readiness Initiatives Fund to respond
                                                             to emergent, unforeseen requirements, and (4) to comply with the “No
                                                             Double Standard” policy on dissemination of specific, credible terrorist
                                                             threat information that has not or cannot be countered (i.e., it is the
                                                             policy of the U.S. government that official Americans cannot benefit from
                                                             receipt of information that might equally apply to the public, but is not
                                                             available to the public).

                                                             Also, this directive established the Antiterrorism Coordination Committee
                                                             and its Senior Steering Group to reduce vulnerabilities to terrorist
                                                             attacks. Both act as a clearinghouse for policy recommendations and
                                                             facilitate coordinating antiterrorism/force protection actions and taskings.
Office of the Assistant       DOD Instruction 2000.16,       This instruction (1) reissues DOD Instruction 2000.16, DOD
Secretary of Defense for      DOD Antiterrorism Standards    Antiterrorism Standards (Jan. 8, 2001), (2) updates policy
Special Operations and        (June 14, 2001)                implementation, (3) assigns responsibilities, (4) prescribes procedures
Low-Intensity Conflict                                       under DOD Directive 2000.12, DOD Antiterrorism/Force Protection
                                                             Program, for protection of personnel and assets from acts of terrorism,
                                                             and (5) assists DOD components in implementing this instruction and
                                                             DOD Directive 2000.12. It references DOD Instruction 5210.84, Security
                                                             of DOD Personnel at U.S. Missions Abroad, which provides guidance for
                                                             the security of DOD personnel at overseas locations. It also refers to
                                                             specific guidance for DOD elements and personnel under the
                                                             responsibility of the Department of State in the Memorandum of
                                                             Understanding Between the Department of State and the Department of
                                                             Defense on Overseas Security Support. Finally, it refers to specific
                                                             common criteria and minimum construction standards to mitigate
                                                             antiterrorism vulnerabilities and terrorist threats.

                                                             This instruction reaffirms DOD’s policy to (1) protect DOD personnel,
                                                             their families, installations, facilities, information, and other material
                                                             resources from terrorist acts; (2) establish primary standards for
                                                             antiterrorism efforts; and (3) provide commanders at all levels with the
                                                             authority to enforce security measures and the responsibility for
                                                             protecting persons and property under their control.




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Department of Defense
office or military service      Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Office of the Assistant         DOD Instruction 2000.14,        This instruction establishes policy, assigns responsibility, and prescribes
Secretary of Defense for        DOD Combating Terrorism         procedures under DOD Directive 0-2000.12, DOD Combating Terrorism
Special Operations and          Program Procedures              Program, for implementation and use in the DOD Antiterrorism Program.
Low Intensity Conflict          (June 15, 1994)
                                                                This instruction establishes DOD policy to (1) protect DOD personnel
                                                                and their families, facilities, and other material resources from terrorist
                                                                acts and, in the event of a terrorist attack, to respond with properly
                                                                trained, organized, and equipped personnel (including local law
                                                                enforcement or host nation assets) to terminate the incident or reduce
                                                                the effects of the attack; (2) provide guidance on the conduct of DOD
                                                                personnel and their families if seized by terrorists; (3) ensure actions to
                                                                combat terrorism outside of the United States will comply with applicable
                                                                Status of Forces Agreements, other international agreements, and
                                                                memoranda of understanding, as well as coordinate with the U.S.
                                                                embassy and host nation; and (4) coordinate defense attaché and
                                                                security assistance organization antiterrorism programs overseas with
                                                                the chief of mission at the U.S. embassy and comply with Department of
                                                                State standards.
Office of the Under Secretary   Unified Facilities Criteria     Sets standards to minimize the possibility of mass casualties in buildings
of Defense for Acquisition,     4-010-01, DOD Minimum           or portions of buildings owned, leased, privatized, or otherwise occupied,
Technology and Logistics        Antiterrorism Standards for     managed, or controlled by DOD. The standards provide a level of
                                Buildings (July 31, 2002)       protection against terrorist attacks for all inhabited DOD buildings where
                                                                no known threat of terrorist activity currently exists.
Office of the Under Secretary   Unified Facilities Criteria     Identifies the minimum standoff distances and separation for new and
of Defense for Acquisition,     4-010-10, DOD Minimum           existing buildings and expeditionary and temporary structures.
Technology and Logistics        Antiterrorism Standoff
                                Distances for Buildings
                                (July 31, 2002)
Office of the Under Secretary   DOD Directive 5200.8,           Outlines the requirements of DOD’s physical security program.
of Defense for Policy           Security of DOD Installations   Commanders at the unit, activity, installation, and major command levels
                                and Resources (Apr. 25,         use the standards outlined in this and other guidance documents to
                                1991)                           determine their physical security equipment requirements.
Office of the Under Secretary   DOD Regulation 5200.8-R,        This regulation, in accordance with DOD Directive 5200.8, Security of
of Defense for Policy           Physical Security Program       DOD Installations and Resources, prescribes DOD policies and
                                (May 13, 1991)                  minimum standards for the physical protection of DOD personnel,
                                                                installations, operations, and assets. The physical security program
                                                                involves both active and passive measures designed to prevent
                                                                unauthorized access to personnel, equipment, installations, material,
                                                                and documents, and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage,
                                                                damage, and theft. The regulation provides policy and guidance on
                                                                installation access and circulation control, security of weapons systems
                                                                and platforms, protection of bulk petroleum products, security of
                                                                communications systems, and security of material.




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Department of Defense
office or military service      Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Assistant to the Secretary of   DOD Directive 3150.3,          This directive (1) reissues DOD Directive 3150.3, Survivability and
Defense (Atomic Energy)         Nuclear Force Security and     Security (S2) of Nonstrategic Nuclear Forces (NSNF), to add strategic
                                Survivability (S2) (Aug. 16,   nuclear weapons and forces to the existing DOD Nonstrategic Nuclear
                                1994)                          Forces Program and update policy and responsibilities for nuclear force
                                                               survivability and security; (2) describes the DOD program to develop
                                                               concepts, procedures, equipment, facilities, and training programs that
                                                               ensure the survivability and security of nuclear weapons systems
                                                               throughout the threat spectrum, including terrorism; and (3) requires the
                                                               military services to maintain nuclear force survivability and security
                                                               programs.
Assistant Secretary of          DOD Directive                  This manual is a classified document.
Defense for Command,            C-5210.41-M, Nuclear
Control, Communications, and    Weapon Security Manual (U)
Intelligence                    (Apr. 1994)
Assistant Secretary of       DOD Regulation 5200.1-R,          This regulation implements Executive Order 12958, Classified National
Defense for Command,         Information Security Program      Security Information, within DOD and establishes the DOD Information
Control, Communications, and (Jan. 14, 1997)                   Security Program to promote proper and effective classification,
Intelligence                                                   protection, and downgrading of official information requiring protection
                                                               and the declassification of information no longer requiring such
                                                               protection.
Office of the Assistant         DOD Worldwide Combating        Serves as a continuing forum to communicate guidance, exchange
Secretary of Defense for        Terrorism Conference           ideas, and generate policy recommendations that will reduce DOD
Special Operations and                                         vulnerability to terrorism. The 2001 conference established seven
Low-Intensity Conflict                                         working groups (Intelligence, Operations, Policy, Research and
                                                               Development, Consequence Management, Resources, and Interagency
                                                               Community).
Assistant Secretary of       DOD Directive 5240.2, DOD         This directive, among other things, (1) integrates DOD
Defense for Command,         Counterintelligence (May 22,      counterintelligence capabilities and coordination procedures into a
Control, Communications, and 1997)                             national counterintelligence structure under the direction of the National
Intelligence                                                   Security Council (NSC) under Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-24,
                                                               U.S. Counterintelligence Effectiveness; (2) establishes and maintains a
                                                               comprehensive, integrated, and coordinated counterintelligence effort
                                                               within DOD; (3) assigns responsibilities for the direction, management,
                                                               coordination, and control of DOD counterintelligence activities; and
                                                               (4) establishes the Defense Counterintelligence Board.

                                                               This directive establishes DOD policy that, among other things,
                                                               counterintelligence activities be undertaken to detect, identify, assess,
                                                               exploit, and counter or neutralize the intelligence collection efforts, other
                                                               intelligence activities, sabotage, terrorist activities, and assassination
                                                               efforts of foreign powers, organizations, or persons directed against
                                                               DOD, its personnel, information, materiel, facilities, and activities.




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Department of Defense
office or military service     Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Assistant Secretary of         DOD Instruction 5240.10,         This instruction (1) establishes policies, assigns responsibilities, and
Defense for Command,           DOD Counterintelligence          prescribes procedures to ensure that the counterintelligence
Control, Communications, and   Support to Unified and           requirements of the combatant commanders of the Unified and Specified
Intelligence                   Specified Commands               Commands are met under the parameters established by law, Executive
                               (Apr. 8, 1992)                   order, and DOD directives and (2) provides general principles for the
                                                                command relationships and support requirements between the
                                                                counterintelligence organizations of the military departments and the
                                                                Unified and Specified Commands during peacetime, exercises,
                                                                contingencies, and through the spectrum of armed conflict.

                                                                This instruction establishes DOD policy that, among other things, the
                                                                counterintelligence mission is provided to all DOD components with the
                                                                necessary counterintelligence support (the functions of collection and
                                                                production, operations, and investigations) to gather information and
                                                                conduct activities to protect against espionage and other intelligence
                                                                activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations
                                                                conducted for, or on behalf of, foreign powers, organizations, or persons.
DETECT AND PREVENT TERRORISM ABROAD
Antiterrorism/force protection
Local commander                Antiterrorism/Force Protection Defensive measures (to include force protection) used to reduce the
                               (defensive measures)           vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include limited
                                                              response and containment by local military forces. Combatant
                                                              commanders, military services, and defense agencies, working in close
                                                              cooperation with the intelligence community and law enforcement
                                                              agencies, will use all authorized means to deter, detect, defend, respond
                                                              to, and mitigate terrorist attacks. These antiterrorist measures include
                                                              increased security and vigilance for key personnel, installations, and
                                                              equipment. Established Antiterrorism Coordination Committee and its
                                                              Senior Steering Group.
Antiterrorism/force protection categories
Local commander                Physical security equipment      Any item, device, or system that is used primarily for the protection of
                                                                assets, personnel, information, or facilities, to include alarms, sensors,
                                                                protective lighting and their control systems and the assessment of the
                                                                reliability, accuracy, timeliness, and effectiveness of those systems,
                                                                such as (1) exterior surveillance and/or intrusion detection systems
                                                                (wide-area security and surveillance systems); (2) lighting systems;
                                                                (3) access controls and alarm systems; (4) residential security
                                                                equipment; (5) equipment for executive protection, to include added
                                                                doors, increased ballistic protection at offices and residences, personal
                                                                body armor and protective equipment, and armored vehicles; and
                                                                (6) detection devices (under vehicle surveillance systems) and
                                                                canine systems.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Local commander              Physical security site         Facility improvements using operations and maintenance or military
                             improvements                   construction funding, new construction, or new construction design,
                                                            whose purpose is to protect DOD assets, personnel, or information
                                                            from terrorist threats. The improvements may include walls, fences,
                                                            barricades, or other fabricated or natural impediments used to restrict,
                                                            limit, delay, or deny entry into a DOD installation or facility. Improvements
                                                            may include (1) primary facility modifications/features that include
                                                            special structural improvements to walls, doors, windows, and ceilings;
                                                            interior barriers; and any land acquisition for standoff distances;
                                                            (2) supporting facility modification/features, such as site improvements
                                                            in fencing, perimeter/area lighting, blast mitigation barriers, vehicle
                                                            barriers, and special landscaping; (3) safe havens; (4) evacuation
                                                            facilities; and (5) surveillance platforms.
Local commander              Physical security              Includes all personnel who manage physical security programs,
                             management and planning        resources, and assets, such as headquarters staff and headquarters
                                                            staff elements performing such functions.
Local commander              Security forces/technicians    Personnel and operating costs associated with protective forces whose
                                                            primary or supporting mission is to safeguard assets, personnel, and
                                                            information. Security forces/technicians include personnel engaged in
                                                            such activities as (1) dedicated response forces and security forces;
                                                            (2) locksmiths; (3) perimeter, installation, or facility access control;
                                                            (3) inspection and maintenance of barriers and security system
                                                            components; (4) antiterrorism training for security forces; and
                                                            (5) antiterrorism awareness programs and training.
Local commander              Law enforcement                Personnel and operating costs associated with any law enforcement
                                                            activity, such as (1) protective service details, including advance work;
                                                            (2) response forces; and (3) military police.
Local commander              Security and investigative     Includes DOD criminal investigative resources, conduct of vulnerability
                             matters                        assessments (periodic high-level reviews and physical security
                                                            assessments), security and intelligence activities, and any cross-
                                                            discipline security functions, such as (1) terrorism investigations;
                                                            (2) executive antiterrorism training; (3) surveillance and counter-
                                                            surveillance teams; (4) protective service details, including advance
                                                            work; (5) route surveys; (6) antiterrorism awareness programs and
                                                            training; and (7) Joint Staff Integrated Vulnerability Assessments.
Local commander              Research, development, test,   Includes any RDT&E resources expended in the area of antiterrorism
                             and evaluation (RDT&E)         and force protection to provide new and enhanced capabilities to combat
                                                            terrorism. The two primary programs are the Counterterror Technical
                                                            Support Program and the Physical Security Equipment Development
                                                            Program.




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Department of Defense
office or military service      Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Technical Support Working       Counterterror Technical        A fast-track research and development program for advanced
Group                           Support Program                technologies and state-of-the-art prototype equipment that addresses
                                                               both interagency and international combating terrorism requirements.
                                                               The Technical Support Working Group (TSWG)—the research and
                                                               development arm of the National Security Council’s (NSC) Interagency
                                                               Working Group on Counterterrorism— provides resources and program
                                                               management. The Department of State provides policy oversight to
                                                               TSWG, which is co-chaired by the Departments of Defense and
                                                               Energy and the FBI. TSWG consists of over 50 federal government
                                                               organizations that identify operational needs and coordinate research
                                                               and development for combating terrorism. Typical TSWG projects
                                                               include (1) stand-off explosive detection of terrorist devices, (2) large
                                                               vehicle bomb countermeasures (detect and disable), (3) entry point
                                                               screening, (4) structural blast mitigation, (5) national infrastructure
                                                               assurance and protection, and (6) advanced sensor detection
                                                               and defeat.
Physical Security Equipment     Physical Security Equipment    A research and development program designed to support the rapid
Action Group                    Development Program            acquisition and quick field integration of state-of-the-art security
                                                               technology to deployed forces, in particular commercial off-the-shelf
                                                               equipment. The Physical Security Equipment Action Group funds
                                                               and provides resources to the program. The group consists of
                                                               representatives from the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the Joint Staff,
                                                               and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The program evaluates,
                                                               develops, and integrates equipment and systems related to (1) intrusion
                                                               detection, (2) entry control, (3) access control, (4) waterside security,
                                                               (5) delay/denial, (6) interior and exterior robotics, and (7) explosive
                                                               detection systems.
Vulnerability assessments
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs    Integrated Vulnerability       Ensures that commanders at all levels have an accurate awareness of
of Staff                        Assessment Team                the existing vulnerabilities and readiness of antiterrorism programs
                                                               within their command. The assessments assist commanders in
                                                               implementing risk management practices when allocating resources in a
                                                               uniform and complementary fashion that are adaptable to changing
                                                               terrorist threats. Approximately 96 assessments are planned for fiscal
                                                               year 2003.
Antiterrorism activities
Office of the Deputy Assistant Chemical, biological, and       Based on an assessment by the Strategic Deterrence Joint Warfighting
Secretary of Defense for       radiological monitoring,        Capabilities Assessment, a monitoring, detection, and identification
Chemical and Biological        detection, and identification   package was developed for protection of the Pentagon and other
Defense                                                        strategic U.S. sites within the United States and in forward threat areas,
                                                               including Northeast Asia and Southwest Asia. Equipment is to detect
                                                               chemical and radiological agents. Systems include the Automatic
                                                               Chemical Agent Detection Alarm and the Personnel and Vehicle Entry
                                                               Radiological Detectors. According to DOD, detection capability for
                                                               biological agents currently is limited to “detect to treat.” Emphasis is
                                                               placed on monitoring, sampling, confirmatory analysis, and medical
                                                               surveillance through such systems as Portal Shield, Joint Bio Point
                                                               Detection System, Portable Bio Aerosol Sampler, Dry Filter Units, and
                                                               Polymerase Chain Reaction Identification Devices.




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Department of Defense
office or military service     Program or activity          Description of program or activity
Military security assistance
Defense Security Cooperation Foreign Military Financing     The Department of State provides grants to foreign governments for the
Agency                                                      acquisition of U.S. defense equipment, services, and military training,
                                                            which enable key U.S. allies and friends to improve their defense
                                                            capabilities. It promotes U.S. national security interests by contributing
                                                            to global and regional stability, strengthening military support for
                                                            democratically elected governments, and containing transnational
                                                            threats, including terrorism. This security assistance is a key tool in
                                                            supporting U.S. coalition partners in combating terrorism overseas. It
                                                            reduces the likelihood of conflict and war that could threaten the United
                                                            States. The Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs sets
                                                            policy for the program, while the Defense Security Cooperation Agency
                                                            manages the program on a day-to-day basis. Security assistance offices
                                                            within U.S. embassies abroad play a key role in managing the program
                                                            within recipient countries.
Defense Security Cooperation Foreign Military Sales         A U.S. security assistance program used to sell defense articles or
Agency                                                      services to authorized governments. The program is used to maintain
                                                            close ties with neighbors and key allies, maintain stable and secure
                                                            regional partners, and ensure regional stability. This program helps
                                                            countries, such as the new members of the North Atlantic Treaty
                                                            Organization (NATO), upgrade their military capabilities and achieve
                                                            greater interoperability with U.S. and other alliance forces. Also, it helps
                                                            strengthen the security and defense capabilities of recipient countries,
                                                            whose support is crucial to combating terrorism. These countries
                                                            include, for example, the new U.S. Central Asian and Caucasus partners
                                                            in the war on terrorism. The Department of State’s Bureau of Political-
                                                            Military Affairs approves foreign military sales, while security assistance
                                                            offices at U.S. embassies abroad promote the sale of U.S.-produced
                                                            defense items and carry out most of the tasks associated with foreign
                                                            military sale cases. An implementing agency within DODthe Army, the
                                                            Navy, the Air Force, or the Defense Logistics Agency, depending upon
                                                            the type of item being considerednegotiates the terms of the sale. The
                                                            Defense Security Cooperation Agency buys the items from U.S.
                                                            manufacturers for the recipient country.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Defense Security and         International Military         Serves as a low-cost security assistance program intended to foster the
Cooperation Agency           Education and Training         development of more professional militaries around the world through
                                                            training and education of foreign military and civilian personnel. The
                                                            program provides training on a grant basis to some 10,000 students
                                                            annually from 133 allied and friendly countries. Formal instruction is
                                                            provided through more than 2,000 courses taught at about 150 U.S.
                                                            military schools and installations. The program advances U.S. interests
                                                            in furthering regional stability by enhancing military alliances, building
                                                            coalitions, and strengthening efforts to combat terrorism abroad.

                                                            DOD plans and manages the program through the Defense Security and
                                                            Cooperation Agency, which works with the various military departments
                                                            and unified military commands to implement the program. Coordination
                                                            of the program overseas is handled by DOD’s security assistance offices
                                                            located in U.S. embassies around the world, which field requests from
                                                            their host countries to participate in the program.

                                                            Enhancing military professionalism is intended to make militaries more
                                                            efficient, effective, and interoperable with U.S. and NATO forces as well
                                                            as regional coalitions. Also, it fosters a better understanding of
                                                            democratic values, including civilian rule of the military, belief in the rule
                                                            of law, and respect for internationally recognized civil and human rights.
                                                            Finally, the program’s development of professional and personal military-
                                                            to-military relationships provide U.S. access and influence to a critical
                                                            sector of society that can help support U.S. access to foreign military
                                                            bases and facilities—a critical component in efforts to combat terrorism
                                                            overseas.
Embassy security
U.S. Marine Corps            Protection of information at   U.S. Marine security guards control access to 130 U.S. embassies and
                             U.S. diplomatic missions       missions worldwide.
                             overseas




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Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Military training (with foreign governments)
U.S. Special Operations       Joint Combined Exchange          Provides U.S. special operations forces opportunities to develop and
Command                       and Training                     maintain their skills and to train foreign militaries and other groups
                                                               to combat terrorism overseas, among other missions. U.S. special
                                                               operations forces are tasked with nine principal missions to (1) train
                                                               and otherwise assist foreign militaries to combat insurgency and
                                                               other threats to stability (foreign internal defense); (2) train, advise,
                                                               and otherwise assist local forces for guerilla warfare (unconventional
                                                               warfare); (3) protect against and prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical,
                                                               and biological weapons (counterproliferation); (4) use offensive and
                                                               defensive measures to prevent or resolve terrorist incidents (combating
                                                               terrorism); (5) obtain information concerning capabilities and activities of
                                                               actual or potential adversaries (special reconnaissance); (6) inflict
                                                               damage on an adversary or recover personnel or material (direct action);
                                                               (7) target an adversary’s information system while defending U.S.
                                                               systems (information operations); (8) establish, maintain, or strengthen
                                                               relations between U.S. and allied governments to facilitate military
                                                               operations (civil affairs); and (9) influence attitudes of foreign audiences
                                                               (psychological operations). Specific Joint Combined Exchange and
                                                               Training operations and activities are classified.
U.S. European Command         Republic of Georgia Train and Enhances the Republic of Georgia’s counter-terrorism capabilities. The
                              Equip Program                 program’s goal is to build strong effective staff organizations capable of
                                                            creating and sustaining standardized operating procedures, training
                                                            plans, operational plans, and a property accounting system. The
                                                            curriculum consists of performance-oriented training and exercises. The
                                                            time-phased training will be conducted by U.S. Special Forces to build
                                                            upon the military-to-military relationship developed between the two
                                                            countries. The program will consist of command center staff training for
                                                            members of the Georgian Ministry of Defense as well as training for units
                                                            of the Land Forces Command. Border guards and other Georgian
                                                            security agencies will be included to ensure interoperability among
                                                            Georgia’s security forces. Almost 200 Georgians have completed the
                                                            staff-training phase and about 500 are completing the light-infantry
                                                            tactics training. Military equipment to be provided will include uniform
                                                            items, small arms and ammunition, communications gear, training gear,
                                                            medical gear, fuel, and construction material.
U.S. Pacific Command          U.S. Special Operations          Develops a counter-terrorist capability within the Philippines armed
                              Forces Training for the          forces through the Foreign Military Financing program. The U.S. Pacific
                              Philippines                      Command deployed a Joint Task Force advisory team to the southern
                                                               Philippines to begin preparations. It is composed of U.S. Special
                                                               Operations personnel and provides training at the command level at
                                                               headquarters through the company level in the field. The training
                                                               emphasizes joint operations and tactics to help eliminate terrorist
                                                               threats. Training includes counterterrorism campaign planning,
                                                               intelligence fusion, psychological operations, civil-military operations,
                                                               and filed tactics. U.S. Special Operations personnel completed training
                                                               with 25 field companies and provided equipment that included aircraft,
                                                               Coast Guard cutters, and helicopters.




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Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity           Description of program or activity
U.S. Special Operations       U.S. Special Operations       U.S. Special Forces trained approximately 200 Yemeni military forces in
Command                       Forces Training for Yemen     counterterrorism tactics.
Border security
U.S. Air Force                Combat Air Patrols            Provides protection of U.S. air space.
DISRUPT AND DESTROY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
Counterterrorism
Office of the Assistant       Counterterrorism (offensive   Offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism.
Secretary of Defense for      measures)                     The Nunn-Cohen Amendment of the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986
Special Operations and Low-                                 established the (1) U.S. Special Operations Command, (2) Assistant
Intensity Conflict                                          Secretary of Defense for Special Operations/Low-Intensity Conflict,
                                                            (3) coordinating board for low-intensity conflict within the NSC, and
                                                            (4) created a new Major Force Program for special operations forces
                                                            resources. Also, the act included counterterrorism activity for special
                                                            operations.
Counterterrorism categories
U.S. Special Operations       Special Operations Forces     U.S. Special Operations Forces conduct offensive counterterrorism
Command                                                     measures and operations directed at preventing, deterring, and
                                                            responding to terrorist acts against U.S. interests worldwide.
                                                            U.S. Special Operations Forces receive the most advanced and
                                                            diverse training available and exercise continually, often with foreign
                                                            counterparts, to maintain proficiency and develop new skills.
Regional Special Operations   Special Operations Forces     Regional Special Operations Commands are subordinate unified
Commands                      and Geographic Combatant      commands assigned to the Geographic Combatant Commands. The
                              Commands                      Regional Special Operations Commands plan, prepare, and conduct
                                                            special operations, including counterterrorism, within the Geographic
                                                            Combatant Commander’s area of responsibility. The Regional Special
                                                            Operations Commands also provide a trained, operationally ready, and
                                                            deployable Joint Special Operations Task Force headquarters that can
                                                            respond rapidly to terrorism using forces assigned permanently or
                                                            temporarily to the Geographic Combatant Commander.
U.S. Army Special Operations Special Operations Forces      The command is responsible to the U.S. Special Operations Command
Command                                                     for the readiness of Special Forces, Rangers, special operations aviation
                                                            units, psychological operations units, and civil affairs personnel for
                                                            deployment worldwide in support of unified combatant commanders. The
                                                            command is headquartered at Fort Bragg, N.C., and has both active and
                                                            U.S. Army Reserve special operations forces.
Naval Special Warfare         Special Operations Forces     The command is responsible to the U.S. Special Operations Command
Command                                                     for the readiness of active and reserve naval special warfare forces. The
                                                            command deploys SEAL, Special Boat, SEAL Delivery Vehicle teams,
                                                            and other Naval Special Warfare Detachments worldwide and
                                                            administratively supports forward-based naval special warfare units. The
                                                            command is located at the Coronado Naval Amphibious Base in
                                                            Coronado, Calif.




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Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity             Description of program or activity
U.S. Air Force Special        Special Operations Forces       The command is responsible to the U.S. Special Operations Command
Operations Command                                            for the readiness of Air Force active, reserve, and National Guard special
                                                              operations forces for deployment worldwide. The command consists of
                                                              three special operations wings, two special operations groups, and one
                                                              special tactics group. The command is located at Hurlburt Field, Fla.
U.S. Air Force                Transportation support to the   Provides transport capability to the Foreign Emergency Support Team
                              Foreign Emergency Support       (FEST) through use of two C-32B (Boeing 757-200) aircraft. The U.S. Air
                              Team                            Force supports worldwide operations to select U.S. government
                                                              agencies on the recommendation of the Deputies Committee and
                                                              approval by the Secretary of Defense.
Office of the Assistant       RDT&E                           Like the antiterrorism component, the counterterrorism component has
Secretary of Defense for                                      two RDT&E programs as well: (1) Counterterror Technical Support
Special Operations and                                        Program (renamed the Combating Terrorism Technology Support
Low-Intensity Conflict                                        Program) and (2) Counterproliferation Support to Special Operations
                                                              Forces program. Program management is provided by the Combating
                                                              Terrorism Technology Support Office, which is staffed through the
                                                              U.S. Navy.
Office of the Assistant       Counterterror Technical         Originally established to help fund research and development
Secretary of Defense for      Support Program (renamed        activities of the TSWG, this program was renamed and enlarged to
Special Operations and Low-   the Combating Terrorism         fund its international component and to better focus DOD’s research
Intensity Conflict            Technology Support Program)     and development efforts on counterterrorism, which includes
                                                              countermeasures for weapons of mass destruction. In addition to the
                                                              research and development initiatives discussed above, this program
                                                              also encompasses counterterrorism requirements. Projects include
                                                              (1) improved audio and video surveillance of terrorists; (2) advanced
                                                              night vision capabilities; (3) through-wall-imaging capability for use by
                                                              tactical forces; (4) small, hand-held gamma and neutron radiation
                                                              detector; and (5) diagnostic equipment for improvised devices.
Office of the Assistant       Counterproliferation Support    A specialized RDT&E program to develop and demonstrate special
Secretary of Defense for      to Special Operations Forces    operations forces unique devices. These projects enable Special
Special Operations and Low-                                   Operations Forces and special mission units to detect, disable, and
Intensity Conflict                                            neutralize weapons of mass destruction and their associated facilities
                                                              under the direction of a geographic combatant commander in support of
                                                              a Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Concept Plan. These devices are
                                                              employed by Special Operations Forces units with direct application
                                                              to the nation’s efforts to counter the spread of weapons of mass
                                                              destruction. Efforts include (1) defeat of hard and deeply buried targets;
                                                              (2) explosive ordnance disposal (biological, chemical, and nuclear); and
                                                              (3) maritime efforts to prevent the spread of WMD technology or systems
                                                              using the sea lanes.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity           Description of program or activity
Defense Advanced Research    Counterterrorism research     Conducts research and development on ways to counter asymmetric
Projects Agency              and development               threats and an unconventional, yet highly lethal attack by a loosely
                                                           organized group of transnational terrorists or other factions seeking to
                                                           influence U.S. policy. Such attacks occur using equipment that has a
                                                           smaller mass, exhibit fewer observables, and are more lethal than a
                                                           conventional military attack. Consequently, such evidence is more
                                                           difficult to detect, correlate, and understand. Specific needs include the
                                                           capability to (1) automatically recognize and identify humans at a
                                                           distance; (2) detect an enemy agent conducting surveillance of a
                                                           U.S. target; (3) automatically discover, extract, and link together sparse
                                                           evidence of a group’s intentions and activities from vast amounts of
                                                           classified and unclassified information and sources that lead to the
                                                           discovery of additional relationships and patterns of activity that
                                                           correspond to unusual events, potential threats, or planned attacks;
                                                           (4) more precisely model the beliefs and organizational behavior of small
                                                           terrorist groups to better simulate and wargame such adversaries; and
                                                           (5) provide more effective collaborative reasoning and decision aids to
                                                           improve the speed and effectiveness of teams of analysts and
                                                           decision makers in ever-changing situations.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity          Description of program or activity
Military operations
U.S. Central Command         Operation Enduring Freedom   Since the coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on
                                                          September 11, 2001, the U.S. Central Command has been conducting
                                                          Operation Enduring Freedom with its coalition partners, which now
                                                          number 51 other countries, to disrupt and destroy global terrorist
                                                          organizations. The initial focus of Operation Enduring Freedom was
                                                          on Afghanistan to destroy the base of the al Qaeda terrorist organization
                                                          and replace the Taliban regime that supported al Qaeda. These
                                                          objectives largely have been met in Afghanistan.
                                                          Combined Joint Task Force 180 (see below), which took direct control of
                                                          operations in Afghanistan in June 2002, continues this mission. It also is
                                                          conducting operations to ensure that Afghanistan will not again be a safe
                                                          haven for terrorists and to facilitate the reintroduction of Afghanistan into
                                                          the community of nations.

                                                          The U.S. Central Command’s operations in Afghanistan have been
                                                          complemented by cooperative efforts with Pakistan to eliminate the
                                                          al Qaeda organization in Pakistan. According to the U.S. Central
                                                          Command, these efforts have led to the capture of hundreds of al Qaeda
                                                          and Taliban members, including very senior members of the al Qaeda
                                                          organization. This cooperation continues to degrade the al Qaeda
                                                          organization and is a critical component in its ultimate defeat.

                                                          Operation Enduring Freedom also involves numerous other activities,
                                                          including bilateral cooperation with most of the countries within the
                                                          U.S. Central Command’s area of responsibility, Maritime Interception
                                                          Operations to intercept al Qaeda movement and communications, and
                                                          maintaining a quick strike capability against fleeing al Qaeda targets
                                                          within the command’s area of responsibility. Maritime Interception
                                                          Operations involve a high-level of coalition cooperation. The entire
                                                          Maritime Interdiction Operation in the Horn of Africa region is a coalition
                                                          operation under Combined Task Force 150.




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Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity              Description of program or activity
U.S. Central Command          Combined Joint Task Force−       To detect, disrupt, and defeat terrorists who pose an imminent threat to
                              Horn of Africa                   coalition partners in the Horn of Africa region (Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia,
                                                               Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Yemen). In November 2002, Combined
                                                               Joint Task Force−Horn of Africa was established to carry out Operation
                                                               Enduring Freedom in that portion of the U.S. Central Command’s area of
                                                               responsibility that previously was conducted directly by the command.
                                                               Particular attention is focused on U.S. cooperation with Yemen.

                                                               The Combined Joint Task Force−Horn of Africa acts on credible
                                                               intelligence to attack, destroy, and/or capture terrorists and their support
                                                               networks in the region. It also works with host nations to deny the
                                                               reemergence of terrorist cells and activities by supporting international
                                                               agencies working to enhance long-term stability for the region. Currently,
                                                               the headquarters element has about 400 members representing each
                                                               military service, civilian personnel, and coalition force representatives
                                                               afloat aboard the USS Mount Whitney, which operates in the Gulf of
                                                               Aden. An additional 900 personnel are stationed ashore at Camp
                                                               Lemonier in Djibouti. The headquarters element will transition ashore to
                                                               Camp Lemonier, Djibouti, in the spring of 2003.
U.S. Central Command          Combined Joint Task Force        Constitutes a flotilla of coalition warships from France, Germany, Spain,
                              150                              the United Kingdom, and the United States in searching for terrorist
                                                               operatives and contraband while patrolling the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden,
                                                               and Indian Ocean areas around the Horn of Africa. Combined Joint Task
                                                               Force 150 is based in Djibouti.
U.S. Central Command          Combined Joint Task Force        Serves as the forward headquarters of the primary U.S. force in
                              180                              Afghanistan. Combined Joint Task Force 180 is located at Bagram
                                                               Airfield outside of Kabul, Afghanistan. (See Operation Enduring Freedom
                                                               above.)
U.S. Central Command          Operation Iraqi Freedom          Ongoing operations in Iraq are designed to eliminate potential sources of
                                                               weapons of mass destruction for international terrorists as well as
                                                               eliminating the regimea long-time supporter of terrorism. As part of
                                                               Operation Iraqi Freedom, a group directly related to al Qaeda in northern
                                                               Iraq already has been largely eliminated. The full impact of successful
                                                               operations in Iraq in the war on terrorism will not be known until the
                                                               operation is over. However, as a result of the operations, the U.S. Central
                                                               Command expects to significantly enhance its ability to defeat
                                                               international terrorism.
Intelligence on terrorist groups and threat assessments
Defense Intelligence Agency   Intelligence Support to         Collection, analysis, and dissemination of all-source intelligence on
                              Combating Terrorism (first line terrorist groups and activities intended to protect, deter, preempt, or
                              of defense)                     counter the terrorist threat to U.S. personnel, forces, critical
                                                              infrastructures, and interests.




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Department of Defense
office or military service      Program or activity              Description of program or activity
DOD                             National Foreign Intelligence    This program has two mission areas: (1) Support to Military
                                Program                          Operations, Force Protection, and (2) Support to Law Enforcement,
                                                                 Counterterrorism.

                                                                 The Support to Military Operations, Force Protection, mission area
                                                                 includes the personnel and funding for intelligence activities associated
                                                                 with protecting lives and property, reducing risks, and expanding
                                                                 opportunities for operation success through early detection and
                                                                 definition of threats to U.S. forces. Its focus is on gathering information
                                                                 on terrorist activities aimed at U.S. personnel, forces, critical
                                                                 infrastructures, and interests.

                                                                 The Support to Law Enforcement, Counterterrorism, mission area
                                                                 includes the personnel and funding for intelligence activities associated
                                                                 with gathering information on any foreign terrorist activity aimed at U.S.
                                                                 personnel or interests, in support of a well-coordinated use of diplomatic,
                                                                 intelligence, law enforcement, and military assets.
U.S. Army, Deputy Chief of      Tactical Counterintelligence     Defense intelligence support to combating terrorism includes personnel
Staff for Intelligence,                                          and funding associated with U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps tactical
Counterintelligence/ Human                                       counterintelligence resources, U.S. Army security and intelligence
Intelligence Division, and U.S.                                  activities, Tactical Intelligence and Related Activities, and Joint Military
Marine Corps, Headquarters,                                      Intelligence Program activities.
Intelligence Department,
Director of Intelligence                                         Counterintelligence activities include, for example, (1) terrorism
                                                                 investigations, (2) surveillance and countersurveillance teams,
                                                                 (3) counterterrorism analysis and production, (4) force protection source
                                                                 operations, (5) threat assessments, (6) counterterrorism collection,
                                                                 (7) route surveys, and (8) intelligence staff support to deployed task
                                                                 forces.
U.S. Army                       Counterintelligence activities   Conducts comprehensive and coordinated counterintelligence activities
                                                                 worldwide to detect, identify, assess, counter, neutralize, and/or exploit
                                                                 threat intelligence and international terrorist collection efforts and
                                                                 activities. The U.S. Army’s counterintelligence mission is to support force
                                                                 protection and antiterrorism efforts. It supports the command’s
                                                                 responsibility to protect personnel, equipment, and facilities against
                                                                 foreign intelligence services and international terrorist threats. The U.S.
                                                                 Army’s Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Counterintelligence/Human
                                                                 Intelligence Division has management oversight of the U.S. Army’s
                                                                 program.
U.S. Marine Corps               Counterintelligence activities   Collects, produces, and disseminates counterintelligence information
                                                                 and conducts activities to protect commands against espionage, other
                                                                 intelligence activities, sabotage, assassinations, or terrorist activities
                                                                 conducted by or on behalf of foreign governments, foreign organizations,
                                                                 or foreigners. Counterterrorism support is provided to the service, joint
                                                                 combatant, and operational commanders through counterintelligence
                                                                 investigations; operations; collections and reporting; and analysis,
                                                                 production, and dissemination. The Director of Intelligence, Intelligence
                                                                 Department, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C.,
                                                                 provides program and policy guidance.




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Department of Defense
office or military service         Program or activity              Description of program or activity
RESPOND TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS ABROAD
Terrorism consequence managementa
U.S. Army, Office of the       Terrorism Consequence                Terrorism consequence management is an emerging component in
Director, Operations,          Management Response                  DOD’s efforts to combat terrorism. DOD focuses its terrorism
Readiness, and Mobilization;                                        consequence management activities in two areas: (1) installation
Military Support Division,                                          preparedness and (2) support to the lead federal agency. Under this
Operation Directorate; and the                                      component, DOD brings to the interagency arena a wide variety of
U.S. Army Soldier and                                               unique warfighting technical and operational support capabilities that
Biological Chemical                                                 could be used to provide assistance to state and local authorities, if
Command, Aberdeen Proving                                           requested by the lead federal agency. DOD’s response assets are found
Ground, Md.                                                         in both its Active and Reserve Components. DOD’s role is to support
                                                                    the lead federal agency: the Department of State for terrorist incidents
U.S. Marine Corps, Marine                                           overseas, the Department of Justice (through the FBI) for crisis
Corps Systems Command,                                              management of domestic terrorist incidents, and FEMA for consequence
Quantico, Va.                                                       management of domestic terrorist incidents. DOD’s focus is to provide
                                                                    assistance using its unique resources and capabilities, which are not
U.S. Navy, Combatant                                                found in the other federal agencies. These include the ability to mass
Commander, Atlantic                                                 mobilize and provide extensive logistical support. Because DOD’s assets
Command, Norfolk, Va.                                               are structured, manned, and equipped for a warfighting mission, the
                                                                    Secretary of Defense must first determine that DOD’s special capabilities
U.S. Air Force, Readiness and                                       and expertise are both necessary and critical to respond to an act of
Installation Support Division,                                      terrorism and that the provision of such assistance will not adversely the
Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff                                     military preparedness of the U.S. Armed Forces.
for Installations and Logistics,
and Force Protection Division,                                      In foreign consequence management, DOD cooperates closely with the
Office of the Air Force                                             Department of State. Regional combatant commands are conducting
Surgeon General                                                     exercises of their functional consequence management plans, both in
                                                                    combined capacity with partner nations in their areas of responsibility
Assistant Secretary of                                              and with interagency counterparts.
Defense for Health Affairs,
Services’ Surgeon General’s
Offices, and local
commanders
Terrorism consequence management-installation preparedness
Office of the Assistant            Deputy Secretary of Defense      Establishes the DOD policy to protect personnel on military installations
Secretary of Defense for           Memorandum, Preparedness         and DOD-owned or leased facilities against chemical, biological,
Special Operations and Low-        of U.S. Military Installations   radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive attacks; to respond to
Intensity Conflict                 and Facilities Worldwide         these attacks with trained and equipped emergency responders; and
                                   Against Chemical, Biological,    to ensure installations are able to continue critical operations during
                                   Radiological, Nuclear, and       an attack and to resume essential operations after an attack. The
                                   High-Yield Explosive Attack      memorandum also promulgated the actions necessary to accomplish
                                   (Sept. 5, 2002)                  this policy in terms of (1) installation preparedness, (2) personnel
                                                                    protection, (3) concept of operations, (4) standards and guidelines, and
                                                                    (5) budget and programs.
Military services                  Installation First Response      This was a new initiative in fiscal year 2001. The military services
                                   Preparedness                     were directed to develop requirements, train personnel, and procure
                                                                    equipment for first response preparedness at DOD installations and
                                                                    facilities.




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Department of Defense
office or military service     Program or activity           Description of program or activity
U.S. Army Deputy Chief of      Installation Preparedness     Conducts a complete assessment of U.S. Army installations WMD
Staff for Operations and Plans Program (planned)             preparedness. Also included are training, exercise, and equipment
                                                             packages to prepare installation first responders for WMD incidents on
                                                             and off post. The Director of Operations, Readiness, and Mobilization is
                                                             the U.S. Army’s Action Agent for this program.
U.S. Navy                      First Responder               Provides planning, training, medical equipment, and non-medical
                               Preparedness                  equipment for personnel who will respond to chemical, biological, and
                                                             radiological incidents.
U.S. Air Force                 Disaster Response Force       Provides planning, training, exercise, and response equipment for the
                                                             Disaster Response Force to respond to a WMD incident. First
                                                             responders include security forces, fire department, medical personnel,
                                                             and Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel. The U.S. Air Force
                                                             program includes conducting and evaluating training and exercises for
                                                             base and headquarters personnel, support for formal and supplemental
                                                             training courses, developing and evaluating response plans, and other
                                                             associated activities required to implement the WMD Threat Response
                                                             Program. Only 11 U.S. Air Force installations will be funded over 7 years
                                                             (beginning in fiscal year 2001).
Defense Advanced Research      RDT&E                         Like the antiterrorism and counterterrorism components, the
Projects Agency                                              consequence management component has its own RDT&E programs:
                                                             (1) Counterterror Technical Support Program and (2) Defense Advanced
                                                             Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Biological Warfare Defense
                                                             Program.
Defense Advanced Research      Counterterror Technical       Research and development initiatives to support all facets of combating
Projects Agency                Support Program               terrorism. Projects that specifically address consequence management
                                                             requirements include (1) protective clothing, (2) forensics equipment for
                                                             on-scene analysis, (3) responder databases, and (4) urban modeling.
Defense Advanced Research      Biological Warfare Defense    Applied research program to develop and demonstrate technologies to
Projects Agency                Program                       thwart the use of biological warfare agents (including bacterial, viral, and
                                                             bio-engineered organisms and toxins) by both military and terrorist
                                                             opponents (against U.S. assets at both home and abroad). DARPA’s
                                                             primary strategy is to create technologies applicable to broad classes of
                                                             pathogens and toxins. The program is focused on supporting the
                                                             warfighter; however, many of the technologies also have applicability as
                                                             a supporting element of DOD’s combating terrorism activities.

                                                             Projects include (1) real-time environmental sensing; (2) external
                                                             protection (including novel methods of protection, air and water
                                                             purification, and decontamination); (3) consequence management tools;
                                                             (4) advanced medical diagnostics for the most virulent pathogens and
                                                             their molecular mechanisms; (5) pre- and post-exposure medical
                                                             countermeasures; and (6) pathogen genomic sequencing.

                                                             The program collaborates with pharmaceutical, biotechnology,
                                                             government, and academic centers of excellence. The program also is
                                                             closely coordinated with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Food
                                                             and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and
                                                             Prevention, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the intelligence
                                                             community.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity            Description of program or activity
DOD terrorism consequence management support to lead federal agency and response assets
DOD                          Joint Task Force for Civil     Plans and carries out military assistance to civil authorities for
                             Support                        consequence management of WMD incidents. It supports the lead
                                                            federal agency, establishes command and control of designated DOD
                                                            forces, and provides military assistance to civil authorities to save lives,
                                                            prevent human suffering, and provide temporary critical life support. It
                                                            consists of a headquarters element with an operational focus, but has no
                                                            assigned forces. The Joint Task Force for Civil Support could deploy
                                                            overseas 60 dedicated personnel, who are located at Fort Monroe, Va.
U.S. Army                    Chemical-Biological Rapid      Coordinates and integrates DOD’s technical assistance for the detection,
                             Response Team                  neutralization, containment, dismantlement, and disposal of weapons of
                                                            mass destruction containing chemical, biological, or related materials.
                                                            Assists first responders in dealing with consequence management.
                                                            Operational control is exercised by the (1) supported commander,
                                                            (2) Joint Special Operations Task Force, (3) Joint Task Force for Civil
                                                            Support, or (4) Response Task Force. The Chemical-Biological Rapid
                                                            Response Team could deploy overseas 14 dedicated personnel. They
                                                            are located at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md.
Defense Threat Reduction     Defense Nuclear Advisory       Provides unique nuclear-related technical assistance to the Response
Agency                       Team                           Task Force or the lead federal agency. Teams consist of health
                                                            physicists, radiation physicians, legal advisors, and other related
                                                            professionals. The team can deploy within 4 hours.
Defense Threat Reduction     Consequence Management         Assists other DOD organizations in matters involving weapons of mass
Agency                       Advisory Team                  destruction and radiological accidents and incidents. The agency
                                                            maintains a deployable Consequence Management Advisory Team that
                                                            provides technical, consequence management planning, weapons
                                                            effects modeling, general counsel, public affairs, and health physics
                                                            expertise to augment commanders’ staffs. The team also has a reach-
                                                            back capability to more robust technical resources within the agency.
                                                            The team is a formal part of the Joint Forces Command Joint Technical
                                                            Augmentation Cell for continental United States consequence
                                                            management response. It also augments the Joint task Force-Civil
                                                            Support for U.S.-based response. Because team members are assigned
                                                            additional full-time duties within the Defense Threat Reduction Agency,
                                                            no dedicated manpower is associated with this team.
U.S. Air Force               Radiological Assessment        A rapidly deployable team with the personnel and equipment necessary
                             Team                           to respond to accidents or incidents involving radioactive materials. The
                                                            team can provide in-depth technical assistance in identifying the
                                                            immediate health risks associated with radiological threats. The team is
                                                            located at Brooks Air Force Base, Tex., and could deploy within 72 hours.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity              Description of program or activity
                                 nd
U.S. Army                    52 Ordnance Group                Provides military explosive ordnance disposal/bomb squad units to
                             (Explosive Ordnance              defeat or mitigate the hazards from conventional, nuclear, or chemical
                             Disposal)                        military munitions and weapons of mass destruction. Three Explosive
                                                              Ordnance Disposal companies have unique counter booby trap
                                                              equipment and are trained to operate specialized equipment provided by
                                                              the Department of Energy (DOE) for diagnostics and render-
                                                              safe/mitigation of a nuclear device. The 52nd Ordnance Group’s three
                                                              companies could be deployed overseas. They are located in San Diego,
                                                              Calif.; San Antonio, Tex.; and at Fort Belvoir, Va.
U.S. Army                    Technical Escort Unit            Provides worldwide, no-notice capability to provide advice, detection,
                                                              field sampling, field verification, assessment, monitoring, render-safe,
                                                              decontamination, recovery, packaging, transportation, and escort of
                                                              weaponized and non-weaponized chemical and biological materials,
                                                              devices, or hazards. The Technical Escort Unit has approximately 190
                                                              military and civilian personnel that could be deployed overseas. They are
                                                              located at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md.; Fort Belvoir, Va.; Pine Bluff
                                                              Arsenal, Ark.; and Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah.
U.S. Army                    Edgewood Chemical and            Provides on-site laboratory capability to analyze chemical safety
                             Biological Forensic Analytical   materials, foreign chemical warfare agents, and other hazardous
                             Center Modular On-site           industrial chemicals. The laboratory consists of a series of transportable
                             Laboratory                       modules that contain analytical instruments and their own electrical
                                                              generators. Five personnel accompany the laboratory, including
                                                              chemists and sampling technicians. The on-site laboratory can be
                                                              deployed within 4 hours.
U.S. Army                    U.S. Army Medical Research       Provides the primary source of medical information dealing with the
                             Institute of Chemical Defense,   management of chemical warfare agent casualties for the federal
                             Medical Chemical Biological      government. The team assists the WMD incident commander by
                             Advisory Team                    identifying the medical implications to military and/or civilian operations
                                                              and advising on the initial and long-term management of chemical
                                                              casualties at the incident site. The team also supervises the collection of
                                                              biological samples (bodily fluids) for subsequent verification of chemical
                                                              agent exposure that can be used to facilitate confirmation, diagnosis,
                                                              and treatment.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity             Description of program or activity
U.S. Army                    U.S. Army Medical Research      Conducts research to develop strategies, products, procedures, and
                             Institute of Infectious         training programs for medical defense against biological warfare threats
                             Diseases                        and infectious diseases. Also, it develops vaccines, drugs, diagnostic
                                                             tests, and medical management procedures to protect military personnel
                                                             against biological attack or endemic infectious diseases. It provides
                                                             medical and scientific experts and technical guidance to commanders on
                                                             the prevention and treatment of hazardous diseases and management of
                                                             biological casualties. It serves as DOD’s reference center for the
                                                             identification of biological agents. Primary capabilities are technical
                                                             expertise, extensive laboratory facilities, and the Aeromedical Isolation
                                                             Team, which is a rapid response unit that can deploy to any area of the
                                                             world to transport and provide patient care under high containment of
                                                             contagious and dangerous diseases. The team has a limited capability,
                                                             equipment, and staff and is not geared to handle mass casualties. No
                                                             personnel are assigned directly to the Aeromedical Isolation Team.
                                                             When deployed, the team would consist of two elements, each capable
                                                             of transporting only one patient. The institute is located at Fort Detrick,
                                                             Md.
U.S. Army                    Special Medical Augmentation Provides technical advice in the detection, neutralization, and
                             Response TeamNuclear/       containment of chemical, biological, or radiological hazardous materials
                             Biological/Chemical          in a terrorist event. The Special Medical Augmentation Response
                                                          TeamNuclear/ Biological/Chemical has six teams, located at various
                                                          sites, which could be deployed overseas. Six members per team have
                                                          these collateral duties.
U.S. Army                    Special Medical Augmentation Provides a rapid response evacuation unit to any area of the world to
                             Response Team Aero-         transport and provide patient care under conditions of biological
                             Medical Isolation            containment to service members or U.S. civilians exposed to certain
                                                          contagious and highly dangerous diseases. The Special Medical
                                                          Augmentation Response TeamAero-Medical Isolation includes
                                                          approximately 20 personnel who have this collateral duty that could be
                                                          deployed overseas. They are stationed at Fort Detrick, Md.
U.S. Army                    Radiological Advisory Medical Assists and furnishes radiological health hazard guidance to the on-
                             Team                          scene commander, U.S. Army Response Task Force (discussed below),
                                                           or local medical authorities at an incident site and the installation medical
                                                           authority. The Radiological Advisory Medical Team has 8-10 personnel
                                                           who have these collateral duties and could be deployed overseas. They
                                                           are located at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Army and U.S. Navy      Radiological Control Teams      Provides radiological monitoring support and advice to the U.S. Army
                                                             Response Task Force (discussed above). The teams are capable of
                                                             deploying within several hours. The teams are located at Fort
                                                             Monmouth, N.J., and Norfolk, Va.




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Department of Defense
office or military service   Program or activity            Description of program or activity
U.S. Marine Corps            Chemical-Biological Incident   A highly trained, rapid response force that is capable of providing
                             Response Force                 consequence management for terrorist-initiated chemical and biological
                                                            attacks to mitigate the effects of multiple/mass casualty incidents. It also
                                                            provides force protection in the event of a terrorist incident, domestically
                                                            or overseas. Capabilities include threat identification, casualty extraction,
                                                            personnel decontamination, and medical triage/treatment/ stabilization.
                                                            The force also maintains an information “reach-back” capability to
                                                            chemical/biological subject matter and disaster response experts for
                                                            consultation. The Marine Corps Systems Command at Quantico, Va.,
                                                            manages the program. The force is a national asset that operationally
                                                            falls under the Joint Forces Command. The Chemical-Biological Incident
                                                            Response Force has 373 dedicated personnel who could be deployed
                                                            overseas. They are located at Indian Head, Md.
U.S. Navy                    U.S. Navy Environmental and    Provides doctors, industrial hygienists, environmental health officers,
                             Preventive Medical Unit,       microbiologists, preventive medical technicians, and other related
                             Chemical, Biological,          professional who could be deployed in response to an incident. Teams
                             Radiological, Environmental    remain on alert for a rapid response and can advise the Chemical/
                             Defense Response Team          Biological Rapid Response Team and local public health authorities and
                                                            augment other Chemical/Biological Rapid Response Team medical
                                                            assets.
U.S. Navy                    U.S. Navy Medical Research     Provides a transportable biological field laboratory that is capable of
                             Institute                      rapid identification of biological warfare agent. With a team of two
                                                            operators, the laboratory can be ready to deploy within 4 hours.
Assistant Secretary of       Response Teams                 Provide short-duration medical augmentation to federal and defense
Defense (Health Affairs)                                    agencies responding to disaster, humanitarian, and emergency
                                                            incidents. Response Teams are composed of medical experts who can
                                                            be deployed to assist in emerging medical situations. Such situations
                                                            include medical operational threat assessment and risk communication;
                                                            surveillance; investigation; intervention and control of occupational
                                                            environmental illnesses, injuries, and disease; advance diagnostic
                                                            testing; and health hazard assessments and surveillance detection and
                                                            identification of chemical, biological, radiological, or environmental
                                                            agents. Management oversight is provided by the Assistant Secretary of
                                                            Defense (Health Affairs), each military service’s Office of the Surgeon
                                                            General, and military installation commanders, who act as host to tenant
                                                            commands.




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Department of Defense
office or military service    Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Military assistance to other countries for international special security events
Regional military             International special security   Provides a military response, if needed, to a terrorist incident overseas
commanders                    events                           involving weapons of mass destruction or to evacuate Americans during
                                                               an international special security event, such as a presidential summit
                                                               meeting or the Olympic Games. For example, DOD representatives
                                                               participate in the Olympic Security Advisory Team at the U.S. Embassy
                                                               in Athens to coordinate federal assistance to the Government of Greece
                                                               in preparation for the 2004 Olympic Summer games in Athens. The team
                                                               provides advice to the Greek Ministry of Public Order on security issues
                                                               at the strategic level and advice on technical support issues at the
                                                               operational level. Issues include intelligence, planning, training and
                                                               exercises, technology, command and control coordination, and Olympic
                                                               venue security.
Source: DOD.

                                             Notes: Although DOD’s terrorism consequence management response assets are geared primarily to
                                             respond to a domestic terrorist incidentif requested by the Department of Justice through the FBI or
                                             by FEMA, these same assets could be deployed overseas to respond to an international terrorist
                                             incidentif requested by the Department of State.
                                             For a detailed description of military service-specific categories of equipment, activities financed,
                                             program management, planned activities, funding, and personnel levels, see Office of the Secretary of
                                             Defense, Congressional Report: DOD Combating Terrorism Activities, January 14, 2000, and
                                             Combating Terrorism Activities, Fiscal Year 2003 Budget Estimates, March 2002.
                                             a
                                              The response to a terrorist incident involves managing the immediate crisis as well as its
                                             consequences. “Crisis management” involves efforts to prevent and deter a terrorist attack, protect
                                             public health and safety, arrest terrorists, and gather evidence for criminal prosecution.
                                             “Consequences management” involves efforts to provide medical treatment and emergency services,
                                             evacuate people from dangerous areas, and restore government services.




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Matrix of Department of Homeland Security
Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
Overseas                                                                                                                               AppenIx
                                                                                                                                             di




                                            The Department of Homeland Security is primarily focused on combating
                                            terrorism within the United States. However, for selected overseas
                                            activities, it supports the Department of State, which is the lead federal
                                            agency for coordinating U.S. government efforts to combat terrorism
                                            overseas. Within the department, multiple bureaus, offices, and agencies
                                            manage various programs and activities to combat terrorism abroad.
                                            Department of Homeland Security also works with other U.S. government
                                            agencies, foreign government organizations and agencies, and international
                                            organizations in carrying out these programs and activities. Some of these
                                            activities directed at combating terrorism overseas (e.g., coordination) may
                                            actually occur in the United States.

                                            Appendix II identifies and describes the following:

                                            • the strategic framework of Homeland Security’s efforts to combat
                                              terrorism overseas;

                                            • Homeland Security’s programs and activities to detect and prevent
                                              terrorism overseas;

                                            • Homeland Security’s programs and activities to disrupt and destroy
                                              terrorist organizations overseas; and

                                            • Homeland Security’s programs and activities to respond to terrorist
                                              incidents overseas.



Table 11: Department of Homeland Security Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas

Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau    Program or activity          Description of program or activity
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
Special agency official or office in charge of counterterrorism
Secretary of Homeland        Serves as head of the        Responsible for preventing terrorist attacks within the United States and
Security                     department                   reducing vulnerability to those attacks. The Secretary also is responsible
                                                          for minimizing damage and assisting in the recovery from terrorist attacks
                                                          that occur within the United States.




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Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau    Program or activity           Description of program or activity
Agency plans or strategies to combat terrorism
Department of Homeland       National Strategy for         The strategy addresses the threat of terrorism within the United States, but
Security                     Homeland Security             does mention various initiatives related to combating terrorism overseas.
                             (September 2002)              These initiatives include (1) negotiating new international standards for
                                                           travel documents, (2) improving security for international shipping
                                                           containers, (3) enhancing cooperation with foreign law enforcement
                                                           agencies, (4) expanding specialized training and assistance to allies, and
                                                           (5) increasing the security of transnational infrastructure. The strategy
                                                           stresses the importance of expanding international cooperation in research
                                                           and development and enhancing the coordination of incident response.
                                                           Finally, the strategy recommends reviewing current international treaties
                                                           and law to determine where improvements could be made.
DETECT AND PREVENT TERRORISM ABROAD
Critical infrastructure protection
Information Analysis and     Implementation of the         Helps implement Department of Homeland Security critical infrastructure
Infrastructure Protection    Homeland Security Act of      protection responsibilities in (1) developing a comprehensive national plan
Directorate                  2002                          for securing the key resources and critical infrastructure of the United
                                                           States; (2) recommending measures to protect the key resources and
                                                           critical infrastructure of the United States in coordination with other federal
                                                           agencies and in cooperation with state and local government agencies and
                                                           authorities, the private sector, and other entities; and (3) disseminating, as
                                                           appropriate, information analyzed by the department both within the
                                                           department and to other federal agencies, state and local government
                                                           agencies, and private sector entities to assist in the deterrence, prevention,
                                                           preemption of, or response to terrorist attacks.

                                                           The Homeland Security Act of 2002 created the directorate within the new
                                                           department and transferred to it the functions, personnel, assets, and
                                                           liabilities of several existing organizations with critical infrastructure
                                                           protection responsibilities, including the National Infrastructure Protection
                                                           Center (other than the Computer Investigations and Operations Section)
                                                           and the Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office.
Law enforcement training (with foreign governments)
Federal Law Enforcement      Glynn County (“Glynco”),      Serves as an interagency law enforcement training organization for federal
Training Center              Georgia, facility             law enforcement agencies. The center provides facilities, equipment, and
                                                           support services for conducting training of federal law enforcement
                                                           personnel. It also has a reimbursable program to accommodate the training
                                                           requirements of various federal agencies, state, local, and foreign law
                                                           enforcement personnel on a space-available basis. As a result of increased
                                                           domestic interest in training, it does not have the capacity to train foreign
                                                           nationals at its Glynn County (“Glynco”), Georgia, facility.




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Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau   Program or activity           Description of program or activity
Federal Law Enforcement     International Programs        Under agreement with the Department of State, the Federal Law
Training Center             Division                      Enforcement Training Center’s (FLETC) International Programs Division
                                                          provides specialized training focused in three areas: (1) the U.S.
                                                          government’s Law and Democracy Program, with a focus on white-collar
                                                          crime, illegal narcotics, and building democratic institutions;
                                                          (2) Antiterrorism Assistance program, with a focus on combating
                                                          international terrorism; and (3) International Law Enforcement Academies
                                                          (ILEA), with a focus on law enforcement skills.

                                                          Recently, the division’s focus has been on ILEA training, including leading
                                                          assessments to identify training needed by participating countries and
                                                          teaching the rule of law. The division also has focused on bilateral
                                                          programs with specific countries. FLETC instructors teach needed
                                                          skills/techniques in, for example, money laundering and investigations.
                                                          Presently, FLETC is finalizing a course on the Financing of Terrorism,
                                                          which will soon be offered to foreign nationals. Since its inception in 1994,
                                                          FLETC has helped train 1,900 law enforcement officials representing 34
                                                          countries.
Bureau of Customs and       Nunn-Lugar Cooperative        Provides basic and specialized border control training and equipment to
Border Protection           Threat Reduction Program      customs and law enforcement agencies with a focus on Russia, Belarus,
                                                          Kazakhstan, and the Ukraine. This program is funded through the
                                                          Department of Defense.
Bureau of Customs and       Project Amber                 Provides basic border control training and advanced courses on
Border Protection                                         cross-country tracking, targeting of high-risk shipments, and proper
                                                          utilization of Department of State-provided x-ray vans to detect nuclear
                                                          materials.
Bureau of Customs and       Service Counter-proliferation Cooperative effort with the Department of Defense that provides border
Border Protection           Program                       control training and equipment, including large consignments of high- and
                                                          low-tech interdiction and detection tools and advanced investigative
                                                          techniques.
Bureau of Customs and       Export Control/Border         Provides on-site technical assistance by 13 customs advisors in 9 offices
Border Protection           Security Program              who cover 25 countries. Focuses on delivery of training, technical
                                                          assistance, and equipment; coordinates the delivery of assistance from
                                                          other federal agencies; and fosters host country interagency cooperation
                                                          and cross-border and regional cooperation.
Border Security
Bureau of Immigration and   Customs Air and Marine        Responsible for protecting the nation’s borders and the American people
Customs Enforcement         Interdiction                  from smuggling of narcotics and other contraband terrorist activity with an
                                                          integrated air and marine interdiction force.




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Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau   Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Bureau of Customs and       Operation Shield America        Cooperative initiative with American companies to help prevent
Border Protection                                           international terrorist groups from obtaining sensitive U.S. technology,
                                                            weapons, and equipment. Operating internationally, customs attaché
                                                            offices have begun reaching out to foreign law enforcement counterparts to
                                                            help raise awareness among businesses in their countries. Operation
                                                            Shield America tracks inquiries and orders for technology to be shipped
                                                            outside the United States; ensures export specialists know export controls
                                                            and follow appropriate screening and licensing; ensures employees
                                                            understand certain technologies are restricted from export; and
                                                            investigates suspicious customers attempting to obtain sensitive
                                                            technologies.
Bureau of Customs and       Advanced Passenger              Provides mandatory information on arriving airline passengers that is
Border Protection           Information System              submitted to the immigration inspectors for review. Failure to transmit
                                                            arriving passenger data could result in penalties ranging from monetary
                                                            fines for the pilot up to the revocation of landing rights for the airline.
Bureau of Customs and       Automated Manifest System       Provides extensive data to customs inspectors on the shipping industry, its
Border Protection                                           patterns, and all who participate. Customs officials report that they receive
                                                            information on 98 percent of all containers entering the United States.
Bureau of Customs and       Trade Partnership Against       Cooperative agreement to work with the trade community to improve border
Border Protection           Terrorism                       security. Based on a model designed to prevent smuggling of illegal drugs,
                                                            the initiative was proposed to improve security along the entire supply
                                                            chain, from the factory floor, to foreign vendors, to U.S. ports of entry.
Bureau of Customs and       Smart Border Declaration        Cooperative agreement between the United States and Canada whereby
Border Protection                                           customs officials in both countries target and pre-screen cargo headed to
                                                            each country. The agreement focuses on four areas: (1) secure flow of
                                                            people, (2) goods, (3) investments in technology to expedite trade and
                                                            minimize threats, and (4) coordination and information sharing to defend
                                                            common borders. A similar agreement is being negotiated between the
                                                            United States and Mexico.
Bureau of Customs and       NEXUS Program                   Allows low-risk Canadian and U.S. citizens to travel across the U.S.-
Border Protection                                           Canadian border with minimal customs or immigration processing by either
                                                            country. This is a pilot program.
Bureau of Customs and       Container Security Initiative   Protects the use of ocean-going sea containers in international trade.
Border Protection                                           Initially the focus will be on the largest ports of entry and focus on pre-
                                                            screening of cargo prior to shipment to the United States. The initiative is
                                                            expected to (1) establish criteria for identifying high-risk containers, (2) pre-
                                                            screen containers before they are shipped to the United States, (3) use
                                                            technology to pre-screen high-risk containers, and (4) develop and use
                                                            smart/secure containers.
U.S. Coast Guard            Maritime border controls        The U.S. Coast Guard participates in efforts to detect terrorists and their
                            between ports of entry          materials outside maritime ports of entry. The U.S. Coast Guard has a
                                                            National Vessel Movement Center that identifies and tracks “high interest”
                                                            vessels. Decisions on appropriate actions to be taken with respect to such
                                                            vessels, such as whether to board, escort, or deny entry are based upon
                                                            established criteria and procedures.




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Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau    Program or activity              Description of program or activity
U.S. Border Patrol           Land border controls             The U.S. Border Patrol has the mission to detect and apprehend illegal
                             between ports of entry           aliens and smugglers between U.S. ports of entry. The Border Patrol is
                                                              responsible for patrolling about 6,000 miles of Mexican and Canadian
                                                              international land borders and 2,000 miles of coastal waters surrounding
                                                              the Florida Peninsula and the island of Puerto Rico. Agents patrol these
                                                              borders utilizing various vehicles, including aircraft, marine vessels, all-
                                                              terrain vehicles, and horse units.
DISRUPT AND DESTROY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
Law enforcement Investigations
Bureau of Immigration and    Customs Attachés                 Work closely with host government customs services and other law
Customs Enforcement                                           enforcement agencies to coordinate law enforcement actions domestically
                                                              and internationally against terrorists cells and networks.
Bureau of Immigration and    Operation Global Shield          Immigration Control Officers deployed at transit points around the world to
Customs Enforcement                                           serve as the front line of defense against those individuals who might well
                                                              cause harm to the security of the United States. The control officers work
                                                              closely with host country government agencies to gather law enforcement
                                                              intelligence and information on migrant smuggling and trafficking
                                                              organizations.
Bureau of Immigration and    Operation Oasis                  Operation is directed at identifying, detecting, and halting the illegal
Customs Enforcement                                           exportation of unreported currency to terrorist activity.
Bureau of Immigration and    Customs investigations           Responsible for investigating a range of issues including terrorist financing,
Customs Enforcement                                           export enforcement, money laundering, smuggling, fraud, and cyber
                                                              crimes.
U.S. Secret Service          Investigates terrorists’         Investigates terrorists’ threats against officials under its protective mission
                             threats                          overseas, including the President and Vice President.
Identifying, freezing, and seizing terrorist organizations’ assets
Bureau of Immigration and    Operation Green Quest            Multi-agency financial enforcement initiative intended to augment existing
Customs Enforcement                                           counter-terrorist efforts by bringing the full scope of the government's
                                                              financial expertise to bear against systems, individuals, and organizations
                                                              that serve as sources of terrorist funding. Operation Green Quest is aimed
                                                              at identifying, freezing, and seizing the accounts and assets of terrorist
                                                              organizations that pose a threat to the United States and other nations.
U.S. Secret Service          Investigates                     Responsible for enforcing laws related to securities of the United States
                             financial crimes                 and financial crimes. Its efforts to combat international terrorism rest
                                                              primarily on the investigation of counterfeiting of currency and securities.




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                                                            Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
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Department of Homeland
Security office or bureau                  Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Military Operations
U.S. Coast Guard                           Maritime interception            Conducts maritime interception operations. In its role as a military service,
                                           operations                       the U.S. Coast Guard supports regional military commands, which have
                                                                            requested and received U.S. Coast Guard cutters to conduct such
                                                                            operations. To accomplish its missions to combat terrorism, both domestic
                                                                            and overseas, the U.S. Coast Guard is developing a U.S. Coast Guard
                                                                            Maritime Strategy for Homeland Security. This strategy puts a premium on
                                                                            identifying and intercepting threats well before they reach U.S. shores by
                                                                            conducting layered, multi-agency, maritime security operations that include
                                                                            surveillance and reconnaissance, tracking, and interception.
Protection of Americans abroad
U.S. Secret Service                        Protection of senior officials   Responsible for the security of the President and Vice President, as well as
                                           overseas                         other designated individuals under its protective mission overseas.
RESPOND TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS ABROAD
Crisis and consequence management domestic and abroada
Department of Homeland                     Emergency Response               Includes a number of response teams with unique capabilities that are
Security                                   Teams                            primarily used in a domestic capacity, but could respond overseas to a
                                                                            terrorist incident.
Source: Department of Homeland Security.
                                                            a
                                                             The response to a terrorist incident involves managing the immediate crisis as well as its
                                                            consequences. “Crisis management” involves efforts to prevent and deter a terrorist attack, protect
                                                            public health and safety, arrest terrorists, and gather evidence for criminal prosecution.
                                                            “Consequences management” involves efforts to provide medical treatment and emergency services,
                                                            evacuate people from dangerous areas, and restore government services.




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Matrix of Department of Justice Programs and
Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                                                               Appen
                                                                                                                                          Ix
                                                                                                                                           di




                                            The Department of Justice supports the Department of State, which is the
                                            lead federal agency for coordinating U.S. government efforts to combat
                                            terrorism overseas. Within the department, multiple bureaus and offices
                                            manage various programs and activities to combat terrorism abroad. The
                                            Department of Justice also works with other U.S. government agencies,
                                            foreign government law enforcement organizations and agencies, and
                                            multinational organizations in carrying out these programs and activities.
                                            For many of these activities, there may be no clear boundary between
                                            combating terrorism domestically and overseas. Some of these activities
                                            directed at combating terrorism overseas (e.g., coordination) may actually
                                            occur in the United States.

                                            Appendix III identifies and describes the following:

                                            • the strategic framework of Justice’s efforts to combat terrorism
                                              overseas;

                                            • Justice’s programs and activities to detect and prevent terrorism
                                              overseas;

                                            • Justice’s programs and activities to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                                              organizations overseas; and

                                            • Justice’s programs and activities to respond to terrorist incidents
                                              overseas.



Table 12: Department of Justice Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas

Department of Justice
office or bureau              Program or activity           Description of program or activity
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
Agency head’s role in counterterrorism
Justice, Attorney General     Head of the Department of     Represents the United States in legal matters related to terrorism and
                              Justice and chief law         gives advice and opinions to the President and to the heads of the
                              enforcement officer of the    executive departments of the government. Also, the Attorney General,
                              federal government            through the Department of Justice, has the lead federal role for crisis
                                                            management in a domestic terrorist incident and a support role to the
                                                            Department of State during a terrorist incident overseas.
Special agency official or office in charge of counterterrorism




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                                                Matrix of Department of Justice Programs
                                                and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas




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Department of Justice
office or bureau                  Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Justice, Deputy Assistant         Criminal Division,             This section is responsible for the design, implementation, and support
Attorney General                  Counterterrorism Section       of law enforcement efforts to combat international terrorism, including
                                                                 legislative initiatives and policies. This includes investigating and
                                                                 prosecuting suspected terrorists for acts of terrorism against U.S.
                                                                 interests worldwide.
Justice, U.S. Attorney District   Anti-Terrorism Task Forces     Integrates and coordinates the anti-terrorism activities in each of the
Offices                                                          judicial districts within the United States. The task forces are comprised
                                                                 of federal prosecutors from the U.S. Attorneys Office, members of federal
                                                                 law enforcement agencies, as well as the primary state and local
                                                                 enforcement officials in each district. They serve as part of a national
                                                                 network that coordinates closely with the Joint Terrorism Task Forces in
                                                                 the collection, analysis, and dissemination of information. The Anti-
                                                                 Terrorism Task Forces also develop the U.S. investigative and
                                                                 prosecution strategy throughout the country.
Justice, Deputy Attorney          National Security              Coordinates policy, resource allocation, operations, long-term planning,
General                           Coordination Council           and information sharing related to national security efforts to combat
                                                                 terrorism. Membership includes the Deputy Attorney General, who
                                                                 heads up the council, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
                                                                 (FBI), and other department officials.
Agency plans or strategies to combat terrorism
Justice, U.S. Attorney General Five-Year Interagency        Serves as a baseline strategy for coordination of national policy and
                               Counterterrorism and         operational capabilities to combat terrorism in the United States and
                               Technology Crime Plan (Sept. against American interests overseas.
                               1999)
Justice, U.S. Attorney General Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years Provides a multi-year plan for carrying out the department’s mission. The
                               2001-2006 (Sept. 2000)          plan is oriented toward achieving the vision of securing equal justice for
                                                               all, enhancing respect for the rule of law, and making America a safer
                                                               and less violent nation. The plan includes goals, objectives, and
                                                               strategies for the next 5 years. It also describes key interagency
                                                               programs and summarizes the external factors that may affect goal
                                                               achievement.
Justice, U.S. Attorney General National Money Laundering         The strategy includes, for the first time, a comprehensive national plan to
                               Strategy, jointly issued by the   attack the financing of terrorist groups. Goal 2 of the Strategy focuses
                               Attorney General and the          law enforcement and regulatory resources on identifying terrorist
                               Secretary of the Treasury in      financing networks by (1) implementing a multi-pronged operational
                               July 2002                         strategy to combat terrorist financing, (2) identifying and targeting the
                                                                 methods used by terrorists financiers, and (3) improving international
                                                                 efforts to dismantle terrorist financial networks. The strategy is an
                                                                 interagency plan, which draws on the expertise and resources of the
                                                                 Departments of Justice and the Treasury, and other federal agencies as
                                                                 well as foreign partners and the private sector.
FBI                               Strategic Plan 1998-2003       Concentrates on specific 5-year strategic goals and key functional
                                  (May 1998)                     strategies in areas related to operations, intelligence, information
                                                                 technology, applied science and engineering, management, and state
                                                                 and local services. The plan guides the direction, priorities, and
                                                                 resources of the FBI. The plan currently is under revision to reflect the
                                                                 FBI’s recent reorganization, done in large part to provide additional
                                                                 resources to combat terrorism.




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                                             Matrix of Department of Justice Programs
                                             and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas




(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of Justice
office or bureau              Program or activity            Description of program or activity
DETECT AND PREVENT TERRORISM ABROAD
Law enforcement training (with foreign governments)
FBI                           International Law              Trains law enforcement officers from Central Europe and the newly
                              Enforcement Academy            independent states of the former Soviet Union. The academy provides
                              (ILEA)                        specialized short-term courses and an 8-week professional development
                              Budapest, Hungary              program focusing on law enforcement issues, rule of law, investigation
                                                             process, leadership, and ethics. It also serves as a cooperative effort
                                                             between the Departments of State, Justice, and the Treasury.
FBI, Training Division        International Training and     Conducts worldwide in-country training through the International Training
                              Assistance Unit                and Assistance Unit for foreign law enforcement entities. The unit
                                                             responds to training requests from the legal attachés for foreign police
                                                             agencies. The training emphasizes crisis management and major case
                                                             management as well as the investigation of transnational organized
                                                             crime groups. The training also enhances the FBI’s international
                                                             investigative mission by creating “cop-to-cop” relationships with foreign
                                                             law enforcement agencies.
Justice, Criminal Division,   International Criminal         Provides training and development assistance to police organizations
International Training and    Investigative Training         worldwide. The training also helps foreign governments develop the
Development Programs          Assistance Program             capacity to provide modern professional law enforcement services based
                                                             on democratic principles and respect for human rights. Activities include
                                                             the development of police forces in the context of international
                                                             peacekeeping operations and enhancing the capabilities of existing
                                                             police organizations in emerging democracies.
Justice, Criminal Division,   Office of Overseas             Provides justice-sector institution building assistance, including training
International Training and    Prosecutorial Development      of foreign judges and prosecutors, in coordination with various
Development Programs          Assistance and Training        government agencies and U.S. embassies. The training is intended to
                                                             strengthen the legislative and regulatory criminal justice infrastructure
                                                             within the host country, and enhance the capacity of the country to
                                                             investigate and prosecute crime more effectively, consistent with the rule
                                                             of law.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,   International Programs         Trains foreign nationals in conjunction with the Department of State’s
Firearms and Explosives       Branch training                Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs and/or
                                                             Bureau of Diplomatic Security’s Antiterrorism Assistance program.
                                                             Programs include: International Post Blast Investigation, International
                                                             Firearms and Explosives Identification, Tax and Revenue Training, and
                                                             Explosives Detection Canine Training. The branch also serves as
                                                             technical and legal experts with the Department of State on the
                                                             negotiation of several international instruments.

                                                             The ATF currently is establishing a Center for Explosive Research and
                                                             Training in Virginia. The ATF anticipates that training supplied there for
                                                             domestic and international law enforcement officials will become part of
                                                             the international fight against terrorism and violent crime.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau               Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Border security (including visa processing issues)
Justice                        National Security Entry-Exit    Tracks up to 200,000 foreign visitors each year and stops suspected
                               Registration System             terrorists prior to entry into the United States. The system verifies
                                                               visitor’s activities and whereabouts while in the country. Future plans will
                                                               include efforts to track up to 35 million foreign visitors entering the United
                                                               States annually. The system has three components that include
                                                               (1) fingerprinting and photographing at the border, (2) periodic
                                                               registration of aliens who stay in the United States 30 days or more, and
                                                               (3) exit controls that will help the Immigration and Naturalization Service
                                                               (INS) to remove those aliens who overstay their visas.
Justice                        Foreign Terrorist Tracking      Coordinates a multi-agency effort to identify, locate, and deny entry to, or
                               Task Force                      remove terrorists and their supporters from, the United States. The task
                                                               force includes a number of agencies, including the FBI, INS, and the U.S.
                                                               Customs Service.
DISRUPT AND DESTROY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
Law enforcement cooperation
FBI, Executive Assistant       Office of Law Enforcement       Establishes relationships and enhances information sharing with state
Director for Law Enforcement   Coordination                    and local police professionals. In addition, helps the FBI tap into the
Services                                                       strengths and capabilities of its partners.
FBI, Counterterrorism          National Joint Terrorism Task   Serves as the national coordinating mechanism for sharing information
Division                       Force                           on suspected terrorists, including those of foreign origin. Also, it
                                                               complements the local Joint Terrorism Task Forces to improve
                                                               collaboration and information sharing with other federal, state, and local
                                                               agencies. The task force operates out of the FBI’s Strategic Information
                                                               Operation Center in Washington, D.C.
FBI, Field Offices             Joint Terrorism Task Forces     Serves as a coordinating mechanism that combines the international and
                                                               national investigative resources of the federal government with the
                                                               street-level expertise of local law enforcement agencies. This “cop-to-
                                                               cop” relationship enables law enforcement agencies to share information
                                                               on suspected terrorists, including those of foreign origin. One of the most
                                                               robust Joint Terrorism Task Forces is in Washington, D.C., which has
                                                               representatives from 15 federal agencies. Throughout its field offices, the
                                                               FBI has 56 task forces in place.
Justice, Criminal Division     Terrorist Financing Task Force Coordinates the terrorist financing enforcement efforts within Justice’s
                                                              Criminal Division. The task force works with prosecutors around the
                                                              country as well as with the FBI’s Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force
                                                              and Terrorist Financing Operation Section to disrupt groups and
                                                              individuals representing terrorist threats.
FBI, Executive Assistant       International Operations        Promotes relations with both foreign and domestic law enforcement
Director for Law Enforcement                                   agencies and security services and facilitates investigative activities.
Services                                                       Also provides managerial support of the Legal Attaché Program.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau                  Program or activity             Description of program or activity
FBI, International Operations     Legal Attaché Program           Provides Senior Special Agents stationed at U.S. missions overseas who
                                                                  work closely with law enforcement agencies of host countries on
                                                                  common crime problems. They also play a large role in facilitating the
                                                                  international battle against terrorism by enlisting the cooperation of
                                                                  foreign law enforcement, enabling the arrest of U.S. terrorist suspects,
                                                                  and solving crimes against U.S. citizens.

                                                                  Legal Attachés also assist in coordinating investigations with federal law
                                                                  enforcement overseas by disseminating information to officials of key
                                                                  U.S. federal agencies stationed abroad. They routinely share information
                                                                  on investigations with liaisons serving with Department of Defense
                                                                  (DOD) components overseas. The FBI currently operates 44 legal
                                                                  attaché offices worldwide.
Justice, Criminal Division,       Negotiates bilateral and        In conjunction with the Department of State, the Office of International
Office of International Affairs   multilateral agreements         Affairs negotiates extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties with
                                                                  foreign governments. As of July 2002, the United States had bilateral
                                                                  Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties covering 46 jurisdictions and over a
                                                                  120 extradition treaties in force with foreign jurisdictions.
Justice                           U.S. National Central Bureau    Represents the United States as a member of INTERPOL. It facilitates
                                  of the International Criminal   international law enforcement cooperation by transmitting law
                                  Police Organization             enforcement-related information between the National Central Bureaus
                                  (INTERPOL)                      of INTERPOL, member countries, and U.S. law enforcement agencies. It
                                                                  also coordinates information relevant to international investigations and
                                                                  identifies patterns and trends in criminal activities.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,       Law enforcement cooperation Works directly and in cooperation with other agencies to enforce federal
Firearms and Explosives                                       laws and regulations related to firearms, explosives, and fire-related
                                                              violent crimes.
Law enforcement investigations
FBI, Counterterrorism             Lead agency in charge of        As principal investigative agency of the federal government, it serves as
Division                          investigating international     lead agency for international counterterrorism investigations. The FBI
                                  terrorist incidents             has extraterritorial jurisdiction to expand its investigative authority
                                                                  outside U.S. borders. Its investigations include incidents involving
                                                                  bombings, hostage taking, homicides of U.S. citizens overseas,
                                                                  sabotage, and extortion by threatening the use of weapons of mass
                                                                  destruction.
Justice                           Attorney General Guidelines     Establishes prediction levels and limits on international counterterrorism
                                  for FBI Foreign Intelligence    investigations involving U.S. persons or foreign nationals overseas.
                                  Collection and Foreign
                                  Counter-intelligence
                                  Investigations
FBI                               National Crime Information      Provides the names and identifying information of terrorist suspects
                                  Center Database                 under domestic and international investigations. The data is accessible
                                                                  to state and local law enforcement officers.
FBI                               Integrated Automated            Provides the capability to search and match fingerprints of suspected
                                  Fingerprint                     terrorists against millions of fingerprints contained in the criminal
                                  Identification System           fingerprint repository.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau                  Program or activity             Description of program or activity
FBI                               National Center for the         Provides investigative and operational support functions to federal, state,
                                  Analysis of Violent Crime       local, and foreign law enforcement agencies investigating unusual or
                                                                  repetitive violent crimes. The center also can provide support through
                                                                  expertise and consultation for non-violent matters related to national
                                                                  security.
Justice, Criminal Division,       Mutual legal assistance         Provides for the exchange of evidence between parties to a treaty, often
Office of International Affairs   treaties                        in a form that is admissible at trial. The treaties enable the Department of
                                                                  Justice to obtain foreign financial records and testimonial statements of
                                                                  foreign witnesses. In addition, they allow for the search and seizure of
                                                                  foreign evidence, and, in some cases, the right to freeze and recover the
                                                                  forfeiture of proceeds.
Justice, Criminal Division,       Letters rogatory                Letters rogatory are requests that come from judicial officials in one
Office of International Affairs                                   country to judicial officials in another country seeking assistance with an
                                                                  investigation. The letters usually include background on the nature and
                                                                  targets of the criminal investigation, relevant facts about the case or
                                                                  investigation, type of assistance needed, statutes alleged to have been
                                                                  violated, and a promise of reciprocity.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,       International Programs          Combats the illegal movement of firearms, explosives, and ammunition
Firearms and Explosives           Branch                          to prevent such arms from being used to commit acts of terrorism,
                                                                  among other international crime. The responsibilities of the International
                                                                  Programs Branch include: (1) supervising and coordinating the utilization
                                                                  of ATF Country Attachés in support of International Trafficking in Arms
                                                                  Investigations, (2) developing international firearms programs and policy,
                                                                  (3) performing/conducting international firearms trafficking assessments,
                                                                  and (4) and performing/conducting firearms trafficking studies
                                                                  concerning foreign countries.

                                                                  According to the ATF, since September 11, 2001, its International
                                                                  Programs Branch has been inundated with requests for assistance from
                                                                  numerous foreign law enforcement agencies. Most of these requests
                                                                  have been for assistance in the area of explosives investigations,
                                                                  explosives tracing, and post-blast evidence recovery.
Law enforcement renditions and extraditions
Justice, Criminal Division,       Extradition treaties            Enables parties to a treaty to obtain custody of accused terrorists. The
Office of International Affairs                                   agreement provides for the request of one party to the treaty to the other
                                                                  party for the arrest and surrender of an individual accused or convicted
                                                                  of a crime in a country making the request. Modern extradition treaties
                                                                  contain a “dual criminality” clause, which makes any offense considered
                                                                  a crime in both countries extraditable.
FBI                               Renditions                      Escort agents apprehend and obtain custody of suspected terrorists
                                                                  without the formalities of an extradition treaty. This occurs when the
                                                                  asylum nation agrees to render the individual to the United States for trial
                                                                  or deports the individual out of the country.
Justice, U.S. Marshals            Extraditions-prisoner custody   Escort agents apprehend and transport suspected terrorists to the
Service                           and transportation              United States for prosecution once the extradition proceedings in a
                                                                  foreign country are complete and the suspected terrorist is ready for
                                                                  surrender.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau                Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Law enforcement arrests and prosecutions
Justice, Criminal Division,     Prosecutions                    Prosecutes suspected terrorists for acts of terrorism against U.S. citizens
Counterterrorism Section                                        or interests through the Department of Justice, Criminal Division’s
                                                                Terrorism Section.
Intelligence on terrorist groups and threat assessments
FBI, Executive Assistant        Counterterrorism Division       Centralizes operational and analytical functions to combat terrorism on
Director for Counterterrorism                                   three fronts: (1) international terrorism operations both within the United
and Counterintelligence                                         States and in support of extraterritorial investigations, (2) domestic
                                                                terrorism operations, and (3) countermeasures relating to both
                                                                international and domestic terrorism. The division enhances the level of
                                                                analytical support to the counterterrorism program, increases the
                                                                capability to electronically share information and intelligence, and
                                                                creates additional field office capacity to respond to terrorist issues.
                                                                Includes the National Joint Terrorism Task Force and the “Flying
                                                                Squads.”
FBI, Counterterrorism           “Flying Squads”                 Enables agents with specific counterterrorism knowledge to rapidly
Division                                                        access knowledge and expertise in the field to ensure it is relayed to FBI
                                                                headquarters for analysis.
FBI, Counterterrorism           Information Integration         Improves interagency terrorism-related information sharing by facilitating
Division                        Initiative                      the warehousing of law enforcement and public safety agencies data in a
                                                                single secure database. Also facilitates terrorism information sharing
                                                                between the FBI and the law enforcement and public safety
                                                                communities.
FBI, Counterterrorism           Terrorist Financing             The Terrorist Financing Operations Section works jointly with the law
Division                        Operations Section              enforcement and intelligence communities to identify, investigate, disrupt,
                                                                dismantle, and prosecute as appropriate, terrorist-related financial and
                                                                fund-raising activities. According to the FBI, the Terrorist Financing
                                                                Operations Section brings the bureau’s financial expertise to bear in
                                                                identifying terrorist financing methods and movement of money into and
                                                                out of the United States in support of terrorist activity.
FBI, Executive Assistant        Counter-intelligence Division   Coordinates investigative matters concerning foreign counterintelligence,
Director for Counterterrorism                                   including activities related to investigations into espionage, overseas
and Counterintelligence                                         homicide, protection of foreign officials and guests, and nuclear extortion.
                                                                The division also works with other government agencies and the private
                                                                sector to identify and protect U.S. secrets from being compromised by
                                                                foreign agents and spies.
FBI, Counterintelligence        Counter-Espionage Section       Manages espionage investigations and evaluates and prioritizes all
Division                                                        existing espionage cases to ensure effective allocation of human
                                                                resources and expertise.
FBI, Executive Assistant        Office of Intelligence          Serves as a strategic and tactical intelligence and analytical mechanism
Director for Counterterrorism                                   for pulling information from various sources. Also supports
and Counterintelligence                                         counterterrorism and counterintelligence programs through strategic and
                                                                tactical intelligence initiatives. In addition, the office ensures intelligence
                                                                within the law enforcement and intelligence communities in cases when it
                                                                is appropriate to do so.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau              Program or activity             Description of program or activity
FBI, Counterterrorism         Threat Assessment/              Assesses the potential threats existing in short- and long-term
Division                      Prevention Unit                 environments, both domestically and outside the United States. The unit
                                                              also determines the feasibility and credibility of threat information by
                                                              comparing intelligence collected by the intelligence community with
                                                              investigative information.
FBI, Counterterrorism         National Threat Warning         Provides threat warning information to the law enforcement and
Division                      System                          intelligence communities. The system also enables the FBI to
                                                              communicate threat information directly to U.S. citizens.
FBI                           Terrorism Watch List            Serves as a single integrated listing of suspected terrorists who are of
                                                              interest to FBI investigations. The watch list is accessible to the law
                                                              enforcement and intelligence communities. Information is derived from
                                                              the Joint Terrorism Task Force investigations, the intelligence community,
                                                              DOD, and foreign governments.
FBI, Counterterrorism         Publishes annual report on     The annual report, Terrorism in the United States, is published to provide
Division, Counterterrorism    Terrorism in the United States a comprehensive picture of the security threats that American citizens
Threat Assessment and                                        and interests have encountered in the United States.
Warning Unit
FBI, Counterintelligence      Awareness of national           Serves as the public voice of the FBI for espionage, counterintelligence,
Division                      security issues and response    counterterrorism, economic espionage, cyber and physical infrastructure
                                                              protection, and all national security issues. It also provides unclassified
                                                              national security threat and warning information via e-mail to U.S.
                                                              corporate physical and information security directors and executives, law
                                                              enforcement, and other government agencies.
FBI, Counterterrorism         National Infrastructure         Serves as the focal point for interagency efforts to warn of and respond
Division                      Protection Center               to cyber intrusions, both in the United States and overseas. The center
                                                              also gathers information on threats to the infrastructure and provides the
                                                              principal means of facilitating the coordination of the federal
                                                              government’s response to the incident. The center’s programs have been
                                                              established in each of the FBI’s field office divisions.
FBI, Counterterrorism         Information Sharing and         Increases security for the nation’s critical infrastructures through a two-
Division                      Analysis Center                 way sharing of information with the private sector. The center was
                                                              established through the National Infrastructure Protection Center to
                                                              enhance private sector cooperation and trust and information sharing.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,   National Firearms Tracing       Traces crime guns taken into police custody in the United States as well
Firearms and Explosives       Center                          as U.S.-source firearms recovered in foreign countries. The center is an
                                                              effort to curb the flow of illegal firearms.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,   Transnational Intelligence      In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the ATF
Firearms and Explosives       Branch                          created the Transnational Intelligence Branch to manage the classified
                                                              intelligence it received. The Department of the Treasury determines the
                                                              requirements and classifications.
RESPOND TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS ABROAD
Crisis and consequence managementdomestic and abroada
FBI, Counterterrorism         WMD Operations Unit             Coordinates the interagency threat assessment process and determines
Division                                                      the (1) credibility of the threat received, (2) immediate concerns involving
                                                              health and safety of the responding personnel, and (3) requisite level of
                                                              response warranted by the federal government.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau               Program or activity             Description of program or activity
FBI                            Strategic Information and       Serves as a focal point for information management, coordination, and
                               Operations Center               operational support. The center provides the facilities, information
                                                               systems, and communications equipment to support special events and
                                                               crisis operations. Also, during major crises, investigations, or special
                                                               events, the center is fully activated as a headquarters command center.
FBI, Executive Assistant       Laboratory Division             Provides forensic and technical services to federal, state, and local law
Director for Law Enforcement                                   enforcement agencies. The division collects and conducts analysis of
Services                                                       physical evidence ranging from biological materials to explosives.
                                                               Through its trained teams of FBI Special Agents and support personnel,
                                                               it can assist international law enforcement agencies with large-scale
                                                               investigations and disasters.
FBI, Executive Assistant       Investigative Technologies      Provides technical and tactical services in support of investigators and
Director for Law Enforcement   Division                        the intelligence community. Some of the services provided by the division
                                                               include electronic surveillance, physical surveillance, cyber technology,
                                                               and wireless radio communication. The division also is working on
                                                               developing new investigative technologies and techniques as well as
                                                               training the agents and personnel with the new technologies.
FBI, Laboratory Division,      Mobile Crime Laboratory         Provides the capability to collect and analyze a range of evidence at the
Enforcement Services                                           crime scene. The laboratory also has analytical instrumentation for rapid
                                                               screening and triage of explosives and other trace evidence recovered at
                                                               the crime scene.
FBI, Laboratory Division,      Flyaway Laboratory              Provides the capacity to rapidly respond to criminal acts involving the
Enforcement Services                                           use of chemical or biological agents with the mobile, self-contained lab.
                                                               The laboratory allows for the safe collection of hazardous materials,
                                                               sample preparation, storage, and analysis in a field setting.
FBI, Laboratory Division       Explosives Unit                 Examines evidence associated with bombings, including the
                                                               identification and function of the components used in the construction of
                                                               the explosive device. The unit also performs chemical analysis to help
                                                               identify the type of explosive used in the device.
FBI, Laboratory Division       Firearms Unit                   Examines evidence related to firearm and ammunition components. The
                                                               division also provides support with investigations involving the collection,
                                                               preservation, and processing of evidence at crime scenes. If needed, the
                                                               unit can serve as a liaison with international forensic laboratories.
FBI, Laboratory Division,      Evidence Response Team          FBI Special Agents who specialize in conducting major evidence
Enforcement Services                                           recovery operations. The unit is the laboratory representative to the
                                                               Critical Incident Response Group. The unit responds to crisis situations
                                                               and coordinates the mobilization of the Emergency Response Team.
FBI, Enforcement Services,     Critical Incident Response      This group facilities the rapid response toand the management
Critical Incident Response     Group                           ofcrisis incidents. The group deploys investigative specialists to
Group                                                          respond to terrorist activities, hostage taking, child abductions, and other
                                                               high-risk repetitive violent crimes.
FBI, Enforcement Services,     Crisis Negotiation Unit         Maintains an immediate operational response capability to conduct and
Critical Incident Response                                     manage on-scene negotiations during any significant crisis event in
Group                                                          which the FBI is involved. The unit deploys overseas to assist in the
                                                               management of kidnapping situations involving U.S. citizens.




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Department of Justice
office or bureau                              Program or activity                     Description of program or activity
FBI, Enforcement Services,                    Crisis Management Unit                  Operationally supports FBI field and headquarters entities during critical
Critical Incident Response                                                            incident or major investigations. The unit conducts crisis management
Group                                                                                 training and related activities for the FBI, and other international, federal,
                                                                                      state, and local agencies or department. It also conducts several regional
                                                                                      field-training exercises each year.
FBI, Enforcement Services,                    Rapid Deployment Logistics              Coordinates administrative and logistical matters for deploying the Rapid
Critical Incident Response                    Unit                                    Deployment Team. The unit also coordinates military and commercial
Group                                                                                 airlift deployment requirements for the Crisis Incident Response Group
                                                                                      and other FBI entities. In addition, it coordinates all Rapid Start
                                                                                      Information Management System matters in support of major
                                                                                      investigations and operations.
FBI                                           Rapid Deployment Team                   Provides the capability to deploy large numbers of personnel to crime
                                                                                      scenes in nations that are receptive to ongoing joint investigations. The
                                                                                      team enables the FBI to arrive on the scene with pre-constituted
                                                                                      investigative, administrative, and logistical support elements needed to
                                                                                      conduct a major investigation. The teams are designed to be fully
                                                                                      deployed in response to bombings of U.S. interests and are augmented
                                                                                      by a cadre of special agent bomb technicians. Evidence Response
                                                                                      Teams and security specialists also join the team.
FBI, Enforcement Services,                    Hostage Rescue Team                     Conducts rescues of U.S. persons and others held illegally by a hostile
Critical Incident Response                                                            force, either terrorist or criminal in nature. The team is capable of
Group                                                                                 performing other law enforcement activities related to dive searches,
                                                                                      hurricane relief operations, dignitary protection missions, and tactical
                                                                                      surveys. And, on occasion, the team pre-positions itself in support of
                                                                                      special security events.
FBI, Enforcement Services,                    Hazardous Materials                     Provides the capability to safely and effectively respond to incidents
Laboratory Division                           Response Unit                           involving the use of hazardous materials. The unit also develops
                                                                                      technical proficiency and readiness procedures for crime scene and
                                                                                      evidence-related operations.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,                   International Incident                  Responds with investigative assistance and laboratory support to assist
Firearms and Explosives                       Response Team                           foreign law enforcement authorities and governments in responding to
                                                                                      explosives and fire incidents. The response team was created in 1993
                                                                                      with the Department of State as a result of the 1993 bombing of the
                                                                                      U.S. Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The response team is in a
                                                                                      constant state of readiness. Since 1993, it has been deployed 22 times.
Source: Departments of State, Defense, Justice, and the Treasury.
                                                                    a
                                                                     The response to a terrorist incident involves managing the immediate crisis as well as its
                                                                    consequences. “Crisis management” involves efforts to prevent and deter a terrorist attack, protect
                                                                    public health and safety, arrest terrorists, and gather evidence for criminal prosecution.
                                                                    “Consequences management” involves efforts to provide medical treatment and emergency services,
                                                                    evacuate people from dangerous areas, and restore government services.




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Appendix IV

Matrix of Department of State Programs and
Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas                                                                                                     Appen
                                                                                                                                                V
                                                                                                                                                Id
                                                                                                                                                 xi




                                            The Department of State is the lead federal agency for coordinating U.S.
                                            government efforts to combat terrorism overseas. Within the department,
                                            multiple bureaus and offices manage various programs and activities to
                                            combat terrorism abroad. State also works with other U.S. government
                                            agencies, foreign government agencies, and international organizations in
                                            carrying out these programs and activities. Some of these activities
                                            directed at combating terrorism overseas (e.g., coordination) may actually
                                            occur in the United States.

                                            Appendix IV identifies and describes the following:

                                            • the strategic framework of State’s efforts to combat terrorism overseas;

                                            • State’s programs and activities to detect and prevent terrorism overseas;

                                            • State’s programs and activities to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                                              organizations overseas; and

                                            • State’s programs and activities to respond to terrorist incidents
                                              overseas.



Table 13: Department of State Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas

Department of State office
or bureau                    Program or activity             Description of program or activity
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
Agency head’s role in counterterrorism
Office of the Secretary      Directs State Department, the   The Secretary of State is responsible for the coordination of all U.S.
                             lead U.S. agency for            civilian departments and agencies that provide counterterrorism
                             counterterrorism activities     assistance overseas. The Secretary also is responsible for the
                             abroad                          management of all U.S. bilateral and multilateral relationships intended to
                                                             promote activities to combat terrorism abroad.

                                                             Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States,
                                                             the Office of the Secretary has made its counterterrorism activities a
                                                             top priority. The Office helps manage the U.S. “war on terrorism” by
                                                             (1) building the global coalition against terrorism; (2) building diplomatic
                                                             support for military operations in Afghanistan and other countries;
                                                             (3) helping coordinate intelligence to detect terrorist networks;
                                                             (4) imposing economic sanctions to reduce terrorist financing;
                                                             (5) supporting international law enforcement efforts to identify, arrest,
                                                             and bring terrorists to justice; and (6) leading multinational efforts
                                                             through the United Nations (UN) and other organizations to reduce
                                                             the terrorist threat.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Special agency official or office in charge of counterterrorism
Office of the Coordinator for   Coordinates all State            Coordinates U.S. overseas counterterrorism policy and response to
Counterterrorism                Department counterterrorism      international terrorist incidents that take place outside of U.S. territory.
                                activities and leads U.S.
                                government efforts to improve    Engages in bilateral, multilateral, and public diplomacy to deter terrorism
                                counterterrorism cooperation     through a policy of making no concessions to terrorists, prosecuting or
                                with foreign governments         extraditing international terrorists, opposing state-sponsored terrorism,
                                                                 and curbing terrorist resources.

                                                                 Provides the lead in conducting interagency bilateral counterterrorism
                                                                 consultation with about 20 foreign governments and participates in
                                                                 multilateral negotiations and meetings.

                                                                 Identifies and develops justification for the U.S. government’s biennial
                                                                 designation of foreign terrorist organizations.

                                                                 Chairs the State Department's terrorism task forces to coordinate
                                                                 responses to major international terrorist incidents, including those that
                                                                 may occur domestically.

                                                                 Coordinates U.S. counterterrorism research and development, including
                                                                 consultations and cooperation with selected countries.
Each U.S. ambassador            Responsible for the full array   See below for descriptions of counterterrorism activities at U.S. missions.
                                of counterterrorism activities
                                at each U.S. mission
Agency plans or strategies to combat terrorism
Office of the Secretary         State Department’s Annual        The State Department’s 2002 Annual Performance Plan highlights its
                                Performance Plan                 counterterrorism objective to “reduce international terrorist incidents,
                                                                 especially against the United States.” Key goals are to (1) reduce the
                                                                 number of attacks, (2) bring terrorists to justice, (3) reduce or eliminate
                                                                 state-sponsored terrorist acts, (4) delegitimize the use of terror as a
                                                                 political tool, (5) enhance the international response, and (6) strengthen
                                                                 international cooperation and operational capabilities to counter
                                                                 terrorism.
U.S. embassies                  Mission Performance Plan         Lists each embassy’s priorities and includes implementation and
(ambassador)                                                     budgeting plans. If counterterrorism activities are an embassy priority,
                                                                 then the plan should include specific goals and actions to counter
                                                                 the threat.




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Department of State office
or bureau                      Program or activity            Description of program or activity
DETECT AND PREVENT TERRORISM ABROAD
Military security assistance
Bureau of Political-Military   Regional security and arms     Supports the war on terrorism and Operation Enduring Freedom with
Affairs                        controls to enhance regional   security assistance programs such as (1) foreign military financing,
                               stability                      (2) foreign military sales, (3) International Military Education and Training,
                                                              and (4) peacekeeping operations.

                                                              For Operation Enduring Freedom, Political-Military Affairs stated that
                                                              arms transfers and security assistance policies have enhanced
                                                              cooperation with the states of the region and influenced operations in
                                                              Afghanistan. For example, arms transfers helped enhance security
                                                              cooperation with such key U.S. strategic partners as Egypt, Saudi Arabia,
                                                              Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates.
Embassy security
Bureau of Diplomatic           Responsible for providing a    Manages a broad range of programs to create and maintain the
Security                       secure environment for the     highest appropriate levels of security possible for more than 50,000
                               conduct of American            U.S. government personnel, staff, and dependents who work and live at
                               diplomacy worldwide            260 embassies, consulates, and other missions overseas. Diplomatic
                                                              Security can dispatch its teams to threatened overseas missions.
                                                              Diplomatic Security activities include protection of the Secretary of State
                                                              and other high-level U.S. government officials on official government
                                                              business abroad. At each U.S. mission, the regional security officer is
                                                              responsible for implementing the Bureau’s security measures and
                                                              coordinating protection with host government authorities.
Diplomatic Security            Review of standards and risk   Develops, evaluates, and applies security standards for a broad range of
                               management                     categories. These include (1) physical protection for office and residential
                                                              buildings, (2) access to communication equipment, (3) intrusion detection
                                                              devices, (4) secure conference rooms, and (5) armored vehicles.

                                                              These standards are intended to allow Diplomatic Security to identify and
                                                              address threats posed by terrorism, political violence, human intelligence,
                                                              and technical intelligence penetration of facilities. Diplomatic Security
                                                              uses these elements to target resource allocations to identified threats at
                                                              each mission or location. Diplomatic Security is required to provide to the
                                                              Congress each year a ranking of the U.S. missions abroad most
                                                              vulnerable to terrorist attack. These standards also help target additional
                                                              security funding to the highest threat missions, as in the case of
                                                              Emergency Security Supplemental and Worldwide Security Upgrade
                                                              funds to meet the most pressing security needs.
Bureau of Overseas             Embassy construction           Replaces State Department’s less secure facilities on an accelerated
Buildings Operations           program                        basis with new, secure embassies and consulates.

                                                              State has a 6-year Long-Range Overseas Buildings Plan, which includes
                                                              both new construction and the major renovation and rehabilitation of
                                                              existing facilities.




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Department of State office
or bureau                    Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Diplomatic Security          Embassy construction           Participates with Overseas Buildings Operations in developing embassy
                             program                        security measures.

                                                            Develops, with other elements in State, threat assessments that it uses to
                                                            prioritize which U.S. missions are most in need of new, safer embassy
                                                            buildings.
Diplomatic Security and      Worldwide Security Upgrade     Provides a physically secure environment for all U.S. government
Overseas Buildings           Program                        personnel under the jurisdiction of the Chief of Mission. Diplomatic
Operations                                                  Security, through the physical security program, strengthens building
                                                            exteriors, lobby entrances, and the walls and fences around embassies
                                                            and consulates. Inside an embassy or consulate, closed-circuit television
                                                            monitors, explosive-detection devices, walk-through metal detectors, and
                                                            hard-line walls and security doors provide protection. Diplomatic Security
                                                            and Overseas Buildings Operations have joint responsibility for this
                                                            program.
Diplomatic Security          Residential security           Provides for security upgrades to the residences of U.S. employees
                                                            assigned to overseas diplomatic and consular missions. Prior to
                                                            occupancy, all newly acquired residential facilities are equipped with
                                                            appropriate security features, such as locks, alarms, shatter-resistant
                                                            window film, and reinforced doors, based on the level of the threats to be
                                                            addressed.
Diplomatic Security          Overseas Protection of         Implements a comprehensive set of information protection programs.
                             Information                    These programs are intended to protect national security information
                                                            discussed at meetings in secure conference rooms or on secure
                                                            telephones, processed and stored on computers, and preserved and
                                                            communicated on paper documents. This program includes (1) personnel
                                                            investigations for security clearances, (2) courier protection for diplomatic
                                                            pouches, (3) construction security and access control equipment, (4) U.S.
                                                            Marine security guards controlling access to embassies at 130 U.S.
                                                            missions overseas, (5) locks for containers holding classified material,
                                                            (6) secure conference rooms, (7) detection and containment of
                                                            emanations from processing equipment, (8) counterintelligence
                                                            investigations and briefings, and (9) computer security.
Diplomatic Security          Surveillance Detection         Utilizes plainclothes security agents to provide surveillance detection
                             Program                        measures around U.S. embassies, consulates, and residences of
                                                            embassy employees. The program is used to identity suspicious activity,
                                                            such as terrorists’ “casing” of embassy facilities or personnel, and
                                                            includes capabilities intended to resolve all suspicious activity.
Diplomatic Security          Local Guard Services           Augments host government resources for protecting overseas diplomatic
                                                            and consular office facilities and residences of U.S. government
                                                            employees and dependents of all agencies under the Chief of Mission.
Diplomatic Security          Overseas Protective Vehicles   Provides light and heavy armor vehicles to protect embassy personnel.
                                                            One hundred percent of the Chief of Mission vehicles have been ordered
                                                            and are in the armoring phase, with 94 percent delivered to missions.




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Department of State office
or bureau                    Program or activity            Description of program or activity
Diplomatic Security          Security Liaison Officers      Provides Security Officers to selected DOD Unified Commands (U.S.
                                                            Central Command, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida; U.S. European
                                                            Command, Stuttgart-Vaihingen, Germany; and U.S. Pacific Command,
                                                            Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii). These officers coordinate with the
                                                            commands on theater threat assessments, contingency planning,
                                                            and implementation of Department of State and Department of Defense
                                                            (DOD) agreements on overseas security support.
Warnings to and information-sharing with Americans abroad
Bureau of Consular Affairs   Travel warnings, public        Ensures that important threat warnings and security information reach
                             announcements, and             U.S. citizens and assets abroad in a timely and effective manner.
                             Consular Information Sheets
                                                            In 2001, Consular Affairs issued 64 travel warnings, 134 public
                                                            announcements, and 189 Consular Information Sheets. Consular Affairs’
                                                            Internet Web site received 117.9 million inquiries, 30.7 million more than
                                                            in fiscal year 2000. According to Consular Affairs data, 90 percent of
                                                            the users found the information helpful. Consular Affairs also held
                                                            69 briefings for stakeholder groups, including international student
                                                            program participants, travel agents, and others.
Consular Affairs             Warden system for notifying    Notifies Americans who have registered with the U.S. embassy or
                             registered Americans of        consulate of potential terrorist threats. Warden networks consist of
                             threats                        telephone-calling trees, e-mails, fax systems, and other systems,
                                                            as appropriate. The warden system covers both U.S. embassy and
                                                            consulate personnel and other registered Americans. The system
                                                            usually works by alerting major employers or compounds with high
                                                            concentrations of Americans. It is used for a variety of communications
                                                            purposes, from passing out voter information to notifying wardens and
                                                            their wards of U.S. embassy evacuations.
Diplomatic Security          Overseas Security Advisory     Provides security support to U.S. businesses and private-sector
                             Council                        organizations worldwide through Overseas Security Advisory Councils.
                                                            A joint effort between State and the private sector, Overseas Security
                                                            Advisory Councils foster the exchange of security and threat information
                                                            and implementation of security programs and provides a forum to
                                                            address security concerns. Regional security officers coordinate with
                                                            Overseas Security Advisory Council headquarters to set up, develop,
                                                            and maintain councils in country. Overseas Security Advisory Councils
                                                            coordinate with U.S. embassies and are active in 47 countries.
Law enforcement training (with foreign governments)
Diplomatic Security          Antiterrorism Assistance       Provides training to approved foreign national participants in five areas:
                                                            law enforcement, protection of national leadership, control of borders,
                                                            protection of critical infrastructure, and crisis management. Antiterrorism
                                                            Assistance has trained 28,000 foreign national participants from
                                                            124 countries since its inception.
Diplomatic Security          Antiterrorism Assistance’s     Antiterrorism Assistance proposes to build the Center for Antiterrorism
                             proposed Center for            and Security Training, a consolidated facility for training in various
                             Antiterrorism and Security     antiterrorism disciplines.
                             Training




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Diplomatic Security             Antiterrorism Assistance’s       Provides quick in-country training to allied nations.
                                Mobile Emergency Training
                                Team
Bureau for International        International Law                Provides law enforcement to foreign governments. International Narcotics
Narcotics and Law               Enforcement Academy              and Law Enforcement Affairs manages the U.S. government’s
Enforcement Affairs                                              interagency regional International Law Enforcement Academies
                                                                 (Budapest, Hungary; Bangkok, Thailand; Gaborone, Botswana; and
                                                                 Roswell, New Mexico), in conjunction with the Departments of the
                                                                 Treasury and Justice, including the FBI. In fiscal year 2003, International
                                                                 Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is scheduled to provide law
                                                                 enforcement training to 12,000 officials, doubling the number trained in
                                                                 fiscal year 2001.
International Narcotics and     Law enforcement and police       Provides training and technical assistance to foreign law enforcement
Law Enforcement Affairs         science                          personnel to combat crime and advance U.S. interests in international
                                                                 counterterrorism cooperation. Law enforcement and police science
                                                                 training is managed and funded by International Narcotics and Law
                                                                 Enforcement Affairs and carried out by the Departments of Justice and
                                                                 the Treasury, among other federal agencies. The International Criminal
                                                                 Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and the Office of
                                                                 Overseas Prosecutorial Development and Training are examples of these
                                                                 types of programs.
Office of the Coordinator for   Countering terrorist financing   Provides, with the Departments of Justice and the Treasury, training and
Counterterrorism and                                             assistance to foreign governments to strengthen their financial and
International Narcotics and                                      regulatory regimes to reduce terrorist financing.
Law Enforcement Affairs
Border security (including visa processing issues)
Consular Affairs                Visas                            Processes applications for visas from foreign citizens who wish to visit the
                                                                 United States. Consular Affairs is to facilitate travel for those eligible to
                                                                 receive visas and to deny visas to those who are ineligible. A visa enables
                                                                 a person to apply at a port of entry to enter the United States, but it does
                                                                 not guarantee that a person will be able to enter the United States.
Consular Affairs                Consular Consolidated          Supports the antiterrorist task forces since September 11, 2001. In fiscal
                                Database (visa data, including year 2002, Consular Affairs performed numerous searches of visa
                                photographs)                   records and photographs at the request of federal law enforcement task
                                                               forces investigating the terrorist attacks. In addition, Passport Services
                                                               provided law enforcement with 305 records. Consular Affairs used facial
                                                               recognition software to compare the photographs on the visa applications
                                                               of the September 11 hijackers in the database against other visa
                                                               photographs. According to State, the review found no evidence that
                                                               the hijackers had applied for visas using different names.
Bureau of Intelligence and      TIPOFF program                   Manages the TIPOFF program, a database of sensitive intelligence
Research                                                         and law enforcement information contributed by the Central Intelligence
                                                                 Agency (CIA), National Security Agency, and the FBI. TIPOFF contains
                                                                 information on some 68,000 suspected terrorists and international
                                                                 organized crime figures. TIPOFF alerts consular officers at
                                                                 U.S. embassies and INS officers at ports of entry when potential
                                                                 terrorists try to enter the United States.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity               Description of program or activity
Consular Affairs/Visa           TIPOFF to impede terrorist        Uses TIPOFF in the visa program to identify and stop potential terrorists
Services                        entry into the United States      trying to enter the United States. In fiscal year 2001, Consular Affairs
                                                                  indicated that there had been 178 TIPOFF matches for visa applicants; of
                                                                  those, 81 were denied, 14 abandoned their applications, and 4 withdrew
                                                                  their applications. TIPOFF, used by the INS, yielded 86 matches from the
                                                                  terrorism database at ports of entry in fiscal year 2001. Of these, 38 of
                                                                  the individuals were denied entry, and 1 was arrested.
Diplomatic Security             Investigation of visa and         Impedes terrorist entry into the United States. Diplomatic Security
                                passport fraud                    investigates more than 3,500 passport and visa fraud cases annually,
                                                                  resulting in more than 500 arrests each year. A number of suspects have
                                                                  been linked to terrorism. Diplomatic Security has 450 special agents in
                                                                  over 160 countries and approximately 700 special agents assigned
                                                                  throughout the United States.
Office of the Coordinator for   Terrorist Interdiction Program    Enhances border security by providing participating foreign governments
Counterterrorism                                                  with a computerized database that allows border control officials to
                                                                  identify and detain or track individuals of interest. The Terrorist
                                                                  Interdiction Program currently is installed in 2 foreign countries, with
                                                                  another 60 countries under consideration. The Program is scheduled to
                                                                  be installed in up to five new countries per year.
Office of the Inspector         Investigation of visa and         Conducts visa and passport investigations. The Office of the Inspector
General                         passport fraud                    General conducted several joint investigations with the INS in fiscal year
                                                                  2001. In one case, the Office found that defendants took in $21 million by
                                                                  defrauding the visa program.
Public Diplomacy
Office of International         Build international support for   Influence international opinion in support of U.S. foreign policy objectives.
Information Programs            U.S. foreign policy               Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the Office of
                                                                  International Information Programs has encouraged international support
                                                                  for the war on terrorism. For example, its initiatives have generated over
                                                                  240 newspaper, 100 radio, and 150 television interviews, and over
                                                                  300 opinion-editorial articles in newspapers either signed or prepared for
                                                                  ambassadors. Almost 60 U.S. speakers have traveled abroad on Office of
                                                                  International Information Programs-funded programs addressing
                                                                  September 11-related issues. U.S. embassies have sponsored over
                                                                  100 panel discussions and over 220 speeches on the issue. In
                                                                  addition, Network of Terrorism, an Office of International Information
                                                                  Programs-produced print and electronic pamphlet, is available in
                                                                  36 languages, and 1.3 million print copies are in circulation.
DISRUPT AND DESTROY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
Military operations
Political-Military Affairs      State’s primary liaison with the Facilitates Defense-State actions concerning military operations.
                                Department of Defense




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Department of State office
or bureau                    Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Political-Military Affairs   Supporting U.S. military war    Assists in developing and maintaining the global military coalition against
                             on terrorism                    terrorism and serves as main point of contact for coalition matters.

                                                             Assists in negotiating with foreign governments for deployment orders,
                                                             requests for coalition forces, fly-over rights, and bed-down rights.
                                                             Between September 11, 2001, and the end of January 2002, Political-
                                                             Military Affairs processed 120 deployment orders and 72 requests for
                                                             coalition forces in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
Political-Military Affairs   Political Advisor to U.S.       Political-Military Affairs provides personnel to DOD and the principal
                             regional military commands      military commands to improve cooperation between State and the U.S.
                                                             military. For example, the Political Advisor at the U.S. Central Command
                                                             provides liaison services between State, the command, and the
                                                             representatives of the 31 nations located at U.S. Central Command
                                                             headquarters that provide assets for Operation Enduring Freedom.
International relations
Office of the Secretary      Worldwide diplomatic support    Received offers of military assistance for the war on terrorism from
                             for war on terrorism and        136 countries.
                             Operation Enduring Freedom
                                                             Secured over-flight rights from 89 countries.

                                                             Secured landing rights for U.S. military aircraft from 76 countries.

                                                             Secured NATO support to invoke article V of the NATO charter, which
                                                             states that an attack on one is an attack on all.

                                                             Developed new U.S. relationships with key countries against terrorism.
U.S. embassies               Bilateral diplomatic support for Implements the above activities of the Office of the Secretary, in support
(ambassador)                 war on terrorism and             of the war on terrorism and Operation Enduring Freedom.
                             Operation Enduring Freedom




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Department of State office
or bureau                     Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Bureau of International       Works with international        Develops and implements U.S. counterterrorism policy in the UN and
Organization Affairs          organizations on                other international organizations, serving as State’s primary liaison.
                              counterterrorism issues
                                                              Helped craft and aided in the adoption of United Nations Security Council
                                                              Resolution (UNSCR) 1373, obligating all member nations to fight
                                                              terrorism and report to the Security Council on their counterterrorism
                                                              efforts.

                                                              Assisted in the creation of a UN Counterterrorism Committee to oversee
                                                              the implementation of UNSCR 1373. Through bilateral and multilateral
                                                              efforts, International Organization Affairs encourages all nations to
                                                              comply with UNSCR 1373 and has offered the services of the U.S.
                                                              government to other nations to aid in their compliance.

                                                              Assisted with resolutions extending UN sanctions on (1) al Qaeda and
                                                              the Taliban, (2) Iraq (including gaining passage of new “smart sanctions”),
                                                              (3) Libya, and (4) certain African regimes, including those whose
                                                              activities benefit terrorists.

                                                              Assisted in the lifting of UN sanctions on Sudan, which has cooperated
                                                              with the international community and the United States in its war on
                                                              terrorism.

                                                              Aided in the UN International Atomic Energy Association’s reevaluation of
                                                              its response to the threat of nuclear terrorism.

                                                              Assisted in the UN International Civil Aviation Organization’s passing an
                                                              antiterrorism resolution.
Office of the Coordinator for Reduce the flow of money and    Blocks terrorism-related financing. The Office of the Coordinator for
Counterterrorism,             other material support to       Counterterrorism, with the concurrence of the Departments of Justice
International Narcotics and   terrorists.                     and the Treasury, designates foreign terrorist organizations, individuals,
Law Enforcement Affairs, and                                  and groups for a variety of purposes, including to block terrorism-related
the Economic Bureau, in                                       financing. The Economic Bureau is responsible for leading the effort to
coordination with the                                         build international coalition support to also block these assets. According
Department of the Treasury                                    to State, since September 11, 2001, the United States has blocked
and other agencies                                            $34.3 million in terrorist-related assets.
Office of the Legal Adviser   Negotiates international        Pursues extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties with foreign
                              agreements                      governments and works with the UN and with other nations in drafting
                                                              multilateral agreements, treaties, and conventions on counterterrorism.
Office of the Legal Adviser   Works with Department of        Works closely with the Department of Justice’s Office of International
                              Justice on international law    Affairs on specific cases and on building consensus on broad
                              enforcement issues              international counterterrorism and crime issues.
Office of the Legal Adviser   Drafts U.S. counterterrorism-   The Office of the Legal Adviser works with the Office of the Coordinator
                              related legislation             for Counterterrorism, the Economic Bureau, and the Department of
                                                              Justice when U.S. legislation is needed to combat terrorism abroad.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Law enforcement
Diplomatic Security and         Law enforcement cooperation     Cooperates with local intelligence, security, and law enforcement entities
Regional Security Officer                                       to track and capture terrorists in country and to block attempted terrorist
                                                                attacks on U.S. citizens and U.S. assets abroad.
Diplomatic Security             Investigations of terrorist     Conducts investigations of terrorist incidents involving U.S. diplomatic
                                incidents                       personnel and other persons under its protection. These investigations
                                                                are conducted for the purpose of preventing or deterring future incidents.
                                                                Diplomatic Security supports the FBI in its extra-territorial investigations
                                                                into the criminal prosecution of the perpetrators.
Office of the Coordinator for   Coordinates State’s role in     Captures suspected terrorists overseas. In cases where the United
Counterterrorism                negotiating and conducting      States lacks an extradition treaty, the U.S. government can capture
                                renditions                      suspected terrorists through an overseas arrest called a rendition. The
                                                                Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, in conjunction with the
                                                                Office of the Legal Adviser, the Department of Justice, and other
                                                                agencies, would coordinate State’s role in negotiating and conducting
                                                                these arrests. Since 1987, there have been 11 reported renditions.
Diplomatic Security             Rewards for Justice Program     Provides payments for information leading to the arrest and prosecution
                                                                of individuals involved in international terrorism and for information that
                                                                thwarts a terrorist attack. Rewards have been offered for terrorists
                                                                involved in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the African
                                                                embassy bombings, and the USS Cole bombing. The program awards
                                                                payments of up to $25 million for this information. In fiscal year 2001,
                                                                State spent $113,000 for cases concerning terrorist acts, $1.7 million for
                                                                cases concerning narcotics traffickers, and $14,000 for cases concerning
                                                                war crimes. In the past 7 years, the United States has paid over
                                                                $9.5 million to 23 individuals who provided credible information leading to
                                                                the arrest of international terrorists.
Intelligence on terrorist groups and threat assessments
Intelligence and Research       Intelligence support for        Prepares intelligence reports for the Secretary of State, department
                                Secretary of State and for U.S. officials, and ambassadors at U.S. missions. Monitors governmentwide
                                missions                        intelligence activities to ensure their compatibility with U.S.
                                                                counterterrorism foreign policy objectives. Seeks to expand interagency
                                                                data sharing on known terrorist suspects.
Intelligence and Research       Intelligence assessments and    Conducted the first public opinion survey inside Taliban-controlled
                                policy guidance                 Afghanistan to determine public reaction to the Taliban government.
                                                                Results were used in U.S. counterterrorism briefings to State, the NSC,
                                                                the CIA, DOD, and U.S. Central Command officials.

                                                                Conducted “flash surveys” immediately after September 11, 2001, in
                                                                Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,
                                                                and the Palestinian Authority to gauge Arab public reaction to the attacks
                                                                on the United States and public perceptions of Osama bin Laden for use
                                                                in policy formulation.
Intelligence and Research       Electronic Read-and- Burn       Provides intelligence products, especially threat information, to chiefs of
                                Pilot Project                   mission who could not previously receive this type of highly classified
                                                                material.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity             Description of program or activity
Office of the Coordinator for   Studies terrorist groups        Publishes an unclassified report called Patterns of Global Terrorism, as
Counterterrorism                worldwide                       called for under 22, U.S.C. § 2656f (a).
Diplomatic Security             Publishes annual security       The annual reports, Significant Incidents of Political Violence against
                                reports                         Americans and Terrorist Tactics and Security Practices: Lessons
                                                                Learned, and Issues in Global Crime, are intended to provide a
                                                                comprehensive picture of the broad spectrum of political violence and
                                                                security threats to American citizens and interests abroad.
Diplomatic Security and         Threat and intelligence         Interacts with police and intelligence contacts in other countries. A
Regional Security Officer       assessments                     mission’s regional security officer often is the first to recognize, through
                                                                investigative work, possible terrorist activities. Diplomatic Security agents
                                                                frequently are requested to follow up on leads for other law enforcement
                                                                agencies not represented at the mission.
Intelligence information sharing (with foreign governments)
Diplomatic Security and         Information sharing and         Cooperates with foreign governments and their law enforcement and
Regional Security Officer       cooperation with host country   security forces in sharing threat and security information.
                                governments
                                                                Conducts extensive liaison with foreign police and security and
                                                                intelligence services, which allows regional security officers to assist
                                                                other U.S. government law enforcement agencies. Such activities include
                                                                criminal record checks, tracing fugitives, interviewing informants and
                                                                suspects, and processing extradition requests.
RESPOND TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS ABROAD
Crisis and consequence management domestic and abroada
Office of the Coordinator for   Headquarters leadership of       Serves as the lead for crisis and consequence management in directing
Counterterrorism                the U.S. government response the U.S. government response to a terrorist incident overseas. The Office
                                to a terrorist incident overseas of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism would lead a task force and work
                                                                 through the State Department Operations Center (discussed below).
State Department                Headquarters task force for     State’s Operations Center maintains a 24-hour global watch and crisis
Operations Center               coordinating the U.S.           management support staff. The watch is the initial point of contact for
                                government response to a        posts experiencing emergency crises, including terrorist attacks. In a
                                terrorist incident overseas     crisis, the Operations Center would establish a 24-hour task force to
                                                                coordinate the flow of communications and instructions between the
                                                                Department of State, other involved agencies, overseas posts, and
                                                                foreign governments. This task force would be led by the Office of the
                                                                Coordinator for Counterterrorism and, in addition to relevant State
                                                                Department bureaus, may include other U.S. government agencies with
                                                                action responsibilities.
U.S. embassies                  Serves as the U.S.              In a given country, the ambassador would act as the on-scene
(ambassador)                    government on-scene             coordinator in a terrorist incident. The ambassador would lead the
                                coordinator for terrorist       Emergency Action Committee to manage the response. The ambassador
                                incidents overseas              could request a Foreign Emergency Support Team (discussed below) for
                                                                assistance and to help coordinate the U.S. government’s interagency
                                                                response.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Office of the Coordinator for   Foreign Emergency Support        In coordination with the NSC, the Office of the Coordinator for
Counterterrorism                Team to provide on-scene         Counterterrorism would lead an interagency Foreign Emergency Support
                                support                          Team to assist the ambassador and host government to manage a
                                                                 terrorist incident. The team is advisory and will not enter the host country
                                                                 unless requested by the ambassador, with the host government’s
                                                                 permission. The team provides the ambassador a single point of contact
                                                                 to coordinate all U.S. government on-scene support during a terrorist
                                                                 incident. Each team is tailored to the specific incident and can provide
                                                                 guidance on terrorist policy and incident management, dedicated secure
                                                                 communications, and special expertise.
Diplomatic Security             Special Diplomatic Security      Deploys its Mobile Support Teams and Security Support Teams to
                                teams to assist and              respond to increased threats or critical security needs at U.S. missions in
                                investigate crisis situations    crisis, including providing special training or draw down/evacuation
                                                                 assistance. These teams provide supplemental support to regional
                                                                 security officers and stand ready for immediate deployment to any U.S.
                                                                 mission where conditions require the reestablishment of a secure
                                                                 environment.
Political-Military Affairs      Consequence                      Serves as the lead for consequence management in directing the U.S.
                                management; Consequence          government response to a terrorist incident outside of U.S. territory. The
                                Management Support Team          U.S. government provides assistance overseas when a U.S. ambassador
                                                                 has determined that the host government is unable to cope with a
                                                                 problem, when the host government seeks U.S. assistance, and when it
                                                                 is in the U.S. interest to provide such assistance.

                                                                 Provides a standing Consequence Management Support Team designed
                                                                 to help manage the consequence of a WMD emergency overseas. The
                                                                 multi-agency team is tailored to manage the specific emergency situation
                                                                 or conditions of the host nation. The team coordinates and facilitates the
                                                                 flow of critical requirements and information necessary to respond,
                                                                 advise, and assist foreign government and U.S. decision makers. The
                                                                 team would deploy as an integral part of FEST operations and would take
                                                                 the lead for the consequence management response.
Overseas Buildings              Emergency Response Team          Helps secure embassy grounds and restore communications following a
Operations                                                       crisis.
Consular Affairs                Medical needs                    Assists American victims with medical needs. Also, assists in the process
                                                                 of identifying victim remains, notifying the next of kin, and shipping home
                                                                 the remains.
Consular Affairs                Liaison with U.S. citizens       Provides assistance for Americans stranded overseas by the closure of
                                under duress                     U.S. air space.
Consular Affairs                Liaison with foreign nationals   Provided assistance to New York City officials handling the deaths of
                                in the United States             foreign nationals in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World
                                                                 Trade Center.

                                                                 Works with the Department of Justice to address foreign embassy
                                                                 concerns regarding the large number of aliens detained on a variety of
                                                                 charges as part of the war on terrorism.




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Department of State office
or bureau                       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Planning and exercises at headquarters and abroad
Office of the Coordinator for   Counterterrorism Security        Manages the interagency exercise program for combating terrorism
Counterterrorism                Group, Exercise and              overseas and coordinates these exercises with other departments. The
                                Readiness Subgroup               exercise program is designed to strengthen the U.S. government’s ability
                                                                 to deal with terrorist attacks.
Office of the Coordinator for   International Senior Officials   Conducts Senior Policy Workshops with friendly foreign governments.
Counterterrorism                Workshops                        These workshops are generally tabletop simulations with no actual
                                                                 physical deployment of troops. Coordinates training programs to help
                                                                 other countries develop and coordinate responses to a WMD event.
Political-Military Affairs      Contingency planning             Has responsibility for preparing U.S. forces, foreign governments, and
                                                                 international organizations to manage the consequences of a chemical,
                                                                 biological, radiological, or nuclear incident overseas.
Political-Military Affairs      Consequence management           Sponsors consequence management exercises, in conjunction with other
                                exercises                        U.S. government agencies. Exercises can be directed at select
                                                                 department and agency components, for example, regional military
                                                                 commands, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or partner
                                                                 nations.
Diplomatic Security             Emergency Planning               Serves as a consolidated source of guidance for overseas missions on
                                Handbook                         how to plan for and deal with emergencies abroad. The handbook is used
                                                                 as the principal reference when a mission prepares its Emergency Action
                                                                 Plan.
U.S. embassies                  Emergency Action Committee Every foreign service mission is required to have an Emergency Action
                                                           Committee. In organizing for emergency action, the Chief of Mission
                                                           establishes a committee and designates personnel responsible for
                                                           specific crisis-related functions. The Emergency Action Committee is
                                                           responsible for developing and testing the mission’s Emergency Action
                                                           Plan.
U.S. embassies                  Emergency Action Plan            Every foreign service mission requires an Emergency Action Plan, which
                                                                 is written by members of the Emergency Action Committee and provides
                                                                 mission-specific procedures for responding to terrorist and other crises.
                                                                 The plan translates worldwide guidance for dealing with emergencies into
                                                                 a mission-specific action plan.
Foreign Service Institute       Emergency Action Committee Trains Emergency Action Committee members in their emergency action
                                exercises                  plan using various scenarios. Exercises are designed to expose mission
                                                           officials to issues of decision-making, contingency planning,
                                                           implementation of plans, and interpretation and coordination of policy.
Deputy Chief of Mission and     Emergency Action Committee/ Tests its Emergency Action Plan to prepare for management of crises,
Regional Security Officer       Emergency Action Plan       including terrorist attacks. The Emergency Action Committee at each
                                exercises                   mission is responsible for periodic drills, including their preparation,
                                                            execution, and evaluation.




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                                                                    Matrix of Department of State Programs and
                                                                    Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas




(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of State office
or bureau                                    Program or activity                     Description of program or activity
U.S. embassies                               Plans and coordinates                   The Secretary of State is responsible for the protection and evacuation of
(ambassador)                                 evacuations and military                U.S. citizens. In a crisis such as a terrorist incident, an ambassador can
                                             noncombatant evacuation                 order the evacuation of U.S. government personnel and dependents. The
                                             operations                              preferred method of evacuation is through normal commercial
                                                                                     transportation or commercial charter. However, to assist State in some
                                                                                     cases, DOD may execute military Noncombatant Evacuation Operations.
                                                                                     Ambassadors can request the assistance of the appropriate unified
                                                                                     military command to assist planning such operations. State, and in urgent
                                                                                     cases the ambassador, will make the determination as to when such
                                                                                     evacuation plans should be implemented.
Alternative command centers
Office of the Secretary                      Alternate operations center             Transformed State's Alternate Operations Center from a part-time facility
                                                                                     to a full-time alternate site to carry out critical State functions.
Overseas Buildings                           Alternate operations centers            Maintains an alternate operations center for its headquarters operations
Operations                                                                           and maintains facilities or the ability to establish alternate operations
                                                                                     centers for its overseas U.S. mission operations.
Post-incident law enforcement investigation
U.S. embassies                               Point of contact during any             Serves as the point of contact for any post-incident law enforcement
(ambassador)                                 investigation                           investigation. The ambassador would serve as the official liaison between
                                                                                     the host country government and the U.S. government investigation.
Source: Departments of State, Defense, Justice, and the Treasury.
                                                                    a
                                                                     The response to a terrorist incident involves managing the immediate crisis as well as its
                                                                    consequences. “Crisis management” involves efforts to prevent and deter a terrorist attack, protect
                                                                    public health and safety, arrest terrorists, and gather evidence for criminal prosecution.
                                                                    “Consequences management” involves efforts to provide medical treatment and emergency services,
                                                                    evacuate people from dangerous areas, and restore government services.




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Appendix V

Matrix of Department of the Treasury
Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
Overseas                                                                                                                                    Appen
                                                                                                                                                V
                                                                                                                                                di
                                                                                                                                                x




                                                The Department of the Treasury supports the Department of State, which is
                                                the lead federal agency for coordinating U.S. government efforts to combat
                                                terrorism overseas. Within the department, multiple bureaus, offices, and
                                                agencies manage various programs and activities to combat terrorism
                                                abroad. The Treasury also works with other U.S. government agencies,
                                                foreign government organizations and agencies, and international
                                                organizations in carrying out these programs and activities. While these
                                                activities are generally directed at combating terrorism overseas, some of
                                                the activities (e.g., coordination) may actually occur in the United States.

                                                Appendix V identifies and describes:

                                                • the strategic framework of the Treasury’s efforts to combat terrorism
                                                  overseas;

                                                • Treasury’s programs and activities to detect and prevent terrorism
                                                  overseas;

                                                • Treasury’s programs and activities to disrupt and destroy terrorist
                                                  organizations overseas; and

                                                • Treasury’s programs and activities to respond to terrorist incidents
                                                  overseas.



Table 14: Department of the Treasury Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism Overseas

Department of the
Treasury office or
bureau                         Program or activity          Description of program or activity
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
Agency head’s role in counterterrorism
Office of the Secretary of the The Secretary of the         The Secretary of the Treasury plays a critical role in policy-making by
Treasury                       Treasury is the principal    bringing an economic and government financial policy perspective to
                               economic advisor to the      issues facing the government. Among other duties, the Secretary is
                               President                    responsible for overseeing the department’s activities in carrying out its
                                                            major law enforcement responsibilities, including (1) preventing money
                                                            laundering, (2) disrupting and dismantling terrorist organizations’ financial
                                                            support, and (3) investigating and freezing terrorists’ financial assets.
                                                            The Secretary also has a support role to the Department of State during
                                                            a terrorist incident overseas.




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                                              Matrix of Department of the Treasury
                                              Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
                                              Overseas




(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of the
Treasury office or
bureau                       Program or activity               Description of program or activity
Special agency official or office in charge of counterterrorism
Agency plans or strategies to combat terrorism
Department of the Treasury   National Money Laundering         The strategy includes, for the first time, a comprehensive national plan to
                             Strategy, jointly issued by the   attack the financing of terrorist groups. Goal 2 of the National Money
                             Secretary of the Treasury         Laundering Strategy focuses law enforcement and regulatory resources on
                             and the Attorney General in       identifying terrorist financing networks by (1) implementing a multi-pronged
                             July 2002                         operational strategy to combat terrorist financing, (2) identifying and
                                                               targeting the methods used by terrorists financiers, and (3) improving
                                                               international efforts to dismantle terrorist financial networks. The strategy is
                                                               an interagency plan that draws on the expertise and resources of the
                                                               Departments of the Treasury and Justice, and other federal agencies as
                                                               well as foreign partners and the private sector.
DETECT AND PREVENT TERRORISM ABROAD
Diplomacy
Treasury, Office of          Maintain international            The Office of International Affairs works bilaterally and multilaterally to build
International Affairs        coalition against terrorist       and maintain the international coalition against terrorist finances along with
                             finances                          other federal agencies, including the Departments of State and Justice, the
                                                               Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the intelligence community.
Treasury, Office of          Financial Action Task Force       Consists of an international group of 31 member-states, which focuses on
International Affairs        on Money Laundering               terrorist financing. The task force provides its members with an action plan
                                                               that includes eight special recommendations, which are viewed as a
                                                               standard to address terrorist financing.
Treasury, Office of          Task Force on Terrorist           Works with countries and monitors their efforts to track and block terrorists'
International Affairs        Financing                         financial assets. This task force, established by the Department of the
                                                               Treasury in the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, is
                                                               composed of international economists and financial analysts from the
                                                               International Affairs and Enforcement's Office of Foreign Asset Control.
                                                               The department enlisted support from ministries of finance and central
                                                               banks worldwide to assist efforts to immobilize and/or confiscate the
                                                               financial assets of terrorist organizations and deny such organizations use
                                                               of the international banking system.
Treasury, Office of          Financial Attachés                Develop extensive contacts with foreign finance ministries, foreign
International Affairs                                          regulatory authorities, central banks and financial market participants.
                                                               Financial Attachés explain new U.S. policies to their foreign counterparts.
                                                               They also collect, report, interpret, and forecast macroeconomic and
                                                               financial developments and policies in their assigned countries.




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                                              Matrix of Department of the Treasury
                                              Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
                                              Overseas




(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of the
Treasury office or
bureau                       Program or activity              Description of program or activity
Prevent undermining of economic reforms
Treasury, Office of          Office of Technical              Provides specialist teams to countries through an advisor-based program
International Affairs        Assistance/Enforcement           to help prevent corruption, organized criminal enterprises, and other
                             Policy and Administration        criminal activities that were undermining Treasury’s economic reforms.
                             Program
Law enforcement training (with foreign governments)
DISRUPT AND DESTROY TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS ABROAD
Identifying, freezing, and seizing terrorist organizations’ assets
Treasury                     Executive Office for Terrorist   This office was created in March 2003 and assumed the main
                             Financing and Financial          functions of the former Office of Enforcement. The office is
                             Crimes                           charged with coordinating Treasury Department’s efforts to
                                                              combat terrorist financing both in the United States and abroad.
                                                              The office is responsible for the following specific duties:
                                                              (1) developing and implementing U.S. government strategies
                                                              to combat terrorist financing domestically and internationally,
                                                              (2) developing and implementing the National Money Laundering
                                                              Strategy, (3) participating in the department’s development and
                                                              implementation of U.S. government policies and regulations in
                                                              support of the USA PATRIOT Act, (4) joining in representation of
                                                              the United States in international bodies dedicated to fighting
                                                              terrorist financing, and (5) developing U.S. government policies
                                                              related to financial crimes.
Treasury                     Financial Crimes                 Supports law enforcement investigations to prevent and detect money
                             Enforcement Network              laundering and other financial crimes. FinCEN’s network links law
                                                              enforcement, financial, and regulatory communities into a single
                                                              information-sharing network. Using Bank Secrecy Act information reported
                                                              by banks and other financial institutions, FinCEN serves as the national’s
                                                              central clearinghouse for broad-based financial intelligence and information
                                                              sharing on money laundering. This information helps illuminate the
                                                              financial trail for investigators to follow as they track criminals and their
                                                              assets.

                                                              Through investigative analysis efforts, FinCEN provides support for the
                                                              investigation and prosecution of law enforcement cases at the federal,
                                                              state, local, and international levels, using financial data collected under the
                                                              Bank Secrecy Act, as well as other commercial and law enforcement
                                                              information. FinCEN serves as a catalyst for research, analysis, and
                                                              dissemination of information on money laundering methods and trends
                                                              through joint case analysis with law enforcement, integration of all source
                                                              information, and the application of state-of-art data processing techniques.
                                                              Internationally, FinCEN maintains in-depth, country-specific expertise
                                                              concerning money laundering and other financial crimes around the world
                                                              to assist decision makers in developing and promoting U.S. government
                                                              anti-money laundering policies. FinCEN uses this expertise to promote the
                                                              development of Financial Intelligence Units in other countries, which
                                                              facilitate investigative exchanges.




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                                                     Matrix of Department of the Treasury
                                                     Programs and Activities to Combat Terrorism
                                                     Overseas




(Continued From Previous Page)
Department of the
Treasury office or
bureau                                Program or activity           Description of program or activity
Treasury, Office of Foreign           Administers Economic          This office administers economic sanctions and embargo programs against
Assets Control                        Sanctions                     specific foreign countries or groups (including designated terrorists,
                                                                    terrorist organizations, state sponsors and individuals supporting those
                                                                    organizations) to further U.S. foreign policy and national security objectives.
                                                                    The office imposes control on financial transactions and freezes foreign
                                                                    assets, denying the targeted country, individual, or organization.
RESPOND TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS ABROAD
Crisis and consequence management domestic and abroada
Treasury                              Counter-terrorism Fund        In its fiscal year 2003 budget, the Department of the Treasury proposed
                                                                    that $40 million remain available until expended to reimburse any federal
                                                                    agency for costs of responding to the U.S. Secret Service’s request to
                                                                    provide security at designated National Special Security Events and only
                                                                    be provided after notice to appropriate congressional committees. The
                                                                    proposed $40 million would (1) provide support to counter, investigate, or
                                                                    prosecute domestic or international terrorism, including payment of
                                                                    rewards in connection with these activities and (2) re-establish the
                                                                    operational capability of an office, facility or other property damaged or
                                                                    destroyed as a result of any domestic or international terrorist incident.
                                                                    Treasury bureaus have important counterterrorism responsibilities,
                                                                    including (1) protecting the President; (2) designing and implementing
                                                                    security at National Special Security Events; (3) investigating arson,
                                                                    explosives, and firearms incidents; (4) conducting financial investigations
                                                                    relating to terrorism; (5) preventing weapons of mass destruction from
                                                                    entering the United States; and (6) implementing sanctions against terrorist
                                                                    organizations.
Source: Department of the Treasury.
                                                     a
                                                      The response to a terrorist incident involves managing the immediate crisis as well as its
                                                     consequences. “Crisis management” involves efforts to prevent and deter a terrorist attack, protect
                                                     public health and safety, arrest terrorists, and gather evidence for criminal prosecution.
                                                     “Consequences management” involves efforts to provide medical treatment and emergency services,
                                                     evacuate people from dangerous areas, and restore government services.




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Appendix VI

United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and
Resolutions Related to Terrorism                                                                                                             AppenV
                                                                                                                                                  d
                                                                                                                                                  xiI




                                               This appendix is a representative list of United Nations (UN) documents
                                               related to combating terrorism overseas. The Department of State works
                                               with international organizations, such as the United Nations, to enhance
                                               multilateral support to disrupt and destroy terrorists and their
                                               organizations. The United Nations and its member states established a
                                               broad array of resolutions and conventions to create a multilateral
                                               framework for combating international terrorism. This UN-based
                                               multilateral framework falls into three broad categories of documents or
                                               agreements: (1) UN conventions or protocols related to terrorism, (2) UN
                                               Security Council Resolutions, and (3) UN General Assembly Resolutions.
                                               The following conventions, protocols and resolutions were identified by
                                               the United Nations as related to terrorism. According to the Department of
                                               State, the United States is a party to all 12 international conventions and
                                               protocols relating to terrorism.



Table 15: UN Conventions and Protocols Related to Terrorism

UN convention or protocol                                          Purpose
International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of   Commits member states to prevention and counteraction of the
Terrorism, New York                                                financing of terrorists; holds those who finance terrorists liable; and
Dec. 9, 1999                                                       provides for the identification, freezing and seizure of funds for
                                                                   terrorist activities.
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist          Creates a regime of universal jurisdiction over the use of explosives
Bombings, New York                                                 and other lethal devices.
Dec. 15, 1997
Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose Combats aircraft sabotage. Designed to control and limit the use of
of Detection, Montreal                                          undetectable plastic explosives.
Mar. 1, 1991
Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety Obligates member states to establish jurisdiction over unlawful acts
of Fixed Platforms located on the Continental Shelf, Rome        and punish offences with appropriate penalties.
Mar. 10, 1988
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the        Establishes a legal regime applicable to acts against international
Safety of Maritime Navigation, Rome                                maritime navigation. Makes it an offence for a person to unlawfully and
Mar. 10, 1988                                                      intentionally seize or exercise control over a ship by force.
Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at    Extends provisions of the Montreal Convention to include terrorist acts
Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, supplementary to at international airports.
the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the
Safety of Civil Aviation, Montreal
Feb. 24, 1988
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material,         Criminalizes the unlawful possession, use, transfer, of nuclear
Vienna                                                             material, the theft of nuclear material, and threats to use nuclear
Mar. 3, 1980                                                       material to cause death or serious injury.




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                                                United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and
                                                Resolutions Related to Terrorism




(Continued From Previous Page)
UN convention or protocol                                           Purpose
International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages, New        Defines the taking of hostages and requires state parties to make this
York                                                                offense punishable by appropriate penalties.
Dec. 17, 1979
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes Against Defines internationally protected persons; requires appropriate
Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, penalties for those who commit attacks against internationally
New York                                                        protected persons and for those who support them.
Dec. 14, 1973
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the         Outlaws acts of violence on aircraft, placement of explosives on
Safety of Civil Aviation, Montreal                                  aircraft, and supporting those who attempt such acts.
Sept. 23, 1971
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft,     Outlaws the use of intimidation to take control of aircraft; hijackers
The Hague                                                           must be prosecuted or extradited.
Dec. 16, 1970
Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on          Applies to acts affecting in-flight safety; authorizes pilot to take
Board Aircraft, Tokyo                                               measures to protect aircraft; requires contracting states to take
Sept. 14, 1963                                                      custody of offenders and return aircraft to pilot.
Source: United Nations.




Table 16: UN Security Council Resolutions Related to Terrorism

UN Security Council
Resolution                Key provisions
1465                      Condemns the bomb attack in Bogota, Colombia, on February 7, 2003. Also, urges all states, in accordance
Feb. 13, 2003             with resolution 1373, to cooperate with and provide support and assistance to the Colombian authorities in
                          their efforts to bring to justice the perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of this terrorist attack.
1456                      Calls on states to prevent and suppress all active and passive support to terrorism and comply with UN
Jan. 20, 2003             Security Council resolutions 1373, 1390, and 1455. Also, calls on states to become a party to all relevant
                          international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, in particular the 1999 international convention for
                          the suppression of the financing of terrorism.
1455                      Calls on all states to enforce and strengthen measures, where appropriate, against their nationals or other
Jan. 17, 2003             individuals or entities operating in their territory, to prevent and punish violations. Also calls upon states to
                          submit an updated report to the Committee no later than 90 days from adoption of this resolution on steps
                          being taken to implement the measures.
1452                      Decides that the provisions of resolution 1267 and 1390 do not apply to funds and other financial assets or
Dec. 20, 2002             economic resources that have been determined by the state to be necessary for basic expenses and
                          extraordinary expenses.
1450                      Condemns the terrorist bomb attack at the Paradise Hotel in Kikambala, Kenya, and the attempted missile
Dec. 13, 2002             attack on Arkia Israeli Airlines flight 582, departing from Mombasa, Kenya, on November 28, 2002. Also, urges
                          all states in accordance with resolution 1373 to bring to justice the perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of
                          these terrorist attacks.
1440                      Condemns the act of taking hostages in Moscow, Russia, on October 23, 2002. Also, urges all states, in
Oct. 24, 2002             accordance with resolution 1373, to cooperate with the Russian authorities in their efforts to find and bring to
                          justice the perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of this terrorist attack.




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                                            Resolutions Related to Terrorism




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UN Security Council
Resolution             Key provisions
1438                   Condemns the bomb attacks in Bali, Indonesia, on October 12, 2002. Also, urges all states, in accordance with
Oct. 14, 2002          resolution 1373 to cooperate with and provide support and assistance to the Indonesian authorities in their
                       efforts to find and bring to justice the perpetrators, organizers, and sponsors of these terrorist attacks.
1390                   Calls on member states to continue sanctions against the Taliban, Osama bin Laden, and al Qaeda. Requires
Jan. 16, 2002          states to take a number of steps against the two regimes, including freezing economic resources, preventing
                       the supply or sale of weapons, and preventing members from entering or traveling through their territories.
                       Also, directs states to report to the Sanctions Committee on actions taken to implement the sanctions.
1377                   Calls on member states to implement UN Security Council Resolution 1373 and to assist each other in doing
Nov. 12, 2001          so. Also, invites states to inform the Counterterrorism Committee of areas where they require support.
1373                   Calls on member states to work together to prevent and suppress terrorist acts, through cooperation and
Sept. 28, 2001         implementation of the international conventions relating to terrorism. Also, obligates states to prevent and
                       suppress the financing of terrorist acts and to freeze funds and other financial assets or economic resources of
                       persons who commit or attempt to commit terrorist acts.
1372                   Recalls UN Security Council Resolution 1044 and notes steps taken by the Government of Sudan to comply
Sept. 28, 2001         with UN Security Council Resolutions 1044 and 1070. Terminates the measures brought against Sudan in UN
                       Security Council Resolutions 1054 and 1070.
1368                   Calls on member states to bring to justice the perpetrators and sponsors of the terrorist attacks on
Sept. 12, 2001         September 11, 2001. Also, calls on the international community to increase cooperation and implementation of
                       anti-terrorist conventions and UN Security Council Resolutions.
1363                   Establishes a mechanism to monitor the implementation of the measures imposed by UN Security Council
July 30, 2001          Resolutions 1267 and 1333.
1333                   Calls on member states to freeze funds and other financial assets of Osama bin Laden and individuals and
Dec. 19, 2000          entities associated with him, including those in the al Qaeda organization. Also, demands that the Taliban
                       comply with UN Security Council Resolution 1267 and turn over Osama bin Laden to authorities in a country
                       where he has been indicted.
1269                   Calls on member states to implement the international anti-terrorist conventions to which they are a party and
Oct. 19, 1999          encourages the speedy adoption of the pending conventions.
1267                   Calls on member states to freeze funds and other financial resources owned or controlled directly or indirectly
Oct. 15, 1999          by the Taliban.
1214                   Demands that the Taliban stop providing sanctuary and training for international terrorists and their operations,
Dec. 8, 1998           and that all Afghan factions cooperate with efforts to bring indicted terrorists to justice.
1189                   Calls on member states and international institutions to cooperate with and provide support to the
Aug. 13, 1998          investigations in Kenya, Tanzania, and the United States, to apprehend the perpetrators of the criminal acts
                       and bring them to justice.
1070                   Demands the Government of Sudan comply with UN Security Council Resolutions 1044 and 1054 and also
Aug. 16, 1996          decides that member states shall deny Sudanese aircraft permission to take off, land, or over fly their
                       territories.
1054                   Demands the Government of Sudan extradite three suspects to Ethiopia who are wanted for the assassination
Apr. 26, 1996          attempt on the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Also demands the Government of Sudan desist from
                       providing shelter and sanctuary to terrorist elements.
1044                   Calls upon the Government of Sudan to extradite three suspects wanted in the connection with assassination
Jan. 31, 1996          attempt on the President of the Arab Republic of Egypt.
883                    Demands that the Libyan government comply with UN Security Council Resolutions 731 and 748 and decides
Nov. 11, 1993          that member states freeze the funds and financial resources of the government of Libya and all Libyan
                       undertakings.




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                                               United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and
                                               Resolutions Related to Terrorism




(Continued From Previous Page)
UN Security Council
Resolution                Key provisions
748                       Decides that the Libyan government must commit itself to cease all forms of terrorist action and all assistance
Mar. 31, 1992             to terrorist groups. Also decides that states shall prohibit the provision of weapons to Libya.
731                       Condemns the destruction of Pan American flight 103 and urges the Libyan government to provide a full and
Jan. 21, 1992             effective response to UN member states’ requests to eliminate international terrorism.
687                       Recalls the International Convention Against the Taking of Hostages, which categorizes all hostage-taking acts
Apr. 3, 1991              as manifestations of international terrorism.
635                       Condemns all acts of unlawful interference against the security of civil aviation. Calls upon all member states
June, 14, 1989            to implement measures to prevent acts of terrorism, including those involving explosives. Urges the
                          International Civil Aviation Organization to intensify its work on devising an international regime for the marking
                          of plastic explosives for the purpose of detection.
337                       Condemns the Government of Israel for the forcible diversion and seizure of a Lebanese airline from
Aug. 15, 1973             Lebanon’s air space.
286                       Appeals to all parties concerned for the immediate release of all passengers and crews held as a result of
Sept. 9, 1970             hijackings. Calls on member states to take legal steps to prevent hijackings or other interference with
                          international civil air travel.
Source: United Nations.




Table 17: UN General Assembly Resolutions Related to Terrorism

UN General Assembly
Resolution                Key provisions
56/1                      Condemns the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks and expresses condolences and solidarity with the
Sept. 18, 2001            people and Government of the United States. Calls for urgent international cooperation to bring the
                          perpetrators to justice.
55/158                    Reiterates General Assembly Resolution 54/110. Welcomes the efforts of the Terrorism Branch of the Centre
Jan. 30, 2001             for International Crime Prevention. Continues the previous work of the Ad Hoc Committee.
54/164                    Recalls General Assembly Resolution 52/133. Commends those governments that supplied the Secretary
Feb. 24, 2000             General with their views on the implications of terrorism. Welcomes the Secretary General’s report and
                          requests that he continue to seek views of member states.
54/110                    Recalls General Assembly Resolution 53/108. Notes the establishment of the Terrorism Prevention Branch of
Feb. 2, 2000              the Centre for International Crime Prevention in Vienna, Austria. Invites states to submit information on their
                          national laws, regulations, or initiatives regarding terrorism to the Secretary General. Invites regional
                          intergovernmental organizations to do likewise. Continues the previous work of the Ad Hoc Committee.
54/109                    Adopts the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and urges all states to
Feb. 25, 2000             sign and ratify, accept, approve, or accede to the Convention.
53/108                    Recalls General Assembly Resolution 52/165. Reaffirms that actions by states to combat terrorism should be
Jan. 26, 1999             conducted in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations, international law, and relevant conventions.
                          Decides to address the question of convening a UN conference to formulate a joint response to terrorism by
                          the international community. Decides the Ad Hoc Committee shall continue to elaborate on a draft convention
                          for the suppression of terrorist financing and will continue developing a draft convention for the suppression of
                          acts of nuclear terrorism.




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                                            United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and
                                            Resolutions Related to Terrorism




(Continued From Previous Page)
UN General Assembly
Resolution             Key provisions
52/165                 Reiterates General Assembly Resolution 51/210. Reaffirms the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate
Dec. 15, 1997          International Terrorism. Requests the Ad Hoc Committee established by UN General Assembly Resolution
                       51/210 continue its work. Requests the Secretary General to invite the International Atomic Energy Agency to
                       assist the Ad Hoc Committee.
52/133                 Recalls General Assembly resolution 50/186. Condemns incitement of ethnic hatred, violence, and terrorism.
Dec. 12, 1997          Requests the Secretary General seek the views of member states on the implications of terrorism in all its
                       forms and manifestations.
51/210                 Calls upon states to adopt further measures to prevent and combat terrorism. Some of these include:
Dec. 17, 1996          accelerating research and development of explosive detection and marking technology; investigating the
                       abuse of charitable, social, and cultural organizations by terrorist organizations; and developing mutual legal
                       assistance procedures to facilitate cross-border investigations. Further calls upon states to become parties to
                       relevant international anti-terrorism conventions and protocols. Also establishes an Ad Hoc Committee to
                       elaborate an international convention for the suppression of terrorist bombings and acts of nuclear terrorism.
                       Approves a supplement to the 1994 declaration on measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, which,
                       among other things, reaffirms that asylum seekers may not avoid prosecution for terrorist acts and encourages
                       states to facilitate terrorist extraditions even in the absence of a treaty.
50/186                 Recalls General Assembly Resolution 49/185. Requests the Secretary-General continue to seek the views of
Dec. 22, 1995          member states on the possible establishment of a UN voluntary fund to aid victims of terrorism, as well as
                       ways and means to rehabilitate and reintegrate such victims back into society. Requests the Secretary General
                       submit a report to the General Assembly containing the views of member states on these topics.
50/53                  Reaffirms the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism. Urges all states to cooperate in
Dec. 11, 1995          eliminating terrorist safe-havens and in further developing international law regarding terrorism. Recalls the
                       role of the Security Council in combating terrorism. Requests the Secretary-General submit an annual report
                       on the implementation of paragraph 10 of the declaration.
49/185                 Recalls General Assembly Resolution 48/122. Expresses solidarity with the victims of terrorism. Requests the
Dec. 23, 1994          UN Secretary General seek views of member states on the establishment of a UN voluntary fund for victims of
                       terrorism.
49/60                  Approves the Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, which, among other things,
Dec. 9, 1994           unequivocally condemns all acts of terrorism, demands that states take effective and resolute measures to
                       eliminate terrorism, and charges the Secretary General with various implementation tasks. Some of these
                       tasks include collecting data on the status of existing international agreements relating to terrorism and
                       developing an international legal framework of conventions on terrorism.
48/122                 Condemns terrorism as an activity aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms, and
Dec. 20, 1993          democracy. Also condemns terrorism for threatening state security, destabilizing legitimate governments,
                       undermining civil society, and obstructing economic development. Calls upon states to take effective measures
                       to combat terrorism in accordance with international standards of human rights. Urges the international
                       community to enhance cooperation against terrorism at many levels.
46/51                  Recalls General Assembly Resolution 44/29. Welcomes the recent adoption of the Convention on the Marking
Dec. 9, 1991           of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection.
44/29                  Recalls General Assembly Resolution 42/159. Expresses concern at the growing link between terrorist groups,
Dec. 4, 1989           drug traffickers, and paramilitary gangs. Calls upon member states to use their political influence to secure the
                       safe release of all hostages. Also urges the International Civil Aviation Organization to intensify its work on
                       devising an international regime for the marking of plastic explosives for purposes of detection. Welcomes the
                       recent adoption of aviation and maritime security conventions and protocols.




                                            Page 247                                                   GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                                                Appendix VI
                                                United Nations Protocols, Conventions, and
                                                Resolutions Related to Terrorism




(Continued From Previous Page)
UN General Assembly
Resolution                Key provisions
42/159                    Reaffirms General Assembly Resolution 40/61. Urges all states to (a) prevent the preparation and organization
Dec. 7, 1987              of terrorist acts from their territories; (b) ensure the apprehension, prosecution, or extradition terrorist
                          perpetrators; (c) conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements to that effect; (d) cooperate with other states in
                          exchanging terrorist information; and (e) harmonize their domestic legislation with existing international
                          conventions to prevent terrorism. Also welcomes the air and maritime-security conventions being drafted by
                          the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization.
40/61                     Recalls General Assembly Resolution 38/130. Unequivocally condemns all acts of terrorism. Urges all states
Dec. 9, 1985              not to obstruct the application of appropriate law enforcement measures against terrorist suspects provided for
                          in the conventions to which these states are a party. Urges states to eliminate underlying causes of terrorism,
                          including colonialism, racism, and situations involving massive human rights violations. Also, calls upon all
                          states to follow the recommendations of the International Civil Aviation Organization to prevent terrorist attacks
                          against civil aviation transport. Requests the International Maritime Organization study the problem of
                          terrorism against ships.
39/159                    Condemns policies and practices of terrorism between states as a method of dealing with other states and
Dec. 17, 1984             peoples. Demands that states refrain from taking action aimed at undermining other states. Urges all states to
                          respect and observe the sovereignty and political independence of states.
38/130                    Recalls General Assembly Resolution 34/145. Deeply deplores the loss of innocent human lives and the
Dec. 19, 1983             pernicious impact of international terrorist acts on friendly relations among states as well as on international
                          cooperation. Re-endorses the recommendations of the Ad Hoc Committee on International Terrorism.
36/109                    Re-endorses the recommendations made to the General Assembly by the Ad Hoc Committee on International
Dec. 10, 1981             Terrorism and calls upon all states to observe and implement these recommendations.
34/145                    Unequivocally condemns all acts of international terrorism. Adopts the recommendations of the Ad Hoc
Dec. 17, 1979             Committee relating to cooperation for the elimination of international terrorism. Calls upon states to refrain
                          from organizing, instigating, assisting or participating in acts of civil strife or terrorism in another state. Appeals
                          to states to become parties to existing international conventions relating to terrorism. Invites states to
                          harmonize their domestic laws with international conventions on terrorism and cooperate with each other more
                          closely in the areas of information sharing, terrorist extradition, and terrorist prosecution.
31/102                    Urges states to continue to seek just and peaceful solutions to the problem of international terrorism. Reaffirms
Dec. 15, 1976             the inalienable right to self-determination of all people, and condemns the continuation of repressive and
                          terrorist acts by colonial, racist, and alien regimes. Continues the work of the Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism
                          in studying the underlying causes of terrorism and requests that it submit practical measures to combat
                          terrorism to the Secretary General.
30/34                     Urges states to devote their immediate attention to the growing problem of international terrorism. Reaffirms
Dec. 18, 1972             the inalienable right to self-determination of all people under colonial regimes and upholds the legitimacy of
                          national liberation movements. Also, establishes an Ad Hoc Committee on terrorism to study the root causes
                          and devise solutions to terrorism.
Source: United Nations.




                                                Page 248                                                       GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Appendix VII

Organizations Visited or Contacted                                                                     AppenV
                                                                                                            d
                                                                                                            xiI




                         During the course of our review, we visited and/or contacted officials from
                         the following organizations.



Cabinet Departments
and Related Agencies

Department of Defense    • Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and
                           Low-Intensity Conflict, Washington, D.C.

                         • Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C.

                         • Unified Combatant Commands

                            • U.S. Central Command, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

                            • U.S. European Command, Patch Barracks, Stuttgart-Vaihingen,
                              Germany

                            • U.S. Southern Command, Miami, Florida

                            • U.S. Special Operations Command, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

                         • Defense Intelligence Agency, Washington, D.C.

                            • Defense Attachés at selected U.S. embassies (see Department of
                              State)



Department of Homeland   • Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Washington, D.C.
Security
                         • Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, Washington, D.C.

                         • U.S. Secret Service, Washington, D.C.

                         • Headquarters, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Glynco,
                           Georgia




                         Page 249                                        GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                        Appendix VII
                        Organizations Visited or Contacted




Department of Justice   • Criminal Division, Washington, D.C.

                           • Terrorism Section, Washington, D.C.

                        • Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, D.C.

                           • Counterterrorism Division, Washington, D.C.

                           • Investigative Services Division, Washington, D.C.

                           • International Operations Branch, Washington, D.C.

                           • Legal Attaché Program, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Washington, D.C.

                        • International Law Enforcement Academy, Budapest, Hungary

                        • Legal Attaché at a selected U.S. embassy (see Department of State)



Department of State     • Bureau of Administration, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Consular Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs,
                          Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of International Organization Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations, Washington, D.C.

                        • Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                        • Geographic Bureaus, Washington, D.C.



                        Page 250                                       GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                             Appendix VII
                             Organizations Visited or Contacted




                                • African Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                                • East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                                • European and Eurasian Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                                • Near Eastern Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                                • South Asian Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                                • Western Hemisphere Affairs, Washington, D.C.

                             • Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, Washington, D.C.

                             • Office of International Information Programs, Washington, D.C.

                             • Office of the Legal Adviser, Washington, D.C.

                             • Overseas Security Advisory Council, Washington, D.C.

                             • U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C.

                                • Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Washington, D.C.

                             • U.S. Embassy, Athens, Greece



Department of the Treasury   • Office of Foreign Assets Control, Washington, D.C.

                             • Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Washington, D.C.

                             • Treasury personnel at a selected U.S. embassy (see Department of
                               State)




                             Page 251                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
                              Appendix VII
                              Organizations Visited or Contacted




Other Agencies

Central Intelligence Agency   • Counterterrorist Center, Langley, Virginia



Executive Office of the       • National Security Council, Washington, D.C.
President
                              • Office of Homeland Security, Washington, D.C.

                              • Office of Management and Budget, Washington, D.C.




                              Page 252                                        GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Appendix VIII

Comments from the Department of Defense                     AppenV
                                                                 diI
                                                                 x




                Page 253       GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Appendix IX

Comments from the U.S. Agency for
International Development                                    Appen
                                                                 X
                                                                 Id
                                                                  xi




              Page 254          GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Appendix X

GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                                        Appen
                                                                                                  X
                                                                                                  di
                                                                                                  x




GAO Contacts      Raymond J. Decker (202) 512-6020
                  Stephen L. Caldwell (202) 512-9610



Acknowledgments   In addition to those named above, Mark A. Pross; James C. Lawson; Lori L.
                  Kmetz; David W. Hancock; Cheryl L. Goodman; Edward J. George, Jr.;
                  J. Addison Ricks; Susan K. Woodward; Rebecca Shea; Harry L. (Lee) Purdy;
                  Michael S. (Shawn) Arbogast; John W. Van Schaik; Michael C. Zola; and
                  Douglas E. Cole made key contributions to this report.




                  Page 255                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products


             Information Technology: Terrorist Watch Lists Should Be Consolidated to
             Promote Better Integration and Sharing. GAO-03-322. Washington, D.C.:
             April 15, 2003.

             Combating Terrorism: Observations on National Strategies Related to
             Terrorism. GAO-03-519T. Washington, D.C.: March 3, 2003.

             Weaknesses in Screening Entrants into the United States. GAO-03-438T.
             Washington, D.C.: January 30, 2003.

             High-Risk Series: Protecting Information Systems Supporting the
             Federal Government and the Nation’s Critical Infrastructures.
             GAO-03-121. Washington, D.C.: January 1, 2003.

             Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: Department of
             Homeland Security. GAO-03-102. Washington, D.C.: January 1, 2003.

             Homeland Security: Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership.
             GAO-03-260. Washington, D.C.: December 20, 2002.

             Combating Terrorism: Funding Data Reported to Congress Should Be
             Improved. GAO-03-170. Washington, D.C.: November 26, 2002.

             Border Security: Implications of Eliminating the Visa Waiver Program.
             GAO-03-38. Washington, D.C.: November 22, 2002.

             Container Security: Current Efforts to Detect Nuclear Materials,
             New Initiatives, and Challenges. GAO-03-297T. Washington, D.C.:
             November 18, 2002.

             Technology Assessment: Biometrics for Border Security. GAO-03-174.
             Washington, D.C.: November 14, 2002.

             Combating Terrorism: Actions Needed to Guide Services' Antiterrorism
             Efforts at Installations. GAO-03-14. Washington, D.C.: November 1, 2002.

             Border Security: Visa Process Should Be Strengthened as an
             Antiterrorism Tool.GAO-03-132NI. Washington, D.C.: October 21, 2002.

             Combating Terrorism: Department of State Programs to Combat
             Terrorism Abroad. GAO-02-1021. Washington, D.C.: September 6, 2002.




             Page 256                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




Homeland Security: Effective Intergovernmental Coordination Is Key
to Success. GAO-02-1013T. Washington, D.C.: August 23, 2002.

Nonproliferation R & D: NNSA's Program Develops Successful
Technologies, but Project Management Can Be Strengthened. GAO-01-904.
Washington, D.C.: August 23, 2002.

Port Security: Nation Faces Formidable Challenges in Making New
Initiatives Successful. GAO-02-993T. Washington, D.C.: August 5, 2002.

Combating Terrorism: Preliminary Observations on Weaknesses in
Force Protection for DOD Deployments Through Domestic Seaports.
GAO-02-955TNI. Washington, D.C.: July 23, 2002.

International Trade: Critical Issues Remain in Determining Conflict
Diamond Trade. GAO-02-678. Washington, D.C.: June 14, 2002.

Nuclear Nonproliferation: U.S. Efforts to Help Other Countries
Combat Nuclear Smuggling Need Strengthened Coordination and
Planning. GAO-02-426. Washington, D.C.: May 16, 2002.

Federal Funding for Selected Surveillance Technologies. GAO-02-438R.
Washington, D.C.: March 14, 2002.

Department of State: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and
Addressing Major Management Challenges. GAO-02-42. Washington, D.C.:
December 7, 2001.

European Security: U.S. and European Contributions to Foster
Stability and Security in Europe. GAO-02-174. Washington, D.C.:
November 28, 2001.

Illegal Aliens: INS’ Processes for Denying Aliens Entry into the
United States. GAO-02-220T. Washington, D.C.: November 13, 2001.

Combating Terrorism: Selected Challenges and Related
Recommendations. GAO-01-822. Washington, D.C.: September 20, 2001.

Combating Terrorism: Actions Needed to Improve DOD
Antiterrorism Program Implementation and Management. GAO-01-909.
Washington, D.C.: September 19, 2001.




Page 257                                       GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




International Crime Control: Sustained Executive-Level Coordination of
Federal Response Needed. GAO-01-629. Washington, D.C.: August 13, 2001.

FBI Intelligence Investigations: Coordination Within Justice on
Counterintelligence Criminal Matters Is Limited. GAO-01-780.
Washington, D.C.: July 16, 2001.

Combating Terrorism: Observations on Options to Improve the Federal
Response. GAO-01-660T. Washington, D.C.: April 24, 2001.

Combating Terrorism: Comments on Counterterrorism Leadership and
National Strategy. GAO-01-556T. Washington, D.C.: March 27, 2001.

Nuclear Nonproliferation: Security of Russia's Nuclear
Material Improving; Further Enhancements Needed. GAO-01-312.
Washington, D.C.: February 28, 2001.

Embassy Construction: Better Long-term Planning Will
Enhance Program Decision-making. GAO-01-11. Washington, D.C.:
January 22, 2001.

State Department: Serious Problems in the Anthrax
Vaccine Immunization Program. GAO-01-21. Washington, D.C.:
December 13, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: Federal Response Teams Provide Varied
Capabilities: Opportunities Remain to Improve Coordination.
GAO-01-14. Washington, D.C.: November 30, 2000.

No Information to Link Irish Terrorist Organizations to
International Narcotics Trafficking. GAO/OSI-00-18R. Washington, D.C.:
September 29, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: Linking Threats to Strategies and Resources.
GAO/T-NSIAD-00-218. Washington, D.C.: July 26, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: Action Taken but Considerable Risks Remain for
Forces Overseas. GAO/NSIAD-00-181. Washington, D.C.: July 19, 2000.

Observations on the Department of State's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance
Report and Fiscal Year 2001 Performance Plan. GAO/NSIAD-00-189R.
Washington, D.C.: June 30, 2000.



Page 258                                     GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




Weapons of Mass Destruction: DOD’s Actions to Combat Weapons Use
Should Be More Integrated and Focused. GAO/NSIAD-00-97. Washington,
D.C.: May 26, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: Comments on Bill H.R. 4210 to Manage Selected
Counterterrorist Programs. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-172. Washington, D.C.:
May 4, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: How Five Foreign Countries Are Organized to
Combat Terrorism. GAO/NSIAD-00-85. Washington, D.C.: April 7, 2000.

Combating Terrorism: Issues in Managing Counterterrorist Programs.
GAO/T-NSIAD-00-145. Washington, D.C.: April 6, 2000.

State Department: Overseas Emergency Security Program
Progressing, but Costs Are Increasing. GAO/NSIAD-00-83.
Washington, D.C.: March 8, 2000.

State Department: Progress and Challenges in Addressing Management
Issues. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-124. Washington, D.C.: March 8, 2000.

Chemical and Biological Defense: Observations on Actions Taken to
Protect Military Forces. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-49. Washington, D.C.:
October 20, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: Observations on the Threat of Chemical and
Biological Terrorism. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-50. Washington, D.C.:
October 20, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk
Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks. GAO/NSIAD-99-163.
Washington, D.C.: September 7, 1999.

Military Training: Management and Oversight of Joint Combined
Exchange Training. GAO/NSIAD-99-173. Washington, D.C.: July 23, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: Analysis of Federal Counterterrorist Exercises.
GAO/NSIAD-99-157BR. Washington, D.C.: June 25, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: Issues to Be Resolved to Improve
Counterterrorism Operations. GAO/NSIAD-99-135. Washington, D.C.:
May 13, 1999.



Page 259                                    GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Testing Status and Views on
Operational Viability of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis Technology.
GAO/GDD-99-54. Washington, D.C.: April 13, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: Observations on Federal Spending to Combat
Terrorism. GAO/T-NSIAD/GGD-99-107. Washington, D.C.: March 11, 1999.

Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: Department of State.
GAO/OCG-99-12. Washington, D.C.: January 1, 1999.

Combating Terrorism: FBI's Use of Federal Funds for Counterterrorism-
Related Activities (FYs 1995-1998). GAO/GGD-99-7. Washington, D.C.:
November 20, 1998.

Combating Terrorism: Observations on Crosscutting Issues.
GAO/T-NSIAD-98-164. Washington, D.C.: April 23, 1998.

Combating Terrorism: Threat and Risk Assessments Can Help Prioritize
and Target Program Investments. GAO/NSIAD-98-74. Washington, D.C.:
April 9, 1998.

Combating Terrorism: Spending on Governmentwide Programs
Requires Better Management and Coordination. GAO/NSIAD-98-39.
Washington, D.C.: December 1, 1997.

Combating Terrorism: Efforts to Protect U.S. Forces in Turkey and the
Middle East. GAO/T-NSIAD-98-44. Washington, D.C.: October 28, 1997.

Combating Terrorism: Federal Agencies' Efforts to Implement
National Policy and Strategy. GAO/NSIAD-97-254. Washington, D.C.:
September 26, 1997.

Combating Terrorism: Status of DOD Efforts to Protect Its Force
Overseas. GAO/NSIAD-97-207. Washington, D.C.: July 21, 1997.

State Department: Efforts to Reduce Visa Fraud. GAO/T-NSIAD-97-167.
Washington, D.C.: May 20, 1997.

Aviation Security: FAA's Procurement of Explosives Detection Devices.
GAO/RCED-97-111R. Washington, D.C.: May 1, 1997.




Page 260                                     GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




Department of Energy: Information on the Distribution of Funds for
Counterintelligence Programs and the Resulting Expansion of These
Programs. GAO/RCED-97-128R. Washington, D.C.: April 25, 1997.

Aviation Security: Commercially Available Advanced Explosives
Detection Devices. GAO/RCED-97-119R. Washington, D.C.: April 24, 1997.

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Responsibilities for Developing
Explosives and Narcotics Detection Technologies. GAO/NSIAD-97-95.
Washington, D.C.: April 15, 1997.

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting
Explosives and Narcotics. GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-252. Washington, D.C.:
September 4, 1996.

Aviation Security: Immediate Action Needed to Improve Security.
GAO/T-RCED/NSIAD-96-237. Washington, D.C.: August 1, 1996.

Passports and Visas: Status of Efforts to Reduce Fraud.
GAO/NSIAD-96-99. Washington, D.C.: May 9, 1996.

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Threats and Roles of Explosives and
Narcotics Detection Technology. GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-76BR.
Washington, D.C.: March 27, 1996.

Nuclear Nonproliferation: Status of U.S. Efforts to Improve Nuclear
Material Controls in Newly Independent States. GAO/NSIAD/RCED-96-89.
Washington, D.C.: March 8, 1996.

Nonimmigrant Visa Processing. GAO/NSIAD-95-122R. Washington, D.C.:
April 17, 1995.

Aviation Security: Additional Actions Needed to Meet Domestic
and International Challenges. GAO/RCED-94-38. Washington, D.C.:
January 27, 1994.

Foreign Assistance: Meeting the Training Needs of Police in New
Democracies. GAO/NSIAD-93-109. Washington, D.C.: January 21, 1993.

Foreign Assistance: Promising Approach to Judicial Reform in
Colombia. GAO/NSIAD-92-269. Washington, D.C.: September 24, 1992.




Page 261                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
Related GAO Products




Russian Nuclear Weapons: U.S. Implementation of the Soviet
Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991. GAO/T-NSIAD-92-47.
Washington, D.C.: July 27, 1992.

Foreign Aid: Police Training and Assistance. GAO/NSIAD-92-118.
Washington, D.C.: March 5, 1992.

Economic Sanctions: Effectiveness as Tools of Foreign Policy.
GAO/NSIAD-92-106. Washington, D.C.: February 19, 1992.

State Department: Management Weaknesses in the Security Construction
Program. GAO/NSIAD-92-2. Washington, D.C.: November 29, 1991.

Preliminary Inquiry into Alleged 1980 Negotiations to Delay Release
of Iranian Hostages until after November Election. GAO/T-OSI-92-4.
Washington, D.C.: November 21, 1991.

Preliminary Inquiry into Alleged 1980 Negotiations to Delay Release
of Iranian Hostages until after November Election. GAO/T-OSI-92-1.
Washington, D.C.: November 7, 1991.

State Department: Status of the Diplomatic Security Construction
Program. GAO/NSIAD-91-143BR. Washington, D.C.: February 20, 1991.

International Terrorism: FBI Investigates Domestic Activities to Identify
Terrorists. GAO/GGD-90-112. Washington, D.C.: September 7, 1990.

Aviation Security: Training Standards Needed for Extra Security
Measures at Foreign Airports. GAO/RCED-90-66. Washington, D.C.:
December 15, 1989.

International Terrorism: Status of GAO's Review of the FBI's
International Terrorism Program. GAO/T-GGD-89-31. Washington, D.C.:
June 22, 1989.

Embassy Security: Background Investigations of Foreign Employees.
GAO/NSIAD-89-76. Washington, D.C.: January 5, 1989.

Security Assistance: Update of Programs and Related Activities.
GAO/NSIAD-89-78FS. Washington, D.C.: December 28, 1988.




Page 262                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
           Related GAO Products




           Aviation Security: FAA's Assessments of Foreign Airports.
           GAO/RCED-89-45. Washington, D.C.: December 7, 1988.

           Passports: Implications of Deleting the Birthplace in U.S. Passports.
           GAO/NSIAD-87-201. Washington, D.C.: August 27, 1987.

           Terrorism: Laws Cited Imposing Sanctions on Nations Supporting
           Terrorism. GAO/NSIAD-87-133FS. Washington, D.C.: April 17, 1987.

           Obstacles to U.S. Ability to Control and Track Weapons-Grade Uranium
           Supplied Abroad. GAO/ID-82-21. Washington, D.C.: August 2, 1982.




(350092)   Page 263                                      GAO-03-165 Combating Terrorism
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