oversight

Defense Infrastructure: Changes in Funding Priorities and Strategic Planning Needed to Improve the Condition of Military Facilities

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-02-19.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO             Report to Congressional Committees




February 2003
                DEFENSE
                INFRASTRUCTURE
                Changes in Funding
                Priorities and
                Strategic Planning
                Needed to Improve the
                Condition of Military
                Facilities




GAO-03-274
                a
                                               February 2003


                                               DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE

                                               Changes in Funding Priorities and
Highlights of GAO-03-274, a report to          Strategic Planning Needed to Improve
Congressional Committees
                                               the Condition of Military Facilities



GAO prepared this report in                    While the amount of money the active forces have spent on facility
response to its basic legislative              maintenance has increased recently, DOD and service officials said these
responsibilities. Its objectives are           amounts have not been sufficient to halt the deterioration of facilities. Too
threefold: (1) to examine the                  little funding to adequately maintain facilities is also aggravated by DOD’s
historical funding trends and their            acknowledged retention of facilities in excess of its needs. From fiscal year
impact on the condition of the
active forces’ facilities, (2) to
                                               1998 to 2001, obligations for facility maintenance rose by 26 percent with
evaluate the consistency of the                increases coming from higher annual budget requests, congressional
services’ information on facility              designations that exceeded those requests, supplemental appropriations, and
conditions, and (3) to assess the              the services’ movement of funds to maintenance projects. Funding for military
Department of Defense’s (DOD)                  construction also increased during this period. However, military reports and
long-term strategic plan and                   testimonies state that these amounts have been insufficient, and GAO’s recent
objectives to improve facility                 visits to installations document the deteriorated conditions of facilities.
conditions.
                                               There is a lack of consistency in the services’ information on facility
GAO is recommending that the                   conditions, making it difficult for Congress, DOD, and the services to direct
Secretary of Defense direct the                funds to facilities where they are most needed and to accurately gauge facility
service secretaries to reassess the
funding priorities attached to
                                               conditions. Although DOD developed a standard rating scale to summarize
sustaining and improving their                 facility conditions (C-ratings), each service has the latitude to use its own
facilities. Also, GAO is                       system for assessing conditions, including the types of facility raters,
recommending that the Secretary                assessment frequencies, appraisal scales, and validation procedures.
• instruct the services to
   implement a consistent,                     Although DOD has a strategic plan for facilities, it lacks comprehensive
   departmentwide process to                   information on the specific actions, time frames, responsibilities, and funding
   assess, rate, and validate facility         needed to reach its goals. Also, DOD has set up three objectives to improve its
   conditions;                                 facility conditions—to fully fund sustainment, to achieve a 67-year average
• revise DOD’s facilities strategic            recapitalization rate by fiscal year 2007, and to improve facility conditions so
   plan to include detailed                    that deficiencies have limited effects on military mission achievement by fiscal
   information on specific actions,
   time frames, responsibilities,
                                               year 2010. However, the services have not proposed to fully fund all the
   and funding levels;                         objectives and have developed funding plans to achieve others that have
• clarify DOD’s guidance by                    unrealistically high rates of increase during the out-years. At the same time,
   specifying the organizational               the services have not developed comprehensive performance plans to
   level at which its stated                   implement DOD’s vision for facilities.
   objectives should be achieved;
   and
• direct the services to develop
   comprehensive performance
   plans.

In commenting on a draft of this
report, DOD agreed with the
recommendations and outlined
actions to address them.
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-274.

To view the full report, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Barry W.         On the left, a pier at Naval Base Coronado, California, has a broken concrete pylon that restricts its
Holman at (202) 512-8412.                      use to only foot traffic. On the right, the interior of a shed used for administrative space by vehicle
                                               maintenance personnel at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.
Contents


Letter                                                                                      1
               Results in Brief                                                             3
               Background                                                                   6
               Many Facilities Remain in Deteriorated Condition, Even with
                 Increase in Maintenance and Military Construction Funding                13
               Military Services’ Data on Facility Conditions Are Inconsistent            31
               Weaknesses in Strategic Plan and Key Objectives Limit the
                 Services’ Ability to Sustain and Improve Facility Conditions             39
               Conclusions                                                                57
               Recommendations for Executive Action                                       58
               Agency Comments                                                            58

Appendix I     Scope and Methodology                                                      62



Appendix II    DOD’s Facilities Life-Cycle Management Model                               66



Appendix III   How Operation and Maintenance Funds Are Moved
               during the Fiscal Year                                                     68



Appendix IV    Comments from the Department of Defense                                    70



Appendix V     GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                      74



Glossary                                                                                  75



Tables
               Table 1: Definitions of Installations’ Readiness Report C-Ratings          10
               Table 2: Types of Facilities Included in the Nine Facility Classes         10
               Table 3: Comparison of DOD’s and the Services’ C-rating
                        Definitions                                                       33




               Page i                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
          Table 4: Comparison of Basic Characteristics of Services’ Facility
                   Condition Assessment Systems                                      34


Figures
          Figure 1: Primary Funding Sources for DOD’s Facility Management
                   Program in Fiscal Year 2002                                         8
          Figure 2: Requested, Congressionally Designated Initially, and
                   (Reported) Obligated Facility Maintenance Funding
                   Levels for the Active Military Services, Fiscal Years 1998
                   through 2001                                                      15
          Figure 3: Requested and Appropriated Military Construction
                   Funding Levels for the Active Military Services, Fiscal
                   Years 1998 through 2002                                           18
          Figure 4: World War II-Era Wood Building at Fort Bragg, North
                   Carolina                                                          22
          Figure 5: Structurally Unsound Warehouse at Fort Leavenworth,
                   Kansas                                                            23
          Figure 6: Choked and Clogged Water Pipes at Pope Air Force Base,
                   North Carolina                                                    24
          Figure 7: Crumbling Concrete Outside Cargo Center at Whiteman
                   Air Force Base, Missouri                                          25
          Figure 8: Cracked and Broken Runway Surface at Naval Base
                   Coronado, California                                              27
          Figure 9: Garden Hose and Sprinkler Cooling Portable Generator at
                   Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia                                29
          Figure 10: Corroded Air-Conditioning System Valves at Quantico
                   Marine Corps Base, Virginia                                       30
          Figure 11: Outdoor Portable Facilities Used to Supplement
                   Inadequate Indoor Facilities at Quantico Marine Corps
                   Base, Virginia                                                    31
          Figure 12: Military Services’ Proposed Sustainment Funding, Fiscal
                   Years 2002 through 2009                                           43
          Figure 13: Flow Chart of the Movement of Sustainment Funds to
                   Other Purposes in Fiscal Year 2002                                44
          Figure 14: Sustainment Obligations as a Percentage of
                   Requirements at Installations We Visited, Fiscal Year 2002        46
          Figure 15: Projected Average Recapitalization Rate by Military
                   Service, Fiscal Years 2002 through 2009                           49
          Figure 16: Total Restoration and Modernization Funding Proposed
                   by Military Service, Fiscal Years 2002 through 2009               51




          Page ii                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 17: Projected Facilities Service Life and Performance with
         Full Sustainment and Modernization                                               66
Figure 18: Lost Facilities Service Life and Performance without
         Full Sustainment                                                                 67
Figure 19: DOD’s Budget and Obligation Process for Operation and
         Maintenance Funds                                                                69




Abbreviation

DOD               Department of Defense




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Page iii                                              GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   February 19, 2003

                                   Congressional Committees

                                   Department of Defense (DOD) installations and facilities are critical to
                                   supporting U.S. military forces, but they have not been sufficiently
                                   maintained or recapitalized for years. Defense facilities are durable capital
                                   assets that, if properly built and sustained, have useful lives ranging from
                                   50 years and beyond. However, in the absence of proper maintenance,
                                   these facilities perform poorly and decay prematurely. Without periodic
                                   recapitalization, they can become obsolete and no longer be cost-
                                   effectively renovated and must be replaced with new construction.
                                   Consequently, DOD and active military service officials report that 68
                                   percent of facility classes rated by major commands are in such a
                                   deteriorated condition that they negatively affect the quality of life of
                                   military personnel and their families and their ability to achieve their
                                   mission.1 Some officials estimate that it will cost tens of billions of dollars
                                   spread over 6 to 9 years to restore DOD’s facilities, along with a steady,
                                   predictable stream of sustainment and recapitalization funding after that
                                   to prevent problems from reoccurring. DOD and Congress have
                                   recognized the need to fully fund maintenance and recapitalization of
                                   facilities, as well as to reduce the department’s inventory of facilities
                                   through an upcoming round of base realignments and closures scheduled
                                   for fiscal year 2005.2

                                   We prepared this report under our basic legislative responsibilities. We are
                                   providing it to you because of your oversight responsibilities for DOD’s
                                   facilities. This report (1) examines the historical funding trends for facility
                                   maintenance and military construction (including budget requests, initial


                                   1
                                    Since fiscal year 1999, DOD has reported annually to Congress the condition of its
                                   facilities and ability to support military mission. In these reports, each military facility falls
                                   under one of nine facility classes, which are groupings of like facilities, such as operations
                                   and training, mobility, and supply. Major commands assign condition ratings, or C-ratings,
                                   to each facility class.
                                   2
                                    As authorized by Congress in 2001, DOD intends to reduce its inventory of facilities as the
                                   result of closing some installations and by consolidating overlapping activities within and
                                   across the services through a round of base realignments and closures in fiscal year 2005.
                                   DOD officials have testified that 20 to 25 percent of the department’s infrastructure is not
                                   needed to meet current mission requirements. Consequently, as a result of the round of
                                   base realignments and closures in fiscal year 2005, the department and the military services
                                   will have to adjust their facility maintenance and recapitalization plans.



                                   Page 1                                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
congressional designations,3 and obligations) and their impact on the
condition of the active forces’ facilities, (2) evaluates the consistency of
the services’ information on facility conditions to help ensure that funding
decisions effectively target facilities in greatest need and reported ratings
accurately measure facility condition improvements, and (3) assesses the
department’s long-term strategic plan and objectives to sustain and
improve the condition of facilities. This is one of several reviews that we
have underway examining various aspects of facility conditions in the
department. We are also reviewing the physical condition of and
maintenance and recapitalization plans for military reserve facilities and
the management of housing for unaccompanied personnel.

In performing our work for this review, we examined DOD’s budget
requests, congressional designations, and obligations data for facilities
maintenance and construction since fiscal year 1998. In addition, we
visited 10 military installations and met with officials of the department,
the services, and six major commands to review the management and
physical condition of their facilities.4 During our visits to installations, we
discussed the evaluation methods and the condition assessment processes
with the facility raters and reviewers and toured various facilities to
observe their physical condition and deficiencies. We reviewed each
service’s system for assessing facility conditions and compared this
information across the services. We also examined DOD’s plans and
objectives to address the condition of facilities. We did not attempt to
validate DOD’s reported requirements for the sustainment of its facilities,
nor did we validate DOD’s facility inventory database. We conducted our
work between February and November 2002 in accordance with generally
accepted government auditing standards. A more thorough description of
our scope and methodology is in appendix I.



3
 We use the terms “congressionally designated” and “congressional designation” or
variations of these terms throughout to refer to amounts set forth at the budget activity,
activity group, and subactivity group level in an appropriation act’s conference report.
These recommended amounts are not binding unless they are also incorporated directly or
by reference into an appropriation act or other statute.
4
 The installations we visited include Quantico Marine Corps Base, Naval Station Norfolk,
and Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia; Pope Air Force Base and Fort Bragg, North
Carolina; Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; and Los Angeles
Air Force Base, Naval Station San Diego, and Naval Base Coronado, California. The six
major commands include Army Forces Command, Air Force Air Combat Command, Air
Force Air Mobility Command, Air Force Space Command, Navy Atlantic Fleet, and Navy
Pacific Fleet.




Page 2                                                GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                   Although funding for facility maintenance and military construction
Results in Brief   increased during the past few years, DOD and service officials said these
                   amounts must compete with other defense programs and priorities and
                   have fallen short of what is needed to halt the deterioration of facilities
                   used by the active military forces. From fiscal year 1998 to fiscal year 2001,
                   the department’s reported obligations for facility maintenance rose by
                   26 percent, from $3.8 billion to $4.8 billion.5 In general, these funding
                   increases resulted from four primary sources: the military services’
                   moderately higher annual funding requests, except in fiscal year 2000;
                   congressionally designated funding that was above the amounts requested
                   by the services; supplemental appropriations; and the movement of funds
                   into facility maintenance from other operating accounts at the end of each
                   fiscal year. During fiscal years 1998 through 2002, appropriations for
                   military construction also rose from $2.1 billion to $4.1 billion. In fiscal
                   year 2003, appropriations for military construction were $4.07 billion.
                   Even with the funding increases in facility upkeep and military
                   construction, DOD officials said that these amounts have been insufficient
                   to contain the deterioration of military facilities.6 In addition, the services
                   have pointed out in both congressional testimony and various reports that
                   their funding requests for facility upkeep have to compete with other
                   defense programs and priorities and have been consistently below what is
                   needed. At the same time, department officials also acknowledge having
                   facilities in excess of their needs, which they expect to address in a new
                   base realignment and closure round planned for fiscal year 2005. The
                   deteriorated condition of military facilities is further documented in DOD-
                   wide ratings that show that 68 percent of facility classes rated by major
                   commands are in such poor condition that they cannot fully support
                   military missions, and in our own visits to 10 U.S. military installations
                   where we found instances of leaking roofs, rotting piers, mold-covered



                   5
                    In fiscal year 2002, DOD replaced its real property maintenance program with a program
                   comprised of two distinct activities: (1) sustainment and (2) restoration and modernization.
                   A separate structure for demolition and disposal was created in fiscal year 1999. Fiscal year
                   2002 data are not included in this report because obligations data were not available during
                   our review.
                   6
                    During fiscal years 1998 through 2000, DOD reported that its deferred maintenance
                   increased by $14.1 billion. In 2001, DOD stopped reporting deferred maintenance because it
                   found the metric to be inaccurate, subjective, and unverifiable. In the meantime, the
                   department has developed or is developing other tools for generating maintenance and
                   military construction requirements, such as its facilities sustainment model to calculate
                   annual sustainment costs for military facilities and its recapitalization metric to measure
                   the amount of restoration and modernization funding for facilities.




                   Page 3                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
child development centers and administrative buildings, and deteriorated
warehouses.

While deteriorated facilities are common on many installations, there is a
lack of consistency in the services’ information on facility conditions,
making it difficult for DOD and the services to direct funds to facilities
where they are most needed and to measure progress in improving
facilities. Although DOD has established a standard rating scale to
summarize the condition of facilities in terms of their ability to support
military missions, the military services, and in some cases major
commands within a service, have the latitude to use their own systems to
develop and validate their ratings. According to DOD’s guidance, the
services can implement the department’s rating scale without modifying
their existing assessment processes. Our analysis shows that the services
use different kinds of facility raters and procedures, assessment scopes
and frequencies, appraisal scales, and validation procedures, all of which
result in inconsistencies and a lack of comparability in their ratings.
Without a consistent cross-service system for assessing facility conditions
and developing ratings, DOD and the services cannot be assured that their
funding decisions effectively target facilities in greatest need and reported
ratings accurately measure progress in facility condition improvements.
Therefore, Congress may be relying on inconsistent data in its oversight
responsibilities.

DOD has developed a facilities strategic plan and adopted three key
objectives for the services to sustain and improve the condition of their
facilities, but both the plan and the objectives have weaknesses. While the
plan offers an overall vision for managing facilities, it lacks comprehensive
information on the specific actions, time frames, assigned responsibilities,
and resources that are needed to meet that vision. Although not part of the
plan, three key objectives are meant to help the services begin reversing
the trend of deteriorating facilities. These objectives are to fully fund
sustainment starting in fiscal year 2004, reach a 67-year average
recapitalization rate7 for the services’ facilities by fiscal year 2007, and
improve the condition of facilities so that deficiencies have only a limited




7
 DOD defines recapitalization rate as the number of years required to replace or renovate
facilities at a given level of investment. The rate is computed by dividing recapitalizable
plant replacement value by total restoration and modernization investments.




Page 4                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
effect on mission performance by fiscal year 2010.8 The department is
unlikely to achieve these objectives, however, because the military
services do not propose to fully fund all of them or have developed
funding plans that have unrealistically high rates of increase in the out-
years when compared with previous funding trends and against other
defense priorities. Moreover, achieving these objectives at the service level
still allows for a wide range of sustainment funding and facility
deficiencies at the installation level. For example, in the case of the first
objective to fully fund sustainment, we found that even though the
services intended to fund sustainment between 78 and 98 percent of
requirements in fiscal year 2002, sustainment funding at 7 of the 10
installations we visited, in fact, ranged from 35 to 77 percent of their
requirements at year’s end.9 During our visits to major commands and
installations, we found that sustainment funds can be reduced or held
back at the service headquarters, major command, and installation levels
to cover more pressing needs or emerging requirements. Installation
officials told us that, as a result of these holdbacks and movements, it was
difficult for them to make or implement rational plans for maintaining
their facilities. In addition, the services have not developed comprehensive
performance plans to implement the department’s vision for facilities that
provides specific metrics to measure performance and credible and
realistic funding plans to sustain and recapitalize facilities. On a positive
note, the department and the services have undertaken some recent
initiatives that are designed to improve the department’s ability to monitor
and hold accountable the services’ facility management programs. Among
these initiatives are the department’s development of a facilities
assessment database, a handbook specifying the standard costs to
maintain different types of facilities, and a model to calculate annual
sustainment costs for facilities as well as an Army effort to centralize and
streamline its facility management program to prevent major commands
from moving maintenance funds to other programs. For several years, the
Navy has had a less centralized regional program to manage its



8
  As a point of reference, the military services intended to fund sustainment between 78 and
98 percent of requirements and reach an average recapitalization rate between 63 and 163
years in fiscal year 2002, and DOD-wide facility ratings show that 68 percent of facility
classes are in such poor condition that they affect military mission achievement.
9
  The Marine Corps base at Quantico, Virginia; Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina; and
Los Angeles Air Force Base, California; which funded 97, 95, and 113 percent, respectively,
of sustainment requirements in fiscal year 2002, were the exceptions to the funding levels
at the other installations, which funded from 35 to 77 percent of their sustainment
requirements during the same period.




Page 5                                                GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
             installations, which did not prevent the movement of sustainment funds
             from facilities early in fiscal year 2002. While the Navy is now moving
             toward a more centralized management structure similar to the Army’s
             facility management program, it is too early to assess the potential success
             of either facility program.

             We are recommending that the Secretary of Defense direct the service
             secretaries to reassess the funding priorities the services have attached to
             sustaining and improving the condition of their facilities relative to other
             needs and funding limitations. In addition, we are recommending that the
             Secretary of Defense (1) instruct the services to implement a consistent,
             departmentwide process to assess the condition of facilities and develop a
             method to validate the ratings; (2) revise the department’s facilities
             strategic plan to provide comprehensive information on specific actions
             needed, time frames, responsibilities, and resources; (3) clarify the
             department’s guidance by specifying the organizational level to which its
             three stated objectives should be achieved; and (4) direct the services to
             develop comprehensive performance plans that implement the
             department’s facilities strategic plan and provide specific metrics to
             measure performance and credible and realistic funding plans to sustain
             and recapitalize facilities. In comments on a draft of this report, DOD
             concurred with our recommendations. The department also provided
             technical clarifications, which we incorporated as appropriate.


             In the United States, the active military services are responsible for nearly
Background   380,000 facilities, with an estimated plant replacement value of over $435
             billion.10 These facilities include buildings, such as barracks, administrative
             space, classrooms, hangars, warehouses, maintenance buildings, churches,
             and child development centers, as well as non-buildings, such as runways,
             roads, railroads, piers, and utility structures and systems. If family housing
             were included, the total number of facilities would rise to more than
             524,000, with a plant replacement value of more than $477 billion.11




             10
               DOD defines plant replacement value as the cost to replace an existing facility with a
             facility of the same size at the same location, using today’s building standards.
             11
               This review does not cover military family housing, which is funded by a separate
             congressional appropriation. We recently issued a report on DOD’s privatization of military
             family housing—Military Housing: Management Improvements Needed As the Pace of
             Privatization Quickens, GAO-02-624 (Washington, D.C.: June 21, 2002).




             Page 6                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Funding for Facilities   Historically, the military services used their own metrics, terminology, and
                         accounting structures to manage their facilities. In fiscal year 2002, DOD
                         replaced the operation and maintenance funded real property
                         maintenance program with two distinct activities and accounting
                         structures for (1) sustainment and (2) restoration and modernization,
                         having already created a separate accounting structure for demolition and
                         disposal in fiscal year 1999. In addition, DOD has developed a model for
                         estimating sustainment funding needs, and it is developing a model for
                         forecasting restoration and modernization funding requirements. The
                         Army and the Air Force began using the sustainment and restoration and
                         modernization programs in fiscal year 2002, while the Navy and the Marine
                         Corps asked for and were given permission to delay implementation of
                         these new programs until fiscal year 2003.

                         Operation and maintenance funds primarily support sustainment activities,
                         which are designed to keep facilities in good working order. Sustainment
                         funds cover expenses for all recurring maintenance costs and contracts, as
                         well as for major repairs of nonstructural facility components (e.g.,
                         replacing the roof or repairing the air-conditioning system) that are
                         expected to occur during a facility’s life cycle. Restoration includes repair
                         and replacement work to restore facilities damaged by inadequate
                         sustainment, excessive age, natural disaster, fire, accident, or other
                         causes. Modernization includes altering, or modernizing, facilities to meet
                         new or higher standards, accommodate new functions, or replace
                         structural components. Both operation and maintenance and military
                         construction monies fund these activities, as well as demolition and
                         disposal activities. A fourth activity—new construction—is also funded
                         with both military construction and operation and maintenance monies.
                         This activity involves the construction of new buildings and other
                         facilities, referred to as new footprint projects.12 There are limitations to
                         the amount of operation and maintenance funds that can be used for new
                         construction and the alteration or conversion of existing facilities: a
                         maximum of $750,000 per project or up to $1.5 million if the project is
                         designed to correct a deficiency that threatens life, health, or safety.13 As
                         figure 1 illustrates, overlapping funding sources support DOD’s



                         12
                           New footprint military construction funds are used for the construction of new facilities.
                         These are not recapitalization resourcesthey are not used to replace or modernize
                         existing facilities.
                         13
                          U.S. Department of Defense, Financial Management Regulation 7000.14-R, Budget
                         Formulation and Presentation, vol. 2B, ch. 8, § 080201 (June 2002).




                         Page 7                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
sustainment, restoration, and modernization of military facilities, along
with its demolition program and new military construction.

Figure 1: Primary Funding Sources for DOD’s Facility Management Program in
Fiscal Year 2002




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD data.

         The military services also use military pay; working capital funds; research, development, test,
         and evaluation funds; and host nation support funds to sustain and recapitalize facilities.


According to DOD, fully funding sustainment is the most cost-effective
approach to managing facilities because it provides the most performance
over the longest period of time for the least investment. Without adequate
sustainment, expected service life is reduced and facilities must be
recapitalized sooner than expected. Yet, even with adequate sustainment,
over time facilities eventually either physically wear out or become
obsolete. An obsolete facility is one that is irrelevant to present-day
missions regardless of its condition; for example, a firehouse built in 1930
that is too narrow or too short to accommodate modern fire trucks. Once
facilities reach the end of their expected service life, they must be
replaced or extensively renovated or modernized—referred to as



Page 8                                                         GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                       recapitalization—if they are to continue providing adequate performance.
                       DOD estimates that an average recapitalization rate of 67 years allows
                       fully sustained facilities to meet their requirements.14 In fiscal year 2002,
                       DOD’s average recapitalization rate was 101 years, and it is projected to
                       increase to about 150 years in fiscal year 2003. Recapitalization
                       investments can also be made periodically throughout a facility’s service
                       life, which extends service life and delays the need for replacement.
                       Moreover, even after recapitalization investments are made, facility
                       performance can rapidly decline in the absence of adequate sustainment.


Rating of Facilities   In an attempt to standardize the rating of facilities across the services and
                       to provide a measure of facility conditions, DOD issued its first
                       Installations’ Readiness Report in 1999. Within the report, the services’
                       major commands report on each of their nine facility classes using a scale
                       of C-1 through C-4, as defined in table 1.15 For example, a C-4 rating is an
                       indication that a facility class for a specified installation or major
                       command has deficiencies that require workarounds or effectively
                       preclude satisfactory mission accomplishment. According to DOD’s
                       guidance to the services, they could implement this readiness reporting
                       system without modifying their existing assessment processes. As a result,
                       all four services are using different systems to assess facility conditions
                       and develop C-ratings. However, reporting their ratings to DOD requires
                       the services to implement additional processes to summarize information
                       by major commands using C-ratings for facility classes.




                       14
                         DOD’s recapitalization rate is based on an assessment of the expected service life of
                       different types of facilities. Expected service life is defined as the number of years a
                       properly sustained facility should provide service before requiring a major restoration or
                       replacement project.
                       15
                         The Navy and the Marine Corps report C-ratings for eight of the nine facility classes. They
                       do not report C-ratings for the mobility class.




                       Page 9                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Table 1: Definitions of Installations’ Readiness Report C-Ratings

 Rating        Definition
 C-1           Only minor facility deficiencies with negligible impact on capability to perform
               missions
 C-2           Some facility deficiencies with limited impact on capability to perform
               missions
 C-3           Significant facility deficiencies that prevent performing some missions
 C-4           Major facility deficiencies that preclude satisfactory mission accomplishment
Source: DOD.



The nine facility classes are groupings of like facilities. These facility
classes are similar to the groupings traditionally used for military
construction budgets and are consistent with the real property inventories
the military services maintain. Table 2 lists the nine classes with examples
of the types of facilities included in each class.

Table 2: Types of Facilities Included in the Nine Facility Classes

 Facility class           Types of facilities
 Operations and           Airfields, piers and wharves, training ranges and classrooms,
 training                 recruit facilities, armories, aircraft parking and hangars, refueling
                          hydrants, and flight simulators
 Mobility                 Facilities directly related to mobilization of forces, including
                          staging areas and transportation systems
 Maintenance and          Vehicle and avionics maintenance shops, tactical equipment
 production               shops, aircraft maintenance hangars, foundries, and ammunition
                          demilitarization
 Research,                Test chambers, laboratories, and research buildings
 development, testing,
 and evaluation
 Supply                Warehouses, hazardous material storage, and ammunition
                       storage
 Medical               Hospitals and medical and dental clinics
 Administrative        Office space and computer facilities
 Community and         Family housing, barracks and dormitories, dining halls,
 housing               recreation and physical fitness facilities, child development
                       centers, fire and police stations, visitors’ quarters, and
                       elementary and high schools
 Utilities and ground  Power production, distribution, and conservation systems; water
 improvements          and sewage systems; roads and bridges; water pollution
                       abatement; wastewater treatment facilities; fuel storage tanks;
                       and containment areas
Source: DOD.



In fiscal year 2001, DOD reported that 68 percent of facility classes rated
by the services’ major commands received C-3 or C-4 ratings, indicating



Page 10                                                  GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                            that they were in such deteriorated condition that they negatively affected
                            the quality of life of military personnel and their families and their ability
                            to achieve their mission. For example, the Army Forces Command did not
                            rate any of its facility classes as C-1, but it rated its medical class as C-2
                            and its remaining eight classes as C-3. During the same period, the Navy’s
                            Pacific Fleet did not rate any of its facility classes as C-1 or C-2, but it
                            rated its community and housing class as C-4 and its remaining seven
                            classes as C-3. The Pacific Fleet does not report ratings for the mobility
                            class.


Strategic Plan and          DOD has labored in recent years to develop its Defense Facilities
Objectives for Facilities   Strategic Plan, which outlines a set of initiatives over a 20-year period that
                            are directly linked to the plan’s vision, mission, and goals.16 The vision set
                            forth in the plan is to have installations and facilities available when and
                            where needed to effectively and efficiently support missions. To achieve
                            its vision, the plan’s strategic goals are to (1) locate, size, and configure
                            defense installations and facilities to meet the requirements of today’s and
                            tomorrow’s force structures; (2) acquire and sustain defense installations
                            and facilities to provide mission-ready installations with quality living and
                            work environments; (3) leverage resources—money, people, and
                            equipment—to achieve the proper balance between requirements and
                            available funding; and (4) improve facility management and planning by
                            embracing best business practices and taking advantage of modern asset-
                            management techniques and performance-assessment metrics.

                            In addition to the broad goals set forth in its strategic plan, DOD
                            established three key objectives. The objectives are (1) to fully fund
                            sustainment, starting in fiscal year 2004; (2) to achieve an average
                            recapitalization rate of 67 years, by fiscal year 2007; and (3) to concentrate
                            funding so as to eliminate C-3 and C-4 facility ratings, bringing the ratings
                            up to a minimal C-2 level by fiscal year 2010. As a point of reference,
                            although there were no specific funding targets for fiscal year 2002, the
                            military services intended to fund sustainment between 78 and 98 percent
                            of requirements and reach an average recapitalization rate between 63 and
                            163 years in fiscal year 2002. As well, departmentwide facility ratings show
                            that major commands rated 68 percent of facility classes C-3 or C-4. DOD
                            gradually phased in its guidance to the services on sustainment beginning



                            16
                              U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Installations 2001: The Framework for Readiness
                            in the 21st Century (Washington, D.C.: August 2001).




                            Page 11                                            GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                    in fiscal year 2002 when it instructed the services to fund sustainment to
                    the maximum extent possible. For fiscal year 2003, DOD instructed the
                    services to attempt to fully fund sustainment to the levels specified by its
                    facilities sustainment model.17 For fiscal year 2004 and thereafter, DOD
                    instructed the services to fully fund sustainment to the levels defined by
                    the facilities sustainment model. To reduce the recapitalization rate and
                    eliminate C-3 and C-4 ratings, facilities need to be fully sustained.

                    The Defense Facilities Strategic Plan also notes that DOD needs to better
                    focus its sustainment and restoration and modernization dollars to cost-
                    effectively operate and maintain its facilities to support its military
                    missions. The plan states that DOD should only fund sustainment and
                    restoration and modernization of those facilities that are needed. As
                    authorized by Congress in 2001, DOD intends to reduce its inventory of
                    facilities as the result of closing some installations and by consolidating
                    overlapping activities within and across the services through a round of
                    base realignments and closures scheduled for fiscal year 2005.


Prior GAO Reports   We have conducted a number of reviews where we identified areas in
                    which DOD and the services could improve their facilities management
                    program. Since 1997, we have identified DOD infrastructure management
                    as a high-risk area. In 2001, we reported that DOD needed to develop a
                    comprehensive long-range plan for its facilities infrastructure that
                    addresses facility requirements, recapitalization, and maintenance and
                    repair needs.18 We updated this report in January 2003, as well as
                    designated federal real property as a new high-risk area at the same time.19
                    In September 1999, we reported on the management of DOD’s facility
                    maintenance and repair programs and recommended that the Secretary of
                    Defense (1) develop a way to link needs assessment with both resource
                    allocations and tracking systems that show whether high-priority needs
                    are receiving funding, (2) establish standardized condition assessment


                    17
                      DOD’s facilities sustainment model generates an annual sustainment funding requirement
                    for facilities based on the expected life cycle of those facilities. The model uses standard
                    facility-specific cost factors, based on commercial benchmarks and variable area costs, to
                    compute a sustainment cost for each type of military facility.
                    18
                      U.S. General Accounting Office, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-01-263 (Washington,
                    D.C.: January 2001).
                    19
                      U.S. General Accounting Office, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-03-119 (Washington,
                    D.C.: January 2003) and High-Risk Series: Federal Real Property, GAO-03-122
                    (Washington, D.C.: January 2003).




                    Page 12                                               GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                        criteria, and (3) have the services adopt a valid engineering-based
                        assessment system for facilities maintenance.20 In February 2000, we
                        reported on the funding amounts that Congress had designated for DOD’s
                        operation and maintenance subactivities and compared the amounts with
                        DOD’s obligations for those same subactivities.21 We found that DOD
                        consistently moved operation and maintenance funds into and out of
                        certain activities, usually because they were needed elsewhere. In a June
                        2002 report, we examined the condition of barracks used to house military
                        recruits in basic training and concluded that, to varying degrees, most
                        barracks were in significant need of repair, although some were in better
                        condition than others.22


                        While the amounts of money DOD devoted to facility maintenance and
Many Facilities         military construction increased between fiscal year 1998 and 2001 and
Remain in               fiscal year 1998 and 2002, respectively, DOD and service officials said
                        these amounts have to compete with other defense programs and
Deteriorated            priorities and have been insufficient to restrain the deterioration and/or
Condition, Even with    obsolescence of facilities used by the active forces. In general, the funding
                        increases for facility maintenance resulted from moderately higher annual
Increase in             requests by the services, except in fiscal year 2000; congressionally
Maintenance and         designated funding that was higher than that requested by the services;
Military Construction   supplemental appropriations; and the services’ movement of funds to
                        maintenance projects at the end of each fiscal year. The funding increase
Funding                 in military construction resulted primarily from congressional
                        designations greater than initially requested by DOD. Even with these
                        increases, funding has fallen short of what is needed to reverse the
                        deteriorated state of many facilities, as highlighted in recent congressional
                        testimony and various studies conducted by the services. Recent
                        departmentwide facility ratings show that major commands rated 68
                        percent of facility classes C-3 or C-4. Our visits to 10 military installations
                        further underscored the scope of the deteriorated conditions.




                        20
                         U.S. General Accounting Office, Military Infrastructure: Real Property Management
                        Needs Improvement, GAO/NSIAD-99-100 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 7, 1999).
                        21
                          U.S. General Accounting Office, Defense Budget: DOD Should Further Improve
                        Visibility and Accountability of O&M Fund Movements, GAO/NSIAD-00-18 (Washington,
                        D.C.: Feb. 9, 2000).
                        22
                         U.S. General Accounting Office, Defense Infrastructure: Most Recruit Training
                        Barracks Have Significant Deficiencies, GAO-02-786 (Washington, D.C.: June 13, 2002).




                        Page 13                                             GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Facility Maintenance         DOD’s reported obligations for facility maintenance, funded with
Funding Increased from       operation and maintenance monies, show an increase between fiscal year
Fiscal Year 1998 to Fiscal   1998 and 2001.23 Moreover, these obligations were always more than the
                             services originally requested or that Congress initially designated. As
Year 2001                    figure 2 shows, the amounts that DOD requested for facility maintenance
                             fluctuated between 1998 and 2001, increasing overall from $3.5 billion in
                             fiscal year 1998 to just above $4.6 billion in fiscal year 2001. During the
                             same period, Congress consistently designated more funding for facility
                             maintenance than DOD had requested. In addition, DOD’s reported
                             obligations for facility maintenance increased from over $3.8 billion in
                             fiscal year 1998 to more than $4.8 billion in fiscal year 2001, a 26 percent
                             increase during fiscal years 1998 through 2001, unadjusted for inflation.




                             23
                               In fiscal year 2002, DOD replaced its real property maintenance program with a program
                             comprised of two distinct activities: (1) sustainment and (2) restoration and modernization,
                             having already created a separate structure for demolition and disposal in fiscal year 1999.
                             Sustainment and restoration and modernization are discussed later in this report.




                             Page 14                                                GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 2: Requested, Congressionally Designated Initially, and (Reported) Obligated
Facility Maintenance Funding Levels for the Active Military Services, Fiscal Years
1998 through 2001




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD and congressional data.

       Some of this increase is a result of internal adjustments among accounts. For example, during
       this period, some services moved research, development, test, and evaluation funds
       budgeted for the maintenance and repair of research, development, test, and evaluation
       facilities into the operation and maintenance budget.

       Fiscal year 2002 data are not included above because obligations data were not available
       during our review.


While some funding increases for facility maintenance resulted from
moderately higher requests by the services (except in fiscal year 2000),
most of the growth stemmed from congressionally designated funding that
was above that requested by the services; supplemental appropriations
that increased facility maintenance funding in each fiscal year; and the


Page 15                                                    GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
services’ internal movement of funds into facility maintenance from other
operation and maintenance-funded programs, such as operating tempo
programs.24 According to a DOD official, some of the growth in the
reported maintenance funding resulted from internal adjustments among
accounts—intrabudget transfers from other appropriations to facility
maintenance. The services also moved funds out of facility maintenance to
other programs such as base operations and force readiness during this
period; however, the outward movements of funds were generally less
than the amounts moved into facility maintenance. For example, during
fiscal year 2000, the Army initially moved $6.8 million out of facility
maintenance to base operations support but, by the end of the fiscal year,
had moved more than $10 million back into facility maintenance from base
operations support. In addition, it is important to note that in fiscal year
2000, DOD split its budget request for facilities between $2.8 billion for
facility maintenance and $1.8 billion for quality of life enhancements.25
DOD specifically requested funds for quality-of-life enhancements in fiscal
year 2000 to reduce the services’ facility maintenance backlog and to
repair barracks, dormitories, and related facilities. Although Congress
initially designated only slightly more funds (approximately $64 million)
for facility maintenance than DOD requested, in its conference report
Congress moved more than $1.6 billion from DOD’s quality-of-life
enhancements into facility maintenance.

DOD has considerable flexibility in using operation and maintenance
funds and can move them in several ways. Congress makes appropriations
at the aggregated account level—that is, for the Army, the Air Force, the
Navy, the Marine Corps, and the Defense-wide operation and maintenance
accounts. However, to indicate how it expects operation and maintenance
funds to be spent, Congress designates, in its conference report on annual
appropriations acts, specific amounts for each subactivity group, such as
sustainment, restoration and modernization, or base operations. As
discussed further in appendix III, DOD has broad discretion in how it uses
operation and maintenance funds.



24
  Operating tempo includes active and reserve component ground and air training
requirements for fuel, repair parts, and other consumables; training range modernization;
combat training center modernization; training ammunition; and training support and
operations.
25
  Congress established the quality of life enhancements defense appropriation to fund
DOD’s backlog of real property maintenance of barracks, dormitories, and related facilities,
including minor construction and major maintenance and repair.




Page 16                                                GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Military Construction      At the same time that DOD’s reported obligations for facility maintenance
Appropriations Increased   increased, appropriations for military construction also rose. However, the
from Fiscal Year 1998 to   amounts that DOD requested for military construction fluctuated between
                           fiscal year 1998 and 2001, from nearly $1.6 billion in fiscal year 1998, down
Fiscal Year 2002           to about $1.2 billion in fiscal year 2000, and up to more than $3.9 billion in
                           fiscal year 2002. During the same period, as figure 3 shows, Congress
                           consistently appropriated more funding for military construction than
                           DOD had requested by adding construction projects. Although the
                           appropriated amounts slightly decreased between fiscal year 1998 and
                           1999 and again between fiscal year 2000 and 2001, total appropriations
                           increased from $2.1 billion in fiscal year 1998 to more than $4.1 billion in
                           fiscal year 2002, a 95 percent increase, unadjusted for inflation.26




                           26
                                Total appropriations for military construction in fiscal year 2003 were $4.07 billion.




                           Page 17                                                    GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 3: Requested and Appropriated Military Construction Funding Levels for the
Active Military Services, Fiscal Years 1998 through 2002




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD and congressional data.

       This table does not include yearly obligated amounts for military construction because such
       funds are available for obligation over a 5-year period. For example, funds appropriated in
       fiscal year 1998 can be obligated through fiscal year 2002.


In fiscal year 2000, DOD requested less in military construction funds than
it had asked for in the previous two fiscal years but it also requested
advance appropriations for fiscal year 2001 totaling more than $1.5 billion
for the active services.27 Congress did not appropriate funds for the
advance appropriation request but appropriated military construction
funds for fiscal year 2000 that were greater than the initial request. In its


27
   An advance appropriation is one made to become available one fiscal year or more
beyond the fiscal year for which the appropriation act is passed. For instance, advance
appropriations in the fiscal year 2000 appropriation act became available for programs in
fiscal year 2001 and beyond. Since these appropriations were not available until after fiscal
year 2000, the amounts were not included in fiscal year 2000 budget totals.




Page 18                                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                              report on the fiscal year 2000 military construction appropriation bill, the
                              Senate Committee on Appropriations noted that the use of advance
                              appropriations was not consistent with the long-standing policy of fully
                              funding military construction and directed DOD to fully fund all military
                              construction projects in future budget requests. The Committee also noted
                              that it was concerned about DOD’s continued lack of investment in
                              military facilities and indicated that the fiscal year 2000 military
                              construction request failed to request sufficient funds to support DOD’s
                              efforts to modernize, renovate, and improve aging facilities. In fiscal year
                              2002, the administration requested $3.9 billion—$1.72 billion more than
                              requested in fiscal year 2001—for military construction to help eliminate
                              the most seriously degraded facilities and reduce the recapitalization rate.


Testimony and Studies         Even with the growth in funding for facility maintenance and military
Indicate that Services Have   construction, DOD and service officials said the amounts have fallen short
Underfunded Facility          of what is needed to stop the deterioration and obsolescence of facilities
                              used by the active forces. In testimony in April 2001 before the House
Maintenance                   Committee on Armed Services, Military Installations and Facilities
                              Subcommittee, officials from the military services attributed deteriorated
                              facility conditions to consistent underfunding. For example, Army officials
                              testified that average facility maintenance funding since the early 1990s
                              was approximately 60 percent of what was needed. These officials also
                              testified that available maintenance funding met only 70 percent of their
                              needs in fiscal year 2001. Likewise, Air Force officials testified that facility
                              maintenance funding shortfalls have hindered the service’s efforts to
                              sustain and operate Air Force facilities and only allow the Air Force to
                              provide day-to-day maintenance for facilities. Navy and Marine Corps
                              officials also testified that their services consistently underfunded facility
                              maintenance.

                              In addition to congressional testimony, DOD and the military services have
                              issued a number of recent reports that further underscore the insufficiency
                              of funding for facility maintenance. In its annual financial reports, DOD
                              reported that its deferred maintenance increased from $35.9 billion in
                              fiscal year 1998 to $50 billion in fiscal year 2001—a $14.1 billion increase
                              in 3 years. However, it is important to note that in fiscal year 2001, DOD
                              stopped reporting deferred maintenance because it found deferred
                              maintenance to be inaccurate, subjective, and unverifiable. In the
                              Installations’ Readiness Report for fiscal year 2001, the services reported
                              that 68 percent of their facility classes rated by major commands were C-3
                              or C-4. In a report on its facilities investment plan, the Air Force indicated
                              that, since fiscal year 1998, operation and maintenance facilities funding


                              Page 19                                         GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                            was limited to 1 percent of the service’s total plant replacement value.28
                            However, the full 1 percent rarely reached Air Force installations because
                            the funds were moved to other needs or used to pay for critical repairs or
                            upgrades to facilities, which are not considered maintenance activities.
                            Based on DOD’s facilities sustainment model, 1 percent of plant
                            replacement value is not enough to fully sustain facilities. In a 2002 report
                            on the Navy’s facilities maintenance program, the Naval Audit Service
                            stated that the Navy historically understated its maintenance requirements
                            and used its facility maintenance funds to resolve funding shortfalls in
                            other Navy programs.29 The Naval Audit Service concluded that, as a result
                            of these movements and the resulting reductions in maintenance funding
                            at the beginning of the fiscal year, it is difficult for the Navy to make or
                            implement rational plans for maintaining and repairing its facilities.


Deteriorated Condition of   Although we found new construction and renovations of buildings taking
Military Facilities         place, we also observed numerous examples of deteriorated conditions of
                            military facilities during our visits to 10 installations across the country.
                            Moreover, we noted that while facilities may appear to be in relatively
                            good condition on the exterior, their interior conditions may be less so
                            with deteriorated heating, air-conditioning, and ventilation systems and
                            other deficiencies. Among the deficiencies observed were

                            •    buildings closed due to excessive mold and mildew;

                            •    motor pools forced to perform vehicle maintenance outdoors on gravel
                                 lots;

                            •    administrative offices located in converted wooden barracks built in
                                 the 1940s;

                            •    maintenance performed on expensive electronic equipment inside
                                 temporary structures with inadequate heating, air-conditioning, or
                                 ventilation systems; and




                            28
                             U.S. Department of the Air Force, Office of the Civil Engineer, United States Air Force
                            Facilities Investment Plan (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 14, 2002).
                            29
                             U.S. Department of the Navy, Naval Audit Service, Management of the Navy’s
                            Sustainment, Restoration, and Modernization Program, N2002-0067 (Washington, D.C.:
                            Aug. 6, 2002).




                            Page 20                                               GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                •   runways policed regularly by base personnel to pick up debris and
                                    identify cracked pavement.

                                In the following sections, we describe some of the facility deficiencies we
                                observed at each of the 10 military installations we visited.

Deficiencies Observed at Army   Established in 1918, Fort Bragg, North Carolina, is home to the 82nd
Installations                   Airborne and its three brigades. At Fort Bragg, we observed a number of
                                newly constructed facilities, such as a medical center and a youth center,
                                as well as many facilities that were in relatively poor condition. For
                                example, we saw wooden buildings that were constructed during World
                                War II and were still in use for a variety of purposes, including
                                administrative space and storage. In fiscal year 2001, Fort Bragg’s
                                administrative facilities were rated C-4, which is defined by DOD as having
                                major deficiencies that preclude satisfactory completion of the mission.
                                These wooden buildings contain nearly 2 million square feet, or about 7
                                percent of the installation’s total facility space. Figure 4 shows the exterior
                                walls of one of these badly deteriorating buildings; the paint on the walls
                                was peeling and there were several holes in the wood. In addition, a
                                number of temporary structures were in use, including sheds used for
                                administration and training at a vehicle maintenance yard. At this location,
                                personnel also performed maintenance on vehicles on a gravel lot where
                                dirt and debris sometimes got into engine parts and compromised the
                                quality of their work.




                                Page 21                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 4: World War II-Era Wood Building at Fort Bragg, North Carolina




Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, which was established in 1827, is home to the
Combined Arms Center that educates officers in operational command
and staff functions, the Command and General Staff College, the National
Simulation Center, and the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks. At Fort
Leavenworth, we saw a newly constructed prison and a recently renovated
visiting officers’ quarters but also numerous deteriorated facilities,
including a warehouse with a broken structural wood beam, as shown in
figure 5. Notwithstanding this hazard, personnel still worked in this facility
daily. In fiscal year 2001, Fort Leavenworth’s supply facilities, which
include warehouses, were rated C-4.




Page 22                                          GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                               Figure 5: Structurally Unsound Warehouse at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas




Deficiencies Observed at Air   Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina, established as Pope Field in 1919, is
Force Installations            currently home to the 43rd Airlift Wing, which provides airlift support to
                               adjacent Fort Bragg. While we saw buildings at Pope that appeared to be
                               in good condition on the outside, officials advised us to drink only bottled
                               water because the installation’s water pipes were so thoroughly clogged
                               with rust and sediment that the water was considered unsafe to drink.
                               Figure 6 shows some of the water pipes that were removed from a
                               renovated building. Base officials told us that the fire station’s ventilation
                               system was unable to adequately remove diesel fire engine exhaust from
                               the air. We also learned that crumbling concrete and a decaying storm
                               drainpipe required the base’s main runway to be shut down in February
                               2002. While the runway and one taxiway were being repaired, all flight
                               operations, equipment, and personnel had to be transferred to other
                               installations for 30 days—at a cost of over $800,000. We were also told the
                               runway was policed regularly to clean up debris and identify cracked
                               pavement. The base’s operations and training facility class, including
                               runways and taxiways, was rated C-4 in fiscal year 2001.



                               Page 23                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 6: Choked and Clogged Water Pipes at Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina




Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, established in 1942 as Sedalia Army
Air Field, is a former missile base that is now home to the Air Force’s B-2
bombers. Even with new construction to accommodate B-2 maintenance
operations, the facilities exhibited a number of problems. Crumbling
pavement outside the entrance of a main cargo center threatened to topple
loaded forklift machinery (see fig. 7). A 48-year-old wood frame
warehouse had safety, lighting, and electrical code violations and a leaky
roof. The warehouse also had a loading dock that forklift operators were
told not to use because the dock’s cracked and pitted concrete might not
support the weight of the machinery. In fiscal year 2001, the base’s supply
facility class, including warehouses, was rated C-4.




Page 24                                         GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 7: Crumbling Concrete Outside Cargo Center at Whiteman Air Force Base,
Missouri




Los Angeles Air Force Base, California, officially designated as Los
Angeles Air Force Station in 1964, is the current home of the Air Force
Space and Missile Systems Center whose mission involves acquisition and
research, development, and testing of missile systems. Base officials told
us that a number of buildings had asbestos in the interior walls and
ceilings, and we observed peeling lead-based paint on the exterior
surfaces. The officials also told us that at one of the base’s computer
laboratories the asbestos levels in the floor tiles were too high to risk
removing them. The base’s research, development, testing, and evaluation
facilities were rated C-4 in fiscal year 2001. Officials also showed us the
main electrical substation for the base, which used 1930s-era equipment
and was difficult to repair because parts were no longer available. The



Page 25                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                substation once caught fire and was shut down; there was a great deal of
                                difficulty getting it completely operational. Some of its wiring was still
                                covered with asbestos insulation.

Deficiencies Observed at Navy   At Naval Station San Diego, California, established in 1922 and homeport
Installations                   to 89 Pacific Fleet ships, we observed several deteriorated facilities,
                                including piers with broken wooden fenders and cracked concrete. One
                                pier could not support heavy loading equipment. In addition, officials told
                                us the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems at the radar
                                school have only been minimally maintained for many years due to a lack
                                of funds. In fiscal year 2001, Naval Station San Diego’s operations and
                                training class, of which these facilities are part, was rated C-3, which is
                                defined by DOD as having significant deficiencies that prevent performing
                                some missions.

                                During our visit to Naval Base Coronado, California, which was
                                established as Naval Air Station North Island in 1917 and is comprised of
                                the naval air station, Naval Amphibious Base Coronado, and five other
                                activities, we observed a severely deteriorated runway with large sections
                                of cracked and broken concrete that had, on at least one occasion, caused
                                minor damage to aircraft using the runway (see fig. 8). The operations and
                                training facility class, including runways, at Naval Base Coronado was
                                rated C-3 in fiscal year 2001. Moreover, officials told us that the base
                                continually dealt with large problems created by small maintenance
                                problems that were not addressed. For instance, they told us a toilet,
                                which did not shut off properly, flooded out one building, resulting in
                                $140,000 in cleanup costs. We also saw one of the base’s child
                                development centers, which was permanently closed in January 2002
                                because of severe problems with mold that had rotted the support
                                structure underneath the building’s floor. The building’s closure, which
                                affected more than 160 children for whom alternate care had to be found,
                                had a significant impact on the quality of life of military families at this
                                base.




                                Page 26                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 8: Cracked and Broken Runway Surface at Naval Base Coronado, California




Page 27                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
At Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia, established in 1917 and homeport for 76
ships and 138 aircraft, we observed several facilities under renovation, but
we also saw many deteriorated facilities, including a large warehouse that
was evacuated because the wooden beams supporting the roof broke.
Likewise, during our visit to Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia,
established in 1952 and home to 23 aircraft squadrons assigned to both the
Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, we saw several newly constructed facilities,
some of which were replacing obsolete facilities. Still, officials told us that
sections of the installation’s aircraft intermediate maintenance depot, the
Navy’s only F-14 aircraft electronics maintenance support center,
frequently shut down because the facility’s failing air-conditioning system
could not adequately cool room temperatures to the levels necessary for
aircraft repair equipment to function. As a result, according to base
personnel, there was a backlog of aircraft parts that needed repairs,
grounding some aircraft and forcing sailors to work long hours to make up
the backlog. In fiscal year 2001, Naval Air Station Oceana’s maintenance
and production facilities, including avionics maintenance shops, were
rated C-4. Figure 9 shows the aircraft intermediate maintenance depot’s
portable generator, used to supplement the internal air-conditioning
system, being cooled by a garden hose and a sprinkler to prevent
overheating. In addition, officials told us that some barracks at Naval Air
Station Oceana were not occupied because their heating, ventilation, and
air-conditioning systems were not maintained, allowing mold and mildew
to grow in walls, carpeting, and ceilings—all of which must be replaced.
Personnel who occupied these buildings had to find housing off base.




Page 28                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                              Figure 9: Garden Hose and Sprinkler Cooling Portable Generator at Naval Air
                              Station Oceana, Virginia




Deficiencies Observed at      Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia, established in 1917, serves two
Quantico Marine Corps Base,   primary roles—as the location where Marine Corps’ concepts, doctrine,
Virginia                      training, and equipment are developed and as the focal point for Marine
                              Corps’ professional military education. While we saw a number of new
                              buildings in good exterior condition, we also saw a number of older,
                              deteriorated facilities at the base. For example, we observed buildings
                              with doors falling off their frames, barracks room walls cracked and
                              covered with mold, and air-conditioning systems close to failure. In one
                              building with a mess hall, living quarters, and classrooms, base officials
                              showed us corroded valves from the air-conditioning system (see fig. 10).
                              They told us that the system, which was imported from India in 1999,
                              constantly leaked and had corroded the two valves in only one year. They
                              added that because the system was only one of three in use in the United
                              States, it was difficult to obtain the parts needed to repair it.




                              Page 29                                          GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 10: Corroded Air-Conditioning System Valves at Quantico Marine Corps
Base, Virginia




Although the base’s operations and training facility class was rated C-2 in
fiscal year 2001, we visited two old classroom buildings that were still in
use but did not have adequate indoor bathroom facilities. As figure 11
shows, personnel must use outdoor portable facilities at one training
location.




Page 30                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                     Figure 11: Outdoor Portable Facilities Used to Supplement Inadequate Indoor
                     Facilities at Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia




                     The information that the services have on the condition of their facilities is
Military Services’   inconsistent across the services, making it difficult for Congress, DOD,
Data on Facility     and the services to direct funds to facilities that are in most need of repair
                     and to measure progress in improving facilities. Although DOD established
Conditions Are       a standard rating scale to summarize facility conditions and ability to
Inconsistent         support military mission, each service has the latitude to use its own
                     system for developing and validating the ratings. According to DOD’s
                     guidance to the services, they can implement this rating scale without
                     modifying their existing assessment processes. We found that the services,
                     and in some cases major commands within a service, employ different
                     types of facility raters and procedures, assessment scopes and
                     frequencies, appraisal scales, and validation procedures. This lack of
                     consistency makes it difficult for DOD and the services to direct funds to
                     facilities that are in most need of repair and to accurately measure the




                     Page 31                                         GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                           progress of improvements in facility conditions. Therefore, Congress may
                           be relying on inconsistent data in its oversight responsibilities.


DOD Established a          In fiscal year 1999, DOD developed a standard rating scale for
Standard Rating Scale to   summarizing the condition of military facilities using C-ratings and
Summarize Facility         adopted the Installations’ Readiness Report as its method for reporting
                           facility conditions to Congress. DOD issued the Installations’ Readiness
Conditions                 Report to fulfill its reporting requirement to Congress under section 117 of
                           title 10 of the United States Code, which specifies that DOD measure the
                           capability of defense installations and facilities to provide appropriate
                           support to forces in the conduct of their wartime missions. DOD adopted
                           the report as a method for including the condition of installations and
                           facilities in its readiness reporting system, in which commanders rate the
                           readiness of their units to carry out required missions, and to help in the
                           decision-making process on how to allocate facility maintenance and
                           construction funds. Regardless of the creation of the standard scale for
                           summarizing facility conditions, each service has the latitude to develop
                           its own C-rating definitions and facility condition assessment system.
                           DOD’s guidance to the services state that they can implement this
                           readiness reporting system without modifying their existing assessment
                           processes.


Services Use Different     Although DOD developed a standard rating scale, the services’ C-ratings
C-rating Definitions       have a somewhat different focus and definitions than DOD’s. DOD’s
                           C-rating definitions focus on the impact of facility deficiencies on mission
                           accomplishment and do not specify whether it is the mission of the
                           personnel who use the facilities or the mission of the facilities. In general,
                           the services’ C-rating definitions focus on the impact of deficiencies on the
                           ability of facilities to support or perform their assigned or required
                           missions. For example, the mission of a child development center is to
                           provide safe and adequate care for the children of military families. As a
                           result, C-ratings are not consistently defined across DOD and the services.
                           Table 3 compares DOD’s and the service’s C-rating definitions.




                           Page 32                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Table 3: Comparison of DOD’s and the Services’ C-rating Definitions

 Rating             DOD                     Army                        Air Force                    Navy                      Marine Corps
 C-1                Only minor facility     Almost all required         Only minor                   Ready for all             Ready for all
                    deficiencies with       facilities on hand;         deficiencies with            missions, having only     missions, having only
                    negligible impact on    meet unit/activity          negligible impact on         minor deficiencies        minor deficiencies
                    capability to perform   needs and Army              the facility class’          with negligible impact    with negligible impact
                    missions                standards; very minor,      capability to support        on capability to          on capability to
                                            if any, functional          assigned missions            perform required          perform required
                                            deficiencies; facilities                                 facility missions         facility missions
                                            fully supports mission
                                            performance
 C-2                Some facility           Most required facilities    Some facility                Ready for bulk of         Ready for bulk of
                    deficiencies with       on hand; meet               deficiencies with            missions, having          missions, having
                    limited impact on       unit/activity needs and     limited impact on the        some deficiencies with    some deficiencies
                    capability to perform   partly meet Army            facility class’ capability   limited impact on         with limited impact on
                    missions                standards; minor            to support assigned          capability to perform     capability to perform
                                            functional                  missions                     required facility         required facility
                                            deficiencies; facilities                                 missions                  missions
                                            supports majority of
                                            assigned missions
 C-3                Significant facility    Majority of required        Major facility               Ready for some            Ready for some
                    deficiencies that       facilities on hand;         deficiencies that            portions of missions,     portions of missions,
                    prevent performing      meet majority of            significantly degrade        having significant        having significant
                    some missions           unit/activity needs; do     the facility class’          deficiencies that         deficiencies that
                                            not meet Army               ability to support           prevent performing        prevent performing
                                            standards; some             assigned missions            some facility missions    some facility
                                            functional                                                                         missions
                                            deficiencies; impairs
                                            mission performance
 C-4                Major facility          Less than 60 percent        Critical facility            Not ready for             Not ready for
                    deficiencies that       of required facilities on   deficiencies that            missions, having          missions, having
                    preclude satisfactory   hand; facilities do not     preclude the facility        major deficiencies that   major deficiencies
                    mission                 meet unit/activity          class’ support of            preclude satisfactory     that preclude
                    accomplishment          needs or Army               assigned missions            accomplishment of         satisfactory
                                            standards; major                                         facility missions         accomplishment of
                                            functional                                                                         facility missions
                                            deficiencies;
                                            significantly impair
                                            mission performance
Source: DOD and the services.

                                                  Note: GAO’s analysis of DOD and service data.


                                                  Although none of the C-ratings measures the impact of facility conditions
                                                  on readiness, DOD’s reporting of the ratings in its annual Installations’
                                                  Readiness Report to Congress attempts to link facility conditions to
                                                  military readiness. However, some service officials told us that it is
                                                  difficult to gauge the affect of facility conditions on military mission or
                                                  readiness. For example, an Atlantic Fleet official said it is hard to quantify
                                                  how a leaking roof affects the Navy’s readiness to protect sea lanes.



                                                  Page 33                                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Services Have Different                           In determining C-ratings for its facility classes, each service developed its
Assessment Systems for                            own system for assessing and validating its facility conditions. Table 4
Developing and Validating                         compares the basic characteristics of the assessment systems used by the
                                                  four services to develop C-ratings.
Ratings


Table 4: Comparison of Basic Characteristics of Services’ Facility Condition Assessment Systems

 Rating system                                                                    Service
 characteristic                 Army                       Air Force                  Navy                              Marine Corps
 Name                           Installation Status Report Installations’ Readiness   Installation Readiness            Commanding Officer’s
                                                           Report                     Reporting System                  Readiness Reporting
                                                                                                                        System
 Facility raters and            Building occupants/users      Building                     Engineers, engineering       Technicians and skilled
 procedures                     assess facilities using       occupants/users,             technicians, and certified   craftsmen assess
                                facility condition            engineers, engineering       journeymen assess            facilities
                                assessment worksheets         technicians, and facility    facilities and classify
                                                              managers report facility     identified deficiencies as
                                                              deficiencies for which       critical or deferrable
                                                              repair projects are
                                                              programmed
 Assessment scopes and          Facilities are assessed       Installation officials       Most major commands          Facilities are assessed at
 frequencies                    annually                      identify deficiencies and    assess facilities every 3    different frequencies,
                                                              program repair projects      years; one major             depending on type
                                Some sampling is used         throughout the fiscal year   command assesses
                                to estimate conditions                                     facilities on 2, 3, and 6-
                                                                                           year cycles
 Appraisal scales               Three-level scale for         Three-level scale for        Three-level scale for        Three-level scale for
                                facility conditions: green,   impact of facility           facility conditions: good,   facility conditions:
                                amber, and red                deficiencies on mission:     fair, and poor               adequate, inadequate,
                                                              minimal, degraded, and                                    and substandard
                                                              critical
 Validation procedures          No Army-wide system;          No Air Force-wide            No Navy-wide system;         No Marine Corps-wide
                                some review of the data       system; some major           some major commands          system
                                is done by Army               commands send                and regions have own
                                headquarters and the          infrastructure sustain       review processes
                                major commands                teams to validate
                                                              projects
Source: DOD and the services.

                                                  Note: GAO’s analysis of DOD and service data.


Services Use Different Types of                   The services use different types of personnel and procedures to rate the
Facility Raters and Procedures                    condition of their facilities. The Army relies on building occupants and
                                                  users to rate each facility using facility condition assessment worksheets.
                                                  The worksheets contain a list of Army required components for each type
                                                  of facility, such as condition of restrooms, adequacy of storage space, or
                                                  size and adequacy of administrative or training space. Booklets containing



                                                  Page 34                                                   GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                             illustrations showing conditions for facility components at each rating
                             level accompany the worksheets. The Air Force has no formal facility
                             assessment process. Instead, building occupants and users report any
                             deficiencies to building managers, who then review the deficiencies and
                             submit work orders to initiate repair projects. In addition, engineers and
                             engineering technicians also assess some facilities. The Navy uses mostly
                             engineers, engineering technicians, and certified journeymen to assess
                             facilities. They conduct the assessments by identifying and classifying
                             deficiencies as either critical or deferrable.30 The Atlantic Fleet, the Navy’s
                             second largest major command, however, developed its own assessment
                             system that uses criteria different from Navy-wide standards to classify
                             deficiencies.31 Atlantic Fleet facilities staff told us that they developed this
                             system because they were concerned about the lack of consistency under
                             the Navy-wide system. The Marine Corps depends on technicians and
                             personnel with skilled trade backgrounds to rate the condition of facilities’
                             major components and structural integrity. Based on the raters’ data, a
                             computer program then calculates both the cost of improvements and the
                             installations’ C-ratings.

Assessment Scopes and        The scopes and frequencies of facility assessments also differ among the
Frequencies Vary among the   services. The Army assesses all of its facilities annually and uses some
Services                     sampling as part of the process. The Air Force does not formally assess
                             facilities; rather, installation officials identify deficiencies and program
                             repair projects throughout the year. In most Navy major commands,
                             facilities are inspected on a 3-year cycle, but in the Atlantic Fleet, facilities
                             are assessed on 2-, 3-, and 6-year cycles, depending on the type of facility.
                             The Marine Corps inspects some types of facilities annually but inspects
                             other types of facilities less frequently.

                             In addition, the services do not assess all facilities in their inventory. For
                             example, the Army does not report on the condition of its temporary
                             facilities, which includes World War II-era wood buildings. At Fort Bragg,
                             World War II-era facilities comprise nearly 2 million square feet of space,
                             or 7 percent of the installation’s total facility space. The Army does not


                             30
                               According to Navy criteria, a deficiency is classified as critical if the maintenance and
                             repair need requires corrective action within the current year or poses a serious risk for
                             environmental damage, interference or loss of mission, life safety, or quality of life.
                             31
                               According to Atlantic Fleet criteria, a deficiency is classified as either critical or
                             deferrable depending on two factors: the severity of the deficiency or the probability of the
                             deficiency causing a mishap. These two factors are considered in four impact areas:
                             environment, mission, life safety, and quality of life.




                             Page 35                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                         consider temporary facilities as meeting quantity requirements. In the Air
                         Force, some temporary structures are not considered part of an
                         installation’s facility inventory. At Pope Air Force Base, for instance,
                         temporary structures that have been used for electronic equipment
                         maintenance since the 1970s are not counted as part of the installation’s
                         facility inventory but, rather, are counted as equipment. According to one
                         Navy official, the service also does not assess temporary structures, such
                         as trailers.

Services Use Different   The four services also use different appraisal scales in assessing facility
Appraisal Scales         conditions. In the Army, facilities receive a green, amber, or red rating
                         based on an assessment of physical conditions. A green rating signifies
                         that a facility meets standards and is in overall good condition. An amber
                         rating indicates that a facility does not fully meet facility standards, while
                         a red rating signifies a facility is substandard and in overall poor condition.
                         In the Air Force, projects are prioritized using the Facility Investment
                         Metric, which weights repair project costs by mission area, such as
                         primary mission and base support, and mission impact. Projects, not
                         facilities, are rated as minimal, degraded, or critical. A minimal rating
                         indicates marginal or little adverse impact to installation mission
                         capability. A degraded rating indicates a limited loss of installation mission
                         capability. A critical rating indicates a significant loss of installation
                         mission capability and frequent mission interruptions. In the Navy,
                         facilities are rated good, fair, or poor based on deficiencies identified
                         during assessments. A good rating indicates that a facility complies with
                         facility standards. A fair rating denotes a facility that does not meet
                         standards and is in overall poor condition. A poor rating indicates that a
                         facility requires replacement. In the Marine Corps, facilities are rated as
                         adequate, substandard, or inadequate based on renovation costs or the
                         condition of major facility components, as well as health or safety issues.
                         An adequate rating indicates that facility components (such as electrical
                         systems or fire protection) have only minor deficiencies, a substandard
                         rating signifies that facility components have significant deficiencies, and
                         an inadequate rating indicates that facility components have major
                         deficiencies that impair functionality.

                         In translating facility condition or project ratings into C-ratings reported to
                         DOD, the Army, the Navy, and the Marine Corps use similar computation
                         methods while the Air Force employs a different method. In general, the
                         Army, Navy, and Marine Corps systems assign C-ratings to facility classes
                         based on mathematical formulas that consider both the results of facility
                         condition assessments and the plant replacement value. These formulas
                         vary slightly from service to service. In contrast, the Air Force uses its


                         Page 36                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                Facility Investment Metric to weight repair project costs by mission area
                                and impact. The total weighted repair project costs are summed and
                                divided by the total plant replacement value to obtain a percentage for
                                each facility class. Each percentage is converted to a C-rating using the
                                following break points: C-1: 0 to 10 percent; C-2: greater than 10 to 20
                                percent; C-3: greater than 20 to 40 percent; and C-4: greater than
                                40 percent.

Validation Procedures Are Not   Neither DOD nor the services have comprehensive validation procedures
Comprehensive                   for facility condition information, although some major commands and
                                installations review and verify their own data. However, such practices are
                                inconsistent within the services. In the Army, for instance, we found that
                                facilities personnel at Fort Leavenworth reviewed every Installation Status
                                Report worksheet. By comparison, at Fort Bragg there is no review
                                process. During our visit to that base, we reviewed Installation Status
                                Report worksheets where facility assessors rated all assessment
                                categories as amber. Facilities personnel told us that since an amber rating
                                requires no written explanation of deficiencies, as does a red rating,
                                building users often assign amber ratings so they can quickly complete
                                their assessment worksheets. Moreover, at Fort Leavenworth we found
                                that all building users responsible for assessing facilities were required to
                                attend a training session on completing Installation Status Report
                                worksheets. At Fort Bragg, on the other hand, we were told that no facility
                                assessors attended this year’s 1-hour training session while last year only
                                two individuals attended the training. In the Air Force, some major
                                commands send infrastructure sustain teams to visit installations on an
                                18-month cycle to identify and validate specific projects for major
                                infrastructure systems (e.g., airfield pavements, airfield lighting, etc.). In
                                the Navy, some regions and major commands have procedures for
                                reviewing facility condition information. For example, Atlantic Fleet
                                facilities personnel told us that facility assessors and installation staff
                                review and collaborate on all assessment data before they are submitted
                                for calculating facility condition ratings. They also told us that all critical
                                deficiencies are reviewed by a Navy public works center. The Pacific Fleet
                                relies primarily on its component regional commands to verify assessment
                                data but has developed a program called condition assessment validation
                                visits in which fleet, regional, and installation staff members visit bases to
                                review and evaluate assessment data. However, according to Pacific Fleet
                                officials, since the program began in fiscal year 2001 they have completed
                                only three visits and there are no funds currently programmed to support
                                future visits. The Marine Corps has no servicewide validation procedures.




                                Page 37                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Inconsistent Definitions   Without a DOD-wide standard system for defining, assessing, and
and Data May Be            validating facility conditions, the services’ data on facility conditions are
Misleading                 not consistent. These inconsistent data, along with DOD’s attempt to link
                           the data to military readiness in its Installations’ Readiness Report, make
                           it difficult for Congress to fulfill its oversight responsibilities and for DOD
                           and the services to direct funds to facilities in greatest need and to
                           measure progress in improving facilities. Because the services’ C-rating
                           definitions do not directly link facility conditions with military readiness,
                           the ratings reported to Congress by DOD in the Installations’ Readiness
                           Report may not accurately indicate the ability of installations to support
                           military readiness. In addition, a facility at one service’s installation may
                           be rated C-4 for its deficiencies, but a comparable facility at another base
                           in the same service with similar deficiencies may not be rated C-4. For
                           example, the Atlantic Fleet found that a facility at one base was rated C-3
                           while a comparable facility at another base—with the same deficiency—
                           was rated C-4, contributing to the fleet’s decision to develop its own
                           process for assessing facility conditions. Moreover, comparable types of
                           facilities with similar deficiencies may not be rated consistently across the
                           services.

                           In our previous review on the condition of barracks used to house military
                           recruits attending basic training, we found some apparent inconsistencies
                           in the application of C-ratings to describe the condition of barracks.32 For
                           example, as a group, the barracks at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot,
                           Parris Island, were the highest rated—C-2—among all the services’
                           training barracks. The various conditions we observed, however,
                           suggested that they were among the worst barracks in terms of physical
                           condition that we had seen. Marine Corps officials acknowledged that,
                           although they had recently inspected the barracks and had identified
                           significant deficiencies, the updated data had not yet been entered into the
                           ratings database. On the other hand, the barracks at the Marine Corps
                           Recruit Depot, San Diego, were rated C-3, primarily because of noise from
                           the adjacent San Diego airport. Otherwise, our observations indicated that
                           these barracks appeared to be in much better physical condition than
                           those at Parris Island. After we completed our work, the Marine Corps
                           revised its ratings for the Parris Island and San Diego barracks to C-4 and
                           C-2, respectively, in its fiscal year 2002 report. The Air Force barracks
                           were rated C-3, but we noted that they appeared to be among those




                           32
                                See GAO-02-786.




                           Page 38                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                           barracks in better physical condition and in significantly better condition
                           than the Army barracks that were rated C-3.

                           On the assumption that DOD and the services wish to target funding to
                           those facilities most in need of repair and with the greatest impact on
                           mission, the lack of standardization reduces the likelihood that funding
                           will be consistently directed to those facilities in greatest need. This means
                           that the limited funding available may not be accurately targeted, reducing
                           its cost-effectiveness. For instance, in fiscal year 2002, DOD added an
                           additional $2 billion to the services’ budget requests for military
                           construction. According to one DOD official, the additional amounts were
                           allocated to each service based on the services’ C-ratings. Furthermore,
                           some facilities are not rated by the services, such as the Army’s World War
                           II-era wood buildings. Although they receive sustainment funding, they
                           receive little restoration and modernization funds because they are not
                           rated.


                           DOD’s Defense Facilities Strategic Plan, along with several key objectives
Weaknesses in              it adopted to sustain and improve the services’ facility conditions, have
Strategic Plan and         weaknesses that limit their usefulness in providing direction to the
                           services and an understanding of DOD’s vision for facilities to Congress.
Key Objectives Limit       The strategic plan lacks comprehensive information on the specific
the Services’ Ability to   actions, time frames, assigned responsibilities, and resources—the
                           elements of a well-developed strategic plan—that are required to meet the
Sustain and Improve        plan’s vision. In addition, three key objectives—fully funding sustainment,
Facility Conditions        67-year average recapitalization rates, and improvements in facility ratings
                           to ensure military mission achievement—which are not part of the
                           published strategic plan, are unlikely to be achieved because the services
                           do not propose to fully fund all of them, and others are based on future
                           funding plans that have unrealistically high rates of increase when
                           compared with previous funding trends and when considered against
                           other defense priorities. Moreover, achieving these objectives at the
                           service level still allows for a range of sustainment funding and facility
                           deficiencies at the installation level. For example, even though the services
                           intended to fund sustainment at more than 78 percent of requirements in
                           fiscal year 2002, we found that 7 of 10 installations we visited received
                           less. In addition, the services have not developed comprehensive
                           performance plans that include quantifiable and measurable performance
                           goals that fully address DOD’s objectives; indicators to determine if
                           programs are meeting the objectives; and the necessary resources,
                           particularly realistic and credible funding plans, for achieving those
                           objectives—elements of a comprehensive performance plan. On a positive


                           Page 39                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                          note, DOD and the services have undertaken several initiatives that are
                          designed to improve the monitoring and accountability of the facility
                          management program.


DOD’s Strategic Plan Is   DOD’s Defense Facilities Strategic Plan does not contain the
Not Comprehensive         comprehensive information that is needed to guide DOD and the services
                          in their efforts to maintain thousands of facilities at defense installations.
                          Instead, the strategic plan identifies four overall goals in areas that DOD
                          believes can be significantly improved, such as planning, programming,
                          budgeting, and operations at all military installations and facilities. The
                          plan’s four goals are:

                          •   Right size and place—Locate, size, and configure defense
                              installations and facilities to meet the requirements of today’s and
                              tomorrow’s force structures.

                          •   Right quality—Acquire and maintain defense installations and
                              facilities to provide quality living and work environments.

                          •   Right resources—Leverage resources—money, people, and
                              equipment—to achieve the proper balance between requirements and
                              available funding.

                          •   Right tools and metrics—Improve facility management and planning
                              by embracing best business practices and taking advantage of modern
                              asset-management techniques and performance-assessment metrics.

                          Our analysis of the plan, however, shows that it lacks the comprehensive
                          information that makes a strategic plan useful and that most strategic
                          plans encompass. It does not contain detailed information on (1) the
                          specific actions that are needed to achieve each of the four goals; (2) the
                          methods or processes that will be used to achieve each goal; (3) the
                          amount of funding or other resources needed to reach the goals; (4) the
                          time frames and milestones; (5) the assignment of responsibilities, in other
                          words what entity is accountable for completing each goal; and (6) the
                          performance measurement tools to use to determine the progress being
                          made toward each goal. DOD officials told us that the lack of specific
                          information in the plan resulted, in part, from the fact that the services
                          were unable to agree on many of the actions and time frames before the
                          plan was issued. In addition, some of the detailed information about
                          various actions, time frames, and resources needed to sustain and improve
                          facility conditions that is missing from the plan could be found in other



                          Page 40                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                DOD guidance and directives. Examples include DOD’s annual Defense
                                Planning Guidance,33 which is not publicly available; DOD’s April 2001
                                report to Congress on the funding required to eliminate deficiencies in the
                                services’ facilities,34 DOD’s annual Installations’ Readiness Reports to
                                Congress; and various other briefings. The information in these
                                documents, however, is scattered and not always easily accessible.


DOD’s Three Objectives          Although not fully developed in the 2001 Defense Facilities Strategic Plan,
for Sustaining and              DOD has identified three key objectives—and assigned deadlines—that
Improving Facility              are intended to ensure that the military services can stop the deterioration
                                of facilities at their installations. Officials of the Office of the Secretary of
Conditions May Not Be           Defense told us that DOD established these objectives in its annual
Achievable                      Defense Planning Guidance for fiscal year 2004 and other planning
                                documents. They are to ensure that the services (1) fund all of their
                                sustainment requirements, starting in fiscal year 2004; (2) reach a 67-year
                                average recapitalization rate for their facilities, by fiscal year 2007; and (3)
                                improve the condition of their facilities so that deficiencies have only a
                                limited effect on mission performance, by fiscal year 2010. However, these
                                objectives are not likely to be achieved because the services do not
                                propose to fully fund all of them or have developed funding plans that
                                have unrealistically high rates of increase in the out-years when compared
                                with previous funding levels and against other defense priorities. In
                                addition, achieving these objectives at the service level still allows for a
                                wide range of sustainment funding and facility deficiencies at the
                                installation level.

Services Do Not Plan to Fully   To arrest the further deterioration of facilities, DOD instructed the
Fund Their Sustainment          services to fully fund sustainment requirements of their facilities starting
Requirements in Fiscal Year     in fiscal year 2004. However, in developing their fiscal year 2004 programs,
2004                            none of the services proposed to fully fund sustainment in fiscal year 2004,
                                even though the Marine Corps plans to fully fund sustainment in fiscal
                                year 2003. DOD and service officials said that funding for sustainment


                                33
                                  The Secretary of Defense and his staff prepare the Defense Planning Guidance, issue
                                policy, and articulate strategic objectives that reflect the national military strategy. The
                                Defense Planning Guidance includes the Secretary’s force and resource guidance to the
                                military departments, other combat support agencies, and the unified combatant
                                commands.
                                34
                                 U.S. Department of Defense, Report to Congress: Identification of the Requirements to
                                Reduce the Backlog of Maintenance and Repair of Defense Facilities (Washington, D.C.:
                                April 2001).




                                Page 41                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
must compete with other defense programs and priorities. While the
services had originally planned to fund sustainment at no less than
78 percent of requirements in fiscal year 2002, these levels of funding did
not reach the installations because service headquarters and major
commands withheld funds for other purposes, such as civilian pay,
emergency needs, and must-pay bills. This practice raises questions about
whether DOD’s requirement of fully funding sustainment, as currently
implemented by the services, will address all sustainment problems at the
installation level.

At the time of our review, as figure 12 shows, none of the services
proposed to fully fund sustainment during fiscal year 2004. While the Army
planned to come close, with 98 percent, in fiscal year 2002, its plan shows
a decline in funding to 94 percent of its requirement in fiscal year 2003,
79 percent of its requirement in fiscal year 2004, and 77 percent in fiscal
year 2005—short of DOD’s objective of 100 percent sustainment funding
starting in fiscal year 2004. Afterward, the Army proposes to gradually
increase its funding for sustainment activities to 94 percent from
82 percent of its requirements during fiscal years 2006 through 2009. The
Air Force, starting at 90 and 98 percent in fiscal years 2002 and 2003,
respectively, intends to fund 96 percent of its sustainment requirement in
fiscal year 2004—short of DOD’s objective. In fiscal year 2005, the Air
Force proposes to fund 97 percent of its sustainment requirement and fully
fund sustainment during subsequent fiscal years through 2009. The Navy,
on the other hand, projects that it will fund its sustainment activities at
about 78 and 84 percent of its requirements in fiscal years 2002 and 2003,
respectively, and at 90 percent annually thereafter through fiscal year
2009—short of DOD’s objective. The Marine Corps, which started at
80 percent in fiscal year 2002, proposes to fully fund sustainment in fiscal
year 2003 and at between 98 and 99 percent thereafter during fiscal years
2004 through 2009.




Page 42                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 12: Military Services’ Proposed Sustainment Funding, Fiscal Years 2002
through 2009




Notes: GAO’s analysis of service data as of December 2002.

       DOD initiated funding for sustainment in fiscal year 2002.


During our visits to major commands and installations, we found that
sustainment funds can be reduced or held back at the service
headquarters, major command, and installation levels. The reason that
service officials most often cited for moving funds was that these funds
were needed to cover more pressing needs or emerging requirements. As
figure 13 illustrates, in fiscal year 2002, service headquarters withheld
sustainment money to cover must-pay bills, such as civilian pay, emergent
needs, and other nonsustainment programs. Similarly, major commands
withheld sustainment funds to pay for emergent needs, nonsustainment
must-pay bills, commandwide sustainment contracts, restoration and
modernization projects, and other unspecified reductions. Finally,
individual installations that we visited moved sustainment funds in fiscal
year 2002 to pay for restoration and modernization emergent needs and for


Page 43                                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
other nonsustainment programs, such as utilities. As a result of fund
movements at all three levels, the amounts that installations obligated for
sustainment purposes were far less than the amounts necessary to meet
requirements as identified by DOD’s facilities sustainment model. In
addition, installation officials told us that because of these holdbacks and
movements, it was difficult for them to make or implement rational plans
for maintaining and repairing their facilities.

Figure 13: Flow Chart of the Movement of Sustainment Funds to Other Purposes in
Fiscal Year 2002




Note: GAO’s analysis of DOD and service data.


Some specific examples of where major commands moved sustainment
funds to cover emergencies or other priorities follow:

•   In fiscal year 2002, the Army’s Forces Command told us that it received
    about 92 percent of its sustainment requirement, but it then had to
    reduce the amounts passed on to component installations to 79 percent
    in order to pay for expanded utilities modernization, engineering
    services, municipal services upgrades, and fire emergency services.




Page 44                                         GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
•   In fiscal year 2002, the Navy Pacific Fleet moved about $130 million, or
    29 percent of its total sustainment funding of $452 million, to support
    nonsustainment programs such as base operating support functions,
    unspecified requirements by the fleet’s commander in chief, and
    reserve force mobilization after the September 11th attacks. Of the
    $130 million, $25 million for reserve force mobilization was returned at
    the end of the fiscal year, and the fleet applied this amount to
    sustainment projects.

•   Early in fiscal year 2002, the Navy’s Atlantic Fleet used $146 million, or
    34 percent, of its total sustainment funding of $425 million to help pay
    for reserve force mobilization, the facilities condition assessment
    program, the design of recapitalization and demolition projects for the
    following fiscal year, the management of the facility maintenance
    program, and a reserve fund for major storm damage. A fleet official
    told us that the funds obligated for the assessment program, the design
    of recapitalization and demolition projects, and the facility
    management program benefited all of the fleet’s installations. At the
    end of the fiscal year, the fleet received $98 million for reserve force
    mobilization back, which it applied to sustainment projects, and
    provided the remaining balance of the reserve fund to the installations.

Officials told us that the fiscal year 2002 actual obligations for 7 of the 10
installations we visited were well below the services’ planned funding
levels (see fig. 14). The Marine Corps base at Quantico, Virginia, Pope Air
Force Base, North Carolina, and Los Angeles Air Force Base, California,
which funded 97, 95, and 113 percent, respectively, of their sustainment
requirements in fiscal year 2002, were the exceptions. However, after
using a portion of their sustainment funding to pay for nonsustainment
related costs, the other 7 installations had only enough sustainment funds
to meet from 35 to 77 percent of their requirements as identified by DOD’s
facilities sustainment model (see fig. 14). Installation officials told us that
they had to obligate a portion of their fiscal year 2002 sustainment funds
for a variety of nonsustainment-related purposes, such as paying for
utilities and for restoration and modernization projects, including
emergency repairs. They said that their installations received very little
operation and maintenance funds for restoration and modernization
projects in fiscal year 2002. At Fort Bragg, North Carolina, sustainment
funding was reduced to just 57 percent of its requirement because of the
movement of funds to nonsustainment activities. This leads us to question
whether DOD’s guidance on fully funding sustainment is directed toward
the service or installation level. Thus, it is uncertain that the stated




Page 45                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
objective of fully funding sustainment, as currently implemented by the
services, will address all sustainment problems at the installation level.

Figure 14: Sustainment Obligations as a Percentage of Requirements at
Installations We Visited, Fiscal Year 2002




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD and service data.

      Air Force totals do not include some military pay that supports sustainment.


The Marine Corps base at Quantico, Virginia; Pope Air Force Base, North
Carolina; and Los Angeles Air Force Base, California, clearly stand out as
exceptions to the sustainment funding levels at the other installations (see
fig. 14). According to Marine Corps officials, their service does not permit
sustainment funds to be taken away from installations by intermediate
commands without the explicit permission of headquarters’ facilities staff.
There is no intermediate command between Quantico Marine Corps Base
and headquarters. Furthermore, the officials said the base received
$1 million in sustainment funding in September 2002 to replace heating,
ventilation, and air-conditioning systems in two buildings; this amount
alone accounted for 5 percent of its $18.6 million obligation for
sustainment in fiscal year 2002. Officials at Pope Air Force Base told us
that the base received 95 percent of its sustainment requirement in fiscal
year 2002 because its major command, Air Mobility Command, made a
concerted effort to repair some key facility problems at the installation
with funds the command had received at the end of the fiscal year. Air
Force officials also told us that Pope Air Force Base’s and Los Angeles Air
Force Base’s fiscal year 2002 sustainment obligations were higher than
amounts initially received by the bases for sustainment because major


Page 46                                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                  commands provided additional funds during the fiscal year and moved
                                  funds from other sources.

                                  In addition to the 10 installations we recently visited, we found similar
                                  underfunding for sustainment at bases with barracks used to house
                                  military recruits.35 Our analysis of cost data generated by DOD’s facilities
                                  sustainment model showed, for example, that Fort Knox required about
                                  $38 million in fiscal year 2002 to sustain its facilities. However, base
                                  officials told us they had received about $10 million, or 26 percent, of the
                                  required funding. Officials at other Army basic training sites also told us
                                  that they had received less funding, typically 30 to 40 percent, than what
                                  they considered was required to sustain their facilities. Army officials told
                                  us that, over time, the sustainment funding shortfalls at their training
                                  bases have been caused primarily by the movement of funding from
                                  facility sustainment to other priorities, such as the training mission.

Achieving a 67-Year Average       To restore and modernize facilities, DOD instructed the services to
Recapitalization Rate by Fiscal   achieve a 67-year average recapitalization rate by fiscal year 2007. The
Year 2007 Is Unlikely             recapitalization rate is based on an assessment of the expected service life
                                  of different types of facilities and is defined as the number of years it
                                  would take to restore or replace those facilities at a given level of
                                  investment. The recapitalization rate is derived by dividing recapitalizable
                                  plant replacement value by the total restoration and modernization
                                  funding.36 In general, the recapitalization rate declines as more restoration
                                  and modernization funds are spent for facilities. While all the services plan
                                  to improve their fiscal year 2002 average recapitalization rates by fiscal
                                  year 2009, the rates are expected to worsen before they recover. Also, all
                                  of the plans, except for the Army’s, call for rapid funding increases
                                  between fiscal year 2003 and 2009 that are uncertain when compared to
                                  prior funding levels and the need for funds for other defense priorities.
                                  Furthermore, DOD’s guidance does not specify that each installation
                                  should achieve a 67-year average recapitalization rate and therefore allows
                                  for a range of recapitalization rates at the installation level.



                                  35
                                       See GAO-02-786.
                                  36
                                    DOD defines recapitalizable plant replacement value as the cost of replacing an existing
                                  facility with a facility of the same size at the same location using today’s building
                                  standards, but it does not include facilities planned for demolition, disposal by transfer to
                                  other entities, and one-time use, as well as facilities recapitalized by appropriations other
                                  than regular military construction or operation and maintenance funds (such as family
                                  housing), and facilities recapitalized by sources outside DOD (such as facilities in Japan).




                                  Page 47                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
While all the services plan to improve their fiscal year 2002 average
recapitalization rates, as shown in figure 15, nearly all of the improvement
is expected to occur in the later years, when only the Air Force and the
Navy expect to exceed DOD’s objective of 67 years by fiscal year 2007.
Under its funding proposal, the Army projects its average recapitalization
rate will increase from 70 years in fiscal year 2002 to 122 years in fiscal
years 2003 and 2004 and then improve again to 83 years in fiscal year
2007—falling short of DOD’s objective of 67 years. Afterward, the Army
tends to achieve 84- and 87-year recapitalization rates in fiscal years 2008
and 2009, respectively. The Air Force expects that its average
recapitalization rate will increase from 163 years in fiscal year 2002 to
257 years in fiscal year 2003 and then improve to 61 years in fiscal years
2006 and 2007—meeting DOD’s objective of 67 years. It also plans to
achieve 55- and 57-year recapitalization rates in fiscal years 2008 and 2009,
respectively. The Navy estimates that its rate will increase from 113 years
in fiscal year 2002 to 116 and 134 years in fiscal years 2003 and 2004,
respectively, and then decrease from 129 years in fiscal year 2005 to
69 years in fiscal year 2006. Between fiscal year 2007 and 2009, the Navy’s
average recapitalization rate is projected to decrease from 64 to 47 years—
exceeding DOD’s 67-year objective. Under its funding plan, the Marine
Corps projects its average recapitalization rate will increase from 63 years
in fiscal year 2002 to 155 years in fiscal year 2003 and then decrease to
81 years in fiscal year 2004. Afterward, it plans to maintain recapitalization
rates between 79 and 73 years during fiscal years 2005 through 2007—
falling short of DOD’s objective of 67 years. However, the Marine Corps
plans to meet this objective in fiscal years 2008 and 2009 by achieving
66- and 42-year recapitalization rates, respectively, in these years.




Page 48                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 15: Projected Average Recapitalization Rate by Military Service, Fiscal Years
2002 through 2009




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD data as of December 2002.

       Recapitalization rates were not consistently calculated prior to fiscal year 2002.


To achieve these recapitalization rates, all the services, except for the
Army, call for rapid increases in restoration and modernization funding
between fiscal year 2003 and 2009, but this growth appears unrealistic
when compared with prior funding levels. As shown in figure 16, using
constant fiscal year 2002 dollars, the four services propose to decrease
their restoration and modernization funding between fiscal year 2002 and
2003. From a low of $1.3 billion in fiscal year 2003, the Army proposes to
increase its restoration and modernization funding 31 percent, to
$1.7 billion in fiscal year 2009. It is important to note again that figure 15



Page 49                                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
shows the Army does not plan to achieve DOD’s recapitalization target of
67 years anytime during this period. From a low of $553 million in fiscal
year 2003, the Air Force proposes to increase its restoration and
modernization funding 316 percent to $2.3 billion in fiscal year 2009. A
significant part of this increase is planned in one budget year, between
fiscal year 2005 and 2006, when the Air Force expects to increase its
restoration and modernization funding by 123 percent, to $2 billion from
$895 million. While the Navy proposes a decrease from fiscal year 2003 to
fiscal year 2004, it intends to increase its restoration and modernization
funding 145 percent—from $857 million in fiscal year 2003 to $2.1 billion in
fiscal year 2009. More than half of this increase is planned in one budget
year, between fiscal year 2005 and 2006, when the Navy proposes to
increase its restoration and modernization funding by 80 percent, to
$1.4 billion from $777 million. The Marine Corps plans a 188 percent
increase in restoration and modernization funding, from a low $145 million
in fiscal year 2003 to $418 million in fiscal year 2009.




Page 50                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Figure 16: Total Restoration and Modernization Funding Proposed by Military
Service, Fiscal Years 2002 through 2009




Notes: GAO’s analysis of DOD data as of December 2002.

       DOD initiated funding for restoration and modernization in fiscal year 2002.

       Totals include operation and maintenance and military construction funding for restoration and
       modernization.


Defense installation officials referred to the services’ out-year funding
plans as “hockey sticks” because of their abrupt increases in funding in the
out-years, indicating skepticism about the likelihood that the services
would be able to achieve such rapid increases. They told us that they
recommended the services revise their plans so that the funding increases
would not be so steep, by proposing more funding for the early years of
the period. At the time of our review, DOD had not finished its review of
the services’ funding plans. Marine Corps officials described their



Page 51                                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                  proposed increase as much larger than any amount they had ever seen and
                                  expressed doubt about whether the service would actually come up with
                                  the funds.

                                  The services’ rapid increases in restoration and modernization funding
                                  between fiscal year 2003 and 2009 also appear uncertain when compared
                                  with the need for funds for other defense priorities, such as the war on
                                  terrorism, weapon system modernization, and force transformation. As a
                                  result of the war on terrorism, DOD is seeking higher than previously
                                  planned funding for a number of pressing priorities against which facilities
                                  maintenance must compete, such as military readiness, training,
                                  antiterrorism, force protection, weapons procurement, and research and
                                  development. For example, in the Army’s fiscal year 2004 program
                                  objective memorandum, the Army plans to increase funding for force
                                  protection by $2.7 billion, or 60 percent; for future combat systems by
                                  $19.1 billion, or 197 percent; and for force transformation by $16.6 billion,
                                  or 37 percent.37 In addition, facilities maintenance must compete with the
                                  Air Force’s plans to modernize space forces and procure new weapons
                                  systems and with the Navy’s plans to procure new ships and weapons
                                  systems.

Bringing Facility Ratings Up to   To improve the overall condition of facilities, DOD set an objective for the
a Minimal C-2 Level by Fiscal     military services to concentrate funding in order to eliminate C-3 and C-4
Year 2010 Is Unlikely             facility ratings, bringing them up to a minimal C-2 level by fiscal year 2010.
                                  However, at the time of our review, the Army and the Navy were not
                                  planning to meet this objective. The Air Force and the Marine Corps only
                                  plan to meet this objective through proposed funding increases, shown in
                                  figure 16, which are uncertain when compared to prior funding levels and
                                  the need for funds for other defense priorities. DOD estimates that it
                                  would cost $62 billion (or $7 billion annually during fiscal years 2002
                                  through 2010) to achieve this objective departmentwide. This amount
                                  would only be enough to bring all facilities up to the minimal C-2 level, or
                                  “minimal acceptable performance,” in DOD’s rating system. DOD
                                  estimates that it would cost more than $160 billion over the same time
                                  period to reach a C-1 level for all facilities.

                                  DOD’s guidance for this objective allows a wide range of facility
                                  deficiencies at installations. A service could have some facility classes



                                  37
                                    U.S. Department of the Army, Army Program Objective Memorandum for Fiscal Years
                                  04-09 (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 22, 2002).




                                  Page 52                                          GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                            rated C-3 and C-4 and still have an overall C-2 rating because of a
                            preponderance of C-1 and C-2 rated classes. For example, in its facility
                            strategy, the Army plans to concentrate restoration and modernization
                            funding on certain types of facilities to raise their rating to a C-1, and thus
                            raise the Army’s overall rating to a C-2 level. Furthermore, because there is
                            no common, standardized system by which to rate the condition of
                            facilities, there is no assurance that achieving a minimal C-2 level would
                            result in similar facility conditions across the services.


Services Have Not           The services have not developed plans that include quantifiable and
Developed Comprehensive     measurable performance goals that fully address DOD’s objectives;
Performance Plans to        indicators to determine if programs are meeting the objectives; and the
                            necessary resources, particularly realistic and credible funding plans, for
Implement DOD’s Strategic   achieving those objectives—elements of a comprehensive performance
Plan and Objectives         plan. Of those services—the Army, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps—
                            that have developed plans for facilities, their plans do not contain
                            comprehensive information for implementing DOD’s facilities strategic
                            plan or achieving DOD’s objectives for sustaining and improving facility
                            conditions. For example:

                            •    While the Army has developed a installation plan, our analysis shows
                                 that it is unlikely to meet any of DOD’s objectives of fully funding
                                 sustainment in the near term, achieving a 67-year average
                                 recapitalization rate for facilities by 2007, and eliminating C-3 and C-4
                                 facility ratings, bringing them up to a minimal C-2 level by fiscal year
                                 2010. 38 The Army’s plan does not provide realistic and credible funding
                                 plans to achieve DOD’s objectives.

                            •    The Air Force’s facilities investment plan outlines the requirements
                                 that must be addressed in order to meet DOD’s objectives of fully
                                 funding sustainment across the future years defense plan, reducing the
                                 average recapitalization rate to 67 years by fiscal year 2007, and
                                 eliminating C-3 and C-4 facility ratings by fiscal year 2010.39 The plan
                                 also lists metrics to be used to measure successful implementation of
                                 the plan. However, the plan is vague in how it will be implemented, and



                            38
                              U.S. Department of the Army, U.S. Army Installation Long-Range Plan (Washington,
                            D.C.: February 2003).
                            39
                              U.S. Department of the Air Force, United States Air Force Facilities Investment Plan
                            (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 14, 2002).




                            Page 53                                              GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                                     the funding strategy outlined in the plan to achieve DOD’s objectives is
                                     unrealistic. As the plan notes, “projected fiscal year 2004 restoration
                                     and modernization funding is almost double that of fiscal year 2003,
                                     while fiscal year 2007 funding is nearly quadruple the fiscal year 2004
                                     level.” In addition, in a 2002 report the Secretary of the Air Force states
                                     that the Air Force must still defer restoration and modernization with
                                     only the most urgent requirements addressed and leaving important
                                     projects postponed.40

                              •      Although the Navy does not have a plan for meeting DOD’s objectives,
                                     Navy officials told us the service is developing a plan to address both
                                     the Navy’s and Marine Corps’s sustainment and restoration and
                                     modernization programs. The Navy does not plan to meet DOD’s
                                     objectives of fully funding sustainment in the near term or eliminating
                                     C-3 and C-4 ratings for facility classes by fiscal year 2010.

                              •      While the Marine Corps issued a vision statement for its installations in
                                     April 2001, the statement does not provide comprehensive information
                                     on goals, actions, or time frames for sustaining and improving
                                     facilities.41 The statement fails to discuss any of DOD’s objectives. In
                                     addition, the statement does not provide specific metrics to measure
                                     performance or credible and realistic funding plans to achieve these
                                     objectives.


DOD Has Taken Other           In addition to its strategic plan and objectives, DOD has taken other steps
Steps to Improve Facilities   to improve the management of its facilities, including the demolition of
Management                    obsolete facilities, and is attempting to build upon these steps to further
                              improve military facilities. At the same time, the Army has implemented a
                              new organizational structure to manage its facilities in an attempt to better
                              control the use of sustainment, restoration, and modernization funds, and
                              the Navy is moving toward a more centralized structure of its regional
                              management of facilities. However, it is too soon to assess their likely
                              impact.




                              40
                                U.S. Department of Defense, Annual Report to the President and the Congress
                              (Washington, D.C.: 2002).
                              41
                                   U.S. Marine Corps, Marine Corps Installations 2020 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 28, 2001).




                              Page 54                                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
DOD has put in place a number of changes intended to revamp its facility
management, enhance accountability, and better measure and track
performance. These changes have included:

•   Facilities assessment database. In 1997, DOD created an integrated
    facilities assessment database from stand-alone service inventories.
    This database tracks key facility inventory and cost data, including
    quantity, type, location, and status of buildings, structures, and all
    other military facility assets.

•   Cost factors handbook. In 1999, DOD issued its first defense facilities
    cost factors handbook, which categorizes defense facilities into
    approximately 400 categories and uses commercial benchmark costs to
    determine the annual cost per square foot (or similar unit of measure)
    to sustain each facility type. The purpose of the handbook was to
    standardize the method by which the services would determine the
    sustainment costs of their facilities and to establish a minimum
    sustainment funding level for facilities.

•   Facilities sustainment model. In 1999, DOD developed the facilities
    sustainment model, which estimates the annual sustainment cost
    requirement, adjusted for area costs, for each service and defense
    agency, based on the number, type, location, and size of its total
    inventory of facilities.

•   Recapitalization metric. In 2001, DOD began using the facilities
    recapitalization metric, which determines the rate of restoration and
    modernization relative to the average expected service life of the
    inventory. It is also developing a recapitalization funding model.

•   Improved budgeting methods. In 2002, DOD changed the way that
    facilities funding is reported and tracked, replacing real property
    maintenance with sustainment, and restoration and modernization,
    having already created a separate structure for demolition and disposal
    in fiscal year 1999. By tracking each element separately, it is now
    possible to link programs and budgets directly to program objectives
    and to better track performance relative to the objectives. DOD gave
    the Navy and the Marine Corps permission to delay this change until
    fiscal year 2003.

DOD also developed and implemented the facilities demolition and
disposal program, in which more than 62 million square feet of excess and
obsolete facilities were demolished during fiscal years 1998 to 2001.
According to DOD officials, one reason for the success of this program is


Page 55                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
that the services’ budgets were not reduced in advance by the estimated
maintenance costs of the facilities to be demolished. Instead, as an
incentive to dispose of what the services did not need, their budgets were
left intact and the forecasted savings were reprogrammed by the services
to other needs within their programs. By closing some installations and
consolidating overlapping activities within and across the services, DOD
also intends to further reduce its inventory of facilities through an
upcoming round of base realignments and closures starting in 2005, as
authorized by Congress in 2001. DOD officials have testified that 20 to
25 percent of DOD’s infrastructure is not needed to meet current mission
requirements. The process of realigning and closing bases, however, will
take some years to accomplish and, while it is expected to produce
significant long-term savings, typically it has required considerable up-
front expenses.

To prevent major commands from moving funds to other priorities, the
Army centralized and streamlined its facility management in October 2002.
The new Installation Management Agency, which reports directly to the
Army Assistant Chief of Staff for Installation Management, oversees all
facilities maintenance funds for Army installations and supervises seven
regional management centers worldwide that are responsible for 10 to
30 installations each. The key objectives of the new organizational
structure include ending the movement of sustainment funds and
restoration and modernization funds to other priorities by major
commands and implementing consistent standards across the Army for
allocating these funds. The organizational structure has a centralized base
operations funding process that funnels sustainment funds and restoration
and modernization funds directly to installations without major commands
moving funds away from facilities. Army officials said that if the total
funding allocated by the service for these purposes continues to fall short
of requirements, the new agency would be greatly challenged in meeting
its facilities goals. Officials believe that the Army would likely continue to
use sustainment, restoration, and modernization funds to pay for legacy
weapons programs and other nonsustainment priorities.

The Navy has had a less centralized, regional-based installation
management program for several years but continues to underfund its
sustainment requirements and restoration and modernization
requirements. For example, the Naval Audit Service reported in August
2002 that funds intended for facility maintenance were being used for




Page 56                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
              nonsustainment purposes.42 Specifically, it noted that both the Atlantic and
              Pacific Fleets were using sustainment funds and restoration and
              modernization funds to resolve other base operating support shortfalls. It
              concluded that this generally occurred because sustainment, restoration,
              and modernization were not considered high enough priorities within the
              Navy leadership to preclude movement of funds away from these
              activities. While the Navy is now moving toward a more centralized
              management structure similar to the Army’s facility management program,
              it is too early to assess the potential success of either facility program.


              The military services have not made sustaining and improving facilities a
Conclusions   funding priority because of other defense programs and emerging
              requirements. Funding for facility maintenance and recapitalization has
              been inadequate for many years, resulting in deteriorated facilities that
              negatively affect the quality of life and service for military and civilian
              personnel and, in some cases, hindered the satisfactory performance of
              their mission. Yet, the services do not meet all of DOD’s objectives for
              sustaining and improving facilities, nor have they developed credible and
              realistic funding plans to do this in the future. In addition, Congress, DOD,
              and the services do not have consistent information on the condition of
              facilities to ensure that their funding decisions are targeting facilities in
              greatest need, to measure the progress in facility improvement, and to
              provide to Congress for its oversight responsibilities. Along with these
              inadequate data, weaknesses in DOD’s Defense Facilities Strategic Plan
              further impede DOD’s efforts to sustain and improve facilities. In
              developing a comprehensive strategic plan, it is important that DOD
              clearly establish goals and milestones, assign responsibilities for managing
              and coordinating its efforts, and identify needed funding to sustain and
              recapitalize facilities. However, the Defense Facilities Strategic Plan
              lacks comprehensive information on the specific actions, time frames,
              assigned responsibilities, and resources that are needed to meet DOD’s
              vision for facilities. Moreover, it is unclear whether DOD’s stated
              objectives for sustaining and improving facility conditions are to be
              achieved at the service or installation level. In addition, the services have
              not developed plans that include quantifiable and measurable performance
              goals that fully address DOD’s objectives; indicators to determine if
              programs are meeting the objectives; and the necessary resources,




              42
                   See N2002-0067.




              Page 57                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                      particularly realistic and credible funding plans, for achieving those
                      objectives—elements of a comprehensive performance plan.


                      We recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the secretaries of the
Recommendations for   military services to reassess the funding priorities the services have
Executive Action      attached to sustaining and improving the condition of their facilities
                      relative to other needs and funding limitations. In addition, we recommend
                      that the Secretary of Defense (1) instruct the military services to
                      implement a departmentwide process to consistently assess and validate
                      facility conditions; (2) revise the Defense Facilities Strategic Plan to
                      identify specific actions needed, time frames, responsibilities, and funding
                      levels—elements of a comprehensive strategic plan; (3) clarify DOD’s
                      guidance by specifying the organizational level (service, major command,
                      or installation) at which its three objectives to fully fund sustainment,
                      achieve a 67-year average recapitalization rate, and eliminate C-3 and C-4
                      facility ratings, bringing them up to a minimal C-2 level, should be
                      achieved; and (4) direct the services to develop comprehensive
                      performance plans implementing the Defense Facilities Strategic Plan,
                      which would provide specific metrics to measure performance and
                      credible and realistic funding plans to sustain and recapitalize facilities.


                      In commenting on a draft of this report, the Deputy Under Secretary of
Agency Comments       Defense for Installations and Environment concurred with our
                      recommendations and indicated that actions were underway or planned to
                      deal with our recommendations. The comments are included in this report
                      in appendix IV. DOD also provided technical clarifications, which we
                      incorporated as appropriate.


                      We are sending copies of this report to the Secretaries of Defense, the
                      Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; the Commandant of the Marine Corps;
                      and the Director, Office and Management and Budget. We will also make
                      copies available to others upon request. In addition, the report will
                      available at no charge on GAO’s Web site at www.gao.gov.




                      Page 58                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Please contact me on (202) 512-8412 if you or your staff have any
questions regarding this report. Other key contributors to this report are
listed in appendix V.




Barry W. Holman, Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 59                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
List of Congressional Committees

The Honorable John Warner
Chairman
The Honorable Carl Levin
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
United States Senate

The Honorable Ted Stevens
Chairman
The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable Kay Bailey Hutchison
Chairman
The Honorable Dianne Feinstein
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Military Construction
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable Duncan L. Hunter
Chairman
The Honorable Ike Skelton
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
House of Representatives

The Honorable Jerry Lewis
Chairman
The Honorable John P. Murtha
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives




Page 60                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
The Honorable Joe Knollenberg
Chairman
The Honorable Chet Edwards
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Military Construction
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives




Page 61                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology


             To examine the historical funding trends for facility maintenance and
             military construction and their impact on the condition of the active
             forces’ facilities, we examined the Department of Defense’s (DOD) budget
             requests, congressional designations, and obligation data for facility
             operation and maintenance and military construction for fiscal years 1998
             through 2002. Because they are responsible for developing and
             implementing policies regarding the condition of defense facilities, we
             interviewed and were briefed by facility management officials from DOD’s
             Office of Installations and Environment and from each service’s
             headquarters. We also examined key documents related to the funding and
             condition of defense facilities from DOD and the services. These
             documents included funding requests, initial congressional designations,
             and obligations for sustainment, restoration and modernization, and
             military construction; Installations’ Readiness Reports compiled by DOD;
             assessments of the condition of facilities produced by each service;
             congressional testimony by DOD and service officials; documentation of
             unfunded requirements within each service; and other relevant reports and
             documents. We compared the operation and maintenance amounts that
             DOD requested in its budget submissions with the amounts that Congress
             designated in its conference reports for DOD’s appropriation acts and with
             DOD’s reported obligations. We discussed any differences we found with
             officials from DOD and the services to obtain a better understanding about
             overall fund movements.

             To determine the impact of historical funding on the condition of DOD’s
             facilities and to view the condition of facilities firsthand, we visited and
             met with officials from 10 military installations across the country: Fort
             Bragg, North Carolina; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Pope Air Force Base,
             North Carolina; Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri; Los Angeles Air Force
             Base, California; Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia; Naval Air Station Oceana,
             Virginia; Naval Station San Diego, California; Naval Base Coronado,
             California; and Marine Corps Quantico Base, Virginia. We recognize that
             the conditions we observed at these 10 installations may not represent
             conditions at other DOD installations, and we did not attempt to project
             the results of our visits to all military installations.

             To determine the perspective of the major commands on the impact of
             historical and current funding on the condition of DOD’s facilities, the
             factors that have led to the deterioration of facility conditions, and the
             effect of deteriorated facilities on personnel and overall mission, we met
             with officials from Army Forces Command, Air Force Air Mobility
             Command, Air Force Space Command, Air Force Air Combat Command,
             Navy Atlantic Fleet, and Navy Pacific Fleet.


             Page 62                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




To evaluate the consistency of the services’ information on facility
conditions, we reviewed each service’s system for assessing facility
conditions and compared this information within and across each service
to identify differences in facility raters and procedures, assessment scopes
and frequencies, appraisal scales, computation methods, and validation
procedures. We also interviewed officials at DOD, the services’
headquarters, and major commands to identify the processes they used to
assess facilities and collect information to support the condition rating
and the underlying reasons for the current condition of the facilities.
During our visits to installations, we discussed the evaluation methods and
condition assessment process with the facility raters and reviewers and
toured facilities to observe and compare their physical condition and
deficiencies with the facilities’ C-ratings. During these visits, we also
interviewed engineering staffs to discuss the cause of the deficiencies we
observed, the actions needed to correct the deficiencies, and the impact of
the deficiencies on the quality of life of military personnel and their
families and on military operations and military mission achievement.

To assess DOD’s long-term strategic plan and objectives to sustain and
improve the condition of facilities, we reviewed DOD’s Defense Facilities
Strategic Plan and other strategic planning documents for evidence of the
critical elements of a strategic plan and performance plan—as embodied
in the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 and in our prior
reports.1 These elements include information on (1) the specific actions
that are needed to achieve each of the four goals identified in DOD’s
strategic plan; (2) the methods or processes that will be used to achieve
each goal; (3) the amount of funding or other resources needed to reach
the goals; (4) the time frames and milestones; (5) the assignment of
responsibilities, in other words what entity is accountable for completing
each goal; and (6) the performance measurement tools to determine the
progress being made toward each goal. In examining DOD’s three
objectives for sustaining and improving facility conditions, we identified
funding metrics designed by DOD to address the condition of facilities,
including the implementation of a facilities sustainment model and the


1
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Agencies’ Strategic Plans under GPRA: Key Questions to
Facilitate Congressional Review, GAO/GGD-10.1.16 (Washington, D.C.: May 1997);
Agencies’ Annual Performance Plans under the Results Act: An Assessment Guide to
Facilitate Congressional Decisionmaking, GAO/GGD/AIMD-10.1.18 (Washington, D.C.:
February 1998); The Results Act: An Evaluator’s Guide to Assessing Agency Annual
Performance Plans, GAO/GGD-10.1.20 (Washington, D.C.: April 1998); and Financial
Management: DOD Improvement Plan Needs Strategic Focus, GAO-01-764 (Washington,
D.C.: Aug. 17, 2001).




Page 63                                            GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




development of a recapitalization metric. We did not attempt to validate
the facilities sustainment model.

To assess the services’ plans to implement DOD’s strategic plan and
achieve its objectives, we compared the plans with key elements of a
comprehensive performance plan and reviewed projected funding levels
for sustaining and recapitalizing facilities for fiscal years 2002 through
2009. In computing sustainment obligations as a percentage of
requirements at the 10 installations visited, we divided each installation’s
reported sustainment obligation for fiscal year 2002 by its sustainment
requirement generated by DOD’s facilities sustainment model for the same
year. In addition, we interviewed service headquarters officials
responsible for managing installations and programming operation and
maintenance and military construction funds. We also examined the
services’ initiatives, such as the Army’s new regional facilities management
plan. We discussed DOD’s objectives for sustainment and recapitalization
with service and installation officials to determine whether they are viable
and attainable within the time frames DOD has set forth, impediments to
achieving the goals, and other approaches to sustaining and improving
facility conditions. Also, we evaluated the services’ ability to meet DOD’s
objectives and initiatives regarding the sustainment and improvement of
facility conditions by determining the magnitude of each service’s facility
problems through our site visits and reviews of rating reports. Finally, we
compared the services’ prior obligations for facility maintenance with their
future funding projections designed to reach DOD’s objectives to
determine whether the services’ plans to address these issues are credible
and realistic.

We performed our work at the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the
headquarters of each military service. Additionally, we met with officials
from Army Forces Command, Air Force Air Mobility Command, Air Force
Space Command, Air Force Air Combat Command, Navy Atlantic Fleet,
and Navy Pacific Fleet. We also met with officials from the 10 installations
visited: Fort Bragg, North Carolina; Fort Leavenworth, Kansas; Pope Air
Force Base, North Carolina; Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri; Los
Angeles Air Force Base, California; Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia; Naval
Air Station Oceana, Virginia; Naval Station San Diego, California; Naval
Base Coronado, California; and Marine Corps Quantico Base, Virginia. We
selected these installations because they represent a range of facility
conditions, missions, major commands, and geographic locations. During
the review, we focused on the services’ active force facilities in the United
States. These facilities ranged from administrative offices, airfields and
terminals, and piers to classrooms and other training buildings, water


Page 64                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




treatment plants, warehouses, barracks, and child development centers.
Our review covered only those facilities funded by operation and
maintenance and military construction monies and not by other sources,
such as revolving and management funds, military family housing and
overseas facilities funds, and the defense health program (hospitals and
medical clinics).

In performing this review, we used the same accounting records and
financial reports DOD and the military services use to manage and justify
budgets for their facilities. We did not independently determine the
reliability of the reported financial information. However, our recent audit
of the federal government’s financial statements, including DOD’s and the
services’ statements, questioned the reliability of reported financial
information because not all obligations and expenditures are recorded to
specific financial accounts.2 In addition, we did not validate DOD’s
reported requirements for the sustainment of its facilities, nor did we
validate its facility inventory database. Also, our prior reports have
highlighted DOD’s inability to sufficiently track funding status.




2
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Major Management Challenges and Program Risks:
Department of Defense, GAO-03-98 (Washington, D.C.: January 2003).




Page 65                                           GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
               Appendix II: DOD’s Facilities Life-Cycle
Appendix II: DOD’s Facilities Life-Cycle
               Management Model



Management Model

               DOD’s facilities life-cycle model calls for fully funding sustainment
               activities and regularly investing in restoration and modernization projects
               to maintain high performance and extend the useful service life of
               facilities (see fig. 17).

               Figure 17: Projected Facilities Service Life and Performance with Full Sustainment
               and Modernization




               Sustainment funding provides resources for maintenance and repair
               activities to keep facilities effectively functioning throughout an expected
               life cycle. Restoration and modernization funding is designed to
               recapitalize facilities after normal aging occurs or to update facilities to
               meet new mission standards. Restoration includes repair and replacement
               work to restore facilities damaged by inadequate sustainment activities,
               excessive age, natural disasters, fire, accidents, and other causes.
               Modernization includes the alteration of facilities solely to implement new
               or higher standards, to accommodate new functions, or to replace
               standard building components. At the end of the life cycle in figure 17, a
               facility may be worn out or functionally obsolete or will require
               recapitalization by either replacement or large-scale renovation.

               According to DOD’s facilities life-cycle model, full sustainment and
               restoration and modernization investments are necessary to maintain the
               condition and performance of facilities. Without full funding of
               sustainment activities, facilities can deteriorate more quickly than would
               be expected under their average life cycle, requiring premature
               recapitalization of facilities (see fig. 18). As facilities deteriorate without
               full sustainment, their level of performance also diminishes. For example,
               Naval Station San Diego, California, has deferred a project to repair quay
               walls and pier fenders for the past 4 years, resulting in continued


               Page 66                                           GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix II: DOD’s Facilities Life-Cycle
Management Model




deterioration and increased costs to maintain service. In 2 of these years,
the installation spent more than $100,000 annually for temporary repairs to
fenders. DOD estimates that, with full sustainment funding, facilities
should have an expected average life of 67 years. Expected service life is
defined as the number of years a fully sustained inventory provides service
before requiring a major restoration or replacement project.

Figure 18: Lost Facilities Service Life and Performance without Full Sustainment




Page 67                                          GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
             Appendix III: How Operation and
Appendix III: How Operation and
             Maintenance Funds Are Moved during the
             Fiscal Year


Maintenance Funds Are Moved during the
Fiscal Year
             DOD has considerable flexibility in using and moving operation and
             maintenance funds. After Congress passes the operation and maintenance
             appropriation, the conferees make an initial congressional designation of
             the appropriation by program activity, such as real property maintenance.
             However, after the initial appropriation is made, DOD can adjust funding
             through adjustments directed by Congress in conference reports on
             appropriations acts and fact-of-life adjustments DOD believes are
             necessary due to changes, such as unplanned force structure changes, that
             have occurred since the budget was formulated.1

             After making these initial fund movements, DOD establishes an adjusted
             congressional designation that it refers to as “appropriated amount.” Using
             the initial congressional designation as the baseline, the following actions
             can occur:

             •   congressional adjustments,

             •   fact-of-life adjustments that DOD believes are necessary due to
                 changes, such as unplanned force structure changes, which have
                 occurred since the budget was formulated,

             •   reprogramming actions to move funds from one budget activity to
                 another within the same account,

             •   statutorily authorized transfers to move funds from other DOD
                 appropriations (such as procurement),

             •   transfers from congressionally established, centrally managed accounts
                 (such as for drug interdiction),

             •   supplemental appropriations by Congress that provide additional funds
                 during the year, and

             •   rescissions by which Congress cancels appropriated funds.

             These movements in operation and maintenance funds and the time
             frames within which they can occur are illustrated in figure 19.



             1
              DOD’s financial management regulations, which reflect agreements between DOD and the
             authorization and appropriation committees, provide general guidelines for various
             reprogramming actions. For example, congressional notification was required for operation
             and maintenance reprogramming actions of $15 million or more in fiscal year 2002.




             Page 68                                              GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix III: How Operation and
Maintenance Funds Are Moved during the
Fiscal Year




Figure 19: DOD’s Budget and Obligation Process for Operation and Maintenance
Funds




Note: GAO’s analysis based on Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation
7000.14-R, conference reports on the appropriations acts, and interviews with officials from the Office
of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller).




Page 69                                                      GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
             Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
Appendix IV: Comments from the
             of Defense



Department of Defense




             Page 70                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 71                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 72                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 73                                     GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
                  Appendix V: GAO Contact and Staff
Appendix V: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Mark A. Little (202) 512-4673
GAO Contact


                  In addition to the individuals named above, Nancy Benco, Rebecca
Acknowledgments   Gambler, David Keefer, Adam Roye, and Jonathan R. Tumin made key
                  contributions to this report.




                  Page 74                                 GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
           Glossary
Glossary


           Advance appropriation: An advance appropriation is one made to
           become available one fiscal year or more beyond the fiscal year for which
           the appropriation act is passed. For instance, advance appropriations in
           fiscal year 2000 appropriations acts became available for programs in
           fiscal year 2001 and beyond. Since these appropriations were not available
           until after fiscal year 2000, the amounts were not included in fiscal year
           2000 budget totals.

           Commanding Officer’s Readiness Reporting System: The
           Commanding Officer’s Readiness Reporting System is a decision support
           system designed to help commanders and other decision makers evaluate
           the quality and quantity of facilities on Marine Corps installations. The
           system compares the quantity of on-hand facilities to requirements and
           evaluates the quality of facilities with respect to Marine Corps standards.

           Congressionally designated: Congressionally designated refers to
           amounts set forth at the budget activity, activity group, and subactivity
           group level in an appropriation act’s conference report. These
           recommended amounts are not binding unless they are also incorporated
           directly or by reference into an appropriation act or other statute.

           Expected service life (recapitalization target): The expected service
           life is the number of years that facilities are expected to provide adequate
           performance, given full sustainment, before wearing out or becoming
           obsolete. The number is usually applied as an average to the total
           inventory of facilities. In the absence of incremental recapitalization
           investments, facilities typically must be replaced or extensively renovated
           at the end of their expected service life.

           Facility Investment Metric: The Facility Investment Metric was
           developed by the Air Force to identify and prioritize operation and
           maintenance restoration and modernization funding requirements based
           on the impact of requirements in four mission areas: mission, mission
           support, base support, and community support.

           Facilities sustainment model: DOD’s facilities sustainment model
           generates an annual sustainment funding requirement for facilities based
           on the expected life cycle of those facilities. The model uses standard
           facility-specific cost factors, based on commercial benchmarks and
           variable area costs, to compute a sustainment cost for each type of
           military facility.




           Page 75                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Glossary




Installations’ Readiness Report: DOD issued its first Installations’
Readiness Report in fiscal year 1999 to give an overall assessment of the
condition of all military installations and facilities and their ability to
support military mission. DOD developed the Installations’ Readiness
Report to fulfill its reporting requirement to Congress under section 117 of
title 10 of the United States Code, which specifies that DOD measure the
capability of defense installations and facilities to provide appropriate
support to forces in the conduct of their wartime missions. Major
commands rate each of the nine facility classes, using standard readiness
definitions, and use these ratings to help decide how to allocate repair and
construction funds.

Installation Readiness Reporting System: The Installation Readiness
Reporting System is a decision support system developed by the Navy to
help commanders and other decision makers evaluate the quality and
quantity of facilities on Navy installations. The system allows an
installation to compare the quantity of its on-hand facilities to its
requirements and evaluate the quality of these facilities with respect to
Navy standards.

Installation Status Report: The Installation Status Report was
developed by the Army as a way to assess installation-level conditions
against Army-wide standards.

Military construction: The military construction appropriation is DOD’s
source of funding for the repair or replacement of facilities, as well as for
construction of facilities for new missions.

Modernization: Modernization funding provides funds for improving
facilities. Modernization includes altering facilities solely to implement
new or higher standards, to accommodate new functions, or to replace
standard building components. Modernization activities are funded by
operation and maintenance and military construction funds.

New footprint military construction: New footprint military
construction funds are used for the construction of new facilities. These
are not recapitalization resourcesthey are not used to replace or
modernize existing facilities.

Obligations: Obligations are binding agreements that will result in
outlays, immediately or in the future. Budgetary resources must be
available before obligations can be incurred legally.



Page 76                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
Glossary




Operation and maintenance: Operation and maintenance is DOD’s
single largest appropriation group. It funds training, maintenance, and
other key readiness-related activities, as well as other expenses, such as
maintaining and operating bases.

Plant replacement value: Plant replacement value is the cost to replace
an existing facility with a facility of the same size at the same location,
using today’s building standards.

Quality of life enhancements: The quality of life enhancements defense
appropriation was established by Congress to fund DOD’s backlog of
facility maintenance, including minor construction and major maintenance
and repair of barracks, dormitories, and related facilities.

Recapitalizable plant replacement value: This is a subset of the whole
plant replacement value. Some types of facilities excluded are

•   facilities for which there is no recapitalization requirement, such as
    one-time use facilities and facilities scheduled for demolition or
    disposal, and

•   facilities that currently are recapitalized using specialized methods or
    metrics, or for which future recapitalization funding cannot currently
    be estimated, such as family housing; privatized facilities; and missile,
    aircraft, and ammunition production facilities.

Recapitalization: Recapitalization includes major renovation or
reconstruction activities (including facility replacements) needed to keep
facilities modern and efficient in an environment of changing standards
and missions. Recapitalization extends the expected service life of
facilities or restores lost service life and includes the restoration and
modernization of existing facilities but not the acquisition of new facilities
or the demolition of old ones.

Recapitalization rate: This is the number of years required to replace or
renovate facilities at a given level of investment. The recapitalization rate
is computed by dividing recapitalizable plant replacement value by total
restoration and modernization investments.

Restoration: Restoration funding provides funds for improving facilities.
Restoration includes repair and replacement work to restore facilities
damaged by inadequate sustainment, excessive age, natural disaster, fire,




Page 77                                        GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
           Glossary




           accident, or other causes. Restoration activities are funded by operation
           and maintenance and military construction funds.

           Supplemental appropriation: A supplemental appropriation is an act
           appropriating funds in addition to those in an annual appropriations act.
           Supplemental appropriations are enacted when the need for funds is too
           urgent to be postponed until the next regular annual appropriations act.

           Sustainment: Sustainment funding provides resources primarily from
           operation and maintenance funds for recurring maintenance and repair
           activities necessary to keep an inventory of facilities in good working
           order. Sustainment includes regularly scheduled maintenance as well as
           anticipated major repairs or replacement of components that occur
           periodically during a facility’s life cycle. Due to obsolescence, sustainment
           alone does not keep facilities like new indefinitely, nor does it extend their
           service life.




(350142)
           Page 78                                       GAO-03-274 Defense Infrastructure
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