oversight

Older Workers: Employment Assistance Focuses on Subsidized Jobs and Job Search, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access to Other Services

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-01-24.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

               United States General Accounting Office

GAO            Report to the Ranking Minority
               Member, Subcommittee on Employer-
               Employee Relations, Committee on
               Education and the Workforce, House of
               Representatives
January 2003
               OLDER WORKERS

               Employment
               Assistance Focuses
               on Subsidized Jobs
               and Job Search, but
               Revised Performance
               Measures Could
               Improve Access to
               Other Services




GAO-03-350
                                                 January 2003


                                                 OLDER WORKERS

                                                 Employment Assistance Focuses on
Highlights of GAO-03-350, a report to the        Subsidized Jobs and Job Search, but
Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee
on Employer-Employee Relations,                  Revised Performance Measures Could
Committee on Education and the
Workforce, House of Representatives              Improve Access to Other Services


Some economists predict that by                  About 12 percent of the 1.3 million older people who were not working and
2030, the United States could                    wanted a job were enrolled in these programs between July 2000 and June
experience a labor shortage of                   2001. Some older workers received services without being enrolled in a
35 million workers. As the shortage              program but these people were not counted in program statistics. The
approaches, one option available                 majority of older people enrolled received subsidized jobs through the
is to encourage people to work
beyond traditional retirement ages,
                                                 Senior Community Service Employment Program. About one-third
especially because people who are                participated in programs funded by the Workforce Investment Act and Trade
age 55 or older will constitute                  Adjustment Assistance. Most of the older workers enrolled in these
nearly a third of the population.                programs received job search assistance, such as help in preparing for
Accordingly, increasing demands                  interviews and writing resumes, but some also received job training.
will be made on the workforce                    Research findings have been inconsistent as to whether older workers have
development system to help ensure                distinct learning needs, but Workforce Investment Act program providers
that older workers are provided                  are less likely now than in the past to have separate programs for older
opportunities to help address the                workers.
anticipated labor shortage.
                                                 The Workforce Investment Act requires program providers to report certain
Concerned that the existing
workforce development system
                                                 information so that Labor can determine how well programs are performing.
may not meet the needs of older                  These performance measures include how many participants find jobs and
workers, the Subcommittee’s                      how much their earnings have increased. Program providers report that
Ranking Minority Member asked                    some performance measures provide a disincentive to enrolling older
GAO to determine the extent that                 workers into the program because of employment characteristics that may
older workers are enrolled in                    negatively affect program performance. For example, in 6 of 10 the local
federal employment and training                  areas we visited, officials said they considered performance measures a
programs, what services are                      barrier to enrolling older workers seeking part-time jobs because they would
provided, and how performance                    have lower earnings and therefore reduce program performance.
measures affect such services.                   Consequently, some older workers may only receive job search assistance
                                                 and not have access to in-depth services, such as computer training.
                                                 Older workers enrolled in a computer training class in Sacramento, Calif., learning such
                                                 skills as keyboarding, office applications, and Internet usage.
GAO recommends that the
Secretary of Labor assess
Workforce Investment Act
performance measures and make
adjustments as necessary to
eliminate disincentives to enrolling
older workers in the program.
Labor generally agreed with our
recommendation and has formed a
task force to review older worker
services and said that as it assesses
program performance measures, it
will identify and eliminate factors
that discourage participation.
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-350.

To view the full report, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Sigurd Nilsen at
(202) 512-7215 or nilsens@gao.gov.               Source: Experience Works
Contents


Letter                                                                                1
               Results in Brief                                                       3
               Background                                                             5
               Older People Enrolled in Federal Programs Generally Receive
                 Subsidized Community Service Jobs and Job Search Assistance          9
               Older People Most Likely to Receive Subsidized Community
                 Service Jobs and Job Search Assistance                              13
               Providers Now More Likely to Include Older Workers in Services
                 with Younger Workers, but Some Still Offer Special Services         17
               WIA Performance Measures May Affect Older Workers’ Access to
                 Services                                                            23
               Conclusions                                                           28
               Recommendation for Executive Action                                   29
               Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                    29

Appendix I     Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                    31



Appendix II    SCSEP National Grantee Activity in Program Year
               2000 (July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001)                                  34



Appendix III   SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e) Funds in Program
               Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001)                             35



Appendix IV    WIA Earnings Change and Earnings Replacement
               Rate Performance Measure Calculations                                 37
               Adult Measure                                                         37
               Dislocated Worker Measure                                             37

Appendix V     Comments from the Department of Labor                                 38



Appendix VI    GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                40
               GAO Contacts                                                          40
               Staff Acknowledgments                                                 40



               Page i                                          GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Related GAO Products                                                                            41



Tables
                       Table 1: Demographics of People Aged 55 and Over across SCSEP,
                                WIA, and TAA Programs                                           15
                       Table 2: States Using WIA Funds for Targeted Older Worker
                                Services, Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001)     20
                       Table 3: WIA Employment Related Performance Measures for
                                Adults and Dislocated Workers                                   24
                       Table 4: Program Year 2000 Age Differences on WIA Performance
                                Measure Outcomes                                                25
                       Table 5: Part-time Workers by Age                                        27
                       Table 6: Earnings Loss by Age of Workers Displaced from Full-
                                Time Jobs between January 1999 and December 2001                28
                       Table 7: Proportion of Population Aged 55 and Older and Funds
                                Received for SCSEP and WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker
                                Programs for Selected States                                    32
                       Table 8: Local Areas Selected for Site Visits                            32
                       Table 9: SCSEP National Grantee Activity in Program Year 2000            34
                       Table 10: SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e) Funds in Program Year
                                2000                                                            35


Figures
                       Figure 1: Proportion of People Aged 55 and Over Living in Each
                                State in 2000                                                    6
                       Figure 2: Use of SCSEP, WIA, and TAA by the 156,000 People Aged
                                55 and Over Who Were Enrolled in Federal Employment
                                and Training Programs (July 2000-June 2001)                     11
                       Figure 3: Number of People Enrolled in WIA and TAA Programs by
                                Age (July 2000-June 2001)                                       12
                       Figure 4: Unsubsidized Placement Rates for Older People Enrolled
                                in WIA, TAA, and SCSEP (July 2000–June 2001)                    16
                       Figure 5: Percentage of Older Workers Enrolled in WIA and JTPA
                                Receiving Targeted and Nontargeted Services                     21
                       Figure 6: Employment Status by Age of Workers Displaced from
                                Full-Time Jobs between January 1999 and December 2001           27




                       Page ii                                            GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Abbreviations

JTPA        Job Training Partnership Act
SCSEP       Senior Community Service Employment Program
TAA         Trade Adjustment Assistance
WIA         Workforce Investment Act




Page iii                                   GAO-03-350 Older Workers
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   January 24, 2003

                                   The Honorable Robert E. Andrews
                                   Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee
                                    on Employer-Employee Relations
                                   Committee on Education and the Workforce
                                   House of Representatives

                                   Dear Mr. Andrews:

                                   Some economists predict that by 2030, the nation could experience a labor
                                   shortage of 35 million workers. If the potential labor shortage is not
                                   addressed, the nation’s productivity, growth, and international
                                   competitiveness could be threatened. As the shortage approaches and
                                   labor markets begin to tighten, one option available to increase the labor
                                   supply is to encourage people to stay in the labor force beyond traditional
                                   retirement ages, especially because people who are age 55 or older will
                                   constitute nearly a third of the total population—an increase of 46 percent
                                   over three decades. Evidence suggests that older workers—those people
                                   aged 55 and older who are either currently employed or seeking
                                   employment—have a unique relationship with the labor market. Generally,
                                   although older workers are less likely to lose a job, they are less likely to
                                   seek reemployment after losing work and may experience a larger loss in
                                   earnings, as compared to younger workers, when they do re-enter
                                   employment.1 With the potential labor shortage and an aging population,
                                   increasing demands will be made on the workforce development system to
                                   help ensure that older workers are provided adequate opportunities to
                                   help address the anticipated labor shortage and meet employer needs for
                                   labor.

                                   In 2000, several employment and training programs provided services to
                                   older workers. These programs included the Senior Community Service
                                   Employment Program, which primarily provides low-income older
                                   workers with subsidized employment in public agencies and nonprofit
                                   organizations; the Workforce Investment Act programs, which provide job
                                   search assistance and training to adults and individuals who have lost their



                                   1
                                    See U.S. General Accounting Office, Older Workers: Demographic Trends Pose Challenges
                                   for Employers and Workers, GAO-02-85 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 16, 2001).



                                   Page 1                                                     GAO-03-350 Older Workers
jobs because of layoffs or plant closings (dislocated workers); and the
Trade Adjustment Assistance programs,2 which provide employment and
training assistance for those individuals who have lost their jobs due to the
adverse effects of international trade.

When the Workforce Investment Act replaced the Job Training Partnership
Act in 2000, it represented a major change in how employment and
training services were delivered to older workers. States were no longer
required to set aside funds to provide services specifically for older
workers and new performance measures were developed to assess
program success. The act also created a one-stop system where
information about and access to a wide array of employment and training
services became available at a single location. Concerned that existing
federal employment and training programs may not be oriented towards
the needs of older workers, you asked us to determine (1) the extent to
which people aged 55 and older are enrolled in federal employment and
training programs and what services they receive, (2) how employment
and training services are provided to older workers, and (3) how
performance measures may have affected services for older workers.

To determine what employment and training services are provided to
people aged 55 years and older (older workers) and how these services are
provided, we surveyed responsible officials in each of the 50 states and
Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico, on states’ services for older workers
through several of the major federal employment and training efforts:
(1) the Workforce Investment Act (49 states responded), (2) the Senior
Community Service Employment Program (50 states responded), and
(3) the Trade Adjustment Assistance programs (48 states responded). We
also surveyed all 595 local workforce areas to obtain information on
services provided to older workers and received 470 responses. In
addition, we conducted telephone interviews with the 10 national Senior
Community Service Employment Program grantees and visited 5 states
(Arizona, California, Florida, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania) to obtain
more detailed information on how services are provided to older workers
and what these services include. We selected these states based on a
variety of considerations, such as the proportion of their population that
was 55 or older and whether they used Workforce Investment Act funds


2
 Trade Adjustment Assistance programs include Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) and
North American Free Trade Agreement Transitional Adjustment Assistance (NAFTA-TAA).
These programs were combined under the Trade Adjustment Assistance Reform Act of
2002.




Page 2                                                   GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                   specifically for older workers. Within each state, we visited two local areas
                   and met with local officials to discuss how older workers access services
                   and how these services are delivered. We judgmentally selected these local
                   areas to provide a mix of urban and rural areas. (App. I contains a more
                   detailed discussion of our scope and methodology.) We performed our
                   work between January and December 2002 in accordance with generally
                   accepted government auditing standards.


                   About 12 percent of the 1.3 million older people who were not working
Results in Brief   and wanted a job were enrolled in federal employment and training
                   programs between July 2000 and June 2001. Although people who enroll in
                   in-depth employment and training services are included in program
                   statistics, others who receive more limited or informal services are not
                   counted, making it difficult to determine the total number of older
                   workers receiving employment and training services. Among those
                   enrolled in federal employment and training programs, we found that
                   approximately 156,000 people were aged 55 and over—the majority of
                   whom had subsidized jobs through the Senior Community Service
                   Employment Program. Participants in this program usually earn the
                   minimum wage and frequently work in education and social service
                   agencies in positions such as teacher aides and receptionists. Fewer
                   people age 55 and over were enrolled in the Workforce Investment Act and
                   Trade Adjustment Assistance programs. Of the 49,600 older people
                   enrolled in these programs, most received job search assistance, such as
                   interviewing and resume writing workshops, while a smaller number
                   received training—including training for specific jobs as well as for basic
                   work skills. In addition, over 60 percent of those leaving the Workforce
                   Investment Act programs obtained unsubsidized jobs.

                   Employment and training providers are less likely now than in the past to
                   establish separate programs for older workers, but older workers still have
                   access to some services designed specifically for them. While research
                   findings on whether older workers have distinct learning needs have been
                   inconsistent, Workforce Investment Act and Trade Adjustment Assistance
                   providers generally do not serve older workers in separate programs,
                   instead choosing to include older workers in the services they provide to
                   all workers. For example, 90 percent of local areas responding to our
                   survey said their occupational training classes funded through the
                   Workforce Investment Act are designed for workers of all ages. When the
                   Workforce Investment Act was enacted, eliminating the requirement that
                   states reserve funds for older workers, most states did not continue to
                   fund programs specifically for older workers. However, 10 states indicated


                   Page 3                                              GAO-03-350 Older Workers
that they used Workforce Investment Act funds during 2000 to support
special programs for older workers, such as separate computer classes
tailored to older workers. Although most states have not used Workforce
Investment Act funds to support separate older worker programs, at the
local level the one-stop centers give older workers access to the
Workforce Investment Act and Trade Adjustment Assistance programs, as
well as to the Senior Community Service Employment Program that is
specifically for older workers. About four-fifths of local areas responding
to our survey said the Senior Community Service Employment Program is
colocated in their one-stop centers, increasing the likelihood that some
targeted services are available to older workers.

Employment and training providers report that Workforce Investment Act
performance measures have limited older workers’ access to more
intensive services and training because older workers have employment
characteristics that may adversely affect program measures, particularly
those related to changes in earnings. The Department of Labor holds states
and local areas accountable for performance using several measures and
state and local areas may receive financial incentives if they meet or
exceed set performance levels but may be penalized if they fail to meet
these levels. Data from the Current Population Survey suggest that older
workers have unique employment characteristics, such as being more
likely than younger workers to work part time and to take larger pay cuts
when re-entering the labor market. All older workers can receive
Workforce Investment Act program basic job search assistance but their
unique employment characteristics may discourage program
administrators from enrolling older workers into more in-depth services,
such as training. For example, officials in 6 of the 10 local workforce areas
that we visited consider performance measures a barrier to enrolling older
workers because of their high prior wages and/or their desire to work part
time.

We are recommending that the Secretary of Labor assess Workforce
Investment Act performance measures and make adjustments as
necessary to eliminate the disincentive to enrolling older workers in
programs funded by the Workforce Investment Act. In its comments,
Labor generally agreed with our recommendation and said that it has
formed a task force to review services to older workers and to identify
policies to help meet the needs of this group. Labor also noted that as it
assesses program performance measures it will identify and eliminate
factors that discourage participation of any group.




Page 4                                               GAO-03-350 Older Workers
             In 2000, approximately 59 million people aged 55 and over resided in the
Background   United States. The proportion of people aged 55 and over living in each
             state ranged from about 13 percent in Alaska to about 27 percent living in
             Florida (see fig.1).




             Page 5                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Figure 1: Proportion of People Aged 55 and Over Living in Each State in 2000




                Washington

                                                                                                                                                         Maine
                                            Montana             North
                                                                Dakota         Minnesota
               Oregon                                                                                                                                            Vermont
                                 Idaho                                                                                                                           New Hampshire
                                                                South                     Wisconsin                                            New
                                                                Dakota                                                                         York              Massachusetts
                                             Wyoming                                                          Michigan                                           Rhode Island
                                                                                                                                                                 Connecticut
                       Nevada                                                      Iowa                                          Pennsylvania
                                                                Nebraska                                                                                         New Jersey
                                                                                                            Indiana
                                     Utah                                                                                                                        Delaware
                                                                                                Illinois              Ohio
                                                Colorado                                                                      West                               Maryland
                                                                                                                             Virginia
          California                                                  Kansas                                                                                     Washington, D.C.
                                                                                                                                        Virginia
                                                                                     Missouri                Kentucky

                                                                                                           Tennessee           North Carolina
                                 Arizona       New                     Oklahoma     Arkansas                                     South
                                              Mexico                                                                            Carolina
                                                                                              Mississippi
                                                                                                                       Georgia
                                                                                                           Alabama

                                                                    Texas
                                                                                      Louisiana                              Florida
                          Alaska

                                              Hawaii




                                                                                                                                                                 Puerto Rico


                                                                      12-13.9%                                20-21.9%
                                                                      14-15.9%                                22-23.9%
                                                                      16-17.9%                                24-25.9%
                                                                      18-19.9%                                26-27.9%


Source: 2000 Decennial Census.


                                                           In program year 2000,3 older workers received employment and training
                                                           services from various federal employment and training programs,
                                                           including the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP),


                                                           3
                                                            A program year starts on July 1 of the calendar year. Program year 2000 ran from July 1,
                                                           2000, to June 30, 2001.




                                                           Page 6                                                                                     GAO-03-350 Older Workers
the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), and Trade Adjustment Assistance
(TAA) programs. These programs have various eligibility requirements and
offer employment and training services through different mechanisms.

Title V of the Older Americans Act of 1965 authorizes SCSEP to promote
part-time community service activities specifically for low-income older
individuals and to foster economic self-sufficiency through unsubsidized
employment. SCSEP, funded at $440.2 million in program year 2001, is
limited to people 55 years and older with incomes at or below 125 percent
of the federal poverty level.4 For program year 2000, Labor allotted
78 percent of the funds to 10 national grantees, including the AARP
Foundation, Experience Works (formerly Green Thumb), and the National
Council on the Aging, Inc. (See appendix II for a complete list of national
grantees and funds expended in program year 2000.) The remaining
22 percent was allotted to each of the 50 states, District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, and the other territories. At least 75 percent of SCSEP funds
must be used to subsidize participants’ wages—typically for minimum
wage jobs in nonprofit and public sector agencies. The remaining funds
may be used for such activities as assessments, counseling, training, and
job placement assistance. Section 502(e) of title V authorizes limited funds
to be used for projects placing older workers in unsubsidized employment
in the private sector. (See appendix III for more details on how these
funds were used in program year 2000.) These projects are intended to
emphasize training for jobs that reflect required technological skills.

TAA programs assist U.S. workers who lose their jobs because of
increased imports from, or shifts in production to, foreign countries. These
programs provide benefits such as trade re-adjustment allowances
(extended income support beyond normal unemployment insurance
benefits), services such as job training, and funds for job search and
relocation. Groups of workers or their representatives can petition the
Department of Labor for certification of eligibility to apply for services or
benefits under TAA programs. In fiscal year 2001, TAA programs received
about $407 million to provide income support and training benefits.

WIA specifies one funding source for each of the act’s main client
groups—adults, dislocated workers, and youths—and creates a system
whereby clients can obtain information about and access to a wide array



4
In 2000, this would equate to $21,315 for a family of four in all states except Alaska and
Hawaii.




Page 7                                                          GAO-03-350 Older Workers
of job training, education, and employment services at a single location,
called a one-stop center. WIA specifies 17 partner programs that are to
provide services through the one-stop center, including SCSEP and TAA.
This partnership can take different forms, including physical colocation at
the one-stop center or providing electronic linkages to the partners’
programs. WIA requires that the adult and dislocated worker programs,
funded at about $2.5 billion in program year 2001, provide three levels of
service: (1) core job search assistance, including the provision of labor
market information, and a preliminary assessment of skills and needs;
(2) intensive job search assistance, including comprehensive assessments,
creation of an individual employment plan, case management, and short-
term prevocational services;5 and (3) training, including skill upgrading,
literacy classes, and occupational training. Core services are available to
all job seekers, but WIA enrollment is required for intensive services and
training. Under the adult program, all persons aged 18 or older are eligible
to receive core services. In areas where funds are limited, priority for
intensive services and training must be given to recipients of public
assistance and other low-income individuals. The dislocated worker
program is generally for those individuals who have been laid off and are
unlikely to return to their previous employment. To be eligible for the
youth program, persons must be aged 14—21; have low income; and meet
at least one of six barriers to employment, such as being a school dropout,
homeless, or an offender.

When WIA replaced the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) in July
2000, it replaced the requirement that each state reserve five percent of its
adult allotment specifically for older worker services with the provision
that states can set aside up to 15 percent of their adult, youth, and
dislocated worker allotments to support statewide workforce activities.
WIA also contains a requirement that each state and local area receiving
WIA funds must achieve certain levels of performance on several
measures. The Department of Labor evaluates performance on these
measures to determine fiscal incentives and sanctions. Some measures are
common to both the adult and dislocated worker programs, such as job
placement and retention, but earnings are measured differently for the two
programs. For the adult program, the measure compares participants’
earnings before entering the program to their earnings after completing



5
 Short-term prevocational services prepare individuals for employment or training and
include development of learning skills, communication skills, interviewing skills,
punctuality, personal maintenance, and professional conduct.




Page 8                                                        GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                        the program and expresses the difference as an actual dollar amount. For
                        the dislocated worker program, participants’ earnings after completing the
                        program are expressed as a percentage of their earnings before entering
                        the program.

                        In a previous GAO report on WIA performance measures,6 we found that
                        established performance measures were a concern to state and local
                        officials because of the fiscal sanctions associated with failure to meet
                        them. We reported that the need to meet performance measures might be
                        the driving factor in deciding who receives WIA-funded services at the
                        local level. For example, local staff might be reluctant to provide WIA-
                        funded services to job seekers who may be less likely to get and keep a job
                        or those who may be less likely to experience an increase in earnings.


                        Approximately 12 percent of all older people who were not working and
Older People Enrolled   wanted a job were enrolled in federal employment and training programs;
in Federal Programs     most of these individuals received subsidized community service jobs or
                        job search assistance, while a smaller number received training. The
Generally Receive       majority of these older individuals, about 68 percent, were enrolled in
Subsidized              SCSEP. Other older workers may receive job assistance services without
                        being enrolled in a federal employment and training program, but these
Community Service       individuals are not counted in program statistics.
Jobs and Job Search
Assistance

Programs Enroll about   We found that approximately 156,000 people aged 55 and older were
12 Percent of Older     enrolled in SCSEP, TAA, and WIA adult and dislocated worker programs
People Who Want Jobs    between July 2000 and June 2001—representing about 12 percent of all the
                        people in this age group who wanted a job but were not working.
                        According to the Current Population Survey, an average of 1.3 million
                        people aged 55 to 90 years old were unemployed or were out of the labor
                        force and wanted a job7 during this same time period. Many of these


                        6
                         See U.S. General Accounting Office, Workforce Investment Act: Improvements Needed in
                        Performance Measures to Provide a More Accurate Picture of WIA’s Effectiveness,
                        GAO-02-275 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 1, 2002).
                        7
                         The Current Population Survey defines the unemployed as actively seeking work. People
                        defined as out of the labor force and wanting a job, are people who are not searching for
                        employment but have stated they want a job. Some people who are retired are considered
                        to be out of the labor force and wanting a job.




                        Page 9                                                        GAO-03-350 Older Workers
individuals consider themselves to be retired but wish to rejoin the labor
market. Some of these individuals are actively looking for work; others
have tried to find work in the past and have become discouraged from
continuing their job search. In terms of the 59 million people who were
age 55 and older in 2000, less than 1 percent was enrolled in SCSEP, WIA,
and TAA.

The total number of older people enrolled in these federal employment
and training programs is smaller than the number of people aged 55 and
older who may have actually received services. Although federal
employment and training programs count the number of people enrolled in
in-depth services,8 individuals who receive more limited or informal
employment assistance are not included in program statistics. Within the
WIA programs, for example, individuals can access self-service
employment resources, such as job listings, through entry-level core
services without enrolling in WIA. Similarly, within SCSEP, some older
people receive job search assistance from staff without being enrolled as
clients in the program. In Pennsylvania, for example, some SCSEP
providers maintain a job bank for older individuals who need help finding
a job but do not meet the income eligibility requirements for the program.

Of the 156,000 older people enrolled in the three federal employment and
training programs, more than two-thirds received SCSEP services. Our
surveys also show that more people aged 55 and over were enrolled in
WIA programs than in TAA programs (see fig. 2).




8
 National program statistics count the number of SCSEP participants in the community
service jobs program and the number of WIA participants enrolled in intensive services and
training.




Page 10                                                       GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Figure 2: Use of SCSEP, WIA, and TAA by the 156,000 People Aged 55 and Over
Who Were Enrolled in Federal Employment and Training Programs
(July 2000-June 2001)

                                                                      WIA

                                                                      4%
                                                                      TAA




                          •



           •
          28%


                                      68% •                           SCSEP




Sources: SCSEP data is from the Department of Labor. WIA and TAA data is from our national surveys
that had a response rate of 94%.


Note: While individuals may be co-enrolled across programs, limited national data exists on co-
enrollments and what data are available shows few co-enrollments.


Although SCSEP only enrolls people aged 55 and over, the WIA and TAA
programs serve both older and younger individuals. We found that older
people make up a relatively small proportion of the total number of people
enrolled in WIA and TAA programs (see fig. 3). Our surveys show that both
the WIA dislocated worker and adult programs enrolled more older people
than the TAA programs.




Page 11                                                                                  GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Figure 3: Number of People Enrolled in WIA and TAA Programs by Age
(July 2000-June 2001)


250,000

225,000

200,000

175,000

150,000

125,000

100,000

 75,000

 50,000

 25,000

       0
               lt



                            Woated
                                  r


                                            A
                               rke
             du




                                          TA
           -A



                            oc
                           isl
          A
       WI



                      -D
                       A
                    WI




              Programs

                                 Number of people age 54 and younger

                                 Number of people age 55 and over

Sources: WIA and TAA data are from our national surveys that had a response rate of 94%.


Note: States that did not submit enrollment data by age are not included.


To the extent that it could be determined, the three federally funded
employment and training programs that we reviewed reach a small
proportion of those likely to be eligible. Although different eligibility
requirements and limited data make it difficult to determine the number of
older people who qualify for the three federal employment and training
programs we reviewed, some information is available on the number of
older people enrolled in individual programs. For example, SCSEP
enrolled about 1 percent of adults aged 55 and older whose incomes would
make them eligible for services. Within WIA, the adult program enrolled
less than 1 percent of all people aged 55 and older who would have been
eligible on the basis of age. The percentage of eligible older people
enrolled in the WIA dislocated worker program and the TAA programs is



Page 12                                                                                    GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                      unknown, because national labor statistics do not track the population of
                      older people who qualify for these services. Nevertheless, information on
                      older people who have experienced mass layoffs shed some light on this
                      population. For example, the number of older people enrolled in the WIA
                      dislocated worker program represented about 14 percent of older people
                      who had experienced extended mass layoffs.9 Likewise, the number of
                      older people enrolled in the TAA programs constituted about four percent
                      of people aged 55 or older experiencing extended mass layoffs. However,
                      extended mass layoff data only provides a rough approximation of the
                      population eligible for these two programs because the data excludes
                      some older people who may qualify for services and includes others who
                      may not meet program eligibility requirements, particularly for the TAA
                      program.


                      Although WIA and TAA are seen as providing transitional services to help
Older People Most     unemployed people find jobs, SCSEP primarily provides low-income older
Likely to Receive     people with long-term subsidized employment. For those older people
                      enrolled in WIA and TAA programs, most received job search assistance,
Subsidized            while a smaller percentage received job training.
Community Service
                      The 106,000 individuals who received SCSEP jobs worked part time in
Jobs and Job Search   nonprofit and governmental host agencies, and typically earned the
Assistance            minimum wage. SCSEP participants worked in a variety of fields, ranging
                      from public works to health care; however, they most frequently held
                      positions in education and social service organizations. SCSEP community
                      service jobs vary and can include positions such as teacher aides,
                      librarians, day care assistants, receptionists, and nurse’s aides. Although
                      some of the host agencies provide services primarily to senior citizens,
                      most SCSEP jobs are with agencies that serve the general community.

                      SCSEP has historically focused on providing older people community
                      service opportunities and income support, rather than employment and
                      training services. However, recent legislative changes to the program have
                      emphasized the importance of transitioning SCSEP participants into




                      9
                       The extended mass layoff data described here covers cases where employers have laid off
                      at least 50 workers for a period of at least 31 days and the workers have applied for
                      unemployment insurance.




                      Page 13                                                      GAO-03-350 Older Workers
unsubsidized jobs.10 While some SCSEP administrators permit older people
to work in subsidized community service jobs for 15 years or more, other
SCSEP operators have instituted time limits—of 1 to 2 years—to
encourage participants to find unsubsidized employment.11 SCSEP
provides some job search assistance and training services to people aged
55 and over to help them find unsubsidized jobs. For example, many
SCSEP providers help participants create resumes and prepare for job
interviews. In addition, SCSEP operators have limited amounts of funding
that can be used to pay for classroom courses and on-the-job training at
private sector companies. For example, at least 14,000 older individuals—
many of whom were also enrolled in the community service jobs
program—participated in SCSEP training programs between July 2000 and
June 2001 to prepare for private sector jobs.12

People aged 55 and over also received job search assistance and training
services through WIA and TAA programs. Of the approximately 523,000
people enrolled in TAA and WIA adult and dislocated worker programs
between July 2000 and June 2001, about 49,600 were aged 55 and older. We
estimate that most of these older people received job search assistance,
while a smaller percentage received job training.13 Job search assistance
can include the provision of job listings and information on the skills
needed to obtain these jobs, career counseling, and interviewing and
resume writing workshops. Training includes remedial education classes,
and occupational skills training taught in a classroom or on-the-job.
Remedial classes focus on literacy and other basic education and work
skills, while occupational skills training prepares people for specific
careers. For example, some occupational skills training helps participants
obtain credentials or licenses for particular professions, such as nursing or
truck driving.



10
 The Older Americans Act Amendments of 2000, signed into law on November 13, 2000,
mandated that Labor establish performance measures requiring SCSEP operators to
generally place at least 20% of program participants into unsubsidized jobs.
11
 Between July 2000 and June 2001, 13 states and 3 national grantees operating SCSEP
programs had time limits on the length of time participants could either stay at a specific
host agency or in the subsidized community jobs program.
12
 These training programs were primarily funded under section 502(e) of the Older
Americans Act.
13
 This estimate is based on TAA and WIA data from our national surveys, as well as WIA
data from the Department of Labor. Labor’s WIA data tracks participants who received
services and exited WIA during program year 2000.




Page 14                                                         GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                                       Within WIA adult and dislocated worker programs, older people received
                                       job search assistance through core services before enrolling in the
                                       programs and receiving intensive services and training. Of those people
                                       aged 55 and over enrolled in these WIA programs, data suggest that about
                                       half of these individuals also received training. In addition, many other
                                       older people may have received job search assistance through WIA’s core
                                       services without enrolling in the program and were not counted in
                                       program statistics. Within the TAA programs, more people received job
                                       training than job search services; however, only about 6,600 people aged
                                       55 and over were enrolled in this program.

                                       Across SCSEP, WIA and TAA, we found similarities in the characteristics
                                       of the older people enrolled in these programs. For example, women
                                       constitute the majority of participants aged 55 and over in all three
                                       programs. Likewise, as shown in table 1, most older participants in each
                                       program have at least a high school diploma or general equivalency
                                       diploma.

Table 1: Demographics of People Aged 55 and Over across SCSEP, WIA, and TAA Programs

                          Percentage of participants          Percentage of female          Percentage with at least a high school
Programa                            aged 65 or over                   participants                         diploma or equivalent
SCSEP                                             62                            73                                              66
WIA-Adult                                         19                            57                                              76
WIA-Dislocated Worker                              8                            53                                              88
TAA                                               10                           61b                                              69
                                       Sources: WIA and SCSEP data are from the Department of Labor. TAA data are from GAO’s national
                                       survey and the Department of Labor.
                                       a
                                        WIA data cover the 12,309 older workers enrolled in PY00, who received services through local adult
                                       and dislocated worker programs and who exited WIA during this same year. The age data include all
                                       12,309 older people but due to missing data the gender data are for 12,308 and the education data
                                       for 10,070. SCSEP gender and education data are for 60,978 PY00 enrollees who have not exited
                                       the program. SCSEP age data are for 60,992 PY00 enrollees who have not exited the program.
                                       b
                                        Data on the gender of TAA participants were provided by the Department of Labor and cover
                                       3,645 older people who received TAA services between 10/1/2000 and 9/30/2001, and then exited
                                       the program. The other TAA data presented here come from GAO’s TAA survey and cover the
                                       6,628 older workers enrolled in the program in PY00.


                                       Although older participants share some similar characteristics across
                                       programs, the people enrolled in SCSEP tend to be older than those
                                       enrolled in WIA14 and TAA programs. While the majority of SCSEP


                                       14
                                        WIA data are for individuals who received services through local adult and dislocated
                                       worker programs and who exited WIA programs before April, 2001.




                                       Page 15                                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
participants are age 65 or older, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the
older participants in WIA and TAA programs are between the ages of
55 and 64. Older participants exiting WIA are more likely to be placed in
unsubsidized jobs than older participants exiting TAA and SCSEP (see fig
4).

Figure 4: Unsubsidized Placement Rates for Older People Enrolled in WIA, TAA,
and SCSEP (July 2000–June 2001)

  80          Placement rates (percentages)


  70


  60


  50


  40


  30


  20


  10


    0
              r
        Woated



                         ult




                                  A



                                            P
           rke




                                          SE
                                TA
                       Ad




                                        SC
        oc



                    A-
         sl



                   WI
      Di
   A-
WI




Sources: SCSEP and WIA data are from the Department of Labor. TAA data are from our national surveys
that had a response rate of 94%.

Note: WIA placement rates are calculated by counting the number of people aged 55 and over who
were employed in the first full quarter after exiting the program divided by the number of older people
who exited during that quarter. TAA placement rate is calculated by counting the total number of
people aged 55 and over who received services in PY00 and exited during this same year, and then
the percentage of this group that were employed in the first full quarter after exiting the program.
SCSEP placement rate is calculated by counting the number of enrollees placed in unsubsidized jobs
divided by the established enrollment. The unsubsidized jobs figure only counts placements of at
least 30 days that are intended to last for at least 90 days, and jobs in which the participant is better
off financially with the unsubsidized job than with the community service position.




Page 16                                                                                GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                             Fewer providers now serve older workers through separate and specially
Providers Now More           tailored programs, but some special services are still available to older
Likely to Include            workers. Research findings on how older workers learn and whether they
                             need special services have been inconsistent, and providers under
Older Workers in             different programs have taken various approaches to serving older
Services with Younger        workers. Providers are less likely under WIA than under JTPA to treat
                             older workers as a distinct group requiring a separate program, because
Workers, but Some            WIA emphasizes a common service delivery system for all workers and
Still Offer Special          individual choice over services. As they always have, TAA providers
Services                     include older workers with younger workers rather than providing
                             separate services. SCSEP, which serves exclusively older workers, tailors
                             its job search and training services to older workers, and is colocated in
                             the one-stop centers.


WIA Providers More Likely    Under WIA, providers are more likely to include older workers in services
to Integrate Older Workers   with younger workers than to serve them in separate programs. WIA puts
in Services with Younger     greater emphasis than did JTPA on serving all workers together in one
                             common system and gives individuals more choice over the services they
Workers                      receive. As a result, WIA providers are more likely to assess the needs of
                             older workers on a case-by-case basis, rather than considering them a
                             separate group that requires a separate set of services. Officials in 5 of the
                             10 local areas we visited said the implementation of WIA resulted in
                             greater integration of older workers in services with younger workers.
                             WIA staff members in 9 local areas we visited included older workers with
                             younger workers in job search activities, and 90 percent of the local areas
                             responding to our survey included older workers with younger workers in
                             job training services.

                             Although some research studies support the approach of integrating older
                             workers with younger workers, other studies have found older workers
                             benefit from separate programs. Several research studies support the view
                             that older workers do not have distinct learning needs and would not
                             benefit from separate services. For example, two studies15 found that the
                             diversity among older workers as to how quickly different older workers
                             learned new skills made it impossible to generalize about their



                             15
                               William Crown, ed., Handbook on Employment and the Elderly (Westport, Conn.:
                             Greenwood Press, 1996) and Noreen Hale, The Older Worker: Effective Strategies for
                             Management and Human Resource Development (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers,
                             Inc., 1990).




                             Page 17                                                  GAO-03-350 Older Workers
employment and training needs. Another study16 found that the most
effective training approaches for older workers are also the most effective
for younger workers. However, other studies17 found that while older
workers can learn the same skills as younger workers, they benefit from
instruction that is more hands-on, involves more one-on-one assistance,
and is slower-paced than what is typically available in most training
programs. In particular, older workers may benefit from separate, slower-
paced computer training classes because some older workers may be
unfamiliar with, and intimidated by, computers.

Several WIA officials we interviewed concluded that older workers should
be included in services with younger workers because as a group, older
workers have no distinct employment and training needs. For example, a
local area in Florida said older workers do well in job training programs
serving people of all ages. In past years the local area offered a nursing
class specifically for older workers, but it cancelled this class in part
because not enough older workers wanted to take it. Similarly, a local area
in Massachusetts no longer offered training programs specifically for older
workers, and said older workers do not need such services. According to
this local area, instructional methods that are successful with younger
workers are also successful with older workers, and the fact that some
older workers prefer to take classes with their peers—just as some
younger workers feel more comfortable in classes serving only younger
workers—does not imply that older workers need separate classes.

One provision in WIA that has led to greater integration of older workers
with younger workers is the requirement that program participants choose
among training programs offered by qualified providers. Under JTPA, a
local area could contract with a training provider to operate a job-training
program designed for a specific group, such as older workers. WIA
generally prohibits such contracting, instead letting individual program
participants choose which training to attend. Local areas now issue
vouchers to program participants, which they use to pay for training
programs offered by qualified providers. Because individual program


16
 F.I.M. Craik and T.A. Salthouse, eds., The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (Mahwah,
N.J.: Erlbaum Press, 2000).
17
 Neil Charness, et al, “Word-Processing Training and Retraining: Effects of Adult Age,
Experience, and Interface,” Psychology and Aging, vol.16, no.1 (2001). Committee for
Economic Development, New Opportunities for Older Workers (New York 1999). Irwin
Goldstein, Training and Development in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Publishers, Inc., 1989).




Page 18                                                      GAO-03-350 Older Workers
participants choose which training program to attend, no program can be
restricted only to older workers, and older workers are more likely to be
integrated in training with younger workers. For example, a local area in
Pennsylvania used JTPA funds to contract with a provider for a training
program serving only older workers. Under WIA, program participants
choose among training programs offered by qualified local providers, and
none of these providers operates a program serving exclusively older
workers.

Another change under WIA that resulted in greater integration of older
workers with younger workers was the elimination of the JTPA older
worker set aside. Under JTPA, states were required to reserve a portion of
their funds for services to older workers. Some states passed set-aside
funds along to local areas, and others contracted directly with training
providers to serve older workers on a statewide basis. WIA provided states
with greater flexibility, allowing them to use their statewide activities
funds for a wide variety of purposes. Most have not opted to reserve
statewide activities funds specifically for older workers, preferring instead
to include older workers in the regular adult and dislocated worker
services available in the one-stop centers. Twenty-six percent of local
areas responding to our survey said that because of the elimination of the
older worker set-aside, they were less likely to target training programs
specifically to older workers, although older workers still had access to
training funded through WIA. Several local areas we visited also said they
were more likely to include older workers in services with younger
workers due to the elimination of the set-aside. For example, a one-stop
center in Massachusetts now includes older workers in job search and
resume-writing workshops available to workers of all ages, rather than
providing separate workshops for older workers as they once did.

Ten of the states responding to our survey chose to use a portion of their
program year 2000 statewide activities funds specifically for older worker
services. Some states designated funds for older workers because SCSEP
providers applied to use the funds for this purpose. Another state reserved
funds for older workers to ease the transition from JTPA to WIA and to
promote best practices for serving older workers under WIA. These states
set aside a portion of their statewide activities funds for older worker
services ranging from $47,010 in Wyoming to $931,214 in South Carolina
(see table 2). Almost all the states used these funds for job search
assistance and classroom training, and a few also provided other services
such as on-the-job training.




Page 19                                              GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Table 2: States Using WIA Funds for Targeted Older Worker Services, Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001)

                                                                          Services provided
                         Amount      Job search                                                                              Remedial
State                  expended      assistance                    Occupational skills training                               training
                                                           Classroom     On-the-job         Customized
                                                            training       training          traininga
South Carolina          $931,214        X                       X              X
Florida                  855,475        X                       X
                               b
Arizona                 588,491         X                       X                                X                                X
Louisiana                375,391        X                       X              X                 X                                X
District of Columbia     253,242        X                       X              X
Colorado                250,000b        X                       X
Georgia                  243,236        X
Idaho                    134,191        X                       X                  X                   X                          X
Massachusetts             50,000        X                       X
Wyoming                  47,010b        X                       X                  X                   X
                                        Source: Survey of state WIA administrative agencies.
                                        a
                                        Customized training is designed to meet the special requirements of an employer and is conducted
                                        with a commitment by the employer to hire the individual upon successful completion of the training.
                                        The employer pays not less than 50 percent of the cost of training.
                                        b
                                         Program year 2000 funds reserved for older worker services, not necessarily expended during that
                                        program year.


                                        Fewer older workers received targeted services funded by these 10 states
                                        than received targeted services funded by the JTPA older worker set-aside.
                                        In program year 2000, approximately 2,000 older workers received
                                        targeted services, representing about 5 percent of the older workers
                                        enrolled in the WIA adult and dislocated worker programs. In program
                                        year 1998,18 about 11,000 people aged 55 and older received services
                                        funded by the JTPA older worker set-aside, representing about 29 percent
                                        of the older worker enrollment (see fig. 5).




                                        18
                                            Program year 1998 is the last year for which JTPA data are available.




                                        Page 20                                                               GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Figure 5: Percentage of Older Workers Enrolled in WIA and JTPA Receiving Targeted and Nontargeted Services


WIA                                                                                                    JTPA

                                                                    5%                                                                                Receiving
                                                                    Receiving                                                                         targeted services
                                                                    targeted services
                        •
                                                                                                                  •
                                                                                                                 29%




                                                                                                                                         71% •        Receiving nontargeted
                            95% •                                   Receiving nontargeted                                                             services
                                                                    services



Source: WIA data are from our survey of state WIA agencies that had a response rate of 94%, and JTPA data are from the Department of Labor.



                                                                    Four of the states we visited were among those that used WIA statewide
                                                                    activities funds specifically for older workers. Arizona, Florida, and
                                                                    Massachusetts used program year 2000 statewide activities funds for older
                                                                    workers, while California used program year 2001 funds. For example,
                                                                    Massachusetts used the funds to support case managers at a one-stop
                                                                    center who specialized in serving older workers. These specialists helped
                                                                    older workers find jobs and managed support groups in which older
                                                                    workers could share job-search experiences with their peers. Arizona used
                                                                    its statewide activities funds partly to support job-training programs
                                                                    serving only older workers, such as a customer service representative
                                                                    training program. The state also reserved funds to send older workers to
                                                                    training programs serving workers of all ages. California used $190,853 in
                                                                    program year 2001 funds and $672,450 in program year 2002 funds for a
                                                                    computer skills training program for older workers. This program served
                                                                    only older workers, offered a slower pace of instruction and constant
                                                                    review to ensure mastery of skills, and included a job-search component.

                                                                    TAA providers, like most WIA providers, include older workers in services
                                                                    with younger workers. None of the states responding to our survey of state
                                                                    TAA administrators said they used TAA funds in program year 2000 to
                                                                    provide separate services specifically designed for older workers. As they
                                                                    always have, TAA providers served older workers along with younger
                                                                    workers.


                                                                    Page 21                                                                      GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                            During our site visits, administrators of public employment and training
                            programs were unable to identify private sector companies that have
                            established large scale training programs specifically for people aged
                            55 and over.19 As we noted in a prior GAO report, employers may feel that
                            it is more difficult to recoup the costs of hiring and training older workers
                            because of the shorter potential length of time older workers may remain
                            with the employer as compared with younger workers.20


SCSEP Offers Older          Because SCSEP is a program exclusively for older workers, SCSEP staff
Workers Special Services    provide job search assistance and training that is tailored to meet older
and Is Accessible through   worker needs. For example, SCSEP staff members in a local area in
                            Pennsylvania adapted their job search assistance by helping older workers
One-Stop Centers            learn to address age-related questions in job interviews and advising them
                            to drop graduation dates from their resumes in order to deal with the age
                            discrimination they may face in the job market. Another SCSEP provider
                            in Pennsylvania incorporated physical fitness into a program that trained
                            older workers for physically strenuous health care jobs, such as home
                            health aide. A number of SCSEP providers offered computer classes that
                            served only older workers and introduced new material more gradually.
                            These providers told us that older workers who have not learned new
                            technologies in many years benefit from these computer classes.

                            In most local areas, older workers who visit the one-stop centers have
                            access to some of these special services through SCSEP. Seventy-eight
                            percent of the local areas responding to our survey said SCSEP staff was
                            physically present in their one-stop centers at least once a week, usually
                            providing direct services to older workers.21 In most of the local areas we
                            visited, older workers who visited the one-stop centers initially received
                            the same basic job search services available to workers of all ages. Older
                            workers were usually referred to on-site SCSEP staff only if they had had
                            no success with basic job search and other one-stop staff members
                            thought they could benefit from SCSEP services. At a minimum, on-site
                            SCSEP staff enrolled income-eligible older workers in the SCSEP


                            19
                             These program administrators, however, were able to identify private employers—such as
                            Wal-Mart and Disney World—that had a reputation for hiring people aged 55 and over.
                            20
                             GAO-02-85.
                            21
                             Some SCSEP staff colocated in one-stop centers are permanent employees of SCSEP
                            provider agencies. Others are SCSEP enrollees whose subsidized community service
                            placement is in a one-stop center.




                            Page 22                                                    GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                      subsidized job program. In five of the one-stop centers we visited SCSEP
                      staff offered additional on-site services specifically for older workers, such
                      as job search workshops tailored to older workers, ongoing case
                      management to help older workers find jobs, or a job bank of positions
                      appropriate for older workers. These services were usually available to
                      older workers not enrolled in SCSEP, as well as to SCSEP participants.

                      In three local areas we visited, WIA and SCSEP providers coordinated
                      their services in ways other than cross-referral and colocation to meet the
                      needs of their older workers. For example, in California one SCSEP
                      provider received WIA funds from the local Workforce Investment Board
                      to operate a satellite one-stop center focused on older workers. Although
                      the center served visitors of all ages, it offered an array of special
                      programs for older workers, such as a staffing service matching older
                      professionals with employers and a computer skills class tailored to older
                      workers. In a local area in Pennsylvania, a case manager in the one-stop
                      centers was funded jointly by the WIA and SCSEP programs and split her
                      time between helping visitors of all ages and providing specific services to
                      older workers. Officials in the local area said this approach allowed the
                      case manager to make efficient use of her time, because she could serve
                      younger workers whenever no older workers needed assistance. Also,
                      because the case manager was an expert both on general workforce issues
                      and on older worker issues, she could determine the best service strategy
                      for each older worker.


                      Employment and training providers report that, as a result of WIA’s
WIA Performance       performance measures, they are less likely to enroll some older workers in
Measures May Affect   services such as training. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Census data
                      suggest that older workers have unique employment characteristics, such
Older Workers’        as a tendency to work part time and a likelihood to take larger pay cuts
Access to Services    than younger workers when they re-enter the labor market. These
                      characteristics may negatively affect outcomes on certain performance
                      measures, and, as a result, administrators in over half of the local areas we
                      visited indicated that performance measures are a barrier to enrolling
                      older workers into WIA intensive services and training.

                      WIA’s performance measures were established to provide for greater
                      accountability and to demonstrate program effectiveness. These
                      performance measures gauge program results in such areas as job
                      placement, employment retention, and earnings change, as well as skill
                      attainment and customer satisfaction. States are held accountable by
                      Labor for the quality of the service they provide in these areas, as judged


                      Page 23                                              GAO-03-350 Older Workers
by specific performance outcomes. If states fail to meet their expected
performance levels, they may suffer financial sanctions; if states meet or
exceed their levels, they may be eligible to receive additional funds. A
prior GAO report22 noted that the WIA performance levels are of particular
concern to state and local officials. If a state fails to meet its performance
levels for 1 year, Labor provides technical assistance, if requested. If a
state fails to meet its performance levels for 2 consecutive years, it may be
subject to up to a 5 percent reduction in its annual WIA formula grant.

Under WIA, older workers are subject to the same performance measures
as all other workers. There are a total of eight WIA employment related
performance measures that are relevant to adults—-four pertaining to
individuals enrolled in the adult program and four pertaining to individuals
enrolled in the dislocated worker program (see table 3).

Table 3: WIA Employment Related Performance Measures for Adults and Dislocated
Workers

 WIA Funding Stream                                Performance Measure
 Adult                                             Entered employment rate
                                                   Employment retention rate at 6 months
                                                   Average earnings change in 6 months
                                                   Entered employment and credential rate
 Dislocated worker                                 Entered employment rate
                                                   Employment retention rate at 6 months
                                                   Earnings replacement rate in 6 months
                                                   Entered employment and credential rate
Source: U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, Training and
Employment Guidance Letter No. 7-99 (Mar. 3, 2000).


The way two of these performance measures—earnings change which
compares pre- and post-WIA adult program enrollment earnings and
earnings replacement which compares pre- and post-WIA dislocated
worker enrollment earnings—are calculated may limit some older
workers’ access to more in-depth services, such as computer training. The
most favorable results to these measures occur when individuals seek full-
time work and had low or no prior earnings. (See appendix IV for a
description of how these two measures are calculated.) Older workers are
more likely to work part time than younger workers. As a result, older
workers seeking part-time work as well as older workers with high prior


22
 GAO-02-275.




Page 24                                                           GAO-03-350 Older Workers
earnings may produce lower outcomes on performance measures as
compared to those individuals seeking full-time work or with lower prior
earnings.

Labor’s WIA outcome data for program year 2000 provides current
performance measure outcomes cumulatively for states23 and provides
evidence that older workers’ unique characteristics may adversely affect
program outcomes. With regard to the earnings change performance
measure outcome for those enrolled in the WIA adult program, older
workers had an increase in earnings that was approximately 35 percent
less than younger workers—$2,924 versus $4,566. Similarly, with regard to
the earnings replacement rate for those enrolled in the WIA dislocated
worker program, younger workers increased their earnings by 7 percent
whereas older workers experienced a decline in their earnings of 17
percent (see table 4).

Table 4: Program Year 2000 Age Differences on WIA Performance Measure
Outcomes

                                 Adult-earnings                 Dislocated worker–earnings
                               change outcomes             replacement outcomes (earnings
 Age                 (average earnings increase)                          replacement rate)
 18-54                                    $4,566                                       1.07
 55+                                      $2,924                                        .83
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Program Year 2000, Workforce Investment Act Standardized
Record Data.

Note: These data are for people who received services through local adult and dislocated worker
programs and who exited the program in the first quarter of program year 2000.


As a result of the potential impact on program performance measure
outcomes, WIA employment and training providers may be choosing to
serve only those job seekers who are most likely to have large earnings
increases. A prior GAO report24 identified that the performance levels for
the measures that track earnings replacement for dislocated workers and
earnings change for adults may be especially problematic and that several
state officials reported that local staff were reluctant to register dislocated
workers with high prior earnings or already employed adults. Officials in
six of the ten local workforce areas that we visited consider performance
measures a barrier to enrolling older workers into WIA because their high


23
 There are no data from Alabama, Louisiana, New York or Pennsylvania.
24
 GAO-02-275.




Page 25                                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
prior wages and/or their tendency to work part time negatively impact the
area’s performance. In addition, state officials in four out of the five states
that we met with concurred with this view. One state official remarked
that local workforce investment boards are struggling with the WIA
performance requirements, and are targeting their WIA training funds to
people seeking full-time jobs at certain wage levels to meet the WIA
requirements for earnings gain/replacement. The official further stated
that the WIA earnings requirements make it difficult to serve job seekers
looking for part-time work, and those who had prior full-time jobs with
high salaries.

Several state and local officials commented that performance measures
create a barrier to providing services and suggested creating a separate set
of performance measures for older workers or special populations. One of
the state officials stated that, in regards to the performance measures, it is
imperative that the vast majority of participants earn higher wages and get
full-time employment, which is at odds with serving older workers who
prefer part-time jobs. Two other local officials told us that older workers
seeking part-time work would not be enrolled in intensive services or
training because of their effect on performance measure outcomes, but
could receive core services at the one-stop centers or be referred to
another program.

Of the 230 local workforce investment boards providing written comments
on our survey, 23 specifically addressed the negative effects of the
performance measures on older workers. For example, one official stated,
“federal programs must recognize the need and desire on the part of
people 55 and older for part-time work. Performance goals discourage
serving this group.” Seven of the 10 SCSEP national grantees we contacted
also expressed a belief that WIA performance standards could be a
disincentive to enrollment of older workers.

Older workers have unique employment characteristics, such as a being
more likely to work part-time jobs and experiencing a greater decline in
earnings when re-entering the workforce, according to the 2001 Current
Population Survey25 and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.26 Older workers are



25
 Current Population Survey, 2001, conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics. Washington: Bureau of the Census, 2001.
26
 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 2002 Displaced Worker Supplement to the
Current Population Survey.



Page 26                                                     GAO-03-350 Older Workers
approximately 50 percent more likely than younger workers to work part
time (see table 5).

Table 5: Part-time Workers by Age

                                                                                                   Percentage of
                                         Total labor                            Part-time              part-time
Age                                            force                             workers                Workers
16-54                                   122,934,000                            19,915,000                     16
55+                                      18,881,000                             4,575,000                     24
Source: 2001 Current Population Survey.

Note: Labor force includes both employed and unemployed workers. The part-time category includes
people with part-time jobs or are unemployed looking for part-time jobs.


The Bureau of Labor Statistics data also show older workers who are laid
off are less likely than younger workers to become re-employed.
Furthermore, these data show that these older workers are more likely to
be re-employed part-time (see fig. 6).

Figure 6: Employment Status by Age of Workers Displaced from Full-Time Jobs
between January 1999 and December 2001

100     Percent

 90

 80

 70

 60

 50

 40

 30

 20

 10

  0

        Total                     Re-employed and
        Re-employed               working part-time

                   Workers aged 20-54

                   Workers aged 55 and over

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data from the Displaced Worker Supplement.




Page 27                                                                                  GAO-03-350 Older Workers
              Older workers who were laid off from full-time jobs between January
              1999 and December 2001 also tended to experience a slightly greater loss
              of earnings than younger workers upon re-employment.27 Specifically,
              older workers replaced 89 percent of their previous median weekly
              earnings on average, versus 92 percent for younger workers (see table 6).
              These figures understate the impact of job loss on the income of older
              workers because they only pertain to full-time work and older workers are
              less likely to work full time when they are re-employed.

              Table 6: Earnings Loss by Age of Workers Displaced from Full-Time Jobs between
              January 1999 and December 2001

                                                Employed full-time
                                                          Median weekly                  Replacement rate
                                      Median weekly           earnings on                   (percentage of
               Age               earnings on lost job           current job           earnings on lost job)
               25-54                            $643                  $593                               92
               55-64                            $710                  $630                               89
              Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, unpublished data from the Displaced Worker Supplement.



              According to some economists, the United States will face a significant
Conclusions   labor shortage by 2030. As the population ages, older workers could
              become crucial in filling this projected shortage. Many older workers have
              difficulty re-entering the workforce, and often rely on federal employment
              and training programs to help them find employment. Others need these
              programs to help them upgrade some skills, particularly computer skills,
              so they can enter or remain in a workplace that is becoming increasingly
              reliant on information technology.

              Research findings have been inconsistent as to whether older workers
              need special services to help them find or retain employment and
              employment and training providers have taken different approaches to
              providing services to older workers. Under WIA, older workers are likely
              to be integrated with younger workers when receiving employment and
              training services through the one-stop centers rather than receive these
              services through separate targeted programs. While performance
              measures are not necessarily a problem, the way that some of WIA’s
              performance measures are constructed has created perverse incentives for


              27
               For additional information see Louis Jacobson, et al, The Costs of Worker Dislocation
              (Kalamazoo: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1993).




              Page 28                                                            GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                     program administrators to exclude some older workers from receiving
                     more in-depth WIA services, such as training for a particular occupation or
                     upgrading computer skills. Consequently, some older workers, and any
                     other workers who share similar employment characteristics with older
                     workers, may not receive the more in-depth services that may be
                     necessary to help ensure that these workers are provided adequate
                     opportunities to fill the anticipated labor shortage and meet employer
                     needs.


                     In light of concerns that older workers have unique employment
Recommendation for   characteristics that could adversely affect certain program outcomes and
Executive Action     that older workers who need in-depth job search assistance and job
                     training to remain in, or re-enter, the workforce may not receive such
                     services, we recommend that the Secretary of Labor assess WIA
                     performance measures and make adjustments as necessary to eliminate
                     the disincentive to enrolling older workers in WIA.


                     We provided a draft of this report to Labor for review and comment. Labor
Agency Comments      noted that it found our draft to be both informative and interesting
and Our Evaluation   because the Department has a strong interest in the aging of the American
                     workforce and recognizes that the increasing numbers of older people will
                     require changes in the way older workers are thought of and treated by the
                     employer community. Labor generally agreed with our recommendation
                     and identified steps that it is taking to address it. Labor also provided
                     technical comments that we incorporated where appropriate. Labor’s
                     entire comments are reproduced in appendix V.

                     Although Labor acknowledged that our conclusion that some performance
                     measures may provide a disincentive to enrolling older workers in WIA
                     programs may be correct, Labor believes that such a conclusion may be
                     premature and noted that it is based on a limited number of comments
                     from project operators and Workforce Investment Boards. While we agree
                     that our conclusion is based on a limited number of survey responses and
                     interviews, we also believe that such comments raise a warning flag to
                     what could be a pervasive problem, and as such, should be taken into
                     consideration. Regarding our recommendation that Labor assess WIA
                     performance measures and make necessary adjustments to eliminate
                     disincentives to enrolling older workers in WIA programs, Labor generally
                     agreed, pointing out that as it assesses WIA performance measures it will
                     identify and eliminate factors that discourage participation of any group.
                     Labor also noted that it is preparing a report for the Senate Appropriations


                     Page 29                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education that
addresses some of the same issues covered by our report. Finally, Labor
noted that it has formed a task force to review services to older workers
and to identify policies to help meet the needs of this group.


We will send copies of this report to the Honorable Elaine L. Chao,
Secretary of Labor; relevant congressional committees; and other
interested parties. Copies will be made available to others upon request. In
addition, the report will be available at no charge on the GAO Web site at
http://www.gao.gov. Please contact me on (202) 512-7215 if you or your
staff have any questions about this report. Other major contributors to this
report are listed in appendix VI.

Sincerely yours,




Sigurd R. Nilsen
Director, Education, Workforce,
  and Income Security




Page 30                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
              Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and

Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
              Methodology



Methodology

              We were asked to determine (1) to what extent people aged 55 and over
              are enrolled in federal employment and training programs and what
              services they receive, (2) how employment and training services are
              provided to older workers, and (3) how performance measures may have
              affected services for older workers. In our review of federal employment
              and training programs we focused on three programs funded by the
              Department of Labor (Labor): SCSEP because it is the only Labor program
              that serves exclusively older workers; WIA because it is the largest
              program in terms of funding for employment and training services and
              because its predecessor program, JTPA, required states to set aside funds
              to provide employment and training services specifically for older
              *workers; and TAA because Labor officials told us the program serves
              many older workers laid off from mature manufacturing industries such as
              steel making and textiles.

              To conduct our review we visited 10 local areas in 5 states, meeting with
              both local and state officials. We surveyed state officials responsible for
              the WIA, SCSEP, and TAA programs in all 50 states, the District of
              Columbia, and Puerto Rico. We also surveyed officials from all 595 local
              Workforce Investment Boards nationally. We conducted phone interviews
              with the ten national SCSEP grantees and interviewed officials from Labor
              and from research and advocacy organizations such as AARP, Urban
              Institute, and National Association of State Units on Aging. We obtained
              and analyzed service and outcome data from Labor on the WIA and SCSEP
              programs. Although we did not independently verify the data from the
              Department of Labor we did review and take into consideration Labor’s
              documents describing the quality of the WIA data. Finally, we reviewed
              research studies on older workers’ employment and training needs.


Site Visits   We selected five states for site visits according to several criteria,
              including the proportion of the population that was aged 55 and older and
              the amount of funds received for administering SCSEP and the WIA Adult
              and Dislocated Worker programs (see table 7). We also chose some states
              because we knew they had special programs or policies regarding older
              workers as well as to ensure geographic diversity. In each state, we
              interviewed officials responsible for administering the state’s WIA and
              SCSEP programs. In some states, we also met with officials responsible
              for the TAA program.




              Page 31                                            GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                                           Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
                                           Methodology




Table 7: Proportion of Population Aged 55 and Older and Funds Received for SCSEP and WIA Adult and Dislocated Worker
Programs for Selected States

                                      Proportion of                                  WIA Adult, WIA Dislocated
                                        population                                   Worker, and SCSEP Funds
 State                                   55+ (2000)                  Rank                 (Program Year 2000)                Rank
 Arizona                                     21.6%                     26                          $32,906,236                 25
 California                                    18.3                    47                          495,357,738                  1
 Florida                                       27.3                     1                          105,684,671                  5
 Massachusetts                                 22.2                    17                           35,418,614                 20
 Pennsylvania                                  24.8                     3                           95,409,899                  6
                                           Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Department of Labor.


                                           Within each state we judgmentally selected two local workforce areas to
                                           visit—one urban and one rural area (see table 8). In each location, we
                                           interviewed officials representing the WIA program and officials from at
                                           least one local SCSEP program. The local SCSEP programs we met with
                                           received funds from state SCSEP grantees and from several of the national
                                           SCSEP grantees. In addition, in some local areas we visited one-stop
                                           centers, met with organizations that promote local business development,
                                           and observed job-training programs designed for older workers. Finally,
                                           while in California we met with Experience Works, a SCSEP national
                                           grantee that received WIA funds to operate a computer-training program
                                           targeted to older workers.


Table 8: Local Areas Selected for Site Visits

 State            Local area                     City                    Funding source for local SCSEP program(s)
 Arizona          Maricopa County                Peoria (suburban        Arizona, National Council on the Aging, Inc.
                                                 Phoenix)
                  Navajo County                  Show Low                National Council on the Aging, Inc.
 California       Silicon Valley                 San Jose                California
                  Stanislaus County              Modesto                 California, National Senior Citizens’ Education and
                                                                         Research Center
 Florida          Chipola                        Marianna                Florida
                  Suncoast                       Sarasota                AARP Foundation
 Massachusetts    Boston                         Boston                  National Senior Citizens’ Education and Research Center
                  Franklin/Hampshire Counties    Greenfield              Massachusetts, National Senior Citizens’ Education and
                                                                         Research Center
 Pennsylvania     Central Pennsylvania           Lewisburg               Pennsylvania, Experience Works
                  Luzerne/Schuylkill Counties    Wilkes-Barre            Pennsylvania
                                           Source: GAO analysis




                                           Page 32                                                      GAO-03-350 Older Workers
          Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
          Methodology




Surveys   We distributed three surveys to the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and
          Puerto Rico, focusing on services to older workers during program year
          2000 (July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001). One survey was designed to obtain
          information on how states used SCSEP funds, including their use of these
          funds for training, whether they imposed time limits on host agency
          assignments, and how they used 502(e) funds. We received 50 responses to
          this survey (96 percent). Rhode Island did not return the SCSEP survey,
          and Florida was unable to return the survey because it did not centrally
          administer its SCSEP funds during program year 2000. A second survey
          was designed to obtain information on how states used WIA funds to serve
          older workers, including the number of older workers served, what
          services they received, and whether and how states used their statewide
          activities funds specifically for older workers. We received 49 responses to
          this survey (94 percent). Connecticut, Delaware, and South Dakota did not
          return the WIA survey. Our third survey was designed to obtain
          information on how states used TAA funds to serve older workers,
          including how many older workers were served and what services they
          received. We received 48 responses to this survey (94 percent). Michigan,
          Missouri, and South Dakota did not return the TAA survey, and Puerto
          Rico did not have a TAA program.

          We also distributed a survey to all 595 local Workforce Investment Boards
          nationally to obtain information on how local workforce areas delivered
          services to older workers during program year 2000. This survey covered
          topics including special services available to older workers in the one-stop
          centers, the colocation of SCSEP staff in the one-stop centers, and the
          impact of the loss of older worker set-aside funds on services to older
          workers. We received 470 responses to the survey (79 percent).

          Finally, we conducted telephone interviews and a mail survey to obtain
          information from the ten national SCSEP grantees on their services to
          older workers during program year 2000. The telephone interviews with all
          ten national grantees covered topics such as how job search and training
          services were delivered, the use of 502(e) funds, and coordination with
          WIA. All 10 national grantees returned the mail survey, which included
          quantitative questions on services provided and the use of 502(e) funds.




          Page 33                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                                         Appendix II: SCSEP National Grantee
Appendix II: SCSEP National Grantee      Activity in Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to
                                         June 30, 2001)


Activity in Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to
June 30, 2001)
Table 9: SCSEP National Grantee Activity in Program Year 2000

                                                                                                                  Number of states in
                                                                                                                                    b
National grantee                                             Expenditures           Participants served       which grantee operated
AARP Foundation                                               $52,814,971                        15,253                            32
Asociacion Nacional Pro Personas Mayores                       13,372,006                         2,556                            11
(ANPPM)
Experience Works (EW)                                          109,547,345                        29,416                                  45
National Center and Caucus on Black Aged, Inc.                  13,048,388                         2,672                                  11
(NCBA)
National Council on the Aging (NCOA)                            39,314,754                         8,524                                  19
National Senior Citizens Education and Research                 65,325,900                        15,156                                  28
                        a
Center, Inc. (NSCERC)
National Urban League (NUL)                                     15,328,944                         3,504                                  16
United States Forest Service (USFS)                             27,394,144                         5,563                                  42
National Indian Council on Aging, Inc. (NICOA)                   6,077,530                         1,415                                  15
National Asian Pacific Center on Aging (NAPCA)                   6,037,991                         1,326                                   8
                                         Source: The source for participants served and number of states in which grantees operated was
                                         Labor. The source for expenditures was our survey of the national grantees.
                                         a
                                          Name has since been changed to Senior Service America (SSA).
                                         b
                                          States include District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.




                                         Page 34                                                            GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                                        Appendix III: SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e)
Appendix III: SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e)
                                        Funds in Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to
                                        June 30, 2001)


Funds in Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to
June 30, 2001)
                                        According to our surveys, eight national grantees and 22 state grantees
                                        used 502(e) funds during program year 2000 to place older workers in and
                                        train them for private sector employment. Grantees can operate 502(e)
                                        projects through two funding mechanisms: they can apply for funds from a
                                        national pool of competitively awarded 502(e) funds, and they can choose
                                        to use a portion of their regular formula funds to sponsor 502(e) projects.

Table 10: SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e) Funds in Program Year 2000

                                                                         Services provided
                                                                               Occupational skills training
                   502(e)              Subsidized
                    funds    Number employment/on-          Job search         Classroom        Customized      Remedial
Grantee        expendeda      served the-job training       assistance          training         training        training
AARP             $391,120       1,162       X
EW              1,389,899       9,667       X                    X                    X              X
NCBA               40,879           68      X                    X                                   X
NCOA            1,601,082       1,574       X                                         X              X
          b
NSCERC            523,164         610       X                    X                    X              X
USFS               88,362           48      X                    X                    X              X              X
NICOA              28,477           14      X                                         X
NAPCA              73,460           44      X                    X
Arizona            25,359           15      X
California         24,208           25      X                    X                    X              X              X
Delaware           52,228           43      X                    X
Georgia            40,510           66      X                    X                    X              X              X
Kansas            140,000         101       X                    X                                   X
Louisiana          38,836           21      X                                                        X
Michigan             6,000           3      X
Minnesota            4,296         Not      X                                         X              X
                             available
Montana            42,245           75                           X                    X              X              X
New                 4,100            5      X                    X                                   X
Hampshire
New Mexico         52,960           7             X              X                    X              X
New York           65,573          89             X              X                    X
North              57,912          43             X              X                    X              X              X
Carolina
Ohio              336,570         216             X              X                    X
Oregon             30,519          18             X              X
Pennsylvania       99,777         110             X              X                    X
South              14,217           9             X              X                    X
Carolina
South Dakota        2,469          27             X              X                    X                             X
Utah               76,000         175             X              X                    X              X              X
Vermont            99,200          60             X              X                    X              X




                                        Page 35                                                   GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                                    Appendix III: SCSEP Grantees’ Use of 502(e)
                                    Funds in Program Year 2000 (July 1, 2000 to
                                    June 30, 2001)




                                                                         Services provided
                                                                               Occupational skills training
                502(e)              Subsidized
                 funds    Number employment/on-           Job search           Classroom               Customized     Remedial
Grantee     expendeda      served the-job training        assistance            training                training       training
Virginia            Not         6        X                     X                                            X
              available
Wisconsin       19,637         23             X
                                    Source: Surveys of state and national SCSEP grantees.
                                    a
                                    Includes competitively awarded and regular formula 502(e) funds.
                                    b
                                    Name has since been changed to Senior Service America (SSA).




                                    Page 36                                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                    Appendix IV: WIA Earnings Change and
Appendix IV: WIA Earnings Change and
                    Earnings Replacement Rate Performance
                    Measure Calculations


Earnings Replacement Rate Performance
Measure Calculations
                    Measure 3: Adult Average Earnings Change in Six Months
Adult Measure
                    Of those who are employed in the first quarter after exit:

                    Total post-program earnings (earnings in quarter 2 + quarter 3 after exit)
                    minus pre-program earnings (earnings in quarter 2 + quarter 3 prior to
                    registration) divided by the number of adults who exit during the quarter.


                    Measure 7: Dislocated Worker Earnings Replacement Rate in Six Months
Dislocated Worker
Measure             Of those who are employed in the first quarter after exit:

                    Total post-program earnings (earnings in quarter 2 + quarter 3 after exit)
                    divided by the pre-dislocation earnings (earnings in quarters 2 + quarter 3
                    prior to dislocation)



                    Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training
                    Administration, Training and Employment Guidance Letter No. 7-99 on
                    Core and Customer Satisfaction Performance Measures for the Workforce
                    Investment System, March 3, 2000, pp. 11 & 13-14.




                    Page 37                                             GAO-03-350 Older Workers
             Appendix V: Comments from the Department

Appendix V: Comments from the Department
             of Labor



of Labor




             Page 38                                    GAO-03-350 Older Workers
Appendix V: Comments from the Department
of Labor




Page 39                                    GAO-03-350 Older Workers
                  Appendix VI: GAO Contacts and Staff
Appendix VI: GAO Contacts and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Joan Mahagan (617) 565-7532
GAO Contacts      Wayne Sylvia (617) 565-7492


                  Melissa Emrey-Arras, Laura Greene, and Lorin Obler made significant
Staff             contributions to this report, in all aspects of the work throughout the
Acknowledgments   assignment. In addition, Michael Coullahan conducted the information
                  gathering segment for the SCSEP national grantees, Arthur Merriam and
                  Joseph Evans contributed to the initial design of the assignment, Shana
                  Wallace and Stuart Kaufman assisted in the design of the four national
                  surveys, Carolyn Boyce conducted the data analysis for one of these
                  surveys, Roger Thomas provided legal support, and Corinna Nicolaou
                  assisted in the message and report development.




                  Page 40                                           GAO-03-350 Older Workers
             Related GAO Products
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             Workforce Investment Act: States’ Spending Is on Track, but Better
             Guidance Would Improve Financial Reporting. GAO-03-239. Washington,
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             Workforce Investment Act: States and Localities Increasingly Coordinate
             Services for TANF Clients, but Better Information Needed on Effective
             Approaches. GAO-02-696. Washington, D.C.: July 3, 2002.

             Workforce Investment Act: Coordination of TANF through One-Stops Has
             Increased Despite Challenges. GAO-02-739T. Washington, D.C.: May 16,
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             Workforce Investment Act: Youth Provisions Promote New Service
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             Workforce Investment Act: Coordination between TANF Programs and
             One-Stop Centers Is Increasing, but Challenges Remain. GAO-02-500T.
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             Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance and Revised Funding
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             Workforce Investment Act: Improvements Needed in Performance
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             GAO-02-275. Washington, D.C.: February 1, 2002.

             Older Workers: Demographic Trends Pose Challenges for Employers and
             Workers. GAO-02-85. Washington, D.C.: November 16, 2001.

             Workforce Investment Act: New Requirements Create Need for More
             Guidance. GAO-02-94T. Washington, D.C.: October 4, 2001.

             Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance Needed to Address Concerns
             Over New Requirements. GAO-02-72. Washington, D.C.: October 4, 2001.

             Trade Adjustment Assistance: Trends, Outcomes, and Management
             Issues in Dislocated Worker Programs. GAO-01-159. Washington, D.C.:
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             Page 41                                          GAO-03-350 Older Workers
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(130101)
           Page 42                                        GAO-03-350 Older Workers
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