Electronic Government: Success of the Office of Management and Budget's 25 Initiatives Depends on Effective Management and Oversight

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-03-13.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                            United States General Accounting Office

GAO                         Testimony
                            Before the Subcommittee on Technology,
                            Information Policy, Intergovernmental
                            Relations and the Census, Committee on
                            Government Reform, House of Representatives
For Release on Delivery
Expected at 2:00 p.m. EST
Thursday, March 13, 2003    ELECTRONIC
                            Success of the Office of
                            Management and Budget's
                            25 Initiatives Depends on
                            Effective Management and
                            Statement of Joel C. Willemssen,
                            Managing Director, Information Technology Issues

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                                                March 13, 2003

                                                ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT

                                                Success of the Office of Management and
Highlights of GAO-03-495T, a testimony          Budget’s 25 Initiatives Depends on
before the Subcommittee on Technology,
Information Policy, Intergovernmental           Effective Management and Oversight
Relations and the Census, Committee on
Government Reform, House of

A key element of the President’s                E-government offers many opportunities to better serve the public, make
Management Agenda is the                        government more efficient and effective, and reduce costs. To achieve these
expansion of electronic                         goals, the 25 e-government initiatives selected by OMB’s Quicksilver task
government (e-government) to                    force focus on a wide variety of services, aiming to simplify and unify agency
enhance access to information and               work processes and information flows, provide one-stop services to citizens,
services, particularly through the
Internet. In response, the Office of
                                                and enable information to be collected on line once and reused, rather than
Management and Budget (OMB)                     being collected many times. For example, Recreation One-Stop is a Web
established a task force that                   portal for a single point of access to information about parks and other
selected a strategic set of initiatives         federal, state, and local recreation areas. Other initiatives are being pursued
to lead this expansion. GAO                     that do not necessarily rely on the Internet, such as the e-Payroll initiative to
previously reviewed the                         consolidate federal payroll systems.
completeness of the information
used for choosing and overseeing                GAO’s review of the initial planning documents for the initiatives highlights
these initiatives, including business           the critical importance of management and oversight to their success.
cases and funding plans.                        Important aspects—such as collaboration and customer focus—had not
                                                been addressed in early program plans for many of the projects, and major
                                                uncertainties in funding and milestones were not uncommon. As shown by
GAO is not making new                           GAO’s comparison of the content of the initiatives’ business cases with best
recommendations in this                         practices, all the business cases included key information, but many
testimony, but a recent report, on              elements were missing (see figure). In particular, fewer than half addressed
which this testimony is based,                  collaboration and customer focus, despite the importance of these topics to
recommended that the OMB                        e-government strategy and goals. Similarly, the accuracy of estimated costs
Director ensure that the managers               in the funding plans was questionable: between May and September 2002,
of the e-government initiatives                 these estimates for 12 of the initiatives changed significantly—by more than
solicit input from the public and               30 percent. Accurate cost, schedule, and performance information is
conduct user needs assessments,                 essential to ensure that projects are on schedule and achieve their goals.
work with partner agencies to
develop and document effective
collaboration strategies, and                   Best Practice Elements Included in 23 Business Cases
provide OMB with adequate cost,
schedule, and performance

                                                Note: GAO analysis of information provided by OMB. At the time of the review, two of the initiatives
To view the full testimony, click on the link
                                                were considered a single initiative, and a business case was not prepared for one other.
For more information, contact Joel
Willemssen at (202) 512-6222 or
Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee:

I appreciate the opportunity to participate in the Subcommittee’s hearing
on e-government progress. Now that the Internet has become such a
ubiquitous element of our lives, it is more important than ever that we take
full advantage of information technology (IT) to vastly improve the way
our government serves its citizens—and to do so much more efficiently
and economically.

Generally speaking, electronic government refers to the use of IT,
particularly Web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and
delivery of government information and service to citizens, to business
partners, to employees, and among agencies at all levels of government. A
variety of actions have been taken in recent years to enhance the
government’s ability to realize the potential of e-government, culminating
in the recent enactment of the E-Government Act of 2002,1 which includes
provisions addressing everything from funding of e-government initiatives
to measures for ensuring security and privacy.

The President has embraced e-government as one of five priorities
delineated in his management agenda for making the federal government
more focused on citizens and results. Under the leadership of the Office of
Management and Budget (OMB), a team known as the Quicksilver task
force identified a set of high-profile initiatives to lead the federal
government’s drive toward e-government transformation. These
initiatives—now numbering 252—have ambitious goals, including
eliminating redundant, nonintegrated business operations and systems;
achieving this result, according to OMB, could produce several billions of
dollars in savings from improved operational efficiency. To obtain such
savings—and significantly improve service to citizens—it will be critically
important that these initiatives are well managed as the government
undertakes the challenging task of turning good ideas into real-world

P. L. No. 107-347.
 Based on analysis by the Quicksilver task force, 23 initiatives were originally selected in
September 2001. A 24th, e-Payroll, was then added by the President’s Management Council.
In 2002, a decision was made to separate the e-Clearance initiative from the Integrated
Human Resources initiative, resulting in the current count of 25 projects.

Page 1                                                                       GAO-03-495T
             As requested, in my remarks today, I will summarize the results of a
             review we recently conducted to assess OMB’s process for selecting the e-
             government initiatives and monitoring their initial progress.3 I will focus
             on some of the key aspects of initiatives that must be closely monitored to
             ensure that they meet their goals. Specifically, after reviewing the overall
             scope and objectives of the initiatives, I will discuss issues concerning the
             completeness of the planning documents prepared for them, including
             initial business cases as well as work and funding plans developed last
             spring. To provide additional information, I have included an attachment
             that details the partner agencies and proposed performance metrics for
             each project. I have also included, as a second attachment, a list of other
             pertinent GAO publications on e-government issues.4

             Government agencies at all levels have already implemented a broad array
Background   of e-government applications: through the Internet, government agencies
             collect and disseminate information and forms; government and
             businesses order and pay for goods and services; and businesses and the
             public apply for licenses, grants, and benefits, and submit bids and
             proposals. Despite this substantial progress, the federal government has
             not yet taken full advantage of the potential that electronic government
             offers. As we have previously testified,5 the government faces significant
             challenges in this area, including sustaining executive leadership,
             protecting personal privacy, implementing appropriate security controls,
             using enterprise architectures6 effectively, and managing IT human capital.

              U.S. General Accounting Office, Electronic Government: Selection and Implementation of
             the Office of Management and Budget’s 24 Initiatives, GAO-03-229 (Washington, D.C.:
             Nov. 22, 2002).
             These publications can be obtained through GAO’s World Wide Web page at www.gao.gov.
              U.S. General Accounting Office, Electronic Government: Challenges Must Be Addressed
             With Effective Leadership and Management, GAO-01-959T (Washington, D.C.: July 11,
             2001); U.S. General Accounting Office, Electronic Government: OMB Leadership Critical
             to Making Needed Enterprise Architecture and E-government Progress, GAO-02-389T
             (Washington D.C.: March 21, 2002).
              Enterprise architectures are high-level blueprints for transforming how a given entity
             operates, whether it be a federal agency or a federal function that cuts across agencies. For
             more information see U.S. General Accounting Office, Information Technology: Enterprise
             Architecture Use Across the Federal Government Can Be Improved, GAO-02-6
             (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 19, 2002).

             Page 2                                                                        GAO-03-495T
Recognizing the magnitude of challenges facing the federal government,
the Congress has enacted important legislation to guide the development
of e-government. In 1998, the Government Paperwork Elimination Act
(GPEA) was enacted,7 establishing a requirement that by October 21, 2003,
federal agencies provide the public, when practicable, the option of
submitting, maintaining, and disclosing required information
electronically. More recently, the Congress passed the E-Government Act
of 2002, which includes provisions to promote the use of the Internet and
other information technologies to provide government services
electronically; strengthen agency information security; and define how to
manage the federal government’s growing IT human capital needs. In
addition, this act established an Office of Electronic Government within
OMB to provide strong central leadership and full-time commitment to
promoting and implementing e-government.

The executive branch has also acted to enhance and accelerate the
development of electronic government. The President made e-government
expansion one of five top priorities in his fiscal year 2002 management
agenda, which outlines a number of specific electronic government
projects. For example, the FirstGov Web portal—which is intended to
serve as a single consolidated source for government services to citizens—
was targeted for expansion and improvement to offer services better
organized according to citizens’ needs. Also targeted for enhancement was
the FedBizOpps portal, designed to be a single point of entry for
information about federal government procurement opportunities.
Further, the agenda endorsed the establishment of a federal public key
infrastructure to ensure that electronic transactions with and within the
federal government would be private and secure.8

A major element of the President’s management agenda was establishment
of the Quicksilver Task Force, which was charged with identifying
(1) systematic barriers that had blocked the deployment of e-government
advances and (2) electronic government projects that could deliver
significant productivity and performance gains across government.

P.L. No. 105-277, Div. C, tit. XVII.
 A public key infrastructure is a system of computers, software, policies, and people that
relies on certain cryptographic techniques to provide a suite of information security
assurances that are important in protecting sensitive communications and transactions.
For more information, see U.S. General Accounting Office, Information Security:
Advances and Remaining Challenges to Adoption of Public Key Infrastructure
Technology, GAO-01-277 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 26, 2001).

Page 3                                                                        GAO-03-495T
                            Together, the federal government’s e-government initiatives are expected

                        •   provide high-quality customer services regardless of whether the citizen
                            contacts the agency by phone, in person, or on the Web;

                        •   reduce the expense and difficulty of doing business with the government;

                        •   cut government operating costs;

                        •   provide citizens with readier access to government services;

                        •   increase access for persons with disabilities to agency Web sites and E-
                            government applications; and

                        •   make government more transparent and accountable.

                            In its e-government strategy, released in 2002, OMB stated that the 25 e-
The 25 E-Government         government initiatives were selected on the basis of (1) value to citizens,
Initiatives Address a       (2) potential improvement in agency efficiency, and (3) likelihood of
                            deploying within 18 to 24 months. The selected initiatives would achieve
Broad Range of              their results by simplifying and unifying agency work processes and
Electronic Services         information flows, providing one-stop services to citizens, and enabling
                            information to be collected on line once and reused, rather than being
                            collected many times.

                            The initiatives are aimed at providing a wide variety of services. For
                            example, some are focused on setting up Web sites or portals that channel
                            information more effectively to citizens, businesses, or other government
                            entities. Recreation One-Stop is one such example, a Web portal for a
                            single point of access to information about parks and other recreation
                            venues at the federal, state, and local levels. One-Stop Business
                            Compliance provides an analogous service to businesses, giving them a
                            single Web site to consult regarding the multitude of government
                            regulations that may affect their activities. Other initiatives strive for more
                            ambitious services that may not necessarily rely on the Internet for
                            delivery. SAFECOM, for example, seeks to impose order and standards on
                            wireless communications among emergency responders across all levels
                            of government. The e-Payroll initiative is intended to consolidate the
                            federal government’s many incompatible payroll systems into just two that
                            would service all government employees.

                            Page 4                                                            GAO-03-495T
As shown in figure 1, OMB has divided these efforts into five broad
categories that reflect the different customer groups targeted by each of
the initiatives:

1. government to individual citizens,

2. government to business,

3. government to government,

4. internal efficiency and effectiveness, and

5. cross cutting.

Page 5                                                          GAO-03-495T
Figure 1: E-government Initiatives by Category

                                         Note: GAO analysis of information provided by OMB.

                                     •   Government to individual citizens. One of the major benefits of on-line
                                         and Internet-based services is that they provide opportunities for greater
                                         citizen access to and interaction with the federal government. An example
                                         is GovBenefits.gov, a Web site designed to assist users in locating and
                                         determining potential eligibility for government benefits and services.
                                         Other initiatives in this category aim to improve customer service. USA
                                         Services, for example, is intended to deploy tools, such as call centers and
                                         coordinated E-mail systems linked to the FirstGov Web site, that will
                                         enable citizens to ask questions and receive responses from the federal
                                         government without having to know in advance which specific
                                         departments or bureaus have responsibilities related to their areas of

                                         Page 6                                                          GAO-03-495T
•   Government to business. Initiatives in this category seek to reduce the
    reporting burden on businesses by adopting processes that eliminate
    redundant data collection, provide one-stop access to information, and
    enable communication using electronic business standards, such as the
    Extensible Markup Language.9 The Expanding Electronic Tax Products for
    Businesses initiative, for example, seeks to reduce the number of tax-
    related forms businesses must file. The Federal Asset Sales initiative aims
    to create a single electronic interface for businesses to find and buy
    government assets.

•   Government to government. The primary goal of these initiatives is to
    enable federal, state, and local governments to more easily work together
    to better serve citizens within key lines of business. For example,
    Geospatial One-Stop seeks to provide a single portal for accessing
    standardized and coordinated federal, state, and local geospatial data. The
    Disaster Management initiative seeks to provide federal, state, and local
    emergency managers on-line access to disaster management information,
    planning, and response tools.

•   Internal efficiency and effectiveness. The initiatives in this category seek
    to improve the performance and reduce the costs of federal government
    administration by using e-business best practices. For example, the
    Integrated Acquisition Environment initiative seeks to consolidate
    business processes and information to facilitate cost-effective acquisition
    of goods and services across the federal government. Lastly, e-Travel is
    planned to streamline the administration of government travel by creating
    a governmentwide Web-based travel management process.

•   Cross-cutting initiative. The e-Authentication initiative is to develop
    common interoperable authentication techniques to support all the other
    initiatives. Authentication refers to the critical process of confirming the
    identity of the participants in an electronic transaction. Without a means
    to satisfactorily establish identities, e-government transactions are too
    risky, and the potential of e-government to transform citizen services
    remains severely constrained. The initiative plans to provide
    authentication services through an electronic “gateway,” which will offer
    different assurance levels to meet the varying needs of the other projects.

    For additional information about Extensible Markup Language, see U.S. General
    Accounting Office, Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the
    Extensible Markup Language, GAO-02-327 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 5, 2002).

    Page 7                                                                    GAO-03-495T
                         While several of the projects have already achieved tangible results, not all
Management Issues        of them are making the same degree of progress. For example, some have
Highlight the Need for   had major management changes—management of the SAFECOM
                         initiative, for example, was transferred from Treasury to the Federal
Oversight                Emergency Management Agency. Major management changes such as this
                         have led to delays in project milestones and changes in objectives.

                         We believe that fluctuations such as these indicate a need for oversight to
                         ensure that the larger goal—to realize the full potential of e-government—
                         is not jeopardized. When we reviewed project-planning documentation
                         collected by OMB from each of the initiatives, we found indications that
                         important aspects of some of the initiatives had not been addressed and
                         that, for many of them, funding strategies and milestones were in a state of
                         flux. These findings add urgency to our concern that the initiatives be
                         carefully monitored to ensure that implementation challenges are
                         identified and addressed as quickly as possible. I would like to go through
                         some of the specific results of our analysis now.

Many Initial Business    As part of OMB’s selection process, the Quicksilver task force screened
Cases Omitted Critical   over 350 project ideas during the summer of 2001 and selected 34 potential
Elements                 project proposals for more in-depth consideration. In September 2001,
                         task force members developed brief (or “mini”) business cases for each of
                         the 34 proposals. According to OMB officials, these mini business cases
                         were to include all the information necessary to enable sound selection
                         decisions. The task force reviewed the mini business cases and the final
                         selections were made in October.

                         We analyzed the mini business cases, which were prepared for 23 of the 25
                         initiatives,10 to determine whether they were complete. To conduct our
                         analysis, we first identified e-government business case “best practices” as
                         cited by federal agencies, private sector and academic researchers, and
                         state and local governments. From these sources, we compiled the most
                         frequently cited elements of a complete business case, such as a
                         description of the proposed concept for improved future processes and a
                         discussion of the benefits of implementing it. We also included elements
                         identified by OMB as important to e-government business cases—whether

                           At the time we conducted our review, there were only 24 Quicksilver initiatives, and an
                         initial business case had not been prepared for the e-Payroll initiative.

                         Page 8                                                                       GAO-03-495T
an initiative is driven by identified customer needs and whether it contains
a strategy for successful collaboration.

As shown in figure 2, our analysis of the mini business cases showed that
although they addressed some of the required elements, the majority of
them did not include some key elements identified by OMB and best
practice guidance.

Figure 2: Completeness of 23 Initial Business Cases

Note: GAO analysis of information provided by OMB. At the time of the review, Integrated HR and e-
Clearance were considered a single initiative, and a business case was not prepared for e-Payroll.

All the business cases we reviewed included a discussion of the expected
benefits of the proposed initiative, and all but one included a discussion of
the initiatives’ objectives and planned future conditions. However, only 9
of the 23 initiatives’ business cases discussed how customer needs were to
be identified and addressed, and only 8 addressed collaboration among
agencies and other government entities, even though OMB considered
these elements fundamental to its e-government strategy.

Mr. Chairman, addressing how a proposed project links to the needs of its
potential customers is key to the success of that project, and should be
discussed in the project’s business case. Without a plan to assess users’
needs, there is a greater risk that the project will focus too heavily on
issues that customers do not consider important or disrupt processes that
are already working well and accepted by users. In the case of the e-
government initiatives, the result could be that the Internet sites and

Page 9                                                                             GAO-03-495T
                            services created might not be useful to those customers they are intended
                            to serve.

                            Collaboration across agencies and other organizations is likewise a key
                            component of most of the initiatives, and therefore a discussion of
                            strategies for collaboration is essential to a complete e-government
                            business case. As the government attempts to integrate services across
                            organizations—particularly in cases where federal agencies overlap in
                            providing similar services to customers—the issue of how agencies
                            collaborate can determine an initiative’s success or failure. To help
                            mitigate the risk of failure, the business case needs to provide a
                            convincing argument that collaboration can be accomplished and a plan
                            for how collaboration will be carried out.

                            Let me point out that the initial “mini” business cases that we reviewed are
                            not the latest ones in existence for the 25 initiatives. More extensive
                            business cases were developed for each of the projects in fall 2002, in
                            conjunction with the fiscal year 2004 budget process. We have not yet had
                            an opportunity to review these documents.

Spring 2002 Project Plans   OMB required the managing partners of the e-government initiatives to
Revealed Cost and           prepare and submit work plans and funding plans in May 2002. We
Schedule Uncertainties      assessed the completeness of these plans, which provided the most up-to-
                            date cost and schedule information available at the time of our review.11 To
                            conduct our analysis, we identified best practices from GAO and OMB
                            guidance12 for the effective oversight and implementation of IT projects
                            and compared those best practice elements to the information contained
                            in the May 2002 plans. In addition, several months later, we obtained
                            updated status information from 23 of the initiatives’ project managers.

                            According to the guidance we reviewed, project implementation
                            documents should include components such as cost estimates, a schedule

                             At the time of our review, there were only 24 e-government initiatives; we reviewed the
                            work and funding plans for each of them.
                              This guidance included Information Technology Investment Management: A Framework
                            for Assessing and Improving Process Maturity (exposure draft) (GAO/AIMD-00-10.1.23);
                            Executive Guide: Leading Practices in Executive Decision-Making (GAO/AIMD-99-32);
                            and OMB Circular A-130, Management of Federal Information Resources.

                            Page 10                                                                     GAO-03-495T
with milestones, identification of project deliverables, and an overall
strategy for obtaining needed funding and staff resources.

As shown in figure 3, four of the five best practice elements we identified
were included in a majority of the project plans. Plans for all but two of
the initiatives contained a schedule with milestones, and all the plans
identified project deliverables. However, other best practice elements
were not included in some of the plans. For example, only 9 identified a
strategy for obtaining needed funds, and only 16 contained information
about how staffing commitments would be obtained.

Figure 3: Completeness of Work and Funding Plans

Note: GAO analysis of information provided by OMB.

In addition to the findings shown in figure 3, our analysis of the plans
showed uncertainties about milestones for many of the initiatives. Ten of
the 24 did not identify a final completion date for the initiatives, resulting
in inadequate information to determine whether they were moving
forward in a timely manner. Further, 6 of the initiatives were not planned
to be completed within the 18 to 24 month time frame originally
established by OMB as a criterion for inclusion in its e-government effort.

Accurate cost information was also generally lacking. The updated
information we obtained from project managers in September 2002 on
estimated costs revealed significant changes—changes of more than 30
percent—for about half of the initiatives. These changes, occurring within
such a short period of time, rendered the funding plans outdated soon
after they were developed. This uncertainty about how much the
initiatives would cost, combined with the fact that only 9 of the 24 plans
identified a strategy for obtaining these needed funds, led us to conclude

Page 11                                                            GAO-03-495T
    that OMB was not receiving adequate information to properly oversee the
    e-government projects and ensure that they would have the resources to
    meet their objectives efficiently and economically.

    Given the challenges we’ve identified, OMB’s oversight role takes on
    critical importance. Each of the e-government initiatives needs a well-
    thought-out strategy for directly addressing its biggest challenges, such as
    getting relevant government agencies to effectively collaborate. And each
    also needs detailed and stable project plans, so that they can be held
    accountable for achieving realistic results within budget and according to
    schedule. Accordingly, in our report, we recommended that OMB take
    steps as overseer of the e-government initiatives to reduce the risk that the
    projects would not meet their objectives. Specifically, we recommended
    that OMB ensure that the managing partners for all the initiatives

•   focus on customers by soliciting input from the public and conducting
    user needs assessments,

•   work with partner agencies to develop and document effective
    collaboration strategies, and

•   provide OMB with adequate information to monitor the cost, schedule,
    and performance of the e-government initiatives.

    In following up on our recommendations, we requested from OMB
    updated business cases that were submitted as part of the fiscal year 2004
    budget process. These updated business cases should provide not only
    indications of whether key topics such as collaboration and customer
    focus are now being addressed, but also updated cost and schedule
    information. As noted in our report, OMB agreed to provide us this
    information once it was updated after release of the 2004 budget.13
    However, we have not yet received this information. OMB officials (from
    the Office of General Counsel and the Office of Information and
    Regulatory Affairs) stated earlier this week that the business cases still
    needed to be reviewed before they could be released to us.

    In summary, e-government offers many opportunities to better serve the
    public, make government more efficient and effective, and reduce costs.
    Legislation such as GPEA and the E-Government Act of 2002 have laid a

     GAO-03-229, p. 33.

    Page 12                                                          GAO-03-495T
                   strong foundation for building on these opportunities, and the federal
                   government continues to make strides in taking advantage of them.
                   Overall, few can argue that the 25 e-government projects are not worthy
                   initiatives with commendable objectives. Nevertheless, many critical
                   details remain to be fully addressed before the promise of e-government is
                   fully realized.

                   Because the 25 projects represent such a broad range of activities, it is
                   difficult to gauge their progress collectively. Some of their objectives may
                   be much easier to attain than others. However, our review of the initial
                   planning documents associated with the projects led us to conclude that
                   important aspects—such as collaboration and customer focus—had not
                   been thought out for all the projects, and major uncertainties in funding
                   and milestones were not uncommon. Priority should now be given to
                   ensuring that the agencies managing these initiatives tackle these issues
                   and gain cost and schedule stability so that they can ultimately succeed in
                   achieving their potential. We believe that careful oversight—on the part of
                   OMB as well as the Congress—is crucial to ensuring this success.

                   Mr. Chairman, this concludes my statement. I would be pleased to answer
                   any questions that you or other members of the subcommittee may have at
                   this time.

                   If you should have any questions about this testimony, please contact me
Contact and        at (202) 512-6222 or via E-mail at willemssenj@gao.gov. Other major
Acknowledgements   contributors to this testimony included Shannin Addison, Barbara Collier,
                   Felipe Colón, Jr., John de Ferrari, Neha Harnal, and Elizabeth Roach.

                   Page 13                                                         GAO-03-495T
Attachment I. E-Government Initiatives

                                                     Managing                             OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name       Description             partner     Federal partners         performance metrics
G2C    Recreation One-Stop   Provides citizens       Interior    Bureau of Land           • Number of partners
       www.recreation.gov    with a single point                 Management, Bureau of      sharing data via
       www.volunteer.gov/    of access to a Web-                 Reclamation, Federal       Recreation.gov (target:
       gov                   based resource,                     Highway Administration,    35 partners added)
                             offering information                National Oceanic and     • Number of facilities listed
                             and access to                       Atmospheric                in Recreation.gov
                             government                          Administration, National   (target: 25% increase)
                             recreational sites in               Park Service,            • Number of on-line
                             a user-friendly                     Smithsonian Institution,   reservations
                             format.                             Tennessee Valley         • Customer satisfaction
                                                                 Authority, Fish and
                                                                 Wildlife Service, Forest
                                                                 Service, Army Corps of
                                                                 Engineers, Geological
G2C    GovBenefits.gov       Provides a single       Labor       Departments of           • Hits to site per month
       www.govbenefits.gov   point of access for                 Agriculture, Education,    (target: 350,000)
                             citizens to locate                  Energy, Health and       • Number of referrals to
                             and determine                       Human Services,            partner benefit sites
                             potential eligibility               Housing and Urban          (target: 10% increase)
                             for government                      Development, Justice,    • Average time to find
                             benefits and                        State, and Veterans        benefits and determine
                             services.                           Affairs; Christopher       eligibility (target: 20
                                                                 Columbus Fellowship        minutes or less)
                                                                 Foundation; Federal
                                                                 Emergency Management
                                                                 Agency, Railroad
                                                                 Retirement Board, Social
                                                                 Security Administration
G2C    Online Access for     Creates a single        Education   Departments of           • Number of clicks to
       Loans                 point of access for                 Agriculture, Housing and   access relevant loan
                             citizens to locate                  Urban Development, and     information
                             loans.                              Veterans Affairs; Small  • Improved agency access
                                                                 Business Administration    to risk-mitigation data
                                                                                          • Customer satisfaction

                                       Page 14                                                            GAO-03-495T
                                                     Managing                                     OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name       Description             partner             Federal partners         performance metrics
G2C    USA Services          Develops and            General Services    Departments of           • Average time to respond
                             deploys                 Administration      Agriculture, Education,    to inquiries through
                             governmentwide                              Health and Human           Firstgov.gov and Federal
                             citizen customer                            Services, Housing and      Citizen Information
                             service using                               Urban Development,         Center (FCIC) (target:
                             industry best                               Labor, and Veterans        100% of inquiries
                             practices that                              Affairs; Federal           responded to within 24
                             provides citizens                           Emergency Management       hours)
                             with timely,                                Agency, Small Business • Average time to resolve
                             consistent                                  Administration, Social     inquiries through
                             responses about                             Security Administration    Firstgov.gov and FCIC
                             government                                                           • Number of government-
                             information and                                                        wide inquiries that call
                             services.                                                              center and E-mail
                                                                                                    systems can handle
                                                                                                    (target: 3.3M calls per
                                                                                                    year and 150,000 emails
                                                                                                  • Customer satisfaction
G2C    IRS Free Filing       Creates a single        Internal Revenue    None                     • Percentage of coverage
       www.irs.gov           point of access to      Service                                        of tax filing public (target:
                             free on-line                                                           minimum of 60%)
                             preparation and                                                      • Number of citizens filing
                             electronic tax filing                                                  electronically (target:
                             services.                                                              15% increase)
G2B    e-Rulemaking          Allows citizens to      Environmental       Departments of Health    • Number of electronic
       www.regulations.gov   access and              Protection Agency   and Human Services,        comments submitted
                             participate in the                          Labor, Agriculture, and    through regulations.gov
                             rulemaking process                          Transportation; Federal  • Number of on-line
                             through a cross-                            Communications             docket systems
                             agency front-end                            Commission, General        decommissioned with
                             Web application.                            Services Administration,   the associated cost
                                                                         National Archives and      savings and cost
                                                                         Records Administration     avoidance
                                                                                                  • Number of downloads of
                                                                                                    rules and regulations
                                                                                                  • Number of public
                                                                                                    participants in
                                                                                                    rulemaking process

                                      Page 15                                                                      GAO-03-495T
                                                       Managing                                      OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name        Description              partner            Federal partners           performance metrics
G2B    Expanding Electronic   Reduces the              Internal Revenue   None                       • Burden reduction for
       Tax Products for       number of tax-           Service                                         corporations per return,
       Businesses             related forms that                                                       application filed, or both
                              businesses must                                                        • Administrative cost to
                              file, provides timely                                                    federal government per
                              and accurate tax                                                         return filed
                              information to                                                         • Cycle time to grant
                              businesses,                                                              Employer Identification
                              increases the                                                            Number (EIN)—interim
                              availability of                                                          EIN granted immediately
                              electronic tax filing,                                                 • Number of electronic
                              and models                                                               tax-related transactions
                              simplified federal                                                       (all forms)
                              and state tax
                              employment laws.
G2B    Federal Asset Sales    Creates a single,        General Services   Federal Deposit            •   Cycle time reduction for
       www.firstgov.gov       one-stop access          Administration     Insurance Corporation,         asset disposition
                              point for businesses                        Department of              •   Dollar cost avoidance for
                              to find and buy                             Agriculture                    personal property
                              government assets.                                                     •   Return on assets (ROA)
G2B    International Trade    Makes it easy for        Commerce           Departments of             •   Time to fill out export
       Process Streamlining   small and medium                            Agriculture, Commerce;         forms and locate
       www.export.gov         enterprises (SME) to                        Small Business                 information (target: 10%
                              obtain the                                  Administration, Export-        annual reduction)
                              information and                             Import Bank, Trade         •   Number of unique
                              documents needed                            Development Agency,            visitors to Export.gov
                              to conduct business                         Agency for International       (target: 15% increase)
                              abroad.                                     Development                •   Number of trade leads
                                                                                                         accessed by SMEs
                                                                                                         through Export.gov
                                                                                                         (target: 10% increase)
                                                                                                     •   Number of registered
                                                                                                         businesses on

                                       Page 16                                                                      GAO-03-495T
                                                 Managing                                      OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name        Description        partner             Federal partners          performance metrics
G2B    One-Stop Business      Reduces the burden Small Business      Departments of Energy,    • Time savings for
       Compliance             on businesses by   Administration      the Interior, Labor, and    business compliance
       www.businesslaw.gov    making it easy to                      Transportation;             and filing (target: 50%
                              find, understand,                      Environmental Protection    reduction)
                              and comply with                        Agency, Occupational      • Regulatory agency
                              relevant laws and                      Safety and Health           savings through
                              regulations at all                     Administration, General     transition to compliance
                              levels of                              Services Administration,    from enforcement
                              government.                            Immigration and             through automated
                                                                     Naturalization Service,     processes (target: 25%
                                                                     Internal Revenue Service    increase)
                                                                                               • Number of days reduced
                                                                                                 for issuing permits and
                                                                                               • Cycle time to issue
                                                                                                 permits and licenses
                                                                                                 (target: within 24 hours)
                                                                                               • Number of visitors per
                                                                                                 page views (target: 10–
                                                                                                 20% increase)
                                                                                               • Reduction in redundant
                                                                                                 information technology
G2G    Consolidated Health    Adopts a portfolio of Health and Human Departments of Defense, • Number of federal
       Informatics            existing health       Services         Health and Human            agencies and systems
                              information                            Services, and Veterans      using the standards to
                              interoperability                       Affairs; General Services   store and/or share health
                              standards enabling                     Administration, Social      information
                              all agencies in the                    Security Administration   • Number of contracts
                              federal health                                                     requiring the standards
                              enterprise to                                                    • Impact on patient
                              communicate based                                                  service, public health,
                              on common                                                          and research
                              enterprisewide                                                   • Increase in common
                              business and                                                       data available to be
                              information                                                        shared by users
G2G    Geospatial Information Provides federal and Interior            Departments of             •   Number of data sets
       One-Stop               state agencies with                      Agriculture, Commerce,         posted to portal
                              a single point of                        Defense, and               •   Number of users
                              access to map-                           Transportation;            •   Number of cost-sharing
                              related data,                            Environmental Protection       partnerships for data-
                              enabling                                 Agency, Federal                collection activities
                              consolidation of                         Emergency Management       •   Number of data-set hits
                              redundant data.                          Agency, National
                                                                       Aeronautics and Space

                                       Page 17                                                                   GAO-03-495T
                                                     Managing                                       OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name        Description            partner            Federal partners            performance metrics
G2G    e-Grants               Creates a single,      Health and Human   Departments of              • Number of grant-making
       www.fedgrants.gov      on-line portal for all Services           Agriculture, Commerce,        agencies publishing
                              federal grant                             Defense, Education,           grant opportunities in
                              customers to access                       Housing and Urban             portal
                              and apply for grants.                     Development, Justice,       • Number of grant
                                                                        Labor, and                    programs available for
                                                                        Transportation; Federal       electronic application
                                                                        Emergency Management • Percentage of reusable
                                                                        Agency, National              information per grant
                                                                        Science Foundation            application
                                                                                                    • Number of applications
                                                                                                      received electronically
G2G    Disaster Management    Provides federal,     Federal             Departments of              • Response recovery time
       www.disasterhelp.gov   state, and local      Emergency           Agriculture, Defense,         (target: reduce by 15%)
                              emergency             Management          Energy, Housing and         • Situational awareness
                              managers on-line      Agency              Urban Development,            planning capability
                              access to disaster                        Justice, Commerce,            (target: improve by 25%)
                              management-                               Education, Health and       • Number of first
                              related information                       Human Services, the           responders using
                              and planning and                          Interior, Labor, State, the   disaster management
                              response tools.                           Treasury, Transportation,     information system tools
                                                                        and Veterans Affairs;         (target: increase by
                                                                        Appalachian Regional          10%)
                                                                        Environmental Protection
                                                                        Agency, Federal
                                                                        Commission, General
                                                                        Services Administration,
                                                                        Interstate Commerce
                                                                        Commission, Office of
                                                                        Personnel Management,
                                                                        Tennessee Valley
                                                                        Authority, U.S. Postal
                                                                        Service, National
                                                                        Aeronautics and Space
                                                                        Administration, Nuclear
                                                                        Regulatory Commission,
                                                                        Small Business
                                                                        Administration, National
                                                                        Oceanic and
                                                                        Geological Survey

                                       Page 18                                                                   GAO-03-495T
                                                Managing                                      OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name   Description            partner           Federal partners            performance metrics
G2G    SAFECOM           Provides               Federal           Departments of              • Number of agencies that
                         interoperable          Emergency         Agriculture, Defense, the     can communicate with
                         wireless solutions     Management        Interior, and Justice;        one another
                         for federal, state,    Agency            Coast Guard, National       • Response times for
                         and local public                         Guard, National               jurisdictions and
                         safety organizations                     Telecommunications and        disciplines to respond to
                         and ensures they                         Information                   an event
                         can communicate                          Administration              • Number of wireless grant
                         and share                                                              programs that include
                         information as they                                                    SAFECOM-approved
                         respond to                                                             equipment
                         emergency                                                            • Voice, data, and video
                         incidents.                                                             convergence
G2G    e-Vital           Establishes            Social Security   Departments of              • Time for state to report
                         common electronic      Administration    Agriculture, Defense,         death to Social Security
                         processes for                            Health and Human              Administration (target:
                         federal and state                        Services, State, and          15 days)
                         agencies to collect,                     Veterans Affairs;           • Number of verified death
                         process, analyze,                        Immigration and               records
                         verify and share                         Naturalization Service,     • Time to verify birth and
                         birth and death                          Office of Personnel           death entitlement factors
                         record information.                      Management                    (target: 24 hours)
                         Also promotes                                                        • Number of false identity
                         automating how                                                         cases
                         deaths are
                         registered with the
IEE    e-Training        Provides a single      Office of         Departments of Defense,     •   Cost avoidance: total
       www.golearn.gov   point of on-line       Personnel         Labor, Transportation,          tuition/travel cost
                         training and           Management        and the Treasury;               reductions for
                         strategic human                          General Services                participating agencies
                         capital development                      Administration                  (target: minimum of
                         solutions for all                                                        $50M in reductions)
                         federal employees.                                                   •   Percentage of executive
                                                                                                  branch agencies
                                                                                                  receiving their e-training
                                                                                                  via golearn.gov
                                                                                              •   E-Training is supplier of
                                                                                                  choice to fulfill human
                                                                                                  capital training at all
                                                                                                  cabinet-level agencies

                                  Page 19                                                                     GAO-03-495T
                                                     Managing                              OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name      Description              partner      Federal partners         performance metrics
IEE    Recruitment One-Stop Outsources delivery      Office of    Departments of           • Cost per hire
       www.usajobs.opm.gov of USAJOBS                Personnel    Agriculture, Commerce,   • Time to fill vacancies
                            Federal                  Management   Defense, Housing and     • Percentage of federal
                            Employment                            Urban Development, the     job applicants using
                            Information System                    Interior, Labor,           Recruitment One-Stop
                            to deliver state-of-                  Transportation, and the    (target: 80%)
                            the-art on-line                       Treasury; Environmental • Availability of applicant
                            recruitment services                  Protection Agency,         status (target: real time)
                            to job seekers that                   National Aeronautics and
                            include intuitive job                 Space Administration,
                            searching, on-line                    Social Security
                            resume submission,                    Administration
                            applicant data
                            mining, and on-line
                            feed-back on status
                            and eligibility.
IEE    Enterprise HR        Streamlines and          Office of    Departments of              •   Cost/cycle time savings
       Integration          automates the            Personnel    Agriculture, Commerce,          per transaction due to
                            exchange of federal      Management   Defense, Energy,                reduction in manual
                            employee human                        Housing and Urban               paper processing
                            resources                             Development, the            •   Time for interagency
                            information.                          Interior, Justice, Labor,       transfers
                            Replaces official                     State, Transportation,      •   Usage of analytics by all
                            paper employee                        and the Treasury; Equal         cabinet-level agencies in
                            records.                              Employment Opportunity          the human capital
                                                                  Commission,                     planning process
                                                                  Environmental Protection
                                                                  Agency, General
                                                                  Services Administration,
                                                                  National Science
                                                                  Foundation, National
                                                                  Aeronautics and Space
                                                                  Administration, Small
                                                                  Business Administration,
                                                                  Social Security
IEE    e-Clearance            Streamlines and        Office of    Departments of              •   Cost per application
                              improves the quality   Personnel    Commerce, Defense,          •   Reciprocation between
                              of the current         Management   Energy, Justice, State,         agencies
                              security clearance                  and the Treasury;           •   Average time to process
                              process.                            Nuclear Regulatory              clearance forms
                                                                  Commission                  •   Average time to
                                                                                                  complete clearance
                                                                                              •   Time to locate and
                                                                                                  evaluate previous
                                                                                                  investigations and

                                       Page 20                                                                GAO-03-495T
                                                       Managing                                        OMB-reported
Type   Initiative name          Description            partner            Federal partners             performance metrics
IEE    e-Payroll                Consolidates 22        Office of          All executive branch         • Payroll cost per
                                federal payroll        Personnel          agencies                       transaction per
                                systems to simplify    Management                                        employee (target: in line
                                and standardize                                                          with industry averages)
                                federal human                                                          • Accuracy of Treasury
                                resources/payroll                                                        disbursements, post
                                policies and                                                             payroll interfaces, and
                                procedures to better                                                     periodic reporting
                                integrate payroll,
                                human resources,
                                and finance
IEE    e-Travel                 Provides a common      General Services   Departments of               •   Administrative cost per
                                governmentwide         Administration     Agriculture, Commerce,           trip (target: in line with
                                end-to-end travel                         Defense, Energy, Health          industry averages)
                                service that                              and Human Services,          •   Number of trips serviced
                                rationalizes,                             Housing and Urban                through E-Travel
                                automates, and                            Development, the             •   Number of agencies and
                                consolidates the                          Interior, Justice, State,        users using E-Travel
                                travel process in a                       Transportation, the              services
                                self-service Web-                         Treasury, and Veterans       •   Percentage of use of E-
                                centric environment,                      Affairs; Environmental           Travel services within
                                covering all aspects                      Protection Agency,               each agency
                                of travel planning,                       National Science             •   Percentage
                                from authorization                        Foundation, National             improvement of time for
                                and reservations to                       Aeronautics and Space            traveler to get
                                expense reporting                         Administration, Small            reimbursed
                                and reimbursement.                        Business Administration,
                                                                          Social Security
IEE    Integrated Acquisition   Creates a secure      General Services    Departments of               •   Percentage reduction in
       Environment              business              Administration      Agriculture, Commerce,           time for delivery of
                                environment that will                     Defense, the Interior,           products and services
                                facilitate and                            Transportation, and          •   Cost per spend
                                support cost-                             Veterans Affairs; National   •   Percentage of
                                effective acquisition                     Aeronautics and Space            intragovernmental
                                of goods and                              Administration, Small            transactions going
                                services by                               Business Administration          through the Integrated
                                agencies, while                                                            Acquisition Environment
                                eliminating                                                            •   Percentage reduction in
                                inefficiencies in the                                                      procurement
                                current acquisition                                                        transactions errors
                                environment.                                                           •   Percentage of vendors
                                                                                                           registered in central

                                         Page 21                                                                       GAO-03-495T
                                                      Managing                                      OMB-reported
 Type      Initiative name    Description             partner             Federal partners          performance metrics
 IEE       e- Records         Provides policy         National Archives   Departments of            • Percentage of eligible
           Management         guidance to help        and Records         Agriculture, Defense,       data items
                              agencies to better      Administration      Energy, Housing and         archived/preserved
                              manage their                                Urban Development,          electronically
                              electronic records,                         Justice, Navy, State,     • Consolidation of
                              so that records                             Transportation, and the     information technology
                              information can be                          Treasury; Environmental     investments for
                              effectively used to                         Protection Agency,          correspondence systems
                              support timely and                          Executive Office of the   • Document
                              informed decision                           President, Federal          search/retrieval burden
                              making, enhance                             Communications            • Document recovery
                              service delivery, and                       Commission, Federal         burden
                              ensure                                      Emergency Management
                              accountability.                             Agency, General
                                                                          Accounting Office,
                                                                          General Services
                                                                          Administration, National
                                                                          Institutes of Health,
                                                                          Office of Management
                                                                          and Budget, Office of
                                                                          Personnel Management,
                                                                          National Aeronautics and
                                                                          Space Administration,
                                                                          Nuclear Regulatory
                                                                          Commission, National
                                                                          Science Foundation,
                                                                          Patent and Trademark
                                                                          Office, Geological Survey
 Cross-    e-Authentication   Minimizes the          General Services     Departments of            • Cost savings from
 cutting                      burden on              Administration       Agriculture, Commerce,      information technology
                              businesses, public                          Defense, Health and         expenditures on a
                              and government                              Human Services, Justice,    coordinated and
                              when obtaining                              and the Treasury,           streamlined approach to
                              services on line by                         National Aeronautics and    E-Authentication
                              providing a secure                          Space Administration,     • Percentage of GPEA
                              infrastructure for on-                      National Institutes of      burden using
                              line transactions,                          Health, Social Security     transactions that
                              eliminating the need                        Administration              authenticate using the E-
                              for separate                                                            Authentication gateway
                              processes for the                                                     • Number of credentials by
                              verification of                                                         customer segment
                              identity and                                                            needed to interact with
                              electronic                                                              the federal government
                              signatures.                                                           • Percentage of citizens
                                                                                                      trusting transactions with
                                                                                                      the government (from
                                                                                                      existing surveys)
                                                                                                    • Time to access e-
                                                                                                      government applications

                                       Page 22                                                                     GAO-03-495T
Attachment II. Selected GAO Products
Related to Electronic Commerce and
Electronic Government
Electronic Commerce   Internet Gambling: An Overview of the Issues. GAO-03-89. Washington,
                      D.C.: December 2, 2002.

                      International Electronic Commerce: Definitions and Policy
                      Implications. GAO-02-404. Washington, D.C.: March 1, 2002.

                      Electronic Commerce: Small Business Participation in Selected On-line
                      Procurement Programs. GAO-02-1. Washington, D.C.: October 29, 2001.

                      On-Line Trading: Investor Protections Have Improved but Continued
                      Attention Is Needed. GAO-01-858. Washington, D.C.: July 20, 2001.

                      Internet Pharmacies: Adding Disclosure Requirements Would Aid State
                      and Federal Oversight. GAO-01-69. Washington, D.C.: October 19, 2000.

                      Sales Taxes: Electronic Commerce Growth Presents Challenges; Revenue
                      Losses Are Uncertain. GGD/OCE-00-165. Washington, D.C.: June 30, 2000.

                      Commodity Exchange Act: Issues Related to the Regulation of Electronic
                      Trading Systems. GGD-00-99. Washington, D.C.: May 5, 2000.

                      Trade with the European Union: Recent Trends and Electronic
                      Commerce Issues. GAO/T-NSIAD-00-46. Washington, D.C.: October 13,

                      Electronic Banking: Enhancing Federal Oversight of Internet Banking
                      Activities. GAO/T-GGD-99-152. Washington, D.C.: August 3, 1999.

                      Electronic Banking: Enhancing Federal Oversight of Internet Banking
                      Activities. GAO/GGD-99-91. Washington, D.C.: July 6, 1999.

                      Securities Fraud: The Internet Poses Challenges to Regulators and
                      Investors. GAO/T-GGD-99-34. Washington, D.C.: March 22, 1999.

                      Retail Payments Issues: Experience with Electronic Check Presentment.
                      GAO/GGD-98-145. Washington, D.C.: July 14, 1998.

                      Identity Fraud: Information on Prevalence, Cost, and Internet Impact is
                      Limited. GAO/GGD-98-100BR. Washington, D.C.: May 1, 1998.

                      Electronic Banking: Experiences Reported by Banks in Implementing
                      On-line Banking. GAO/GGD-98-34. Washington, D.C.: January 15, 1998.

                      Page 23                                                      GAO-03-495T
Electronic Government—        IRS’s 2002 Tax Filing Season: Returns and Refunds Processed Smoothly;
Agency-Specific Initiatives   Quality of Assistance Improved. GAO-03-314. Washington, D.C.:
                              December 20, 2002.

                              Tax Administration: Electronic Filing’s Past and Future Impact on
                              Processing Costs Dependent on Several Factors. GAO-02-205. Washington,
                              D.C.: January 10, 2002.

                              GSA On-Line Procurement Programs Lack Documentation and
                              Reliability Testing. GAO-02-229R. Washington, D.C.: December 21, 2001.

                              U.S. Postal Service: Update on E-Commerce Activities and Privacy
                              Protections. GAO-02-79. Washington, D.C.: December 21, 2001.

                              Computer-Based Patient Records: Better Planning and Oversight By VA,
                              DOD, and IHS Would Enhance Health Data Sharing. GAO-01-459.
                              Washington, D.C.: April 30, 2001.

                              USDA Electronic Filing: Progress Made, But Central Leadership and
                              Comprehensive Implementation Plan Needed. GAO-01-324. Washington,
                              D.C.: February 28, 2001.

                              Information Security: IRS Electronic Filing Systems. GAO-01-306.
                              Washington, D.C.: February 16, 2001.

                              U.S. Postal Service: Postal Activities and Laws Related to Electronic
                              Commerce. GAO/GGD-00-188. Washington, D.C.: September 7, 2000.

                              U.S. Postal Service: Electronic Commerce Activities and Legal Matters.
                              GAO/T-GGD-00-195. Washington, D.C.: September 7, 2000.

                              Defense Management: Electronic Commerce Implementation Strategy
                              Can Be Improved. GAO/NSIAD-00-108. Washington, D.C.: July 18, 2000.

                              Food Stamp Program: Better Use of Electronic Data Could Result in
                              Disqualifying More Recipients Who Traffic Benefits. GAO/RCED-00-61.
                              Washington, D.C.: March 7, 2000.

                              National Archives: The Challenge of Electronic Records Management.
                              GAO/T-GGD-00-24. Washington, D.C.: October 20, 1999.

                              National Archives: Preserving Electronic Records in an Era of Rapidly
                              Changing Technology. GAO/GGD-99-94. Washington, D.C.: July 19, 1999.

                              Page 24                                                       GAO-03-495T
                         Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure: Status of Labor’s Efforts
                         to Develop Electronic Reporting and a Publicly Accessible Database.
                         GAO/HEHS-99-63R. Washington, D.C.: March 16, 1999.

                         Acquisition Reform: NASA’s Internet Service Improves Access to
                         Contracting Information. GAO/NSIAD-99-37. Washington, D.C.: February
                         9, 1999.

                         Tax Administration: Increasing EFT Usage for Installment Agreements
                         Could Benefit IRS. GAO/GGD-98-112. Washington, D.C.: June 10, 1998.

Electronic Government—   Electronic Government: Selection and Implementation of the Office of
General                  Management and Budget’s 24 Initiatives. GAO-03-229. Washington, D.C.:
                         November 22, 2002.

                         Electronic Government: Proposal Addresses Critical Challenges. GAO-02-
                         1083T. Washington, D.C.: September 18, 2002.

                         Information Management: Update on Implementation of the 1996
                         Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments. GAO-02-493.
                         Washington, D.C.: August 30, 2002.

                         Information Technology: OMB Leadership Critical to Making Needed
                         Enterprise Architecture and E-government Progress. GAO-02-389T.
                         Washington, D.C.: March 21, 2002.

                         Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the
                         Extensible Markup Language. GAO-02-327. Washington, D.C.: April 5,

                         Information Resources Management: Comprehensive Strategic Plan
                         Needed to Address Mounting Challenges. GAO-02-292. Washington, D.C.:
                         February 22, 2002.

                         Elections: Perspectives on Activities and Challenges Across the Nation.
                         GAO-02-3. Washington, D.C.: October 15, 2001.

                         Electronic Government: Better Information Needed on Agencies’
                         Implementation of the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. GAO-01-
                         1100. Washington, D.C.: September 28, 2001.

                         Page 25                                                      GAO-03-495T
Electronic Government: Challenges Must Be Addressed With Effective
Leadership and Management. GAO-01-959T. Washington, D.C.: July 11,

Electronic Government: Selected Agency Plans for Implementing the
Government Paperwork Elimination Act. GAO-01-861T. Washington,
D.C.: June 21, 2001.

Information Management: Electronic Dissemination of Government
Publications. GAO-01-428. Washington, D.C.: March 30, 2001.

Information Management: Progress in Implementing the 1996
Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments. GAO-01-378.
Washington, D.C.: March 16, 2001.

Regulatory Management: Communication About Technology-Based
Innovations Can Be Improved. GAO-01-232. Washington, D.C.: February
12, 2001.

Electronic Government: Opportunities and Challenges Facing the
FirstGov Web Gateway. GAO-01-87T. Washington, D.C.: October 2, 2000.

Electronic Government: Government Paperwork Elimination Act
Presents Challenges for Agencies. GAO/AIMD-00-282. Washington, D.C.:
September 15, 2000.

Internet: Federal Web-based Complaint Handling. GAO/AIMD-00-238R.
Washington, D.C.: July 7, 2000.

Federal Rulemaking: Agencies’ Use of Information Technology to
Facilitate Public Participation. GAO/GGD-00-135R. Washington, D.C.:
June 30, 2000.

Electronic Government: Federal Initiatives Are Evolving Rapidly But
They Face Significant Challenges. GAO/T-AIMD/GGD-00-179. Washington,
D.C.: May 22, 2000.

Information Technology: Comments on Proposed OMB Guidance for
Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. GAO/AIMD-
99-228R. Washington, D.C.: July 2, 1999.

Page 26                                                    GAO-03-495T
Electronic Signatures   Bank Regulators’ Evaluation of Electronic Signature Systems. GAO-01-
                        129R. Washington, D.C.: November 8, 2000.

                        Electronic Signature: Sanction of the Department of State’s System.
                        GAO/AIMD-00-227R. Washington, D.C.: July 10, 2000.

Internet                Internet Management: Limited Progress on Privatization Project Makes
                        Outcome Uncertain. GAO-02-805T. Washington, D.C.: June 12, 2002.

                        Telecommunications: Characteristics and Competitiveness of the
                        Internet Backbone Market. GAO-02-16. Washington, D.C.: October 16,

                        Telecommunications: Characteristics and Choices of Internet Users.
                        GAO-01-345. Washington, D.C.: February 16, 2001.

                        Telecommunications: Technological and Regulatory Factors Affecting
                        Consumer Choice of Internet Providers. GAO-01-93. Washington, D.C.:
                        October 12, 2000.

                        Department of Commerce: Relationship with the Internet Corporation
                        for Assigned Names and Numbers. GAO/OGC-00-33R. Washington, D.C.:
                        July 7, 2000.

Privacy                 Internet Privacy: Implementation of Federal Guidance for Agency Use of
                        “Cookies.” GAO-01-424. Washington, D.C.: April 27, 2001.

                        Record Linkage and Privacy: Issues in Creating New Federal Research
                        and Statistical Information. GAO-01-126SP. Washington, D.C.: April 2001.

                        Internet Privacy: Federal Agency Use of Cookies. GAO-01-147R.
                        Washington, D.C.: October 20, 2000.

                        Internet Privacy: Comparison of Federal Agency Practices with FTC’s
                        Fair Information Principles. GAO-01-113T, Washington, D.C.: October 11,

                        Internet Privacy: Comparison of Federal Agency Practices with FTC’s
                        Fair Information Principles. GAO/AIMD-00-296R. Washington, D.C.:
                        September 11, 2000.

                        Page 27                                                      GAO-03-495T
           Internet Privacy: Agencies’ Efforts to Implement OMB’s Privacy Policy.
           GAO/GGD-00-191. Washington, D.C.: September 5, 2000.

           Social Security Numbers: Subcommittee Questions Concerning the Use
           of the Number for Purposes Not Related to Social Security.
           GAO/HEHS/AIMD-00-253R. Washington, D.C.: July 7, 2000.

Security   Electronic Government: Progress in Promoting Adoption of Smart Card
           Technology. GAO-03-144. Washington, D.C.: January 3, 2003.

           Computer Security: Weaknesses Continue to Place Critical Federal
           Operations and Assets at Risk. GAO-01-600T. Washington, D.C.: April 5,

           Information Security: Advances and Remaining Challenges to Adoption
           of Public Key Infrastructure Technology. GAO-01-277. Washington, D.C.:
           February 26, 2001.

           Information Security: Serious and Widespread Weaknesses Persist at
           Federal Agencies. GAO/AIMD-00-295. Washington, D.C.: September 6,

           Critical Infrastructure Protection: “ILOVEYOU” Computer Virus
           Highlights Need for Improved Alert and Coordination Capabilities.
           GAO/T-AIMD-00-181. Washington, D.C.: May 18, 2000.

           Information Security: Subcommittee Questions Concerning the Melissa
           Computer Virus. GAO/AIMD-99-220R. Washington, D.C.: June 18, 1999.

           Information Security: The Melissa Computer Virus Demonstrates Urgent
           Need for Stronger Protection Over Systems and Sensitive Data. GAO/T-
           AIMD-99-146. Washington, D.C.: April 15, 1999.

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