oversight

Catalogue of GAO and Inspectors General Reports on Contracting Issues for Fiscal Years 1997 through 2002

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-03-31.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




          March 31, 2003


          Subject: Catalogue of GAO and Inspectors General Reports on Contracting Issues for
          Fiscal Years 1997 through 2002

          Dear User:

          The federal government spent more than $230 billion through contracts with private industry
          in fiscal year 2001. Ten Executive Branch agencies1 account for almost 95 percent of this
          spending. Past reviews by Executive Branch agency inspectors general, military-department
          audit agencies,2 and the General Accounting Office (GAO) have created an extensive body of
          reports on the procedures and practices that federal agencies use to plan, award, and
          administer contracts. These reviews identified weaknesses in the contracting processes of
          individual agencies3 and contracting challenges faced by these agencies. To our knowledge,
          however, there is no comprehensive listing of these reviews that can be used to identify the
          contracting weaknesses and challenges these agencies have in common. Consequently, to
          facilitate literature searches of the reports concerning federal contracting matters, we
          compiled a catalogue of information from reports and testimonies by the 10 agencies’
          inspectors general, military department audit agencies, and GAO. Such a catalogue could be
          useful to the oversight community and others in determining (1) common contracting issues
          identified across multiple agencies and (2) the potential contracting-risk areas and gaps in
          contracting oversight across these agencies.

          This catalogue contains information about contracting matters identified in reports and
          testimonies issued during fiscal years 1997 through 2002. Each catalogue record includes the
          agency that conducted the audit or review; the audited agency; audit report number, title, and
          date issued; a summary of the reported contracting issues; and the contracting processes or
          functions identified as weaknesses. Users of the catalogue can conduct a search by any of
          these items. The catalogue includes a brief summary of each report’s findings. In most

           The Executive Branch agencies include the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Health and Human
          1


          Services, Justice, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the General Services Administration; and the
          National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
          2
              These are the Army and Air Force Audit Agencies and the Naval Audit Service.
          3
           Contracting is the purchasing, renting, leasing, or otherwise obtaining supplies or services from nonfederal
          sources. The contracting process includes planning the contracting action; describing the required supplies and
          services; identifying, soliciting and selecting sources of supplies and services; preparing and awarding
          contracts; all phases of contract administration; and closing out the contract.



                                             GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
cases, an electronic copy of the full report or testimony can be obtained from the reporting
agency’s Web site, or a hard copy document can be obtained from the reporting agency. This
catalogue is intended to facilitate searches of reports. Users of the catalogue should follow
up with the agencies to determine what actions they took to address the findings and
recommendations.

The catalogue is available in two formats: (1) an Access™ database and (2) a data extract
text file. We also included (1) a list of agency Web sites where users can obtain copies of
complete reports identified in the catalogue, (2) a glossary of contracting terms used to
categorize the contracting issues identified in the reports, and (3) a tip sheet on conducting
simple Access™ searches of the catalogue.


Scope and Methodology

To identify reports and testimonies concerning contracting matters issued during fiscal years
1997 through 2002, we identified, obtained, and reviewed reports and testimonies from the
Web sites of agency inspectors general, military department audit agencies, and GAO as well
as agency-provided lists. We did not include reports that dealt with grants, cooperative
agreements, or interagency agreements because these are not considered contracts and the
Federal Acquisition Regulation does not govern these relationships. We also did not include
pre-award and post award reviews of individual contracts or other reports with restricted
distribution based on proprietary content. We also did not include reports restricted because
of national security reasons.

Information on these reports is contained in a table, or catalogue. For each report, we
captured key information (such as audited agency and report number), summarized the
report’s findings, and categorized the report by various contracting terms or issues to
facilitate catalogue searches. A panel of GAO contracting-matter specialists compiled a list
of contracting terms used to categorize the reported contracting issues. These terms were
validated by inspector general and audit agency officials and defined in a glossary.4 Officials
from each inspector general’s office and audit agency reviewed our catalogue entries to
validate them for completeness, accuracy, and appropriateness of the contracting terms we
used to facilitate data searches. We incorporated the changes they suggested.

We conducted our research between May 2002 and January 2003. Because this effort was
not an audit of government organizations or programs, this effort was not required to be
conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.

We are sending electronic versions of this catalogue to the inspectors general of the
Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Justice,
Transportation, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the General Services Administration; and the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as the directors for the Army and Air
Force Audit Agencies, and the Naval Audit Service. This report will also be available at no
charge on GAO’s home page at http://www.gao.gov/special.pubs/d03504sp/ .



 The panel developed the glossary based on 1) the panel members’ knowledge and experience with contract
4


related issues and (2) definitions contained in the Federal Acquisition Regulation.


Page 2                           GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
Questions regarding this catalogue can be directed to me at (202) 512-8214, or Hilary
Sullivan at (214) 777-5652. Major contributors to this product were Frederick Day, Timothy
DiNapoli, Jack Edwards, Michael Gorin, Gordon Lusby, Gary Middleton, Monty Peters,
Pauline Reaves, Sylvia Schatz, Christina Sklarew, Tanisha Stewart, Bradley Terry, and Ralph
White.




William T. Woods
Director
Acquisition and Sourcing Management




Page 3                     GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
    LIST OF AGENCY OR INSPECTOR GENERAL WEBSITES

Agency                                                  Website

Department of Agriculture                               www.usda.gov/oig

Department of Defense                                   www.dodig.osd.mil

Department of Energy                                    www.ig.doe.gov

Department of Health and Human Services                 www.oig.hhs.gov

Department of Justice                                   www.usdoj.gov/oig

Department of Transportation                            www.oig.dot.gov

Department of Treasury                                  www.ustreas.gov/offices/inspector-general

Department of Treasury for Tax Administration           www.treas.gov/tigta

Department of Veterans Affairs                          www.va.gov/oig

General Services Administration5                        www.gsa.gov

National Aeronautics and Space Administration           www.hq.nasa.gov

Air Force Audit Agency                                  www.afaa.hq.af.mil

Army Audit Agency                                       www.hqda.army.mil/aaaweb

Naval Audit Service                                     www.hq.navy.mil/navalaudit

General Accounting Office                               www.gao.gov




5
 GSA Inspector General reports generally are not available on the website and must be ordered in hard
copy.



Page 4                         GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
                                   GLOSSARY OF THE
                                 CONTRACTING TERMS
                                USED IN THE CATALOGUE


The purpose of this glossary is to provide definitions of the terms we used to categorize the
contracting issues identified in reports included in the catalogue. We used the Federal
Acquisition Regulation (FAR) as our source of choice whenever possible to provide the
definitions, but used other sources when we could not find a term defined in the FAR. The
definitions are not intended to be all-inclusive or legally precise; they are intended to provide
a usable, general definition to assist users in searching the catalogue. We have grouped these
terms into various categories, for example, contract planning, contract type, and contract
administration.

Users can search the catalogue using the terms in this glossary that are identified in bold (e.g.
requirements) and using the type of information contained in each catalogue record, such as
the name of the agency that was audited or the audit report’s number or title. Each catalogue
record includes the agency that conducted the audit; the audited agency; audit report number,
title, and date issued; a summary of the reported contracting issues; and the contracting
processes or functions identified as weaknesses. In addition, users can perform a word
search of the audit report title and the findings summary.

The catalogue includes reports that address issues related to contracting—the purchasing,
renting, leasing, or otherwise obtaining supplies or services from nonfederal sources. The
contracting functions include planning the contracting action; describing the required
supplies and services; identifying, soliciting, and selecting sources of supplies and services;
preparing and awarding contracts; all phases of contract administration; and closing out the
contract. Contracting does not include awarding grants or cooperative agreements.

CONTRACT PLANNING

Requirements are the agency’s identified needs for personnel, equipment, facilities, other
resources, or services, and of definite or indefinite quantities, during specific periods of time
or at a specified time. In addition to specified performance requirements, contract
requirements include those defined in the statement of work; specifications, standards, and
related documents; the contract data requirements list; or contract terms and conditions.

Socioeconomic programs are programs implemented through the procurement process to
foster the achievement of national social or economic goals. The government uses its
purchasing power as a means of promoting goals and policies such as fostering small
businesses or providing contracting opportunities for those with disabilities.

Cost estimate is a judgment or opinion regarding the cost of a commodity or service. A cost
estimate is included in an offeror’s proposal and is based on the offeror’s estimate of the cost
for the work to be performed, specifying the expected cost required to perform a stipulated
task or to produce an item. A cost estimate may consist of a single value or a range of
values.




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Acquisition planning is the process of coordinating and integrating, through development of
a plan, all of the steps required for the government to meet its needs in a timely fashion at a
reasonable cost. The plan must address all the technical, business, management, and other
significant considerations that control the acquisition.

Market research means collecting and analyzing information about capabilities within the
market to satisfy agency needs. It involves a process for gathering data on products’
characteristics as well as suppliers’ capabilities and business practices, including the analysis
of that data to make acquisition decisions. Market research has two phases: market
surveillance—all the activities that acquisition personnel perform continuously to keep
themselves abreast of technology and product developments in their areas of expertise--and
market investigation—a phase of market research conducted in response to a specific need.

CONTRACT TYPES

Fixed-price contracts provide for a firm price set at the time of award, although in
appropriate cases, such prices may later be subject to adjustment. Fixed-price contracts
providing for an adjustable price may include a ceiling price, a target price (including target
cost), or both. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, the ceiling price or target price is
subject to adjustment only by operation of contract clauses providing for equitable
adjustment or other revision of the contract price under stated circumstances. Types of fixed-
price contracts include firm-fixed-price, fixed-price with economic price adjustment, and
fixed-price incentive contracts.

Cost reimbursement is a type of contract where the government agrees to reimburse the
contractor its allowable incurred costs to the extent permitted. This type of contract
establishes an estimate of total cost for the purpose of obligation of funds and establishes a
ceiling that the contract may not exceed (except at the contractor’s own risk) without prior
approval or subsequent ratification by the contracting officer. Cost-reimbursement contracts
are suitable for use when uncertainties involved in contract performance do not permit costs
to be estimated with sufficient accuracy to use any type of fixed-price contract. Types of
cost reimbursement contracts include cost (no fee), cost-sharing, and a variety of cost-plus-
fee contracts.

Indefinite delivery contracts include three types: definite-quantity, requirements, and
indefinite-quantity contracts, any of which might be appropriate when the exact times or
quantities of deliveries are unknown when the contract is awarded. A definite-quantity
contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity of specific supplies or services, with
deliveries to be scheduled upon order. A requirements contract provides for filling all actual
purchase requirements of designated government activities for supplies or services during a
specified contract period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled by placing orders
with the contractor. An indefinite-quantity contract provides for an indefinite quantity, within
stated limits, of supplies or services to be delivered during a fixed period. Requirements
contracts and indefinite-quantity contracts are also known as indefinite delivery/indefinite
quantity (ID/IQ) contracts. These contracts do not specify a firm quantity of supplies or
services (other than a minimum or maximum quantity) and provide for the issuance of orders
for the delivery of supplies or the performance of tasks during the period of the contract.
Examples of ID/IQ contracts include:



Page 6                        GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
   •     Government-wide acquisition contract (GWAC) is a contract for information
         technology established by an agency designated as an executive agent by the Office
         of Management and Budget for use by agencies government-wide.

   •     Multi-agency contract is a contract established by one agency for use by multiple
         government agencies to obtain supplies and services consistent with the requirements
         of the Economy Act.

   •     Multiple award contract is a contract awarded to two or more sources for the same
         or similar supplies or services under a single solicitation. Orders placed under such
         contracts must clearly specify all the tasks to be performed or supplies to be
         delivered. In addition, agencies placing orders must ensure that each awardee is
         afforded a fair opportunity to be considered for orders exceeding $2,500.

Time-and-materials is a type of contract that provides for acquiring supplies or services on
the basis of
    • direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates that include wages, overhead, general
        and administrative expenses, and profit, and

   •    materials at cost, including, if appropriate, material handling costs as part of material
        costs.
Time-and-materials contracts require the execution of a determination and finding that no
other contract type is suitable and that the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor
cannot exceed except at his own risk.

CONTRACTING METHODS

Share-in-savings describes a contracting approach, authorized by the Clinger-Cohen Act for
use in information technology procurements, where a contractor funds a project up front in
return for a percentage of the savings actually realized by the contracting agency.

Performance-based contracting is a means of structuring all aspects of an acquisition
around the purpose of the work to be performed, with the contract’s requirements set forth in
clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes, as opposed to specifying the
manner by which the work is to be performed.

Blanket purchase agreement (BPA) is a simplified method of filling anticipated repetitive
needs for supplies or services by establishing “charge accounts” with qualified sources of
supply. BPAs may be established under the following conditions:
   • Purchases may be from a wide variety of items in a broad class of supplies or
       services, but the exact items, quantities, and delivery requirements are not known in
       advance and may vary considerably.
   • There is a need to provide commercial sources of supply for one or more offices or
       projects in a given area that do not have authority to purchase otherwise.
   • The use of this procedure would avoid the writing of numerous purchase orders.
   • There is no existing requirements contract for the same supply or service that the
       contracting activity is required to use.




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General Service Administration (GSA) schedules, or Federal Supply Schedules, are
indefinite-delivery contracts that GSA negotiates with commercial firms to provide supplies
and services at stated prices for given periods of time. Customers (federal agencies) place
orders directly with the schedule contractors.

CONTRACT SOLICITATION, NEGOTIATION, AND AWARD

Competition is an acquisition strategy where more than one contractor is sought to bid on a
service or function; the winner is selected on the basis of criteria announced in the
solicitation. The Competition in Contracting Act of 1984 (P.L. 98-369) requires full and
open competition for most government contracts.

Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of the separate costs and profit in a contractor’s
proposal. The purpose of the review is to determine the accuracy and reasonableness of the
proposed costs, assuming reasonable economy and efficiency, and the proposed profit.

Price analysis is the process of examining and evaluating a proposed price without
evaluating its separate cost components or proposed profit.

Price negotiation is the process of negotiating a contract’s price with the objective to
achieve a fair and reasonable contract price.

Request for proposal (RFP) is a solicitation used in a negotiated acquisition to
communicate government requirements to prospective contractors and to solicit proposals
intended to result in a contract award. The RFP contains the anticipated terms and conditions
of the prospective contract.

Request for quotation (RFQ) is used in federal contracting to obtain information (e.g. price,
delivery information) from prospective suppliers. An RFQ is similar to an RFP but solicits
information rather than offers and is not intended to result in a contract award.

Source selection is the process of selecting a contractor in a competitive procurement and
typically involves the assessment of contractor proposals and evaluating such factors as
price, product or service quality, and past performance.

CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION
Contract oversight is the monitoring of the contractor’s performance by reviewing progress
reports, making visits to the contractor, inspecting deliverables, comparing progress with
delivery schedules and cost objectives, and advising the contracting officer of suspected
problems with contract performance. Contract oversight starts when the contract is awarded
and continues until the contract is closed out.
Cost performance report (CPR) is a primary means that a contractor uses to report cost and
schedule performance and trends to the procuring agency.

Financial management includes the supervision or administration of payments to the
contractor and financing issues such as obtaining the funds necessary for performance of the
contract.




Page 8                       GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
Fee administration is the administration or management of the amount paid to a contractor
beyond allowable costs under a cost-reimbursable contract. The term “fee” is only used in
the cost-reimbursement environment and is used to describe the contractor’s profit. The term
“profit” is used in the fixed-price environment. A contractor’s fee may be set as a contract
award (as in cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts) or may be allowed to fluctuate within a
preestablished range in order to incentivize the contractor (as in cost-plus-incentive-fee
contracts, or cost-plus-award-fee contracts).

Subcontracting refers to a contractor’s purchase of supplies or services from another non-
governmental source for use in the performance of a prime contract or another subcontract.

Contract closeout is the term used to describe the final settling of outstanding contractual
issues to ensure that both the government and the contractor have completed their
obligations. The term also includes the final documenting of the contract file to indicate
completion of the work. A contract is complete when (1) the contractor has completed the
required deliveries or performed the required services and the government has accepted
them, or (2) the government has given the contractor notice of complete contract termination.

FUNCTIONAL MANAGEMENT

Acquisition workforce is the personnel component of the acquisition system responsible for
acquiring goods and services; however, the definition of the acquisition workforce is not
consistent among federal agencies. In DOD, it is generally defined as those people, including
contracting professionals, program managers, engineers, scientists, and logisticians who are
responsible for managing various facets of acquisitions from the earliest phases of basic
research to the logistical support of systems. In civil agencies, it is generally defined as
contracting professionals.

Information technology support includes all activities that ensure an information
technology system meets its operational mission and supports the contracting mission.
"Information technology" includes computers, ancillary equipment, software, firmware,
services (including support services), and related resources used to support the contracting
mission by providing the appropriate data and data accuracy needed to perform the
contracting function.

Policy/guidance/processes includes agency regulations, instructions, or directives that
govern how government acquisitions are carried out and contracting activities are performed.

Funds management is the management of obligations against funds appropriated by the
Congress and apportioned to specific activities, programs, or projects. The purpose of funds
management is to prevent obligations in excess of the funds made available in the
appropriation as required by the Anti-deficiency Act.



SPECIAL TOPICS

Illegal activities are actions that do not comply with laws and regulations.



Page 9                       GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
Commercial items include any item, other than real property, that is customarily used by the
general public or nongovernmental entities for other than governmental purposes and that has
been sold, leased, or licensed to the general public; or has been offered for sale, lease, or
license to the general public.

E-commerce means electronic techniques for accomplishing business transactions including
electronic mail or messaging, World Wide Web technology, electronic bulletin boards,
electronic funds transfers, and electronic data interchange.

Intellectual property includes inventions, patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets,
technical information including software, data designs, technical know-how, manufacturing
information and know-how, techniques, technical data packages, and manufacturing data
packages.

Competitive sourcing is a process used to determine if it would be more advantageous and
cost-effective to obtain services using agency personnel or through a contract with the private
sector.

Prime vendor is a support concept whereby a single contractor serves as commercial
distributor/supplier of products to various federal customers within a geographical region or
zone. The prime vendor concept was initiated to reduce inventories and improve customer
satisfaction.

Purchase cards are similar in nature to a commercial credit card and are issued to authorized
agency personnel for use at commercial establishments to acquire and pay for supplies and
services.




Page 10                      GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
Tips for Searching Catalogue of IG Contracting Reports


   1. When you open the IG contracting reports file, a contracting reports form will
      appear. Please note: that you will actually be looking at a table of
      information in a form format for easy reading. There are 934 records in
      this table. Each record represents an individual IG report containing
      contracting information

   2. At the top of the form slightly to the right of the middle of the tool bar you will
      see three funnels. Place your cursor over the center funnel; this is the “Filter
      by Form” button (it will look like a funnel with a square attached to it). Click
      on this funnel, and you will get a blank form.

                                     Filter by Form




   3. Once in the “Filter by Form” you will see the following:
                               Clear Grid (Red X)
                               Click to clear all criteria
                               prior to starting a filter




   4. Filtering to find the records you want. You can then place your cursor in
      any field (e.g., Who Did The Audit?, Report Summary, Title, Date, etc.),
      depending on the information you desire. Some fields will have drop down



Page 11                   GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
      menus identifying specific information. For example, in the “Who Did The
      Audit?” field, you can click on the drop down menu and see all the agencies
      that have contracting information in this searchable form.




                                           Click “Drop
                                                 “drop down”
                                                        Down”button
                                                                Button
                                           Select
                                           and select
                                                  an Agency
                                                      the agency
                                                             youyou
                                                                 wantwant




   5. Once you’ve identified the field you want to find information in (by clicking in
      it), then go to your tool bar and click on the funnel (it is the only one on the
      tool bar at this point and will be next to the right of the red “X”.) Click on this
      to apply filter and the appropriate information you are looking for will be
      identified by the number of records containing the information you want at the
      bottom of the form on the left hand side. The text will read, “Look for
      Record_________ of 297 (filtered),” for example.




                                  “Apply Filter”




                                                          Number of records that met the criteria
                     Can scroll through and look at all
                     records meeting the criteria

Page 12                    GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
   6. Let’s do some examples:

      a.    How many Department of Defense (DOD) contracting reports
            are available in this table?
            Click on funnel “Filter by Form.” Place your cursor in the “Who Did The
            Audit?” field. Click on the drop down menu. Highlight “Defense IG.” Go
            to your tool bar at the top, click on apply filter funnel (as explained in
            step 5). All records meeting these criteria will now be displayed
            in the form view. You will notice on the very bottom left side of the
            form, the text for “number of records” will read as 297. This means
            there are 297 DOD IG contract records (reports). (See previous
            example.)

      b.    Now suppose you want to find out how many of these DOD
            contracting reports deal with contract requirements.
            You already know that there are a total 297 DOD reports on contracting
            issues from our first search. To narrow the search to just those reports
            in DOD that deal with contract requirement issues, click on the “filter
            by form funnel” (as explained in step 2). Then look at the bottom of the
            form on the left hand side under “Contract Planning” and click in the
            box for “Requirements.” Then click on the “Apply Filter” button
            on the tool bar (as explained in step 5). Now you will notice at the
            bottom of the form that there are 69 records that meet your criteria and
            all records meeting these criteria are now displayed in the form
            view.




                          Re-click “Filter-by Form” to add more criteria




                   C lick to add additional criteria, contract planning
                           “R equirem ents”, then click “A pply Filter”




Page 13                 GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
      c. You are able to find additional information continuously by adding
         whatever criteria you desire, clicking on the “Filter by Form,” and then
         clicking on the “Applying Filter.” For example, if you now want to find out
         how many DOD records contain source selection information in addition to
         contract requirements information, you would click on the “Filter by Form”
         then click in the box for “Source Selection” (Look for this under the
         “Contract Solicitation, Negotiation, and Award” heading). Then click on
         “apply filter” button. You will then see that there are four records that meet
         these criteria (look at the bottom left hand side of the screen where you
         will see record_______ of 4 (filtered). You can add as much information as
         you like to your search. If you decide that you want to start a new search
         click on “filter by form” and then click on the red “X” to clear the grid.




                                               Number of records meeting
                Can scroll through             additional criteria
                and look at records




                                                              Criteria entered
                                                              on “Look For” tab
                                                              are “and” criteria

                                                              Defense IG
                                                               and
                                                              Requirements
                                                               and
                                                              Source Selection




Page 14                   GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
   7. To remove the filter and return to the original form with all records, click on
      the funnel (after in a filtered form, the funnel changes to “Remove Filter”).




                                                                  After filter is applied,
                                                                  funnel changes to
                                                                  “Remove Filter”




Page 15                   GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
   8. All criteria entered on one “Filter by Form” page will result in all reports that
      meet all the criteria you have indicated. You can also build searches with “or”
      criteria. For example, let’s say you now want to find out if there are also
      Army Audit Agency contracting reports that contain both contract
      requirements information and source selection information. You would once
      again click on “Filter by Form” then look at the bottom of the form on the
      left side for two tabs labeled “look for” and “or.” Click on the “or” tab.
      Then click on the drop down menu in the “Who Did The Audit?” field; highlight
      Army Audit Agency. Then, click on requirements and source selection. Click
      on “Apply Filter.” Your Army Audit Agency criteria are now added to your
      previous criteria for DOD, which was retained in the “Filter by Form.” You can
      keep adding criteria with the “or” tab. The following search will result in six
      reports (four for DOD IG and two for Army Audit Agency).




                       Click on “Or” tab. Add additional Criteria.
          This filter will find all records meeting the following:
          Defense IG                  Army Audit Agency
          And                         And
          Requirements       OR       Requirements
          And                         And
          Source Selection            Source Selection

   9. You can search for individual words or phrases in various fields containing
      text (e.g., Report Title or Report Summary) using the “Filter by Form” and
      “Apply Filter.” Please note that before starting any new searches you
      should clear previous searches as described in the last sentence of step
      6.c. In the Report Summary, for example, let’s say you want to identify every
      report (out of 934) that contains the phrase “service contract.” You will
      note there is a field entitled “Report Summary.” This field provides a short
      summary of information about every report listed. Therefore, you would want
      to search in this field for the phrase “service contract.” You would first click
      on the “Filter by Form” funnel on the tool bar (as explained in step 2). Then
      click in the “Report Summary” field. Type in *service contract*. MAKE
      SURE YOU HAVE THE * AT THE BEGINNING AND THE END OF


Page 16                      GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
      YOUR PHRASE. By putting the asterisk at the end of the word “contract” you
      will get both “service contract” and “service contracts.” Putting the asterisk
      after the word “contracts” will only get the plural “service contracts.” Click on
      Apply Filter and then at the bottom of the form (as explained in step 5) you
      will notice that there are 24 reports with information on “service contract.”
      Please note that these 24 reports are not necessarily all “service
      contract” reports in the table, but represent only those with the
      phrase “service contract” in the report summary.




                         Enter words or phrase to search for.
   10. Now suppose you want to find out if there are any Department of
       Transportation (DOT) contracting reports (audited agency) that contain the
       phrase “service contract” in the report summary. You already have criteria on
       service contract; you now just want to narrow your search to DOT. Click on
       “Filter by Form” (you will notice that the previous criteria on service contract
       is still retained in the Report Summary field). Click on the “Audited Agency”
       field, highlight “Department of Transportation” and click on “Apply Filter.”
       You will then notice a blank screen. This indicates that there are no DOT
       reports that have the phrase “service contract” in the Report Summary
       field.




                      E n te r w o rd s o r p h ra s e a n d o th e r c rite ria




Page 17                   GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
                   B lan k screen in d icates no reco rds
                   m eeting criteria




   11. Now let’s say you want to search for all reports between a specific starting
       date and ending date. Start by clicking on “Filter by Form,” and then place
       your cursor in the “Date Issued” field. Let’s say you want to identify all
       contracting reports for all agencies in the table for 1998. Type the following in
       the date field: between 01/01/1998 and 12/31/1998, then click on “Apply
       Filter” and look at the bottom of the form on the left hand side (as explained in
       step 5). You will see that there are 162 records that meet these criteria. You
       can expand this search (as explained in the first sentence in step 6.c).




                                         Enter Date
                                               date criteria
                                                     Criteria




Page 18                   GA0-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports
   12. Now let’s do a variation of step 11. Suppose you want to find all reports
      issued after 12/31/1997. You would clear the filter (as explained in the last
      sentence of step 6.c) and then follow what you did in step 11 only this time
      when you click in the “Date Issued” field you would type the following:
      >12/31/1997. You will notice at the bottom of the form on the left hand side
      (as explained in the last sentence of step 5) that there are 745 records that
      meet this criterion. As was previously mentioned, you could expand criteria
      on this particular search (as explained in the first sentence step 6.c.)




                                     Enter date
                                           Datecriteria
                                                Criteria




Page 19                  GAO-03-504SP GAO and Inspectors General Contracting Reports