oversight

Multiple Employment and Training Programs: Funding and Performance Measures for Major Programs

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-04-18.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States General Accounting Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




April 2003
             MULTIPLE
             EMPLOYMENT AND
             TRAINING
             PROGRAMS
             Funding and
             Performance
             Measures for Major
             Programs




GAO-03-589
             a
Contents


Letter                                                                                1


Appendix I      Update of Employment and Training Programs                            4



Appendix II     Federally Funded Employment and Training
                Programs by Agency, Fiscal Year 2002                                 20



Appendix III    Appropriations, Fiscal Year 1999-2003                                21



Appendix IV     Estimated Number of Program Participants Who
                Received Employment and Training Services                            24



Appendix V      Programs Requiring Beneficiaries to be
                Economically Disadvantaged in Fiscal Year
                1999 or 2002                                                         26



Appendix VI     Outcome Measures                                                     27



Appendix VII    Population Groups Served by Employment and
                Training Programs                                                    32



Appendix VIII   Services Provided by Employment and Training
                Programs                                                             34




                Page i             GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
Appendix IX        Program Objectives and Eligibility Criteria for
                   Federally Funded Employment and Training
                   Programs, by Target Population                                                            38



Related Products                                                                                             53



Tables
                   Table 1: OMB’s Common Measures for Employment and Training
                            Programs                                                                         27
                   Table 2: Programs’ Outcome Tracking Requirements Under OMB’s
                            Common Measures Initiative and Outcome Measures
                            Tracked by the Programs in Fiscal Year 2003                                      28




                   Abbreviations

                   DOD               Department of Defense
                   DOI/BIA           Department of the Interior/Bureau of Indian Affairs
                   DOJ               Department of Justice
                   DOL               Department of Labor
                   ED                Department of Education
                   HHS               Department of Health and Human Services
                   HUD               Department of Housing and Urban Development
                   USDA              Department of Agriculture
                   VA                Department of Veterans Affairs




                   This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
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                   permission from GAO. It may contain copyrighted graphics, images or other materials.
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                   Page ii                          GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   April 18, 2003

                                   The Honorable John A. Boehner
                                   Chairman
                                   Committee on Education and the Workforce
                                   House of Representatives

                                   The Honorable Howard P. “Buck” McKeon
                                   Chairman
                                                      st
                                   Subcommittee on 21 Century Competitiveness
                                   Committee on Education and the Workforce
                                   House of Representatives

                                   Federally funded employment and training programs serve an important
                                   role in the nation’s economy by helping job seekers enhance their job
                                   skills, identify job opportunities and ultimately find employment. While
                                   the Department of Labor is responsible for overseeing many of these
                                   programs, other agencies such as the Departments of Health and Human
                                   Services (HHS) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) also play a
                                   role. In the 1990s, we issued a series of reports that highlighted the range
                                   of programs that provided employment and training services. Again in
                                   2000, just after the implementation of the Workforce Investment Act
                                   (WIA), which provided for a consolidated service delivery system for many
                                   of the programs, we reviewed the workforce development system,
                                   identifying 40 federally funded employment and training programs--
                                   operated through seven federal agencies--for which a key program goal
                                   was providing employment and training assistance.a As WIA approaches
                                   reauthorization, it is important to re-examine the system’s structure to
                                   determine if additional changes are indicated.

                                   To understand the current structure, you asked us to provide you with an
                                   update of the employment and training programs we reported on in 2000.
                                   Specifically, you asked us to determine (1) how many federal employment
                                   and training programs there were in fiscal year 2002, their appropriations
                                   in fiscal years 2001, 2002, and 2003, and the proportion of funds used to
                                   provide employment and training services; (2) how many individuals were



                                   a
                                   Multiple Employment and Training Programs: Overlapping Programs Indicate Need for
                                   Closer Examination of Structure. GAO-01-71. Washington, D.C.: October 13, 2000.



                                   Page 1                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
served by the programs and the target populations and services associated
with each program; and (3) the kinds of outcome measures used by the
programs.

To address these questions, we distributed a questionnaire to officials in
nine federal agencies, collecting information about funding levels, type
and number of participants, services provided and outcome measures
tracked. Applying the same definition used in the earlier study, we defined
employment and training programs as those specifically designed to (1)
help job seekers find employment (2) enhance specific job skills of
individuals in order to increase their employability, and (3) identify job
opportunities. Our analysis included all programs reported in the earlier
study if they were still funded in fiscal year 2002, as well as additional
programs identified by agency officials and confirmed by questionnaire
responses. We compared the results to those we obtained in the earlier
study. We also consulted the 2002 Catalog of Federal Domestic
Assistance to corroborate responses obtained in the questionnaire and to
verify that employment and training activities were a major focus of the
programs. We conducted our work from November 2002 to March 2003 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.

On March 21, 2003, we briefed your staff on the results of our analyses.
This report formally conveys the information provided during that
briefing. Appendix I contains the briefing slides.

In summary, we identified 44 programs administered by 9 federal agencies
that provided a range of employment and training services. While many of
the programs were the same as those included in the 2000 report, 10
programs were newly identified and 6 previously identified programs had
been discontinued. Collectively, appropriations for employment and
training programs remained relatively constant between fiscal years 1999
and 2002, totaling about $30 billion in both 2001 and 2002, with roughly $12
billion used for employment and training activities. While six programs
accounted for 73 percent of the $12 billion total, a majority of programs
reported using 75 percent or more of their appropriations for employment
and training activities.

The programs served a total of more than 30 million individuals, with
about three-fourths of the programs focusing their services primarily on
one target population. Some of the programs were small, serving about 100
participants, while other programs were quite large, serving just over 19
million participants. Seventy-seven percent of the programs identified one
primary target population as the intended service recipients, with Native


Page 2                     GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
Americans, veterans, and youth ranking among the most frequently cited
target populations. Thirteen programs required participants to be
economically disadvantaged in fiscal year 2002, compared with 15
programs in 1999. Although fewer total programs required participants to
be economically disadvantaged in 2002, 5 of the 15 programs with that
requirement in 1999 were discontinued by 2002, including 2 Welfare-to-
Work Grant programs and 3 Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA)
programs. Further, 3 of the 13 programs that currently require
participants to be economically disadvantaged did not have that
requirement in 1999. Employment counseling and job search/job
placement activities were among the most commonly provided services.

All but one of the 44 programs we identified reported that they are
tracking at least one outcome measure in 2003. The most frequently cited
outcome measure was “entered employment”—the number of program
participants finding jobs. This measure is being tracked by 39 of the 44
programs in 2003.

We provided a draft of this report to officials at each of the 9 agencies for
their technical review and incorporated their comments where
appropriate.


We are sending copies of this report to relevant congressional committees
and other interested parties and will make copies available to others upon
request. In addition, the report will be available at no charge on GAO’s
Web site at http://www.gao.gov.

A list of related GAO products is included at the end of this report. If you
or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please contact
Dianne Blank or me at (202) 512-7215. Tiffany Boiman, Mark De La Rosa,
Cindy Steinfink, Cedric Burton and Jay Smale also made key contributions
to this report.




Sigurd R. Nilsen
Director, Education, Workforce,
  and Income Security Issues




Page 3                      GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
Appendix I: Update of Employment and
Training Programs




     Update of Employment and Training
                 Programs

                  Briefing for Staff of the
         Committee on Education and the Workforce
                            and
       Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness,
                House of Representatives

                          March 21, 2003



                                                                                   0




                 Page 4             GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                   Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                   Training Programs




Key Questions


1. How many federal employment and training programs were there
   in fiscal year 2002? What was their appropriation in fiscal years
   2001 and 2002, and what proportion was used for employment and
   training services?

2. How many individuals did the programs serve? What were the
   target populations and services associated with each program?

3. How many of these programs track outcome measures? What
   kinds of measures are they using?




                                                                                                1




                   Page 5                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                      Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                      Training Programs




Scope and Methodology


• Questionnaire distributed to officials in nine federal agencies between
  12/9/2002 and 1/28/2003. Data are self-reported.
• Defined employment and training programs as those specifically designed to
  • help job seekers find employment
  • enhance specific job skills of individuals in order to increase their
    employability and/or
  • identify job opportunities.
• The programs in the current review include:
  • Programs from the 2000 report (GAO-01-71)
     • Included if they were still being funded in fiscal year 2002.
  • Recent additions
     • Identified by agency officials.

                                                                                                   2




                      Page 6                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                      Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                      Training Programs




Summary of Findings


• We identified 44 federal programs that provided a range of employment and
  training services. These programs represent a combined appropriation of
  about $30 billion in fiscal year 2002. Most of the programs reported using
  75 percent or more of their appropriations for employment and training
  activities.

• The programs reported serving more than 30 million participants, with about
  three-fourths focusing their services on one primary target population. More
  programs reported providing employment counseling and job search/job
  placement activities than any other services.

• All but 1 program reported that they are tracking at least one outcome
  measure in fiscal year 2003, most often “entered employment.”




                                                                                                  3




                      Page 7                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                              Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                              Training Programs




Programs and Funding

Nine Agencies Oversee 44 Employment and Training
Programs

                                                                        Current study
Federal agency                      Programs In       Discontinued     Newly identified   Total programs in
                                   FY 2000 study       programs          programs              FY 2002
Agriculture                               1                 0                  0                  1
Defense                                   0                 0                  1                  1
Education                                11                 0                  2                 13
Health and Human Services                 6                 0                  0                  6
Housing and Urban Development             1                 0                  0                  1
Interior                                  3                 0                  0                  3
Justice                                   0                 0                  1                  1
Labor                                    17                 6                  6                 17
Veterans Administration                   1                 0                  0                  1
Total                                    40                 6                10                  44
Source: GAO analysis.



(See appendix II for a full list of programs in the current review.)

                                                                                                              4




                              Page 8                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                            Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                            Training Programs




Programs and Funding

Overall 2002 Funding Levels for Programs Providing
Employment and Training Are Comparable to 1999

• The 44 programs in the current review had a combined appropriation of:
        • $30.637 billion in 2002
        • $30.045 billion in 2001

• The 40 programs we reviewed in 2000 had a combined appropriation of:
        • $29.251 billion in 2000
        • $30.920 billion in 1999

• 34 programs were included in both reviews and had combined
  appropriations of:
        • $26.499 billion in 2002
        • $26.099 billion in 1999
(See appendix III for the appropriations of each program in the current review.)

                                                                                                         5




                            Page 9                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                    Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                    Training Programs




Programs and Funding

Appropriations Have Increased for About Half of
Programs That Provide Employment and Training

• Net change:
  • Total appropriations increased 2.0 percent between FY 2001 and FY
    2002.
• Program-by-program changes:
  • Twenty-four programs (or 55 percent) reported an increase in total
    appropriations between 2001 and 2002,
       • 11 programs increased 5 percent or more, and
       • 13 programs increased 1 to 5 percent.
  • Fifteen programs reported no change.
  • Four programs reported a decrease.
  • Between 1999 and 2002, appropriations increased for 24 of the 34
    programs that spanned both reviews.

                                                                                                 6




                    Page 10                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                      Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                                      Training Programs




Programs and Funding

Employment and Training Was a Major Focus for
Most Programs

• Forty of the 44 programs could estimate the amount spent on employment
  and training services in 2001; 39 programs could provide estimates for
  2002.a
    • Thirty-five programs spent at least 75 percent of their funds on
      employment and training activities in both years.
       • In 2001, 26 programs spent 100 percent.
       • In 2002, 25 programs spent 100 percent.
    • Two programs spent 30 percent or less of their 2002 appropriations for
      employment and training activities.
       • Refugee Assistance—Voluntary Agency Programs
       • Migrant Education—High School Equivalency Program
aTwo of the programs that were unable to estimate the amount obligated for employment and training in this review had appropriations
exceeding $1 billion. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) reported appropriations of $17 billion for FY 2002, and Vocational
Education—Basic Grants to States reported appropriations of $1.2 billion for FY 2002.


                                                                                                                                          7




                                      Page 11                                GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                    Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                    Training Programs




Programs and Funding

Six Programs Accounted for Most of the
Employment and Training Spending in Both Fiscal
Years 1999 and 2001
• In 2001, six programs accounted for 73 percent of the $12.657 billion
  used for employment and training services.

• In 1999, six programs accounted for 64 percent of the $11.720 billion
  used for employment and training services.

• Of the six programs identified in 2001,
  • three were the same as in 1999—State Vocational Rehabilitation
    Services, Job Corps, and Temporary Assistance to Needy
    Families (TANF) grants, and
  • three were new Workforce Investment Act (WIA) programs that
    replaced Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs.


                                                                                                 8




                    Page 12                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                            Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                            Training Programs




Participants and Services

Number of Participants Served Varied Greatly


• Forty-two of the 44 programs in the current review could provide a count
  of the number of participants served.
   • Overall, more than 30 million participants were served.
   • The number of participants ranged from 113 to just over 19 million.
   • A majority of programs (57% or 24 of the 42) served between 5,000
     and 500,000 participants.
• In 1999, 39 of the 40 programs could provide a count of participants
  served.
   • The number of participants ranged from 318 to 12,000,000.
   • Slightly less than half of programs (46% or 18 of the 39) served
     between 5,000 and 500,000 participants.

(See appendix IV for a list of the number of participants served by each program.)

                                                                                                         9




                            Page 13                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                            Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                            Training Programs




Participants and Services

Most of the Programs Identified a Primary Target
Population

• Most of the programs targeted participants from certain populations.
   • In 2002, 34 of the 44 programs (or 77 percent) reported focusing
     services largely on one primary target population.
   • In 1999, 33 of the 40 programs (or 83 percent) reported focusing
     services largely on one primary target population.




(See appendix VII for a complete list of the population groups served by each program.)

                                                                                                        10




                            Page 14                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                      Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                                      Training Programs




Participants and Services

Programs Targeted a Range of Populations


Primary target populations identified by programs, FY 2002
Population groups
                           Native Americans a                                                                       6
                                         Youth                                                                      6
                 Veterans/disabled veterans                                                                5
Persons with physical or mental disabilities                                            3
                                    Refugees                                2
                                 Unemployed                                 2
                         Dislocated workers                                 2
             Migrant/seasonal farmworkers                                   2
               Other low-income individuals                                 2
                               Older workers                  1
                                         Other                                          3

                                                 0           1              2         3         4         5        6         7
                                                 Number of programs
Source: GAO analysis.
aCategory includes American Indians and all other indigenous populations.




                                                                                                                             11




                                      Page 15                                   GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                             Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                                             Training Programs




Participants and Services

Programs Provided a Range of Services


Services provided by all employment and training programs, fiscal years 1999 and 2002
Services provided
                                 Employment counseling and assessment
     GED assistance and other education leading to high school diplomas
Education leading to postsecondary and technical certificates and degrees
                                                          Job development
                                                        Job readiness skills
                                                               Job referrals
                                                      Job retention training
                                        Job search/job placement activities
                                        Occupational or vocational training
                                                         On the job training
                  Remedial academic/Eng. lang. skills/basic adult literacy
                                                           Work experience
                                                                      Other
           Support services (e.g., transportation, housing, child care, etc.)
                                                                                0      10       20      30       40        50   60   70   80   90
                                                                                Percentage of programs providing service

                                                                                            FY 1999                   FY 2002
Source: GAO analysis.
Note: Each program could provide multiple services; columns will not sum to 100 percent.
(See appendix VIII for a complete list of the services provided by each program.)

                                                                                                                                                12




                                             Page 16                                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                            Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                            Training Programs




Participants and Services

Some Programs Focused on Economically
Disadvantaged in 2002

• Thirteen programs required participants to be economically disadvantaged in
  fiscal year 2002.
    • Three of these programs did not require participants to be disadvantaged
      in 1999.
   • Nine programs required participants to be economically disadvantaged
     both in 1999 and in 2002.
   • One program was newly identified in the 2002 review.
• In fiscal year 1999, 15 programs required participants to be economically
  disadvantaged.
   • Five of those programs have been discontinued or replaced.



(See appendix V for a list of programs requiring beneficiaries to be disadvantaged in 1999 and 2002.)

                                                                                                      13




                            Page 17                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                          Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                          Training Programs




Outcome Measures

Nearly All Programs Track Outcome Measures


• Nearly all of the 44 programs we surveyed reported tracking at least
  one employment-related outcome measure (40 in FY 2002; 43 in FY
  2003).
   • Four programs reported that they did not track any outcome
     measures in 2002.
   • One program, the Food Stamp Employment and Training
     Program, will not be tracking outcomes in 2003.
   • Two programs allowed individual grantees to define their own
     outcome measures, making it difficult to track outcomes at the
     national level.


(See appendix VI for more information on programs monitoring outcome measures.)

                                                                                                     14




                          Page 18                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                Appendix I: Update of Employment and
                                Training Programs




Outcome Measures

“Entered Employment” Was the Most Commonly
Tracked Outcome Measure

Outcome measures                            Number of programs                 Number of programs
                                           measuring this outcome             measuring this outcome
                                                  in 2002                            in 2003

Entered employment                                    38                                 39
Employment retention                                  23                                 28
Educational/credential attainment                     25                                 25

Wage gain/change                                      22                                 22

Other "positive" outcomes                             18                                 19
Customer satisfaction                                 11                                 12
Other outcomes                                        11                                 12
No outcomes                                            4                                  1
Source: GAO analysis.




                                                                                                           15




                                Page 19                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                           Appendix I: Update of Employment and
Appendix II: Federally Funded Employment   Training Programs



and Training Programs by Agency, Fiscal Year
2002

 LABOR                                                                          HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

 •   Disabled Veterans Outreach Program                                         •     Community Services Block Grant
 •   Employment Service                                                         •     Community Services Block Grant—Discretionary
 •   Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program                                         Awards
 •   H-1B Technical Skills Traininga                                            •     Refugee Assistance—Voluntary Agency Programs
 •   Job Corps                                                                  •     Refugee and Entrant Assistance—Targeted
 •   Local Veterans’ Employment Representative Program                                Assistance
 •   Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers                                          •     Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
                                                                                                        b
 •   Native American Employment and Training Programs                           •     Tribal Work Grants
 •   Registered Apprenticeship Training
                                                  a
 •   Responsible Reintegration of Youth Offenders                               INTERIOR
 •   Senior Community Service Employment Program
 •   Trade Adjustment Assistance and NAFTA—                                     •     Indian Employment Assistance
     Transitional Adjustment Assistance                                         •     Indian Job Placement—United Sioux Tribes
 •   Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program                                           Development Corporation
 •   Workforce Investment Act (WIA)                                             •     Indian Vocational Training—United Tribes Technical
                    a
     • WIA Adults                                                                     College
                                 a
     • WIA Dislocated Workers
                   a
     • WIA Youth                                                                AGRICULTURE
                               a
 •   Youth Opportunity Grants
                                                                                •     Food Stamp Employment and Training Program
 EDUCATION
                                                                                DEFENSE
 •   Adult Education—State Grant Program
 •   American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services                         •     Youth Challenge Programa
 •   Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders
 •   Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Programa                                  HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
 •   Migrant Education—High School Equivalency
     Program                                                                    •     Opportunities for Youth—Youthbuild Program
 •   Native American Vocational and Technical Education
     Program                                                                    JUSTICE
 •   Native Hawaiian Vocational Education
 •   Projects with Industry                                                                                                  a
                                                                                •     Serious and Violent Offenders Program
 •   State Supported Employment Services Program
 •   State Vocational Rehabilitation Services
 •   Tech Prep Education Programa                                               VETERANS
 •   Tribally Controlled Post-Secondary Vocational and
     Technical Institutions                                                     •     Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled Veterans
 •   Vocational Education—Basic Grants to States

Source: GAO analysis.
                                           a
                                               Program added during current review.
                                           b
                                            Also known as the Native Employment Works Program.




                                           Page 20                              GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                         Appendix III: Appropriations, Fiscal Year
Appendix III: Appropriations, Fiscal Year1999-2003



1999-2003


                                    1999                    2000                2001                2002                 2003
                                        d                       d                                                            i
Program name               Appropriation           Appropriation        Appropriation       Appropriation       Appropriation
Temporary Assistance
for Needy Families
                                                                                                                                e
(TANF)                    $ 17,692,000,000    $ 16,689,000,000       $ 16,689,175,000     $ 17,008,625,000   $ 16,882,000,000
State Vocational
Rehabilitation Services     2,287,128,000           2,315,587,000       2,375,792,000        2,455,385,000       2,506,948,000
WIA Dislocated
                                         a
Workers                                             1,589,025,000       1,589,025,000        1,590,040,000       1,461,145,495
Job Corps                   1,308,000,000           1,358,000,000       1,399,148,000        1,458,732,000       1,522,240,700
Vocational Education--
Basic Grants to States      1,013,128,950           1,032,003,440       1,075,360,000        1,153,568,000       1,192,200,000
                                         a
WIA Youth                                           1,240,965,000       1,127,965,000        1,127,965,000         994,458,728
                                         a
WIA Adults                                            950,000,000         950,000,000          950,000,000         898,778,000
Employment Service            761,700,000             761,700,000         761,735,000          761,735,000         756,783,723
Community Services
Block Grant                   499,828,821            527,700,000          599,967,000         649,957,976          645,762,085
Vocational
Rehabilitation for
Disabled Veterans             483,690,000            499,016,000          534,917,000         606,559,000          656,849,000
Adult Education--State
Grant Program                 365,000,000            441,916,000          540,000,000         575,000,000          571,262,500
Senior Community
Service Employment
Program                       440,200,000            440,200,000          440,200,000         445,000,000          442,306,200
Trade Adjustment
Assistance and
NAFTA--Transitional
Adjustment Assistance         360,700,000            415,150,000          406,550,000         415,650,000          972,000,000
Food Stamp
Employment and
Training Program              269,354,000            329,904,000          353,000,000         253,000,000          110,000,000
Youth Opportunity
                                         a                      a
Grants                                                                    250,000,000         225,000,000           42,442,320
Tech Prep Education
                                         a                      a
Program                                                                   106,000,000         108,000,000          107,298,000
Disabled Veterans
Outreach Program               80,040,000             80,215,000           81,615,000           81,365,000          82,078,003
Migrant and Seasonal
Farmworkers (Labor)            71,517,000             74,195,000           76,770,000          80,770,000           77,330,066
Local Veterans'
Employment
Representative
Program                        77,078,000             77,253,000           77,253,000           77,253,000          77,744,356
Opportunities for
Youth--Youthbuild
Program                        39,600,000             40,000,000           60,000,000           65,000,000          60,000,000




                                         Page 21                          GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                      Appendix III: Appropriations, Fiscal Year
                                      1999-2003




                                  1999                   2000                2001                2002                 2003
                                      d                      d                                                            i
Program name             Appropriation          Appropriation        Appropriation       Appropriation       Appropriation
Youth Challenge
                                      a                      a
Program                                                                 62,500,000          62,500,000           64,850,000
Native American
Employment and
Training Programs           69,639,842             68,814,475           55,000,000           57,000,000          55,636,000
Refugee Assistance--
Voluntary Agency
Programs                    43,100,000             53,600,000           58,472,000           56,369,000          49,000,000
Responsible
Reintegration of Youth
                                      a                      a
Offenders                                                               55,000,000          55,000,000           54,642,500
Refugee and Entrant
Assistance--Targeted
Assistance                  49,477,000             49,477,000           49,477,000           49,477,000          49,155,400
The State Supported
Employment Services
Program                     38,152,000             38,152,000           38,152,000           38,152,000          37,904,000
Community Services
Block Grant--
Discretionary Awards        26,560,000             26,560,000           29,854,000           33,976,000          34,284,692
American Indian
Vocational
Rehabilitation Service
Program                     17,283,000             23,390,000           23,998,000          25,998,000           26,544,000
Migrant Education--
High School
Equivalency Program          9,000,000             15,000,000           20,000,000           23,000,000          23,347,250
Projects with Industry      22,071,000             22,071,000           22,071,000           22,071,000          21,928,000
Registered
Apprenticeship
Training                    17,660,000             19,141,000           21,000,000           21,000,000          20,698,579
Homeless Veterans'
Reintegration Program         3,000,000              9,636,000          17,500,000          18,250,000           18,131,375
Grants to States for
Incarcerated Youth
Offenders                   12,000,000             14,000,000           17,000,000           17,000,000          18,379,750
Serious and Violent
                                      a                      a
Offenders Program                                                       29,934,000          14,934,000          14,836,929f
Native American
Vocational and
Technical Education
Program                     12,883,125             13,195,625           13,750,000          14,750,000           14,902,500
Indian Employment                                                                                                         g

Assistance                  10,859,000             17,724,845             8,775,000           9,042,000
                                                                                                                          h
Tribal Work Grants           1,700,000              1,700,000             7,633,287           7,633,287          7,633,287
Veterans' Workforce
Investment Program            7,300,000              7,300,000            7,300,000           7,550,000           7,376,738




                                      Page 22                          GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                          Appendix III: Appropriations, Fiscal Year
                                          1999-2003




                                      1999                     2000                       2001                   2002                    2003
                                          d                        d                                                                         i
Program name                 Appropriation            Appropriation               Appropriation          Appropriation          Appropriation
Tribally Controlled
Postsecondary
Vocational and
Technical Institutions            4,100,000                 4,600,000                  5,600,000               6,500,000              6,954,500
Indian Vocational
                                                                                                                                                 g
Training--United Tribes
Technical College                 2,370,000                 2,370,000                  2,424,654               3,000,000
Native Hawaiian
Vocational Education              2,576,625                 2,639,125                  2,639,125               2,750,000              2,980,500
Migrant and Seasonal
Farmworkers Program
                                          a                            a
(Edcation)                                                                             2,350,000               2,350,000              2,335,000
Indian Job Placement--
United Sioux Tribes                                                    c                                                                         g

Development
Corporation                        107,000                                              106,675                 250,000
H-1B Technical Skills
                                          a                            a                        b                       b
Training                                                                                                                           97,625,000
Total appropriations        $26,098,803,363         $29,251,200,510              $30,045,008,741       $30,637,157,263        $30,688,773,176
Source: Agency officials.
                                          a
                                              Not included in the last review.
                                          b
                                              This program is funded by service fees.
                                          c
                                              Not funded in fiscal year 2000.
                                          d
                                              Appropriations information obtained from GAO-01-71.
                                          e
                                              This figure represents FY 2003 budget authority for the TANF program.
                                          f
                                          This figure represents only the portion of the program’s funding that comes from the Department of
                                          Justice.
                                          g
                                              Agency officials unable to provide appropriations information.
                                          h
                                           Program’s authorization expired after FY 2002. Continuing resolutions provide appropriations for the
                                          first three quarters of FY 2003 at FY 2002 levels, and program officials anticipate that the full year’s
                                          funding will be $7,633,287.
                                          i
                                              FY 2003 figures include recission where applicable.




                                          Page 23                                   GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                         Appendix IV: Estimated Number of Program
Appendix IV: Estimated Number of Program Participants Who Received Employment and
                                         Training Services


Participants Who Received Employment and
Training Services

Program                                                                       Fiscal year 1999            Fiscal year 2002a,i
Employment Service                                                                 12,000,000                    19,016,071
Adult Education--State Grant Program                                                 4,020,000                     2,673,692
Tech Prep Education Program                                                       Not included                     1,525,994
Vocational Education--Basic Grants to States                                        4,000,000b                    1,330,404h
State Vocational Rehabilitation Services                                             1,200,000c                   1,300,000j
Food Stamp Employment and Training Program                                             700,000                       712,000
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)                                         875,000                       605,497j
Local Veterans' Employment Representative Program                                      498,401                       523,534
Registered Apprenticeship Training                                                     411,000                       488,000
Disabled Veterans Outreach Program                                                     498,655                       459,814
WIA Adults                                                                        Not included                       392,194
WIA Youth                                                                         Not included                       373,074
WIA Dislocated Workers                                                            Not included                       330,439
                                                                                                                           e,h
Community Services Block Grant--Discretionary Awards                                     2,000                    213,764
Senior Community Service Employment Program                                            101,000                       107,000j
Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled Veterans                                         52,000                        69,634
Job Corps                                                                               70,685                        67,800
Youth Opportunity Grants                                                          Not included                        42,000
Trade Adjustment Assistance and NAFTA--Transitional Adjustment
Assistance                                                                                30,000                       40,000
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (Labor)                                                  42,200                       36,700
Refugee and Entrant Assistance--Targeted Assistance                                       46,600                      25,000h
H-1B Technical Skills Training                                                      Not included                       24,899
Refugee Assistance--Voluntary Agency Programs                                             24,000                       23,400
Native American Employment and Training Programs                                          19,367                      18,590j
                                                                                                                                j
Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth Offenders                                          3,000                      16,178
Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Project                                                   4,136                       12,142
Projects with Industry                                                                    13,945                       12,000
                                                                                                                             f,h
The State Supported Employment Services Program                                           37,008                     10,254
                                                                                                                             j,k
Tribal Work Grants                                                                        21,761                     10,000
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers Program (Education)                                Not included                        9,500h
Migrant Education--High School Equivalency Program                                         1,600                        7,000
Youth Challenge Program                                                             Not included                        6,500
Responsible Reintegration of Youth Offenders                                        Not included                        5,000i
Veterans' Workforce Investment Program                                                     3,615                       4,600 h
                                                                                                                                j
American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Service Program                                  3,200                        4,473
Opportunities for Youth--Youthbuild Program                                                2,767                        3,729
                                                                                                                               g
Indian Employment Assistance                                                               3,200                       3,724
                                                                                                                               h
Native American Vocational and Technical Education Program                                 1,788                       2,920
Native Hawaiian Vocational Education                                                         318                         1,024
Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational and Technical                                   500                           780



                                         Page 24                       GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                                 Appendix IV: Estimated Number of Program
                                                                 Participants Who Received Employment and
                                                                 Training Services




                                                                                                                                                                       a,i
Program                                                                                                          Fiscal year 1999                 Fiscal year 2002
Institutions
Indian Vocational Training--United Tribes Technical College                                                                    559                                  734
Indian Job Placement--United Sioux Tribes Development Corporation                                                            3,683                                  113
                                                                                                                                                                        d
Serious and Violent Offenders Program                                                                                 Not included
                                                                                                                                 d                                      d
Community Services Block Grant
Source: FY 2002 figures provided by agency officials; FY 1999 figures obtained from GAO-01-71.
                                                                 a
                                                                     FY 2002 unless otherwise noted.
                                                                 b
                                                                 This number includes only individuals participating in postsecondary vocational and technical
                                                                 educational institutions.
                                                                 c
                                                                 This number includes the 37,008 individuals participating in the State Supported Employment
                                                                 Services Program.
                                                                 d
                                                                  Program officials were unable to provide an estimate of the number of individuals who received
                                                                 employment and traning services.
                                                                 e
                                                                 This estimate includes both the Community Economic Development Program and the Rural Facilities
                                                                 Program, whereas the FY 1999 estimate did not.
                                                                 f
                                                                 This figure may undercount participants, as it represents only those participants who have actually
                                                                 obtained employment.
                                                                 g
                                                                  Tribes participating in P.L. 102-477 using Employment Assistance funds are not included in this
                                                                 figure.
                                                                 h
                                                                     This estimate represents a period prior to FY 2001.
                                                                 i
                                                                 Most programs reported participants served for FY 2002, with the exception of certain Labor
                                                                 programs that collect data by program year rather than fiscal year. Other exceptions are noted.
                                                                 j
                                                                     This estimate represents participants served in FY 2001.
                                                                 k
                                                                 This estimate was derived by adding the number of participants in “separate” Tribal Work Grants
                                                                 programs and an estimate of the number served with Tribal Work Grants funds in P.L. 102-477
                                                                 projects.




                                                                 Page 25                                 GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                           Appendix IV: Estimated Number of Program
Appendix V: Programs Requiring             Participants Who Received Employment and
                                           Training Services


Beneficiaries to be Economically
Disadvantaged in Fiscal Year 1999 or 2002

                                                                          Programs requiring beneficiaries to be economically
                                                                                             disadvantaged
 Program name                                                               Fiscal year 1999                Fiscal year 2002
 Department of Labor
 Homeless Veterans Reintegration Project                                             9                                      9
 Job Corps                                                                           9                                      9
 JTPA Adult Training (Title II-A)                                                    9                           Discontinued program
 JTPA Summer Youth E&T (Title II-B)                                                  9                           Discontinued program
 JTPA Youth Training (Title II-C)                                                    9                           Discontinued program
 Migrant and Seasonal Farm Workers                                                   9                                      9
 Senior Community Services Employment Program                                        9                                      9
 Welfare-to-Work Grants to Federally Recognized Tribes and                           9                           Discontinued program
 Alaska Natives
 Welfare-to-Work Grants to States and Localities                                     9                           Discontinued program
 WIA Youth                                                                 Not yet implemented                              9

 Department of Education
 Migrant Education—High School Equivalency                                           9                               Did not require
                                                                                                                                      a




 Department of Health and Human Services
 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)                                      9                                      9
 Refugee Assistance—Voluntary Agency Programs                                        9                                      9
 Community Services Block Grant                                                      9                                      9
 Community Services Block Grant—Discretionary Awards                          Did not require                               9

 Department of Agriculture
 Food Stamp Employment and Training Program                                          9                                      9

 Department of Interior/Bureau of Indian Affairs
 Indian Vocational Training—United Tribes Technical College                   Did not require                               9
 Indian Job Placement—United Sioux Tribes Development                         Did not require                               9
 Corporation

 Department of Housing and Urban Development
 Opportunities for Youth—Youthbuild                                                  9                                      9
Source: Agency officials.
                                           a
                                            While this program does not explicitly require beneficiaries to be economically disadvantaged in
                                           order to be eligible for services, beneficiaries must be engaged in migrant and other seasonal farm
                                           work. According to agency officials, this population is predominantly low-income.




                                           Page 26                             GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
             Appendix VI: Outcome Measures
Appendix VI: Outcome Measures


             While some employment and training programs have been monitoring
             outcomes over a period of time, the Office of Management and Budget
             (OMB) has recently issued a proposal that would require many federally
             funded employment and training programs to track four common outcome
             measures each for youth or adult programs in fiscal year 2004. Table 1
             outlines OMB’s proposed measures.

             Table 1: OMB’s Common Measures for Employment and Training Programs

              Youth programs                                                            Adult programs
              • Placement in employment, education, or the military                     • Entered employment
              • Attainment of a degree or certificate                                   • Retention in employment
              • Literacy and numeracy gains                                             • Earnings Increase
              • Efficiency (annual appropriation per participant)                       • Efficiency
             Source: Information provided by agency officials.


             Federal agencies provided information on selected outcomes that they
             currently track for each of their programs. Table 2 lists information on
             which programs are currently tracking performance measures similar to
             those proposed by OMB. Our questionnaire did not collect information on
             an efficiency measure.

             Table 2 also identifies the programs that were reviewed using the Program
             Assessment Rating Tool (PART) during the fiscal year 2004 budget cycle.
             PART is a new evaluation instrument that links a program’s performance
             to its budget. The administration plans to review approximately one-fifth
             of all federal programs every year, to ensure that every program will have
             been evaluated using PART by the time of the 2008 budget submission.




             Page 27                                             GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                         Appendix VI: Outcome Measures




Table 2: Programs’ Outcome Tracking Requirements Under OMB’s Common Measures Initiative and Outcome Measures
Tracked by the Programs in Fiscal Year 2003

                         OMB’s                     Measures tracked by program in fiscal year 2003
                         Common        Entered       Employ-                     Educational/ Other             Programs
Employment and           Measures      employ-       ment          Wage          credential      “positive      Identified
                   a                                                                                       b
training programs        Initiative?   ment          Retention     gain/change attainment        outcomes”      Under PART
Labor
Disabled Veterans’            Yes          9               9
Outreach Program
Employment Service            Yes          9               9
Homeless Veterans’            Yes          9               9
Reintegration
Program
H-1B Technical Skills         Yes          9               9              9             9
Training
Job Corps                     Yes          9               9              9             9              9
Local Veterans’               Yes          9               9
Employment
Representative
Program
Migrant and Seasonal         Yes
                                   c
                                           9               9              9
Farm Workers
Native American               Yes          9                              9             9              9
Employment and
Training Programs
Registered                    No           9               9              9             9
Apprenticeship
Training
Responsible                   Yes          9               9                            9              9
Reintegration of Youth
Offenders
Senior Community              Yes          9               9              9
Service Employment
Program
Trade Adjustment              Yes          9               9              9                                          9
Assistance and
NAFTA—Transitional
Adjustment
Assistance
Veterans Workforce            Yes          9               9
Investment Program
WIA Adults                    Yes          9               9              9             9
WIA Dislocated                Yes          9               9              9             9                            9
Workers
WIA Youth                     Yes          9               9              9             9              9             9
Youth Opportunity             Yes          9               9              9             9              9
Grants
Education
Adult Education –             Yes          9               9                            9              9             9
State Grant Program




                                         Page 28                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                    Appendix VI: Outcome Measures




                    OMB’s                     Measures tracked by program in fiscal year 2003
                    Common        Entered       Employ-                     Educational/ Other             Programs
Employment and      Measures      employ-       ment          Wage          credential      “positive      Identified
                    a                                                                                 b
training programs   Initiative?   ment          Retention     gain/change attainment        outcomes”      Under PART
American Indian           Yes         9                              9
Vocational
Rehabilitation
Services
Grants to States for     Yes          9                                            9              9             9
Incarcerated Youth
Offenders
Migrant and Seasonal     Yes          9               9
Farmworkers Program
Migrant Education –       No          9                                            9              9
High School
Equivalency Program
Native American           No          9                                            9              9
Vocational and
Technical Education
Program
Native Hawaiian           No          9                                            9              9
Vocational Education
Projects with Industry   Yes          9               9              9
State Supported          Yes          9               9              9
Employment Services
Program
State Vocational         Yes          9                              9                                          9
Rehabilitation
Services
Tech Prep Education      Yes          9               9                            9              9             9
Program
Tribally Controlled      Yes                                                       9                            9
Post-Secondary
Vocational and
Technical Institutions
Vocational               Yes          9               9                            9              9             9
Education—Basic
Grants to States
Health and Human Services
Community Services        No          9               9              9             9              9
Block Grant
Community Services        No
Block Grant –
Discretionary Awards
Refugee Assistance –      No          9               9              9
Voluntary Agency
Programs
Refugee and Entrant       No          9               9              9                                          9
Assistance – Targeted
Assistance
Temporary Assistance     Yes          9               9              9
for Needy Families




                                    Page 29                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                                Appendix VI: Outcome Measures




                        OMB’s                                                Measures tracked by program in fiscal year 2003
                        Common                             Entered             Employ-                     Educational/ Other                        Programs
 Employment and         Measures                           employ-             ment          Wage          credential      “positive                 Identified
                    a                                                                                                                b
 training programs      Initiative?                        ment                Retention     gain/change attainment        outcomes”                 Under PART
 Tribal Work Grants           No                                      9                 9                  9            9                 9
 Bureau of Indian Affairs
 Indian Employment            No
                                 d
                                                                      9                 9                               9                 9
 Assistance
 Indian Job                   Yes                                     9                 9                  9            9                 9
 Placement—United
 Sioux Tribes
 Development
 Corporation
 Indian Vocational            Yes                                     9                 9                  9            9                 9
 Training—United
 Tribes Technical
 College
 Agriculture
 Food Stamp                   No
 Employment and
 Training Program
 Defense
 Youth Challenge              No                                      9                                                 9                 9
 Program
 Housing and Urban
 Development
 Opportunities for            Yes                                     9                                    9            9                 9
 Youth—Youthbuild
 Program
 Justice
 Serious and Violent          No
 Offenders Program
 Veterans Affairs
 Vocational                   Yes                                     9                 9                  9            9
 Rehabilitation for
 Disabled Veterans
Source: Budget documents and information provided by OMB officials.
                                                                a
                                                                    Program titles in use as of fiscal year 2002.
                                                                b
                                                                 “Other positive outcomes” refers to outcomes such as entering the military, postsecondary
                                                                education, or other vocational training program.
                                                                c
                                                                 If the program continues to be funded, they will track outcome measures in keeping with OMB’s
                                                                common measures inititive.
                                                                d
                                                                 According to program officials, in the future this program will collect data under OMB’s common
                                                                performance measures.




                                                                Page 30                                  GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
Appendix VI: Outcome Measures




Page 31                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                        Appendix VII: Population Groups Served by
Appendix VII: Population Groups Served by               Employment and Training Programs



Employment and Training Programs




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Registered Apprenticeship Training (DOL)   1999     ●               ●            ●      ●                 ●            ●
                                           2002     ●               ●            ●      ●                 ●            ●
Employment Service (DOL)                   1999     ●        ●      ●     ●      ●      ●     ●     ●     ●
                                           2002     ●        ●      ●     ●      ●      ●     ●     ●     ●
Senior Community Service Employment        1999                           ●
Program (DOL)                              2002                           ●
Trade Adjustment Assistance and NAFTA–     1999     ●
Transitional Adjustment Assistance (DOL)   2002     ●
WIA Adults (DOL)                           1999     ●        ●      ●     ●      ●      ●     ●     ●     ●      ●     ●
                                           2002     ●        ●      ●     ●      ●      ●     ●     ●     ●      ●     ●
WIA Youth (DOL)                            1999                                  ●
                                           2002                                  ●      ●     ●     ●
WIA Dislocated Workers (DOL)               1999     ●                                               ●
                                           2002     ●                                               ●
Youth Opportunity Grants (DOL)             1999              ●      ●            ●      ●           ●
                                           2002              ●      ●            ●      ●           ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (DOL)     1999              ●
                                           2002              ●
Native American Employment and Training    1999                     ●                                                  ●
Programs (DOL)                             2002                     ●
Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program        1999                                                           ●
(DOL)                                      2002                                                           ●
Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program     1999                                                           ●
(DOL)                                      2002                                                           ●
Local Veterans’ Employment                 1999                                                           ●
Representative Program (DOL)               2002                                                           ●
Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program   1999     ●               ●     ●             ●           ●     ●
(DOL)                                      2002                                                           ●
Job Corps (DOL)                            1999                                  ●      ●           ●
                                           2002                                  ●      ●     ●     ●            ●
                                                    a        a      a      a     a      a      a    a      a     a     a
H-1B Technical Skills Training (DOL)       1999
                                           2002     ●                                               ●
                                                    a        a      a      a     a      a      a    a      a     a     a
Responsible Reintegration of Youth         1999
Offenders (DOL)                            2002     ●        ●      ●     ●      ●      ●     ●     ●     ●            ●
Adult Education–State Grant Program (ED)   1999                     ●            ●      ●           ●            ●     ●
                                           2002                     ●            ●      ●           ●            ●     ●
Vocational Education–Basic Grants to       1999                                                                        ●
States (ED)                                2002                                                                        ●
Native American Vocational and Technical   1999                     ●                                                  ●
Education Program (ED)                     2002                     ●                                                  ●
State Vocational Rehabilitation Services   1999                                         ●
(ED)                                       2002                                         ●
Migrant Education–High School              1999              ●                   ●
Equivalency Program (ED)                   2002              ●                   ●




                                                        Page 32                        GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                                     Appendix VII: Population Groups Served by
                                                                     Employment and Training Programs




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The State Supported Employment Services              1999                                                    ●
Program (ED)                                         2002                                                    ●
Projects with Industry (ED)                          1999        ●                                           ●            ●             ●
                                                     2002        ●                                           ●            ●             ●
                                                                 a           a      a      a       a          a     a     a      a       a       a
Tech Prep Education Program (ED)                     1999
                                                     2002                                                                                        ●
Tribally Controlled Postsecondary                    1999                          ●                                                             ●
Vocational and Technical Institutions (ED)           2002                          ●                                                             ●
American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation            1999                          ●                         ●            ●
Service Program (ED)                                 2002                          ●                         ●            ●
Native Hawaiian Vocational Education (ED)            1999                                                                                        ●
                                                     2002                                                                                        ●
Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth              1999                                          ●
Offenders (ED)                                       2002                                          ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers                     1999                    ●
Program (ED)                                         2002                    ●
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families              1999        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●      ●     ●      ●               ●
(TANF) (HHS)                                         2002        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●      ●     ●      ●               ●
Refugee Assistance–Voluntary Agency                  1999                                                           ●     ●                      ●
Programs (HHS)                                       2002                                                           ●     ●                      ●
Community Services Block Grant (HHS)                 1999        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●      ●     ●      ●      ●
                                                     2002        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●      ●     ●      ●      ●
Community Services Block                             1999        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●      ●
Grant–Discretionary Awards (HHS)                     2002        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●      ●
Refugee and Entrant Assistance–Targeted              1999                                                           ●                            ●
Assistance (HHS)                                     2002                                                           ●
Tribal Work Grants (HHS)                             1999        ●                 ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●      ●        ●
                                                     2002        ●                 ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●      ●        ●
Food Stamp Employment and Training                   1999        ●           ●     ●                                      ●      ●               ●
Program (USDA)                                       2002        ●           ●     ●                                      ●      ●      ●        ●
Opportunities for Youth–Youthbuild Program           1999                                          ●
(HUD)                                                2002                                          ●         ●            ●                      ●
Indian Vocational Training–United Tribes             1999                          ●
Technical College (DOI/BIA)                          2002                          ●                         ●            ●
Indian Job Placement–United Sioux Tribes             1999                          ●                                             ●
Development Corporation (DOI/BIA)                    2002        ●                 ●       ●                 ●            ●
Indian Employment Assistance (DOI/BIA)               1999        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●
                                                     2002        ●           ●     ●       ●       ●         ●            ●      ●
Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled               1999                                                                        ●
Veterans (VA)                                        2002                                                                        ●
                                                                 a           a      a      a       a          a     a     a                      a
Serious and Violent Offenders Program                1999                                                                        ●
(DOJ)                                                2002                          ●               ●         ●                   a               ●
                                                                 a           a      a      a       a          a     a     a                      a
Youth Challenge Program (DOD)                        1999                                                                        ●
                                                     2002                          ●               ●                      ●      a


Source: Population groups served, as reported by agency officials.
                                                                     a
                                                                      Program not included in last review.
                                                                     b
                                                                      Category includes American Indians and all other indigenous populations.




                                                                     Page 33                                 GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                    Appendix VIII: Services Provided by
Appendix VIII: Services Provided by                 Employment and Training Programs



Employment and Training Programs




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Program name                               year
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Registered Apprenticeship Training (DOL)   1999                           ●                  ●         ●         ●
                                           2002                           ●                  ●         ●         ●
Employment Service (DOL)                   1999       ●                             ●                  ●
                                           2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●
Senior Community Service Employment        1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Program (DOL)                              2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Trade Adjustment Assistance and NAFTA–     1999                 ●                                                ●
Transitional Adjustment Assistance (DOL)   2002       ●         ●                                                ●
WIA Adults (DOL)                           1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
WIA Youth (DOL)                            1999       ●         ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                            ●         ●         ●
WIA Dislocated Workers (DOL)               1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Youth Opportunity Grants (DOL)             1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (DOL)     1999       ●         ●                                      ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Native American Employment and Training    1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●
Programs (DOL)                             2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●
Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program        1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
(DOL)                                      2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program     1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
(DOL)                                      2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Local Veterans’ Employment                 1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Representative Program (DOL)               2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program   1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
(DOL)                                      2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Job Corps (DOL)                            1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                           2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
H-1B Technical Skills Training (DOL)       1999       b         b         b         b         b        b         b

                                           2002       ●                                                ●
Responsible Reintegration of Youth         1999       b         b         b         b         b        b         b

Offenders (DOL)                            2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Adult Education–State Grant Program (ED)   1999                 ●
                                           2002                 ●
Vocational Education–Basic Grants to       1999       ●         ●         ●                  ●
States (ED)                                2002       ●         ●         ●                  ●
Native American Vocational and Technical   1999                 ●         ●
Education Program (ED)                     2002       ●         ●         ●                            ●
State Vocational Rehabilitation Services   1999       ●                   ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
(ED)                                       2002       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Migrant Education–High School              1999       ●         ●
Equivalency Program (ED)                   2002       ●         ●




                                                    Page 34                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
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                                                    Employment and Training Programs




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Program name                               year




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Registered Apprenticeship Training (DOL)   1999                        ●                 ●                          ●
                                           2002                        ●                 ●                          ●
Employment Service (DOL)                   1999      ●
                                           2002      ●
Senior Community Service Employment        1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Program (DOL)                              2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Trade Adjustment Assistance and NAFTA–     1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●
Transitional Adjustment Assistance (DOL)   2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●
WIA Adults (DOL)                           1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
WIA Youth (DOL)                            1999                        ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
WIA Dislocated Workers (DOL)               1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
Youth Opportunity Grants (DOL)             1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (DOL)     1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
Native American Employment and Training    1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Programs (DOL)                             2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program        1999      ●
(DOL)                                      2002      ●
Veterans’ Workforce Investment Program     1999      ●                 ●                 ●                          ●         ●         ●
(DOL)                                      2002      ●                 ●                 ●                          ●         ●         ●
Local Veterans’ Employment                 1999      ●
Representative Program (DOL)               2002      ●
Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program   1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
(DOL)                                      2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
Job Corps (DOL)                            1999      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
H-1B Technical Skills Training (DOL)       1999       b                b                 b                b         b         b         b

                                           2002      ●                 ●                 ●
Responsible Reintegration of Youth         1999       b                b                 b                b         b         b         b

Offenders (DOL)                            2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                   ●
Adult Education–State Grant Program (ED)   1999                                                           ●
                                           2002                                                           ●
Vocational Education–Basic Grants to       1999                        ●
States (ED)                                2002                        ●
Native American Vocational and Technical   1999                        ●
Education Program (ED)                     2002      ●                 ●                 ●
State Vocational Rehabilitation Services   1999      ●                 ●                 ●                                    ●         ●
(ED)                                       2002      ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●         ●
Migrant Education–High School              1999      ●
Equivalency Program (ED)                   2002      ●




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Program name                                 year
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The State Supported Employment Services      1999                                     ●                            ●
Program (ED)                                 2002                                     ●                            ●
Projects with Industry (ED)                  1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
                                             2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
                                                        a         a         a         b         b        b         b
Tech Prep Education Program (ED)             1999
                                             2002       ●         ●         ●                  ●
Tribally Controlled Postsecondary            1999                           ●
Vocational and Technical Institutions (ED)   2002                           ●
American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation    1999       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Service Program (ED)                         2002       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Native Hawaiian Vocational Education (ED)    1999                 ●         ●
                                             2002                 ●         ●
Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth      1999       ●                   ●                  ●         ●
Offenders (ED)                               2002       ●                   ●                  ●         ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers             1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Program (ED)                                 2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families      1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
(TANF) (HHS)                                 2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Refugee Assistance–Voluntary Agency          1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Programs (HHS)                               2002       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Community Services Block Grant (HHS)         1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                             2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Community Services Block                     1999                                     ●
Grant–Discretionary Awards (HHS)             2002                                     ●
Refugee and Entrant Assistance–Targeted      1999       ●                             ●        ●         ●         ●
Assistance (HHS)                             2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Tribal Work Grants (HHS)                     1999       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
                                             2002       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Food Stamp Employment and Training           1999       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Program (USDA)                               2002       ●         ●         ●         ●        ●         ●         ●
Opportunities for Youth–Youthbuild Program   1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●
(HUD)                                        2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Indian Vocational Training–United Tribes     1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Technical College (DOI/BIA)                  2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Indian Job Placement–United Sioux Tribes     1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Development Corporation (DOI/BIA)            2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Indian Employment Assistance (DOI/BIA)       1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                             2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled       1999       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
Veterans (VA)                                2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●
                                                        a         a         a         b         b        b         b
Serious and Violent Offenders Program        1999
(DOJ)                                        2002
                                                        a         a         a         b         b        b         b
Youth Challenge Program (DOD)                1999
                                             2002       ●         ●                   ●        ●         ●         ●




                                                      Page 36                         GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
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                                                               Employment and Training Programs




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Program name                                          year




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The State Supported Employment Services               1999                                             ●
Program (ED)                                          2002                                             ●
Projects with Industry (ED)                           1999         ●                 ●                 ●                          ●                  ●
                                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                  ●
Tech Prep Education Program (ED)                      1999          b                b                 b                b         b         b         b

                                                      2002                           ●
Tribally Controlled Postsecondary                     1999                           ●
Vocational and Technical Institutions (ED)            2002                           ●
American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation             1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●        ●
Service Program (ED)                                  2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●        ●
Native Hawaiian Vocational Education (ED)             1999
                                                      2002
Grants to States for Incarcerated Youth               1999         ●                 ●
Offenders (ED)                                        2002         ●                 ●
Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers                      1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                  ●
Program (ED)                                          2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                  ●
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families               1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
(TANF) (HHS)                                          2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
Refugee Assistance–Voluntary Agency                   1999         ●                                                    ●                   ●
Programs (HHS)                                        2002         ●                                                    ●                   ●
Community Services Block Grant (HHS)                  1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
                                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
Community Services Block                              1999                                             ●
Grant–Discretionary Awards (HHS)                      2002                                             ●
Refugee and Entrant Assistance–Targeted               1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●                   ●
Assistance (HHS)                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●                   ●
Tribal Work Grants (HHS)                              1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
                                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●         ●
Food Stamp Employment and Training                    1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Program (USDA)                                        2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Opportunities for Youth–Youthbuild Program            1999         ●                 ●                                  ●
(HUD)                                                 2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Indian Vocational Training–United Tribes              1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●
Technical College (DOI/BIA)                           2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●
Indian Job Placement–United Sioux Tribes              1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Development Corporation (DOI/BIA)                     2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Indian Employment Assistance (DOI/BIA)                1999         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
                                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●
Vocational Rehabilitation for Disabled                1999         ●                 ●                 ●                          ●                  ●
Veterans (VA)                                         2002         ●                 ●                 ●                          ●                  ●
Serious and Violent Offenders Program                 1999          b                b                 b                b         b         b         b

(DOJ)                                                 2002                                                                                           ●
Youth Challenge Program (DOD)                         1999          b                b                 b                b         b         b         b

                                                      2002         ●                 ●                 ●                ●         ●                  ●

Source: Services provided, as reported by agency officials.
                                                               a
                                                               General Educational Development.
                                                               b
                                                               Program not included in last review.




                                                               Page 37                                                  GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                          Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
Appendix IX: Program Objectives and       Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                          Employment and Training Programs


Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
Employment and Training Programs, by
Target Population
Program (department)             Objective                                              Eligibility criteria
Dislocated workers
Trade Adjustment Assistance      To provide retraining, job search, and or,             A TAA beneficiary must (1) be a member of a
(TAA) and NAFTA—Transitional     relocation assistance to workers adversely             worker group that has been found by the Labor
Adjustment Assistance (Labor)    affected by increased imports in order to              Department to be adversely affected by
                                 facilitate their return to the workforce in suitable   increased imports, either directly or indirectly, or
                                 employment.                                            by a shift of production, and therefore certified
                                                                                        eligible to apply for Trade Adjustment
                                                                                        Assistance, and (2) must meet the following
                                                                                        individual requirements: (a) his or her total or
                                                                                        partial separation must have begun on or after
                                                                                        the date specified in the certification as the
                                                                                        beginning of the adverse import impact and (b)
                                                                                        his or her total or partial separation must begin
                                                                                        before the expiration of the two-year period
                                                                                        beginning on the date on which the Secretary
                                                                                        issued the certification or before the termination
                                                                                        date, if any, specified in the certification.

WIA Dislocated Workers           To provide workforce investment activities that        Individuals eligible for assistance include
                                 increase the employment, retention and                 workers who have lost their jobs as a result of
                                 earnings of participants, and increase                 plant closings or mass layoffs, and are unlikely to
                                 occupational skill attainment by the                   return to their previous industry or occupation;
                                 participants. This aims to reemploy dislocated         formerly self-employed individuals; and
                                 workers, improve the quality of the workforce          displaced homemakers who have been
                                 and enhance the productivity of the nation’s           dependant on income of another family member,
                                 economy. This program is designed to                   but are no longer supported by that income.
                                 increase employment, as measured by entry              National Emergency Grant Program—Identical
                                 into unsubsidized employment, retention in             eligibility; also include certain military personnel
                                 unsubsidized employment six months after               individuals and defense employees. Services are
                                 entry into employment, and extent of recovery          targeted to individuals affected by mass layoffs,
                                 of prior wage levels. For cross-cutting goals,         natural disasters, Federal government actions,
                                 the program intends to enhance customer                and other circumstances specified by the
                                 satisfaction for participants and for employers.       Secretary.
                                 The employment goals will be measured using
                                 Unemployment Insurance Wage Records and
                                 customer satisfaction goals measured by
                                 sampling.

Migrant and seasonal farmworkers
Migrant and Seasonal          This discretionary grant program under Section Migratory, agricultural and seasonal farmworkers
Farmworkers (Education)       312 of the Rehabilitation Act authorizes        with disabilities and their family members.
                              projects to provide vocational rehabilitation
                              services to migratory agricultural and seasonal
                              farmworkers with disabilities, including
                              maintenance and transportation for individuals
                              with disabilities and members of their families
                              whether or not such family members are
                              disabled.




                                          Page 38                             GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                          Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
                                          Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                          Employment and Training Programs




Program (department)              Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Migrant and Seasonal Farm         The National Farmworker Jobs Program                An eligible seasonal farm worker-- is a
Workers (Labor)                   (NFJP) under section 167 of the Workforce           disadvantaged person who for 12 consecutive
                                  Investment Act assists migrant and other            months out of the 24 months prior to application
                                  seasonal farmworkers and their family               for the program, has been primarily employed in
                                  members achieve economic self-sufficiency by        agricultural labor that is characterized by chronic
                                  addressing their employment-related needs.          unemployment or underemployment.
                                  For those aspiring beyond farm labor, the
                                  National Farmworkers Jobs Program (NFJP)            An eligible Migrant farm worker—is a seasonal
                                  provides basic education, job skills training and   farmworker whose agricultural labor requires
                                  supportive services to prepare them for better      travel to a job site such that the farmworker is
                                  paying jobs that offer year-round employment.       unable to return to a permanent place of
                                  For those preferring to stay in agricultural        residence within the same day.
                                  labor, NFJP provides supportive services that
                                  enable the farmworkers to continue their            Dependents of eligible seasonal or migrant farm
                                  participation in the agricultural labor market by   workers are also eligible.
                                  being available for hire by farmers when the
                                  farmers need their labor.
                  a
Native Americans
American Indian Vocational        The American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation       American Indians with disabilities residing on or
Rehabilitation Services           Services Program provides vocational                near a federal or state reservation (including
(Education)                       rehabilitation services to American Indians with    Native Alaskans) who meet the definition of an
                                  disabilities who reside on or near federal or       individual with a disability or individual with a
                                  state reservations, consistent with their           significant disability, respectively, found in
                                  individual strengths, resources, priorities,        sections 7(20)(A) and (21)(A) of the
                                  concerns, abilities, and capabilities, interests    Rehabilitation Act.
                                  and informed choice, so that they may prepare
                                  for and engage in gainful employment.

Indian Employment Assistance      To provide vocational training and employment       Members of Federally Recognized Indian tribes
(Interior)                        opportunities to eligible American Indians and      who are unemployed, underemployed, or in need
                                  to reduce Federal dependence.                       of training to obtain reasonable and satisfactory
                                                                                      employment. Complete information on
                                                                                      beneficiary eligibility is found in 25 CFR, Parts 26
                                                                                      and 27.

Indian Job Placement—United       To provide job development, counseling, social      Must be an American Indian member of
Sioux Tribes Development          adjustment guidance, and referrals to job           Federally Recognized Indian tribe and reside on
Corporation (Interior)            training programs and other assistance              or near an Indian reservation under the
                                  programs through the United Sioux Tribes            jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or
                                  Development Corporation, located in Pierre,         those eligibility requirements specified in the
                                  South Dakota.                                       contract between the United Sioux Tribes
                                                                                      Development Corporation and the Bureau of
                                                                                      Indian Affairs.

Indian Vocational Training—       To provide vocational training to individual        Individual American Indians who are members of
United Tribes Technical College   American Indians through the United Tribes          a Federally Recognized Indian Tribe and reside
(Interior)                        Technical College, located in Bismarck, North       on or near an Indian reservation under the
                                  Dakota.                                             jurisdiction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs or
                                                                                      those eligibility requirements specified in the
                                                                                      contract between the United States Technical
                                                                                      College and the Bureau of Indian Affairs.




                                          Page 39                           GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                           Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
                                           Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                           Employment and Training Programs




Program (department)              Objective                                            Eligibility criteria
Native American Employment        To support comprehensive employment and              A person is eligible to receive services under the
and Training Programs (Labor)     training activities for Indian, Alaska Native, and   INA program if that person is an Indian, as
                                  Native Hawaiian individuals; to develop more         determined by a policy of the Native American
                                  fully their academic, occupational and literacy      grantee. The grantee’s definition must at least
                                  skills; to make them more competitive in the         include anyone who is a member of a Federally-
                                  workforce; to promote the economic and social        recognized tribe or Alaska Native, as defined in
                                  development of Indian, Alaska Native, and            section 3 (b) of the Alaska Native Claims
                                  Native Hawaiian communities according to the         Settlement Act (ANCSA), 43 U.S.C. 1602 (b); or
                                  goals and values of such communities; to help        a Native Hawaiian, as defined in WIA section
                                  them achieve personal and economic self-             166(b)(30). The person must also be any one of
                                  sufficiency. The principle means for                 the following: unemployed or underemployed,
                                  accomplishing these purposes is to enable            as defined in 668.150; or a low-income
                                  tribes and Native American organizations to          individual, as defined in WIA section 101(250) or
                                  provide employment and training services to          the recipient of a bona fide layoff notice who is in
                                  Native American peoples and their                    need of retraining to secure or retain
                                  communities. Services should be provided in a        employment; or employed individual who is in
                                  culturally appropriate manner, consistent with       need of employment and training services to
                                  the principles of Indian self-determination.         obtain or retain employment that allows for self-
                                                                                       sufficiency. [20 CFR 668.300 (a) & (b)]

Native American Vocational and    To make grants or enter into contracts with          Federally recognized Indian tribes, tribal
Technical Education Program       Federally recognized Indian tribes, tribal           organizations, Alaska Native entities and eligible
(Education)                       organizations, Alaska Native entities and            Bureau-funded schools that do not propose to
                                  eligible Bureau-funded schools that do not           use the award to support secondary vocational
                                  propose to use the award to support secondary        and technical education programs.
                                  vocational and technical education programs.

Older workers
Senior Community Service          To provide, foster, and promote part-time work       Adults 55 years or older with a family income at
Employment (Labor)                opportunities (usually 20 hours per work) in         or below 125 percent of the DHHS poverty level.
                                  community service activities for unemployed,         Prospective participants must certify information
                                  low-income persons who are 55 years of age           relative to age and personal financial status
                                  and older. To the extent feasible, the program       which is needed to determine whether the
                                  assists and promotes the transition of program       individual is economically disadvantaged and
                                  enrollees into unsubsidized employment. In           program eligible.
                                  addition, the SCSEP coordinates with other
                                  DOL programs to provide training.

Persons with physical or mental disabilities
Projects With Industry          The purpose of this program is to create and           An individual is eligible for service under this
                                expand job and career opportunities for                program if—(1) the individual has a disability or a
                                individuals with disabilities in the competitive       significant disability under section 7 (20)(A) or
                                labor market engaging the talent and                   7(21)(A) of the Rehabilitation Act; (2) the
                                leadership of private industry as partners in the      individual requires vocational services to prepare
                                rehabilitation process, to identify competitive        for, secure, retain, or regain employment; and
                                jobs and careers and the skills needed to              the determination of eligibility is consistent with
                                perform such jobs, to create practical job and         section 102(a) of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973,
                                career readiness and training programs, and to         as amended.
                                provide job placements and career
                                advancements.




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Program (department)              Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
State Supported Employment        The State Supported Employment Services             A state may provide services under this program
Services Program (Education)      Program provides grants to assist States in         to any individual if: the individual has been
                                  developing and implementing collaborative           determined eligible for vocational rehabilitation
                                  programs with appropriate entities to provide       services in accordance with the criteria in section
                                  supported employment services for individuals       102 (a)(1) of the Rehabilitation Act; the individual
                                  with the most significant disabilities to enable    has been determined to be an individual with a
                                  such individuals to achieve the employment          most significant disability; supported employment
                                  outcome of supported employment.                    has been identified as appropriate employment
                                                                                      outcome for the individual on the basis of a
                                                                                      comprehensive assessment of rehabilitation
                                                                                      needs, including an evaluation of rehabilitation,
                                                                                      career, and job needs.

State Vocational Rehabilitation   The State Vocational Rehabilitation Services        Determination of an applicant’s eligibility for
Services (Education)              Program provides grants to assist states in         vocational rehabilitation services is based on the
                                  operating statewide comprehensive,                  following requirements: a determination by
                                  coordinated, effective, efficient and               qualified personnel that the applicant has a
                                  accountable programs, each of which is: an          physical or mental impairment; a determination
                                  integral part of a statewide workforce              by qualified personnel that the applicant’s
                                  investment system; and designed to assess,          physical or mental impairment constitutes or
                                  plan, develop, and provide vocational               results in a substantial impediment to
                                  rehabilitation services for individuals with        employment for the applicant; a determination by
                                  disabilities, consistent with their strengths,      a qualified vocational rehabilitation counselor
                                  resources, priorities, concerns, abilities,         employed by the designated State unit that the
                                  capabilities, interests, and informed choice, so    applicant requires vocational rehabilitation
                                  that they may prepare for and engage in             services to prepare for, secure, retain or regain
                                  gainful employment.                                 employment consistent with the applicant’s
                                                                                      unique strengths, resources, priorities, concerns,
                                                                                      abilities, capabilities, interests, and informed
                                                                                      choice; a presumption, in accordance with
                                                                                      section 102 (a)(2) of the Rehabilitation Act, that
                                                                                      the applicant can benefit in terms of an
                                                                                      employment outcome from the provision of
                                                                                      vocational rehabilitation services.

Refugees
Refugee and Entrant               To provide funding for employment-related and       Persons admitted to the United States within the
Assistance—Targeted               other social services for refugees, asylees,        last 5 years as refugees under Section 207 of
Assistance (HHS)                  Amerasians, victims of a severe form of             the Immigration and Nationality Act; granted
                                  trafficking certified by the Office of Refugee      asylum under Section 208 of the Act; Cuban and
                                  Resettlement (ORR), and entrants in areas of        Haitian entrants, as defined in Section 501 of the
                                  high refugee concentration and high welfare         Refugee Education Assistance Act; and certain
                                  utilization. These funds assist refugees who        Amerasians from Vietnam and their
                                  have experienced difficulty in making the           accompanying family members, as defined by
                                  transition to employment or who have lost their     Section 584 (c) of the Foreign Relations, Export
                                  jobs and require re-employment services.            Financing, and Related Programs Appropriation
                                                                                      Act of 1988. Also included are victims of a
                                                                                      severe form of trafficking as defined by section
                                                                                      107(b)(1)(A) of the Trafficking Victims Protection
                                                                                      Act of 2000.




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Program (department)             Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Refugee and Entrant              The Matching Grant program, funded by               Refugees (the term “refugee” is used to apply to
Assistance—Voluntary Agency      Congress since 1979, provides an alternative        refugees, asylees, Amerasian immigrants from
Programs (HHS)                   approach to State-administered resettlement         Vietnam, certified victims of trafficking, and
                                 assistance. The program’s goal is to help           Cuban or Haitian entrants) will be determined
                                 refugees attain self-sufficiency within four        eligible by the grantee agencies as verified by
                                 months after arrival, without access to public      Health and Human Services (HHS) monitoring.
                                 cash assistance. Participating agencies agree
                                 to match the Office of Refugee Resettlement
                                 (ORR) grant with cash and in-kind
                                 contributions; twenty percent of their match
                                 must be in cash. Since mid-1999, ORR has
                                 matched each dollar of agency contribution of
                                 cash or in-kind services with $2.00 of ORR
                                 funds, with a maximum Federal contribution of
                                 $2,000 per refugee. The Matching Grant
                                 program is characterized by a strong emphasis
                                 on early employment and intensive services
                                 during the first four months after arrival. ORR
                                 requires participating agencies to provide
                                 maintenance (food and housing), case
                                 management, and employment services in-
                                 house. Additional services, such as language
                                 training and medical assistance, may be
                                 provided in-house or arranged through referral
                                 to other programs. Refugees in the Matching
                                 Grant program may use publicly funded
                                 medical assistance.

Unemployed
Food Stamp Employment and        The program’s goals are to help job-ready food      All non-exempt food stamp applicants and
Training Program (Agriculture)   stamp recipients find work and to assist others     recipients are subject to Food Stamp Program
                                 to gain skills, training, or experience that will   work requirements, including participation in the
                                 lead to their employment.                           Food Stamp Employment and Training (E&T)
                                                                                     Program, if assigned by the State agency.
                                                                                     Exempted are persons younger than 16 or 60
                                                                                     and older; persons physically or mentally unable
                                                                                     to work; those responsible for the care of a child
                                                                                     under 6 or of an incapacitated individual;
                                                                                     students; recipients of assistance under the title
                                                                                     IV-A of the Social Security Act (Temporary
                                                                                     Assistance for Needy Families—TANF) or of
                                                                                     unemployment compensation; employed
                                                                                     persons or those participating in drug or alcohol
                                                                                     treatment programs. Specifically targeted are
                                                                                     able-bodied adults without dependents
                                                                                     (ABAWDS) subject to the Food Stamp Program
                                                                                     participation limit. Unless they are employed,
                                                                                     participating in qualifying education or training
                                                                                     activities for at least 20 hours a week, or
                                                                                     participating in workfare, ABAWDS are limited to
                                                                                     receiving food stamps for 3 months in a 36
                                                                                     month period.




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Program (department)             Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
 Tribal Work Grants [or Native   To allow eligible Indian Tribes and Alaska          The NEW program serves unemployed and
Employment Works (NEW)]          Native organizations to operate a program to        underemployed individuals. NEW program
(HHS)                            make work activities available.                     grantees determine specific eligibility
                                                                                     requirements for their NEW programs.

Veterans
Disabled Veterans’ Outreach      To develop jobs and job training opportunities      DVOP specialists serve veterans, however,
Program (DVOP) (Labor)           for disabled and other veterans through             Section 4103A(b)(1) provides a certain order of
                                 contacts with employers; promote and develop        priority among target groups of veterans for the
                                 on-the-job training and apprenticeship and          services of DVOP specialists, and indicates that
                                 other on-the-job training positions within the      special consideration will be given to
                                 Federal job training system (e.g., VWIP,            educationally and economically disadvantaged
                                 HYRP, VA programs); provide outreach to             veterans. P.L. 101-510 also provided that
                                 veterans through all community agencies and         individuals receiving disability discharges and
                                 organizations; provide assistance to                medically retired from the military be provided
                                 community-based groups and organizations            transition assistance under the Disabled
                                 and appropriate grantees under other Federal        Veterans’ Transition Assistance Program
                                 and federally-funded employment and training        (DTAP).
                                 programs; develop linkages with other
                                 agencies to promote maximum employment
                                 opportunities for veterans; and to provide
                                 employability development and vocational
                                 guidance to eligible veterans, especially
                                 disabled veterans, utilizing a case-
                                 management approach to services, wherever
                                 applicable.

Homeless Veterans’               To provide funds for demonstration programs         Individuals who are homeless veterans. The
Reintegration Program (Labor)    to expedite the reintegration of homeless           term “homeless” or “homeless individual”
                                 veterans into the labor force.                      includes: (1) an individual who lacks a fixed,
                                                                                     regular, and adequate night-time residence; and
                                                                                     (2) an individual who has a primary night-time
                                                                                     residence that is: (a) a supervised publicly or
                                                                                     privately operated shelter designed to provide
                                                                                     temporary living accommodations including
                                                                                     welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and
                                                                                     transitional housing for the mentally ill; (b) an
                                                                                     institution that provides a temporary
                                                                                     institutionalization; (c) a public or private place
                                                                                     not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular
                                                                                     sleeping accommodations for human beings
                                                                                     (Reference 42 U.S.C 1302). A “veteran” is an
                                                                                     individual who served in the activity military,
                                                                                     naval or air service, and who was discharged or
                                                                                     released from there under conditions other than
                                                                                     dishonorable. (Reference: 33 U.S.C. 101 (2).)




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Program (department)                Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Local Veterans’ Employment          To provide job development, placement, and          Although veterans are the intended beneficiaries
Representative Program (Labor)      support services directly to veterans and to        of LVER services, as per the CFDA, Congress
                                    ensure that there is local supervision of State     has authorized or otherwise defined “eligible
                                    Employment Agencies compliance with                 persons” at 38 U.S.C 4105 (5), and has
                                    Federal regulations, performance standards,         authorized through P.L. 101-510, the LVER to
                                    and grant agreement provisions in carrying out      assist separating service members and their
                                    requirements of 38 U.S.C. 4104 in providing         spouses with their transition to the civilian labor
                                    veterans with maximum employment and                force, while the members are still on active duty
                                    training opportunities.                             and not technically considered “veterans” yet.
                                                                                        Within the local employment offices and other
                                                                                        such service delivery points, the LVER
                                                                                        concentrates on facilitating those veterans and
                                                                                        eligible persons who are identified with some
                                                                                        barrier between them and their employment or
                                                                                        training related objective. These individuals are
                                                                                        the target population of LVER services and may
                                                                                        include disabled veterans, homeless veterans,
                                                                                        veterans with combat experience (wartime,
                                                                                        campaign badge/expeditionary medal
                                                                                        recipients), economically or educationally
                                                                                        disadvantaged veterans in need of training or
                                                                                        retraining to become marketable in the local
                                                                                        labor market, or veterans in need of a State
                                                                                        license or certification to practice or work in their
                                                                                        chosen/trained field.

Veterans’ Workforce Investment      To support employment and training programs, Recently separated veterans; service-connected
Program (Labor)                     through grants or contracts, to meet the needs disabled veterans; campaign/conflict veterans;
                                    for assistance of certain veterans.            and veterans who have significant barriers to
                                                                                   employment. (All of the above are eligible unless
                                                                                   they have a dishonorable discharge.)

Vocational Rehabilitation for       To provide for all services and assistance to       Veterans of World War II and later service with a
Disabled Veterans (Veterans)        enable veterans with service-connected              service-connected disability or disabilities rated
                                    disabilities to prepare for, obtain, or maintain    at least 20 percent compensable and certain
                                    suitable employment. When the severity of           service-disabled service persons pending
                                    disability does not permit employment to be an      discharge or release from service if VA
                                    option, the program can provide the needed          determines the service persons will likely receive
                                    services and assistance to help the individual      at least a 20 percent rating and they need
                                    learn skills to achieve maximum independence        vocational rehabilitation because of an
                                    in daily living.                                    employment handicap. Veterans with
                                                                                        compensable ratings of 10 percent may also be
                                                                                        eligible if they are found to have a serious
                                                                                        employment handicap.

Youth
Grants to States for Incarcerated   To assist incarcerated youth offenders in           Individuals who are incarcerated in a state
Youth Offenders (Education)         obtaining postsecondary education and               prison, including a pre-release facility or an
                                    postsecondary vocational training. Measured         alternative program such as a boot camp; are
                                    objectives are lower recidivism, academic           eligible to be released or paroled within 5 years;
                                    achievement, job placement, and job retention.      are 25 years of age or younger; and have
                                                                                        obtained a secondary school diploma or its
                                                                                        equivalent.




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Program (department)       Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Jobs Corps (Labor)         Job Corps’ is the nation’s largest residential      Job Corps is designed for out-of-school youth,
                           and educational employment and training             usually dropouts prior to graduation, ages 16-24,
                           program for economically challenged youth,          who are a legal resident or lawfully admitted
                           ages 16 through 24, who face multiple barriers      permanent resident aliens who are authorized to
                           to employment. The objectives of the program        work in the United States. The targeted
                           are to provide, in an integrated manner, a          population is low-income, meaning those on
                           comprehensive array of services, such as:           public assistance, a foster child, disabled,
                           academic, vocational, and life skills training,     homeless, and/or earning income at the poverty
                           and work-based learning, in order to provide        level. Minor students must have signed
                           the skills necessary for long-term attachment to    parental/guardian consent. Potential enrollees
                           the labor market.                                   must be free of behavior problems that would
                                                                               prohibit self or others from benefiting from the
                           Youth who enter the Jobs Corps program              program and they may not be currently engaged
                           without a high school equivalency and/or job        in illegal drug use. Parents with dependent
                           training skills, will have the opportunity to       children must have a childcare plan.
                           receive both. Additionally, in June 2001, Job
                           Corps established attainment of high school
                           diplomas as a national priority. During PY ’01,
                           90% of all graduates and 75% of all terminees
                           entered employment, enrolled in further
                           education, or entered the military.

Opportunities for Youth—   The Youthbuild program provides funding             Disadvantaged, at-risk, low to very low-income
Youthbuild Program (HUD)   assistance for a wide range of multi-disciplinary   young adults, ages 16 to 24, who have dropped
                           activities and services to assist economically      out of high school are eligible. The program
                           disadvantaged youth. The opportunities are          emphasizes special outreach efforts to be
                           designed to help disadvantaged young adults         undertaken to recruit eligible young women. The
                           who have dropped out of high school to obtain       program permits exceptions for young adults
                           the education and employment skills necessary       who do not meet the program’s income or
                           to achieve economic self-sufficiency and            education requirements but who have
                           develop leadership skills and a commitment to       educational needs despite attainment of a high
                           community development in low to very low-           school diploma or its equivalent. Exceptions for
                           income communities. Another objective of the        individuals in this category cannot exceed 25
                           Youthbuild program is to expand the supply of       percent of all participants.
                           permanent affordable housing for homeless
                           persons and members of low income and very
                           low-income families. By giving disadvantaged
                           young adults participating in the program
                           meaningful on-site training experiences
                           constructing or rehabilitating housing as a
                           community service, they are helping to meet
                           the housing needs of homeless and low
                           income families in their community.




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Program (department)           Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Responsible Reintegration of   The focus of the Responsible Reintegration of       The initiative provides services for youth and
Youthful Offenders (DOL)       Youthful Offenders initiative is to assist          adults ages 14-35 who are or have been under
                               communities in planning and implementing            criminal/juvenile justice supervision or are
                               comprehensive “reentry” programs to address         involved in gangs or are at risk of this
                               the full range of challenges involved in helping    involvement. Targeted individuals may also be
                               young offenders released from incarceration         returning from secure confinement back into the
                               make a successful transition back to the            community. Grantees have wide latitude in
                               community. The goal is to protect community         selecting their target population.
                               safety through the successful reintegration of
                               offenders, ages 14-35, who are returning to the
                               community by ensuring that offenders become
                               productive, responsible, and law-abiding
                               citizens; are provided with positive
                               opportunities to engage in pro-social activities;
                               maintain long-term employment; sustain a
                               stable residence; and successfully address
                               their substance abuse issues and mental
                               health needs.

WIA Youth                      To place continued emphasis on improving the        Under Title I, Sections 101 and 127, an eligible
(Labor)                        quality of services and enhancing program           youth is an individual who: (1) is 14-21 years of
                               performance in order to equip young workers         age; and (2) is an individual who received an
                               with the knowledge, skills and abilities they       income or are members of a family that received
                               need to: become productive citizens and             a total family income that does not exceed the
                               successfully transition into adulthood,             higher of (a) the poverty line; or (b) 70 percent
                               effectively meet the changing needs of              of the lower living standard income; and (3)
                               business and the new economy, and get and           meets one or more of the following criteria: Is an
                               keep good jobs with career paths, promotional       individual who is deficient in basic literacy skills;
                               opportunities, and wage gains.                      a school dropout; homeless; a runaway; a foster
                                                                                   child; pregnant or a parent; an offender; or
                                                                                   requires additional assistance to complete their
                                                                                   education or secure and hold employment.

Youth                          Not available.                                      Not available.
Challenge Program (DOD)




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Program (department)           Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Other low income individuals
Community Services Block       Community Economic Development Program:             A project must be targeted to address the needs
Grant—Discretionary Awards     To support projects which provide employment        of a specific segment of low-income individuals
(HHS)                          and ownership opportunities for low-income          or families. The official poverty line established
                               people through business, physical or                by the Director of the Office of Management and
                               commercial development, and which generally         Budget, published annually by the Department of
                               improve the quality of the economic and social      Health and Human Services is used as a
                               environment of low-income residents in              criterion of eligibility in the Community Services
                               economically depressed areas. The emphases          Discretionary Grant program.
                               of projects must be on job creation, self-help
                               and mobilization of the community-at-large.

                               Community Facilities Development Program:
                               To support projects to help low-income rural
                               communities develop the capability and
                               expertise to establish and maintain or preserve
                               affordable, adequate and safe water and waste
                               water treatment facilities. Activities may
                               include the dissemination of information on
                               water and waste water programs serving rural
                               communities; upgrading local expertise in
                               water and waste water development; assisting
                               rural communities in developing the capability
                               to manage and operate water and waste water
                               facilities; and improving coordination of
                               Federal, State and local water and waste water
                               program financing and development to assure
                               quality service to rural communities.

WIA Adults (Labor)             To provide workforce investment activities that     All adults 18 years and older are eligible for core
                               increase the employment, retention and              services. Priority for intensive services and
                               earnings of participants, and increase              training services must be given to recipients of
                               occupational skill attainment by the                public assistance and other low-income
                               participants. This program aims to improve the      individuals where funds are limited. States and
                               quality of the workforce and enhance the            local areas are responsible for establishing
                               productivity of the nation’s economy. This          procedures for applying the priority
                               program is designed to increase employment,         requirements.
                               as measured by entry into unsubsidized
                               employment, and retention in unsubsidized
                               employment six months after entry into
                               employment. For cross-cutting goals, the
                               program intends to enhance customer
                               satisfaction for participants and for employers.
                               The employment goals will be measured using
                               Unemployment Insurance Wage Records and
                               customer satisfaction goals measured by
                               sampling.




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Program (department)             Objective                                           Eligibility criteria
Unspecified target groups
Adult Education—State Grant      To create a partnership among the federal           Out of school adults who are 16 years of age or
Program (Education)              government, states, and localities to provide,      older, who are not enrolled or required to be
                                 on a voluntary basis, adult education and           enrolled in secondary school under State law,
                                 literacy services in order to assist adults to      and who lack sufficient mastery of basic
                                 become literate; and obtain the knowledge and       educational skills to enable them to function
                                 skills necessary for employment and self-           effectively in society or do not have a secondary
                                 sufficiency; assist adults who are parents to       school diploma or its recognized equivalent, and
                                 obtain the educational skills necessary to          have not achieved an equivalent level of
                                 become full partners in the educational             education, or are unable to speak, read, or write
                                 development of their children; and assist adults    the English language.
                                 in the completion of a secondary school
                                 education.

Community Services Block Grant   To provide assistance to states and local           States make grants to qualified locally- based
(HHS)                            communities, working through a network of           nonprofit community antipoverty agencies and
                                 community action agencies and other                 other eligible entities, which provide services to
                                 neighborhood-based organizations, for the           low-income individuals and families. The official
                                 reduction of poverty, the revitalization of low-    poverty line, as established by the Secretary of
                                 income communities, and the empowerment of          Health and Human Services, is used as a
                                 low-income families and individuals in rural and    criterion of eligibility in the Community Services
                                 urban areas to become fully self-sufficient         Block Grant program. When a state determines
                                 (particularly families who are attempting to        that it serves the objectives of the block grant, it
                                 transition off a state program carried out under    may revise the income limit, not to exceed 125
                                 Part A of title IV of the Social Security Act).     percent of the official poverty line.

Employment Service (Labor)       To provide labor exchange services and career The Employment Service provides universal
                                 counseling to current, emerging and             access to customers through the One Stop
                                 transitional workers seeking to obtain or       Career Center System.
                                 upgrade current employment activities, giving
                                 priority service to veterans and disabled
                                 veterans. To provide labor exchange services
                                 including the recruitment, preliminary
                                 assessment, screening and referral of qualified
                                 individuals to employers needing to fill
                                 positions.




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Program (department)             Objective                                            Eligibility criteria
H-1B Technical Skills Training   H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants are            Technical skills training grants are geared
Grant Program                    financed by a user fee paid by employers to          towards employed and unemployed workers who
                                 bring foreign workers into the United States on      can be trained and placed directly in highly
                                 a temporary basis to work in high skill or           skilled H-1B occupations or in the highest
                                 specialty occupations. As part of the H-1B           echelons of an H-1B career ladder. Candidates
                                 non-immigrant visa program, DOL’s Technical          for training funded by the H-1B Technical Skills
                                 Skills Training Grant program was established        Training Grants should possess (and be
                                 under the American Competitiveness and               identified through appropriate assessment tools)
                                 Workforce Improvement Act of 1998 as                 a high level of general educational background
                                 amended by the American Competitiveness in           and, in addition, have the prerequisites for the
                                 the Twentieth Century Act of 2002 and                occupational training being proposed. Targeted
                                 companion legislation. The grants are a long-        individuals should also possess certain
                                 term solution to domestic skill shortages in high    characteristics such as drive and initiative that
                                 skill and high technology occupation—raising         will help guarantee successful completion of the
                                 the technical skill levels of American workers       high skill level training funded by H-1B grants.
                                 so they can take advantage of the new                Employees at the H-1B skill level are generally
                                 technology-related, high skills employment           characterized as having a Bachelor’s degree or
                                 opportunities. This will, in turn, help businesses   comparable work experience.
                                 reduce their dependence on skilled foreign
                                 professionals permitted to work in the United
                                 States on a temporary basis under the H-1B
                                 visa program. H-1B technical skills grants are
                                 focused on directly addressing the high skill
                                 technology shortages of American businesses;
                                 they are not intended to address the labor
                                 shortages due to reasons other than technical
                                 skill shortages.

Migrant Education—High School    To assist students who are engaged, or whose         Persons who are engaged or whose parents are
Equivalency Program              parents are engaged, in migrant and other            engaged in migrant and other seasonal farmwork
                                 seasonal farm work to obtain the equivalent of       or who have participated or have been eligible to
                                 a secondary school diploma and subsequently          participate in the Title I, Migrant Education
                                 to gain employment or be placed in an                Program or the Workforce Investment Act (WIA),
                                 institution of higher education or other             Section 167. Eligible beneficiaries are 16 or older
                                 postsecondary education or training                  or beyond the age of compulsory school
                                                                                      attendance, and lacking a high school diploma.

Native Hawaiian Vocational       To make grants with organizations primarily      Native Hawaiians.
Education (Education)            serving and representing Native Hawaiians
                                 which are recognized by the Governor of the
                                 state of Hawaii to plan, conduct, and
                                 administer programs, or portions thereof, which
                                 are authorized by and consistent with the
                                 provisions of Section 116 of the Carl D. Perkins
                                 Vocational and Applied Technology Education
                                 Amendments of 1998 for the benefit of Native
                                 Hawaiians.




                                          Page 49                           GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                        Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
                                        Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                        Employment and Training Programs




Program (department)           Objective                                             Eligibility criteria
Registered Apprenticeship      Planning and directing a national workforce           Individuals applying for acceptance into an
Training (Labor)               system to improve the work skills of the              apprenticeship-training program must be at least
                               nation’s workforce through programs of                16 years old and must satisfy other minimum
                               apprenticeship and other employment                   qualifications required by a registered
                               connected skills training; to ensure equality of      apprenticeship program sponsor.
                               access into these programs; to encourage              Apprenticeship programs provide workers with a
                               states to take similar action with respect to         full-time wage while they learn, and employers
                               their labor force; and to make available              with a broader pool of workers from which to
                               technical assistance service on training to           select.
                               businesses; service on training to employers
                               and unions, in accordance with Title 29, CFR
                               Parts 20 and 30, and other applicable laws and
                               regulations, including the Workforce
                               Investment Act of 1998; Supports state and
                               local workforce investment boards to
                               coordinate and establish employer /labor
                               involvement in the design of training programs
                               to meet the demand for current and future jobs.

Serious and Violent Offender   The Serious and Violent Offender Reentry              The target population includes serious and
Initiative (Justice)           Initiative responds to the release and reentry of     violent/high-risk offenders (juvenile and/or adult)
                               thousands of adult and juvenile, serious, high-       who have been incarcerated in post-adjudicatory
                               risk offenders into communities across the            institutions, such as prisons and training schools,
                               country. This initiative is part of a collaborative   and are considered to be at high risk of
                               effort of multiple federal partners consisting of     recidivism. Offenders who have been
                               the U.S. Departments of Justice, Labor, Health        determined likely to commit serious and/or
                               and Human Services, Housing and Urban                 violent felony crime upon their release should be
                               Development, Education, and Veterans Affairs.         targeted.
                               The initiative will provide funding and/or
                               resources to develop, implement, enhance,
                               and evaluate reentry strategies that will ensure
                               the safety of the community and reduce
                               serious violent crime and recidivism. The
                               federal partners will assist state and local
                               agencies in identifying, accessing, and
                               leveraging existing federal, state, and local
                               resources in their efforts to create a
                               prototypical reentry system that addresses
                               both juvenile and adult offender populations in
                               all three phases of reentry: institutional
                               readiness; community reentry; and
                               stabilization. This system should be designed
                               for replication in other jurisdictions throughout
                               the states. This goal would be accomplished by
                               providing structure and authority that guide the
                               return of these offenders to the community and
                               that ensure their access to an array of existing
                               institutional and community resources,
                               pursuant to detailed plans created from a
                               thorough assessment of their individual needs.




                                        Page 50                            GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                           Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
                                           Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                           Employment and Training Programs




Program (department)            Objective                                               Eligibility criteria
Tech Prep Education (Education) To distribute funds to states to enable them to         Individuals desiring to participate in a combined
                                provide planning and demonstration grants to a          secondary/postsecondary program leading to an
                                consortia of local educational agencies and             associate degree or 2-year certificate with
                                postsecondary educational agencies, for the             technical preparation in at least one field of
                                development and operation of 4-year programs            engineering, applied science, mechanical,
                                designed to provide a tech prep education               industrial, or practical art or trade, or agriculture,
                                leading to a 2-year associate degree or a 2-            health, or business.
                                year certificate and to provide, in a systematic
                                manner, strong, comprehensive links between
                                secondary schools and postsecondary
                                educational institutions.

Temporary Assistance for Needy    To provide grants to states, territories, or tribes   Needy families with children, as determined
Families (HHS)                    to assist needy families with children so that        eligible by the state, territory or tribe in
                                  children can be cared for in their own homes;         accordance with the state or tribal plan submitted
                                  to reduce dependency by promoting job                 to the Department of Health and Human
                                  preparation, work, and marriage; to reduce and        Services (HHS).
                                  prevent out-of-wedlock pregnancies; and to
                                  encourage the formation and maintenance of
                                  two-parent families.

Tribally Controlled                To make grants to tribally controlled            American Indians and Native Alaskans will
Postsecondary Vocational and       postsecondary vocational and technical           benefit.
Technical Institutions (Education) institutions that are not receiving federal
                                   support under the tribally controlled College or
                                   University Assistance Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C.
                                   1801 et seq.) or the Navajo Community
                                   College Act (25 U.S.C. 640a et seq.) to provide
                                   basic support for the education and training of
                                   Indian students.




                                           Page 51                            GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
                                                                    Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
                                                                    Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
                                                                    Employment and Training Programs




 Program (department)                                  Objective                                                                 Eligibility criteria
 Vocational Education—Basic                            To develop more fully the academic, vocational                            Provides funds to local educational agencies and
 Grants to States (Education)                          and technical skills of secondary students and                            postsecondary educational institutions with
                                                       postsecondary students who elect to enroll in                             vocational and technical education programs, for
                                                       vocational and technical education, through                               education program improvement. The
                                                       challenging academic standards, the                                       beneficiaries are secondary students and
                                                       integration of academic and technical                                     postsecondary students who enroll in vocational
                                                       education, and linking of secondary to                                    and technical education.
                                                       postsecondary education. The objectives are
                                                       found in the core indicators of performance:
                                                       student attainment of challenging State
                                                       established academic, and vocational and
                                                       technical skills proficiencies; student
                                                       attainment of a secondary school diploma or its
                                                       recognized equivalent, a proficiency credential
                                                       in conjunction with a secondary school
                                                       diploma, or a postsecondary degree or
                                                       credential; placement in, retention in and
                                                       completion of, postsecondary education or
                                                       advanced training, placement in military
                                                       service, or placement or retention in
                                                       employment; and student participation in and
                                                       completion of vocational and technical
                                                       education programs that lead to non-traditional
                                                       training and employment.

 Workforce Investment Act (WIA)                        To increase the long-term employment of youth                             Youth eligible to be served by the grant must be
 Formula Grant Program—Youth                           who live in empowerment zones, enterprise                                 14 to 21 years of age; reside in the target area;
 Opportunity Grants                                    communities, and high poverty areas. Youth                                and males age 18 and above must be registered
                                                       Opportunity Grants concentrate extensive                                  as required under the Selective Service Act.
                                                       resources in high poverty areas in order to                               Youth residing in the target community are
                                                       bring about community-wide impact on:                                     eligible to be served by these grants regardless
                                                       Employment rates, high school completion                                  of family income.
                                                       rates, and college enrollment rates.

Source: Program objectives and eligibility criteria obtained from the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance and from agency officials.
                                                                    a
                                                                     Category includes American Indians and all other indigenous populations.




                                                                    Page 52                                          GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
              Appendix IX: Program Objectives and
Related Products
              Eligibility Criteria for Federally Funded
              Employment and Training Programs




              Food Stamp Employment and Training Program: Better Data Needed to
              Understand Who Is Served and What the Program Achieves. GAO-03-388.
              Washington, D.C.: March 12, 2003.

              Workforce Training: Employed Worker Programs Focus on Business
              Needs, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access for
              Some Workers. GAO-03-353. Washington, D.C.: February 14, 2003.

              Older Workers: Employment Assistance Focuses on Subsidized Jobs and
              Job Search, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access to
              Other Services. GAO-03-350. Washington, D.C.: January 24, 2003

              Workforce Investment Act: States’ Spending Is on Track, but Better
              Guidance Would Improve Financial Reporting. GAO-03-239.
              Washington, D.C.: November 22, 2002.

              Workforce Investment Act: States and Localities Increasingly
              Coordinate Services for TANF Clients, but Better Information Needed on
              Effective Approaches. GAO-02-696. Washington, D.C.: July 3, 2002.

              High Skill-Training: Grants from H-1B Visa Fees Meet Specific
              Workforce Needs, but at Varying Skill Levels. GAO-02-881. Washington,
              D.C.: September 20, 2002.

              Workforce Investment Act: Youth Provisions Promote New Service
              Strategies, but Additional Guidance Would Enhance Program
              Development. GAO-02-413. Washington, D.C.: April 5, 2002.

              Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance and Revised Funding
              Formula Would Enhance Dislocated Worker Program. GAO-02-274.
              Washington, D.C.: February 11, 2002.

              Workforce Investment Act: Improvements Needed in Performance
              Measures to Provide a More Accurate Picture of WIA’s Effectiveness.
              GAO-02-275. Washington, D.C.: February 1, 2002.

              Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance Needed to Address Concerns
              Over New Requirements. GAO-02-72. Washington, D.C.: Oct. 4, 2001.

              Veterans’ Employment and Training Service: Proposed Performance
              Measurement System Improved, But Further Changes Needed. GAO-01-
              580. Washington, D.C.: May 15, 2001.



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              Page 53                           GAO-03-589 Multiple Employment and Training Programs
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