oversight

Federal Uniformed Police: Selected Data on Pay, Recruitment, and Retention at 13 Police Forces in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-06-13.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States General Accounting Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




June 2003
             FEDERAL
             UNIFORMED POLICE
             Selected Data on Pay,
             Recruitment, and
             Retention at 13 Police
             Forces in the
             Washington, D.C.,
             Metropolitan Area




GAO-03-658
                                               June 2003


                                               FEDERAL UNIFORMED POLICE

                                               Selected Data on Pay, Recruitment, and
Highlights of GAO-03-658, a report to          Retention at 13 Police Forces in the
Congressional Requesters.
                                               Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area



Officials at several federal                   During fiscal year 2002, entry-level police officer salaries varied by more
uniformed police forces in the                 than $10,000 across the 13 police forces, from a high of $39,427 per year to a
Washington, D.C., metropolitan                 low of $28,801 per year. Four of the 13 police forces received federal law
area have raised concerns that                 enforcement retirement benefits. Between October 1, 2002, and April 1, 2003,
disparities in pay and retirement              12 of the 13 police forces received pay increases, which narrowed the pay
benefits have caused their police
forces to experience difficulties in
                                               gap for entry-level officers at some of the 13 forces. Officials at the 13 police
recruiting and retaining officers.             forces reported that while officers performed many of the same types of
These concerns have increased                  duties, the extent to which they performed specialized functions varied.
during the past year with the
significant expansion of the                   Total turnover at the 13 police forces nearly doubled (from 375 to 729)
Federal Air Marshal Program,                   between fiscal years 2001 and 2002. Additionally, during fiscal year 2002, 8 of
which has created numerous                     the 13 police forces experienced their highest annual turnover rates over the
relatively high-paying job                     6-year period, from fiscal years 1997 through 2002. Sizable differences
opportunities for existing federal             existed in the turnover rates among the 13 federal uniformed police forces
uniformed police officers and                  during fiscal year 2002. The availability and use of human capital flexibilities
reportedly has lured many                      to retain employees, such as retention allowances, varied.
experienced officers from their
uniformed police forces. GAO’s
objectives were to (1) determine               GAO found that the increase in the number of separations (354) across the
the differences that exist among               13 police forces between fiscal years 2001 and 2002 almost equaled the
selected federal uniformed police              number of officers (316) who left their forces to join the Transportation
forces regarding entry-level pay,              Security Administration (TSA). Given that the buildup in staffing for TSA’s
retirement benefits, and types of              Federal Air Marshal Program has been substantially completed, the increase
duties; (2) provide information on             in turnover experienced in fiscal year 2002 at 12 of the 13 police forces may
the differences in turnover rates              have been a one-time occurrence.
among these federal uniformed
police forces, including where                 Officials at 9 of 13 police forces reported at least some difficulty recruiting
officers who separated from the                officers. However, none of the police forces used important human capital
police forces went and the extent
to which human capital flexibilities           flexibilities, such as recruitment bonuses and student loan repayments,
were available and used to address             during fiscal year 2002.
turnover; and (3) provide
information on possible difficulties           Fiscal Year 2002 Turnover Among the 13 Police Forces
police forces may have faced                                                                   2002
recruiting officers and the extent to                           729 - total number of officer separations for all 13 police forces
which human capital flexibilities
                                                                                                                                                  135 -
were available to help these forces                                                                                                        Separated for other
                                                 91 - Retired
recruit officers.                                                              12%                                                       reasons (e.g.-other law
                                                                                                   82%                                    enforcement positions
                                                       2%                                                                          22%    at state or local level)
                                                 11 - Separated
                                                  on disability                    599 - Total number                       53%
                                                                                                                                   25%
                                                                                    of police officers                                            148 -
                                                        4%                        voluntarily separated                                  Took law enforcement
                                                 28 - Involuntarily
                                                                                                                                              positions at
                                                    separated
                                                                                                                    316 - Went to TSA    other federal agencies
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-658.
                                               Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 police forces.
To view the full report, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.
For more information, contact Richard M.
Stana, (202) 512-8777, or stanar@gao.gov.
Contents


Letter                                                                                     1
                Results in Brief                                                          2
                Background                                                                5
                Scope and Methodology                                                     7
                Entry-Level Pay and Benefits Varied among the Police Forces               9
                Sizable Differences in Turnover Rates among the 13 Police Forces         14
                Most Forces Experienced Recruitment Difficulties                         21
                Conclusions                                                              23
                Agency Comments                                                          24

Appendix I      Counties and Cities Included in the Washington
                Metropolitan Statistical Area                                            27



Appendix II     Selected Turnover Data for the 13 Police Forces                          28



Appendix III    Use of Human Capital Flexibilities                                       35



Appendix IV     Recruiting Strategies and New Hire Selection
                Process                                                                  40



Appendix V      Comments from the Department of the Interior                             46



Appendix VI     Comments from the National Institutes of Health                          47



Appendix VII    Comments from the Office of Personnel Management                         51



Appendix VIII   Comments from the United States Secret Service                           53




                Page i                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix IX   Comments from the Supreme Court of the United
              States                                                                     58



Appendix X    GAO Contacts and Acknowledgments                                           59
              GAO Contacts                                                               59
              Staff Acknowledgments                                                      59


Tables
              Table 1: Federal Uniformed Police Forces with 50 or More Officers
                       Stationed in the Washington MSA                                     5
              Table 2: Types of Duties Performed by Officers at Each of the 13
                       Police Forces Located in the Washington MSA                       13
              Table 3: Specialized Functions Performed by Officers at Each of
                       the 13 Police Forces                                              14
              Table 4: Fiscal Year 2002 Turnover Rates and Separations Data for
                       Each of the 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA                17
              Table 5: Summary of Where Officers Who Voluntarily Separated
                       from the 13 Police Forces in Fiscal Year 2002 Went                19
              Table 6: Extent to Which Police Forces Reported Experiencing
                       Recruitment Difficulties in the Washington MSA                    23
              Table 7: Number of Separations and Turnover Rates of Uniformed
                       Police Officers in the Washington MSA for Fiscal Years
                       1997 through 2002                                                 28
              Table 8: Fiscal Year 2002 Voluntary Separations by Years of
                       Experience on a Police Force for 13 Police Forces in the
                       Washington MSA                                                    29
              Table 9: Separations to TSA in Fiscal Year 2002 by Police Force
                       and Years of Service on a Force for 13 Police Forces in the
                       Washington MSA                                                    31
              Table 10: Separations to Other Federal Law Enforcement Positions,
                       Excluding TSA, in Fiscal Year 2002 by Years of Service on
                       a Force for 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA                32
              Table 11: Extent to Which Police Forces Reported Experiencing
                       Retention Difficulties in the Washington MSA                      33
              Table 12: Reported Availability and Use of Human Capital
                       Flexibilities at 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA           36
              Table 13: Use of Recruiting Strategies as Reported by the 13 Police
                       Forces in the Washington MSA                                      42



              Page ii                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
          Table 14: Minimum Qualification Requirements and Selection
                  Process Reported by 13 Police Forces in the Washington
                  MSA                                                                               44


Figures
          Figure 1: Pay for Entry-level Officers and Retirement Benefits for
                   Each of the 13 Police Forces with 50 or More Officers
                   Stationed in the Washington MSA as of September 30,
                   2002                                                                             10
          Figure 2: Fiscal Year 2003 Pay Increases for Entry-Level Officers
                   for Each of the 13 Police Forces with 50 or More Officers
                   Stationed in the Washington MSA as of April 1, 2003                              12
          Figure 3: Total Number of Separations for 13 Police Forces in the
                   Washington MSA during Fiscal Years 1997-2002                                     16
          Figure 4: Percentage Breakdown of Where 599 Officers Who
                   Voluntarily Separated during Fiscal Year 2002 Went                               20
          Figure 5: Voluntary Separations, Excluding Retirements and
                   Disability, by Years of Service on a Force in Fiscal Year
                   2002                                                                             30



          Abbreviations

          DHS               Department of Homeland Security
          FBI               Federal Bureau of Investigation
          FERS              Federal Employees Retirement System
          MSA               Metropolitan Statistical Area
          NIH               National Institutes of Health
          OPM               Office of Personnel Management
          TSA               Transportation Security Administration




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          Page iii                                            GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   June 13, 2003

                                   The Honorable George V. Voinovich
                                   Chairman
                                   Subcommittee on Oversight of Government
                                    Management, the Federal Workforce, and
                                    the District of Columbia
                                   Committee on Governmental Affairs
                                   United States Senate

                                   The Honorable Dan Burton
                                   The Honorable Dave Weldon, M.D.
                                   House of Representatives

                                   Recent events, including the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, have
                                   highlighted the importance of ensuring proper security at federal facilities.
                                   As the headquarters location for many federal agencies, the Washington,
                                   D.C., metropolitan area is home to numerous federal uniformed police
                                   forces. Officials at some of these police forces have raised concerns that
                                   disparities in pay and retirement benefits have caused their police forces
                                   to experience difficulties in recruiting and retaining officers. These
                                   concerns increased with the significant expansion of the Federal Air
                                   Marshal Program, which created numerous relatively high-paying job
                                   opportunities for existing federal uniformed police officers and reportedly
                                   lured many experienced officers from their uniformed police forces.

                                   This report responds to your request that we review recruitment and
                                   retention issues at selected federal uniformed police forces in the
                                   Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA).1 As agreed with your
                                   offices, our objectives for this report were to (1) determine the differences
                                   that exist among these federal uniformed police forces regarding entry-
                                   level pay, retirement benefits, and types of duties; (2) provide information
                                   on the differences in turnover rates among these federal uniformed police
                                   forces, including where officers who separated from the police forces



                                   1
                                    The Washington MSA, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget, includes the
                                   District of Columbia and many adjacent counties and cities. However, the Washington MSA
                                   does not include Baltimore, Annapolis, or Howard County. For a full list of all the cities and
                                   counties included in the Washington MSA, see appendix I.



                                   Page 1                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                   went and the extent to which human capital flexibilities2 were available
                   and used by the police forces to address turnover; and (3) provide
                   information on the possible difficulties police forces may have
                   experienced in recruiting police officers and the extent to which human
                   capital flexibilities were available to help these police forces to recruit
                   officers.

                   As agreed with your offices, we limited the police forces in our review to
                   the 13 federal uniformed police forces with 50 or more officers in the
                   Washington MSA as of September 30, 2001, because we wanted to focus on
                   the forces with the largest number of officers. To address our objectives,
                   we interviewed officials from and reviewed documents provided by the
                   following federal uniformed police forces: Bureau of Engraving and
                   Printing Police, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Police, Federal
                   Protective Service, Government Printing Office Police, Library of Congress
                   Police, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Police, Pentagon Force
                   Protection Agency, Supreme Court Police, U.S. Capitol Police, U.S. Mint
                   Police, U.S. Park Police, U.S. Postal Service Police,3 and the U.S. Secret
                   Service Uniformed Division. We also interviewed officials at the
                   Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and the Office of Personnel
                   Management (OPM). We developed a data collection instrument (survey)
                   regarding recruitment and retention and distributed the survey to the
                   13 federal uniformed police forces. We analyzed the results and followed-
                   up with agency officials when data were incomplete or inconsistent. We
                   performed our work in Washington, D.C.; Maryland; and Virginia between
                   August 2002 and May 2003 in accordance with generally accepted
                   government auditing standards.


                   Entry-level pay and retirement benefits varied significantly among the
Results in Brief   13 federal police forces as of September 30, 2002. Entry-level police officer
                   salaries varied by more than $10,000 across the 13 police forces.4 At


                   2
                    In broad terms, human capital flexibilities represent the policies and practices that an
                   agency has the authority to implement in managing its workforce to achieve its goals.
                   These flexibilities can include retention allowances, recruitment bonuses, tuition
                   reimbursement, on-site childcare facilities, and performance-based awards, among others.
                   3
                    According to U.S. Postal Service officials, the official name of their police force is the
                   U.S. Postal Service Security Force. For this report, the U.S. Postal Service Police refers to
                   the U.S. Postal Service Security Force.
                   4
                    Throughout the report, all salary figures are as of September 30, 2002, unless otherwise
                   noted.




                   Page 2                                                GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
$39,427 per year, the U.S. Capitol Police, Library of Congress Police, and
Supreme Court Police forces had the highest starting salaries for entry-
level officers, while entry-level officers at the NIH Police and Federal
Protective Service received the lowest at $28,801 per year. The annual
salaries for officers at the remaining 8 police forces ranged from $29,917 to
$38,695 per year. However, between October 1, 2002, and April 1, 2003,
12 of the 13 police forces (all except the U.S. Postal Service Police),
received pay increases, which narrowed the pay gap for entry-level
officers at some of the 13 forces. In addition, officers at 4 of the 13 police
forces (U.S. Capitol Police, Supreme Court Police, U.S. Park Police, and
Secret Service Uniformed Division) received federal law enforcement
retirement benefits, which allowed them to retire at age 50 with a
minimum of 20 years of service and required retirement at age 57. Officers
at the remaining 9 police forces received standard federal employee
retirement benefits.5 Officials at the 13 police forces reported that officers
on these forces performed many of the same types of duties, such as
protecting people and property and conducting entrance and exit
screenings.6 However, police force officials noted that the extent to which
officers performed specialized functions, such as K-9 and SWAT, varied.

Total turnover at the 13 police forces nearly doubled from fiscal years
2001 to 2002. Additionally, during fiscal year 2002, 8 of the 13 police forces
experienced their highest annual turnover rates over the 6-year period,
from fiscal years 1997 through 2002. During fiscal year 2002, significant
differences existed in the turnover rates among the 13 federal uniformed
police forces. Turnover ranged from a low of 11 percent for the Library of
Congress Police to a high of 58 percent at the NIH Police. The turnover
rates for the remaining 11 police forces ranged from 13 percent to
41 percent. Of the 729 officers who separated from the 13 police forces in
fiscal year 2002, 599 (about 82 percent) voluntarily separated.7 Of these
599 officers, 316 (about 53 percent) went to TSA—nearly all (313 of 316) to
become Federal Air Marshals where they were able to earn higher pay,


5
 To retire with full standard federal retirement benefits, employees generally must be at
least between ages 55 and 57 with 30 years of service. The age at which they are eligible to
retire with unreduced retirement benefits depends on the year of their birth and the
specific retirement plan they are covered by (the Civil Service Retirement System or the
Federal Employees Retirement System). Employees age 60 can retire with 20 years of
service; and employees age 62 can retire with 5 years of service.
6
We did not attempt to assess the relative difficulty of performing these duties.
7
 For this report, voluntary separation includes leaving for any reason other than retirement,
disability, or involuntary separation, such as death, reduction-in-force, or misconduct.




Page 3                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
federal law enforcement retirement benefits, and a type of pay premium
for unscheduled duty equaling 25 percent of their base salary. Additionally,
148 officers (about 25 percent) took other federal law enforcement
positions; 32 officers (about 5 percent) took nonlaw enforcement
positions; and 51 officers (about 9 percent) took positions in state or local
law enforcement or separated to, among other things, continue their
education.8 About 65 percent of the officers who voluntarily separated
from the 13 police forces during fiscal year 2002 had fewer than 5 years of
service on their police forces. While officials from the 13 forces reported a
number of reasons that officers had separated, including to obtain better
pay and/or benefits at other police forces, less overtime, and greater
responsibility, we were unable to discern any clear patterns between
employee turnover and pay. That is, turnover varied significantly among
police forces that had similar pay for entry-level officers. The use of
human capital flexibilities to reduce turnover varied among the 13 police
forces. For example, 3 of the 13 police forces reported that they paid
retention allowances ranging from about $1,000 to $4,200 during fiscal
year 2002.

Officials from 9 of the 13 police forces reported that they were
experiencing at least a little or some difficulty recruiting police officers.
Officials at 4 of these police forces (Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Police, the FBI Police, Federal Protective Service, and NIH Police)
reported that they were having a great or very great deal of difficulty
recruiting officers and cited pay as a major contributor to their
recruitment difficulties. Officials at 5 police forces reported that they were
having difficulty recruiting officers to a little or some extent or to a
moderate extent. Conversely, officials at 4 of the 13 police forces (Library
of Congress Police, Supreme Court Police, U.S. Mint Police, and U.S.
Postal Service Police) reported that they were not having any difficulty
recruiting officers. Although many of the police forces reported facing
recruitment difficulties, none of them used human capital recruitment
flexibilities, such as recruitment bonuses and student loan repayments, in
fiscal year 2002.

We provided a draft of this report to officials representing each of the 13
federal uniformed police forces included in our review, along with OPM,
and received comments from 12 of the 13 police forces and OPM. Most of



8
 Officials were unable to determine where the remaining 52 (about 9 percent) of the
voluntarily separated officers went.




Page 4                                             GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 the police forces provided technical comments, which were included as
                                                                 appropriate. The U.S. Secret Service and OPM wrote detailed comments
                                                                 that are discussed in our Agency Comments section on pages 24 and 25.



                                                                 Although the specific duties police officers perform may vary among
Background                                                       police forces, federal uniformed police officers are generally responsible
                                                                 for providing security and safety to people and property within and
                                                                 sometimes surrounding federal buildings. There are a number of federal
                                                                 uniformed police forces operating in the Washington MSA, of which
                                                                 13 had 50 or more officers as of September 30, 2001. Table 1 shows the
                                                                 13 federal uniformed police forces included in our review and the number
                                                                 of officers in each of the police forces as of September 30, 2002.

Table 1: Federal Uniformed Police Forces with 50 or More Officers Stationed in the Washington MSA

                                                                                                                          Number of officers on-board
 Department                                                               Uniformed police force                            as of September 30, 2002
 Executive branch
 Department of Defense                                                    Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                         259
 Department of the Interior                                               U.S. Park Police                                                         439
 Department of Justice                                                    Federal Bureau of Investigation Police                                   173
 Department of the Treasury                                               Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police                                  120
                                                                          U.S. Mint Police                                                          52
                                                                          U.S. Secret Service Uniformed Division                                 1,072
 General Services Administration                                          Federal Protective Service                                               140
 Department of Health and Human Services                                  National Institutes of Health Police                                      53
 U.S. Postal Service                                                      U.S. Postal Service Police                                               109
 Legislative branch
 Government Printing Office                                               Government Printing Office Police                                         52
 Library of Congress                                                      Library of Congress Police                                               129
 U.S. Capitol Police                                                      U.S. Capitol Police                                                    1,278
 Judicial branch
 Supreme Court                                                            Supreme Court Police                                                     122
 Total                                                                                                                                           3,998
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                 On November 25, 2002, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 was enacted
                                                                 into law.9 The act, among other things, restructured parts of the executive
                                                                 branch of the federal government to better address the threat to the United


                                                                 9
                                                                 P.L. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002).




                                                                 Page 5                                             GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
States posed by terrorism. The act established a new Department of
Homeland Security (DHS), which includes two uniformed police forces
within the scope of our review—the Federal Protective Service and the
Secret Service Uniformed Division. These police forces were formerly
components of the General Services Administration and the Department of
the Treasury, respectively. Another component of DHS is the TSA, which
protects the nation’s transportation systems. TSA, which was formerly a
component of the Department of Transportation, includes the Federal Air
Marshal Service, which is designed to provide protection against hijacking
and terrorist attacks on domestic and international airline flights. The
Federal Air Marshal Program increased significantly after the September
11, 2001, terrorist attacks, resulting in the need for TSA to recruit many Air
Marshals during fiscal year 2002. By fiscal year 2003, the buildup in the
Federal Air Marshal Program had been substantially completed. Federal
Air Marshals are not limited to the grade and pay step structure of the
federal government’s General Schedule. As a result, TSA has been able to
offer air marshal recruits higher compensation and more flexible benefit
packages than many other federal police forces.

Federal uniformed police forces operate under various compensation
systems. Some federal police forces are covered by the General Schedule
pay system and others are covered by different pay systems authorized by
various laws.10 Since 1984, all new federal employees have been covered by
the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS).11 Federal police forces




10
  The General Schedule system consists of 22 broad occupational groups. Each group
includes separate series that represent occupations in that group. The police series
(GS-0083) is within the Miscellaneous Occupations group. OPM defines the police series as
positions in which the primary duties are the performance or supervision of law
enforcement work in the preservation of the peace; the prevention, detection, and
investigation of crimes; the arrest or apprehension of violators; and the provision of
assistance to citizens in emergency situations, including the protection of civil rights.
11
  FERS benefits are derived from three components: an annuity, a thrift savings plan, and
Social Security. The basic annuity provided under FERS is computed on the basis of
(1) years of service and (2) the 3 years of service with the highest annual salaries (high 3).
Congress intended that the second component of FERS—the Thrift Savings Plan—be a key
element of FERS. The Thrift Savings Plan provides for an employer contribution, including
an automatic contribution of 1 percent of salary, along with a matching contribution of up
to 5 percent. Social Security benefits make up the third component of the retirement
package. The Civil Service Retirement System annuity, which applies to individuals hired
prior to January 1, 1984, is a stand-alone annuity based on age and years of service.




Page 6                                                GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              provide either standard federal retirement benefits or federal law
              enforcement retirement benefits.12

              Studies of employee retention indicate that turnover is a complex and
              multifaceted problem. People leave their jobs for a variety of reasons.
              Compensation is often cited as a primary reason for employee turnover.
              However, nonpay factors, such as age, job tenure, job satisfaction, and job
              location, may also affect individuals’ decisions to leave their jobs.

              During recent years, the federal government has implemented many
              human capital flexibilities to help agencies attract and retain sufficient
              numbers of high-quality employees to complete their missions. Human
              capital flexibilities can include actions related to areas such as
              recruitment, retention, competition, position classification, incentive
              awards and recognition, training and development, and work-life policies.
              We have stated in recent reports that the effective, efficient, and
              transparent use of human capital flexibilities must be a key component of
              agency efforts to address human capital challenges.13 The tailored use of
              such flexibilities for recruiting and retaining high-quality employees is an
              important cornerstone of our model of strategic human capital
              management.14


              To address our objectives, we identified federal uniformed police forces
Scope and     with 50 or more officers in the Washington MSA—13 in all. Specifically, we
Methodology   reviewed OPM data to determine the executive branch federal uniformed
              police forces with 50 or more police officers in the Washington MSA. We
              reviewed a prior report issued by the Department of Justice’s Bureau of
              Justice Statistics and our prior reports to determine the judicial and




              12
               Under FERS, officers receiving federal law enforcement retirement benefits receive
              1.7 percent of their high 3 multiplied by the first 20 years of service and 1 percent
              multiplied by each year of service greater than 20 years. Thus, a police officer who retires
              at age 50 with 20 years of service would receive 34 percent of the officer’s high 3. After
              30 years of service, the benefit would be 44 percent of the officer’s high 3. Officers retiring
              under FERS would also receive benefits from their Thrift Savings Plan accounts and Social
              Security.
              13
               U.S. General Accounting Office, High Risk Series: Strategic Human Capital
              Management, GAO-03-120 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 2003).
              14
               U.S. General Accounting Office, A Model of Strategic Human Capital Management,
              Exposure Draft, GAO-02-373SP (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 15, 2002).




              Page 7                                                GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
legislative branches’ federal uniformed police forces with 50 or more
police officers in the Washington MSA.

In addressing each of the objectives, we interviewed officials responsible
for human capital issues at each of the 13 police forces and obtained
documents on recruitment and retention issues. Using this information, we
created a survey and distributed it to the 13 police forces to obtain
information on (1) entry-level officer pay and benefits, types of officer
duties, and minimum entry-level officer qualifications; (2) officer turnover
rates15 and the availability and use of human capital flexibilities to retain
officers; and (3) difficulties in recruiting officers, and the availability and
use of human capital flexibilities to improve recruiting. We reviewed and
analyzed the police forces’ responses for completeness and accuracy and
followed-up on any missing or unclear responses with appropriate
officials.

Where possible, we verified the data using OPM’s Central Personnel Data
File.16 In reviewing duties performed by police officers at the 13 police
forces, we relied on information provided by police force officials and did
not perform a detailed analysis of the differences in duties and
responsibilities. Additionally, due to resource limitations, we did not
survey officers who separated from the police forces to determine their
reasons for leaving.17 We obtained this information from officials at the
police forces. Although some of the police forces have police officers
detailed at locations throughout the country, the data in this report are
only for officers stationed in the Washington MSA. Therefore, these data
are not projectable nationwide.




15
  To calculate the turnover rates, we divided the total number of police officers who
separated from the police forces by the average of the number of officers on-board at the
beginning of the fiscal year and the number of officers on-board at the end of the fiscal
year. For each police force, we included as separations both those who left the police
force, as well as those who transferred from the police officer series (GS-0083) to other job
series within the force.
16
  The Central Personnel Data File is a database that contains individual records for most
executive branch federal employees and is the primary governmentwide source for
information on federal employees.
17
 We did not have the resources to find and confirm the addresses of all 599 officers who
voluntarily separated from the 13 police forces included in our review, which would have
been necessary to conduct a survey.




Page 8                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                      Entry-level pay and retirement benefits varied widely across the 13 police
Entry-Level Pay and   forces. Annual pay for entry-level police officers ranged from $28,801 to
Benefits Varied       $39,427, as of September 30, 2002. Officers at 4 of the 13 police forces
                      received federal law enforcement retirement benefits, while officers at the
among the Police      remaining 9 police forces received standard federal employee retirement
Forces                benefits. According to officials, all 13 police forces performed many of the
                      same types of general duties, such as protecting people and property and
                      screening people and materials entering and/or exiting buildings under
                      their jurisdictions. Eleven of the 13 police forces had specialized teams
                      and functions, such as K-9 and/or SWAT. The minimum qualification
                      requirements and the selection processes were generally similar among
                      most of the 13 police forces.

                      At $39,427 per year, the U.S. Capitol Police, Library of Congress Police,
                      and Supreme Court Police forces had the highest starting salaries for
                      entry-level officers, while entry-level officers at the NIH Police and Federal
                      Protective Service received the lowest starting salaries at $28,801 per year.
                      The salaries for officers at the remaining 8 police forces ranged from
                      $29,917 to $38,695. Entry-level officers at 5 of the 13 police forces received
                      an increase in pay, ranging from $788 to $1,702, upon successful
                      completion of basic training. Four of the 13 police forces received federal
                      law enforcement retirement benefits and received among the highest
                      starting salaries, ranging from $37,063 to $39,427. Figure 1 provides a
                      comparison of entry-level officer pay and retirement benefits at the
                      13 police forces.




                      Page 9                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Figure 1: Pay for Entry-level Officers and Retirement Benefits for Each of the 13 Police Forces with 50 or More Officers
Stationed in the Washington MSA as of September 30, 2002


                                                                                                                                                            Federal law
                                                                                                                                                      enforcement retirement


           Library of Congress                                                                               $39,427        +$1,381a                          No
                                                                                                                            $40,808
           Supreme Court                                                                                     $39,427        +$1,381a                          Yes
                                                                                                                            $40,808
           U.S. Capitol                                                                                      $39,427        +$1,381a                          Yes
                                                                                                                            $40,808
           Pentagon Force                                                                                $38,695                                              No
           Protection Agency

           Secret Service                                                                               $37,851                                               Yes


           Park Police                                                                                 $37,063         +$788a                                 Yes
                                                                                                                       $37,851
          U.S. Mint                                                                                    $36,613                                                No

          Bureau of Engraving                                                                         $36,613                                                 No
          and Printing

           GPO                                                                               $31,262         +$1,702a                                         No
                                                                                                             $32,964
           FBI                                                                               $31,259                                                          No


           USPS                                                                           $29,917                                                             No

           Federal Protective                                                         $28,801                                                                 No
           Service
                                                                                      $28,801                                                                 No
           NIH

                                          0      00        0            0        0        0        0          0         0        0
                                              5,0       ,00      ,00          ,00      ,00      ,00       ,00       ,00       ,00
                                                      10       15           20       25       30        35        40        45


 Source: GAO analysis of pay data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                    a
                                                                      Pay increase after successful completion of basic training.


                                                                    Entry-level officers at 12 of the 13 police forces (all but the U.S. Postal
                                                                    Service Police) received increases in their starting salaries between
                                                                    October 1, 2002, and April 1, 2003. Entry-level officers at three of the four
                                                                    police forces (FBI Police, Federal Protective Service, and NIH Police) with
                                                                    the lowest entry-level salaries as of September 30, 2002, received raises of
                                                                    $5,584, $4,583, and $4,252, respectively, during the period ranging from
                                                                    October 1, 2002 through April 1, 2003. In addition, entry-level officers at



                                                                    Page 10                                                            GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
both the U.S. Capitol Police and Library of Congress Police—two of the
highest paid forces—also received salary increases of $3,739 during the
same time period. These pay raises received by entry-level officers from
October 1, 2002, through April 1, 2003, narrowed the entry-level pay gap
for some of the 13 forces. For example, as of September 30, 2002, entry-
level officers at the FBI Police received a salary $8,168 less than an entry-
level officer at the U.S. Capitol Police. However, as of April 1, 2003, the pay
gap between entry-level officers at the two forces had narrowed to $6,323.
Figure 2 provides information on pay increases that entry-level officers
received from October 1, 2002, through April 1, 2003, along with entry-level
officer pay rates as of April 1, 2003.




Page 11                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Figure 2: Fiscal Year 2003 Pay Increases for Entry-Level Officers for Each of the
13 Police Forces with 50 or More Officers Stationed in the Washington MSA as of
April 1, 2003




a
In late April 2003, Supreme Court Police officers were granted a pay increase retroactive to October
1, 2002. This pay increase brought the entry-level pay of Supreme Court officers to the same levels
as those of the Capitol Police and Library of Congress Police.


Officers at the 13 police forces reportedly performed many of the same
types of duties, such as protecting people and property, patrolling the
grounds on foot, and conducting entrance and exit screenings. Police
force officials also reported that officers at all of the police forces had the



Page 12                                                  GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 authority to make arrests. Table 2 displays the types of duties performed
                                                                 by officers at each of the 13 police forces.

Table 2: Types of Duties Performed by Officers at Each of the 13 Police Forces Located in the Washington MSA

                                                                                                                Patrol
                                                           Protection of                                       outside          Entrance
                                                            people and         Patrol in      Patrol on        agency          and/or exit       Crowd
 Uniformed police force                                      property          vehicle          foot          boundary         screening         control      Arrests
 Library of Congress                                             •                                •                                 •               •             •
 Supreme Court                                                   •                 •              •                                 •               •             •
 U.S. Capitol                                                    •                 •              •                 •               •               •             •
 Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                •                 •              •                 •               •               •             •
                                                                 •                 •              •                                 •               •             •
                                                                                                                        a
 Secret Service
 Park Police                                                     •                 •              •                 •               •               •             •
 Bureau of Engraving and Printing                                •                 •              •                 •               •               •             •
 U.S. Mint                                                       •                 •              •                 •               •               •             •
 Government Printing Office                                      •                 •              •                                 •                             •
 Federal Bureau of Investigation                                 •                 •              •                 •               •                 •           •
 U.S. Postal Service                                             •                 •              •                                 •                             •
 Federal Protective Service                                      •                 •              •                 •               •                •            •
 National Institutes of Health                                   •                 •              •                 •               •                •            •
 Total                                                          13                12             13                8               13               11          13
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.
                                                                 a
                                                                 The Secret Service noted that the Uniformed Division has full police powers in Washington, D.C.,
                                                                 and that it further has the authority to perform its protective duties throughout the United States.


                                                                 Although there are similarities in the general duties, there were differences
                                                                 among the police forces with respect to the extent to which they
                                                                 performed specialized functions. Table 3 shows that 11 of the 13 police
                                                                 forces reported that they performed at least one specialized function;
                                                                 2 police forces (Government Printing Office Police and U.S. Postal Service
                                                                 Police) reported that they did not perform specialized functions.




                                                                 Page 13                                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Table 3: Specialized Functions Performed by Officers at Each of the 13 Police Forces

                                                                                                     Chemical/
                                                                                       Criminal      biological/
 Uniformed police force                                          K-9        SWAT     investigation     hazmat       Traffic     Bicycle       Other
 Library of Congress                                                                        •
 Supreme Court                                                    •                                       •                                     •
 U.S. Capitol                                                     •             •          •              •            •            •           •
 Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                 •             •          •              •            •            •           •
 Secret Service                                                   •             •          •              •            •            •           •
 Park Police                                                      •             •          •              •            •            •           •
 Bureau of Engraving and Printing                                                                                      •            •
 U.S. Mint                                                                      •          •                           •            •
 Government Printing Office
 Federal Bureau of Investigation                                  •             •          •              •            •                        •
 U.S. Postal Service
 Federal Protective Service                                       •                        •              •            •            •            •
 National Institutes of Health                                    •                        •              •            •            •            •
 Total                                                           8              6         9              8            9            8            8
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                      The minimum qualification requirements and the selection processes were
                                                                      generally similar among most of the 13 police forces. As part of the
                                                                      selection process, all 13 police forces required new hires to have
                                                                      successfully completed an application, an interview(s), a medical
                                                                      examination, a background investigation, and a drug test. Each force also
                                                                      had at least one additional requirement, such as a security clearance or
                                                                      physical fitness evaluation. The U.S. Postal Service Police was the only
                                                                      force that did not require a high school diploma or prior law enforcement
                                                                      experience. For additional information on qualification requirements and
                                                                      the selection process for the 13 police forces, see appendix IV.


                                                                      Total turnover at the 13 police forces nearly doubled from fiscal years
Sizable Differences in                                                2001 to 2002. Additionally, during fiscal year 2002, 8 of the 13 police forces
Turnover Rates                                                        experienced their highest annual turnover rates over the 6-year period,
                                                                      from fiscal years 1997 through 2002. There were sizable differences in
among the 13 Police                                                   turnover rates among the 13 police forces during fiscal year 2002. NIH
Forces                                                                Police reported the highest turnover rate at 58 percent. The turnover rates
                                                                      for the remaining 12 police forces ranged from 11 percent to 41 percent. Of
                                                                      the 729 officers who separated from the 13 police forces in fiscal year
                                                                      2002, about 82 percent (599), excluding retirements, voluntarily separated.




                                                                      Page 14                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
About 53 percent (316) of the 599 officers who voluntarily separated from
the police forces in fiscal year 2002 went to TSA.18 Additionally, about
65 percent of the officers who voluntarily separated from the 13 police
forces during fiscal year 2002 had fewer than 5 years of service on their
police forces.

The total number of separations at all 13 police forces nearly doubled
(from 375 to 729) between fiscal years 2001 and 2002. Turnover increased
at all but 1 of the police forces (Library of Congress Police) over this
period. The most significant increases in turnover occurred at the Bureau
of Engraving and Printing Police (200 percent) and the Secret Service
Uniformed Division (about 152 percent). In addition, during fiscal year
2002, 8 of the 13 police forces experienced their highest annual turnover
rates over the 6-year period, from fiscal years 1997 through 2002.
Figure 3 displays the total number of separations for the 13 police forces
over the 6-year period.




18
 Of the 316 officers who went to TSA, 313 accepted law enforcement positions and 3
accepted nonlaw enforcement positions.




Page 15                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Figure 3: Total Number of Separations for 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA
during Fiscal Years 1997-2002


Total number of separations for all 13 police forces

800

                                                                                                 (729)

700



600



500                                                                   (470)



400
                                                    (356)
                              (330)                                                 (375)

300
         (291)


200



100



   0
       1997                  1998                  1999               2000         2001          2002
       Fiscal year

Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 forces.



The turnover rates at the 13 police forces ranged from 11 percent at the
Library of Congress Police to 58 percent at the NIH Police in fiscal year
2002. In addition to the NIH Police, 3 other police forces had turnover
rates of 25 percent or greater during fiscal year 2002. The U.S. Mint Police
reported the second highest turnover rate at 41 percent, followed by the
Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police at 27 percent and the Secret
Service Uniformed Division at 25 percent. Table 4 shows that at each of
the 13 police forces, turnover was overwhelmingly due to voluntary
separations—about 18 percent (130) of turnover was due to retirements,
disability, and involuntarily separations.




Page 16                                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Table 4: Fiscal Year 2002 Turnover Rates and Separations Data for Each of the 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA

                                                               Turnover
                                                                 rate (in                          Disability        Voluntary   Involuntary          Total
 Uniformed police force                                         percent)     Retirementsa        separations       separations   separations    separations
 Library of Congress                                                  11                5                   0                9             0             14
 Supreme Court                                                        16                3                   0               14             0             17
 U.S. Capitol                                                         13              10                    1              143             6            160
 Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                     13               4                    1               25             3             33
 Secret Service                                                       25              39                    3              234             1            277
 Park Police                                                          13              12                    3               36             4             55
 Bureau of Engraving and Printing                                     27                1                   1               32             2             36
 U.S. Mint                                                            41               0                    0               21             1             22
 Government Printing Office                                           16               2                    1                2             3              8
 Federal Bureau of Investigation                                      17                1                   0               30             1             32
 U.S. Postal Service                                                  14                7                   1                7             1             16
 Federal Protective Service                                           19                7                   0               21             1             29
 National Institutes of Health                                        58                0                   0               25             5             30
 Total                                                                                91                  11               599            28            729
Source: GAO analysis of turnover data provided the 13 police forces.
                                                                   a
                                                                   Includes both mandatory and voluntary retirements.


                                                                   There was no clear pattern evident between employee pay and turnover
                                                                   rates during fiscal year 2002. For example, while some police forces with
                                                                   relatively highly paid entry-level officers such as the Library of Congress
                                                                   Police (11 percent) and the Supreme Court Police (13 percent) had
                                                                   relatively low turnover rates, other police forces with relatively highly paid
                                                                   entry-level officers such as the U.S. Mint Police (41 percent), Bureau of
                                                                   Engraving and Printing Police (27 percent), and Secret Service Uniformed
                                                                   Division (25 percent) experienced significantly higher turnover rates.
                                                                   Additionally, turnover varied significantly among the 5 police forces with
                                                                   relatively lower paid entry-level officers. For example, while the Federal
                                                                   Protective Service (19 percent) and NIH Police (58 percent) entry-level
                                                                   officers both received the lowest starting pay, turnover differed
                                                                   dramatically.

                                                                   Likewise, no clear pattern existed regarding turnover among police forces
                                                                   receiving federal law enforcement retirement benefits and those receiving
                                                                   traditional federal retirement benefits. For example, entry-level officers at
                                                                   the Library of Congress Police, U.S. Capitol Police, and Supreme Court
                                                                   Police all received equivalent pay in fiscal year 2002. However, the Library
                                                                   of Congress (11 percent) had a lower turnover rate than the Capitol Police
                                                                   (13 percent) and Supreme Court Police (16 percent), despite the fact that
                                                                   officers at the latter 2 police forces received federal law enforcement



                                                                   Page 17                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
retirement benefits. In addition, while officers at both the Park Police
(19 percent) and Secret Service Uniformed Division (25 percent) received
law enforcement retirement benefits, these forces experienced higher
turnover rates than some forces such as U.S. Postal Service Police
(14 percent) and FBI Police (17 percent), whose officers did not receive
law enforcement retirement benefits and whose entry-level officers
received lower starting salaries.

More than half (316) of the 599 officers who voluntarily separated from the
police forces in fiscal year 2002 went to TSA—nearly all (313 of 316) to
become Federal Air Marshals where they were able to earn higher salaries,
federal law enforcement retirement benefits, and a type of pay premium
for unscheduled duty equaling 25 percent of their base salary. The number
(316) of police officers who voluntarily separated from the 13 police forces
to take positions at TSA nearly equaled the increase in the total number of
separations (354) that occurred between fiscal years 2001 and 2002.

About 25 percent (148) of the voluntarily separated officers accepted other
federal law enforcement positions, excluding positions at TSA, and about
5 percent (32 officers) took nonlaw enforcement positions, excluding
positions at TSA. Furthermore, about 9 percent (51) of the voluntarily
separated officers took positions in state or local law enforcement or
separated to, among other things, continue their education. Officials were
unable to determine where the remaining 9 percent (52) of the voluntarily
separated officers went. Table 5 provides a summary of where officers
who voluntarily separated in fiscal year 2002 went.




Page 18                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Table 5: Summary of Where Officers Who Voluntarily Separated from the 13 Police Forces in Fiscal Year 2002 Went

                                               Other federal                               Other federal
                                                         law                      State          nonlaw
                                               enforcement,                           or   enforcement,              Other                            Total
 Uniformed police                                 excluding                   local law       excluding             nonlaw                       voluntary
 force                               TSA                TSA               enforcement               TSA        enforcement Other   Unknown     separationsa
 Library of Congress                   3                   4                           1               0                 0     0         1                9
 Supreme Court                         5                   5                           2               0                 1     1         0               14
 U.S. Capitol                         66                  36                         14                0                 5    11        11              143
 Pentagon Force
 Protection Agency                     10                        10                   2                  1              2      0           0            25
 Secret Service                       148                        45                   5                  1              2      3          30           234
 Park Police                           22                         6                   0                  1              1      5           1            36
 Bureau of
 Engraving and
 Printing                               12                       12                   3                  0              0      0           5             32
 U.S. Mint                              18                        3                   0                  0              0      0           0             21
 Government                                                                                                                                               2
 Printing Office                          0                        1                  0                  0              0      0           1
 Federal Bureau of
 Investigation                          16                         1                  0                13               0      0           0             30
 U.S. Postal Service                     0                         7                  0                 0               0      0           0              7
 Federal Protective
 Service                                  7                      10                   0                  0              1      0           3             21
 National Institutes
 of Health                              9                        8                    4                 4               0      0           0            25
 Total                                316                      148                   31                20              12     20          52           599
Source: GAO analysis of turnover data provided by the 13 police forces.
                                                                   a
                                                                   Excludes voluntary retirements and disability.


                                                                   Figure 4 shows a percentage breakdown of where the 599 officers who
                                                                   voluntarily separated from the 13 police forces during fiscal year 2002
                                                                   went.




                                                                   Page 19                                              GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Figure 4: Percentage Breakdown of Where 599 Officers Who Voluntarily Separated
during Fiscal Year 2002 Went

                                                                                 20 - Other federal non-law
                                                  3%                                  enforcement, excluding TSA
                                                                                 12 - Other non-law enforcement
                                                       2%
                                                                                 20 - Other
                                                           3%

                                                                                 31 - State or local law
                                                           5%                         enforcement

                                                                9%
                                                                                 52 - Unknown



                               53%
                                                           25%
316 - TSA
                                                                                 148 - Other federal law
                                                                                       enforcement, excluding TSA




Source: GAO analysis of turnover data provided by the 13 police forces.



Although we did not survey individual officers to determine why they
separated from these police forces, officials from the 13 forces reported a
number of reasons that officers had separated, including to obtain better
pay and/or benefits at other police forces, less overtime, and greater
responsibility. Without surveying each of the 599 officers who voluntarily
separated from their police forces in fiscal year 2002, we could not draw
any definitive conclusions about the reasons they left. For additional
details on turnover at the 13 police forces, see appendix II.

The use of human capital flexibilities to address turnover varied among
the 13 police forces. For example, officials at 4 of the 13 police forces
reported that they were able to offer retention allowances, which may
assist the forces in retaining experienced officers, and 3 of these police
forces used this tool to retain officers in fiscal year 2002. The average
retention allowances paid to officers in fiscal year 2002 were about
$1,000 at the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, $3,500 at the Federal
Protective Service, and more than $4,200 at the NIH Police. The police
forces reported various reasons for not making greater use of available
human capital flexibilities in fiscal year 2002, including



Page 20                                                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
               •   lack of funding for human capital flexibilities,
               •   lack of awareness among police force officials that the human capital
                   flexibilities were available, and
               •   lack of specific requests for certain flexibilities such as time-off awards or
                   tuition reimbursement.

                   The limited use of human capital flexibilities by many of the 13 police
                   forces and the reasons provided for the limited use are consistent with our
                   governmentwide study of the use of such authorities. In December 2002,
                   we reported that federal agencies have not made greater use of such
                   flexibilities for reasons such as agencies’ weak strategic human capital
                   planning, inadequate funding for using these flexibilities given competing
                   priorities, and managers’ and supervisors’ lack of awareness and
                   knowledge of the flexibilities.19 We further stated that the insufficient or
                   ineffective use of flexibilities can significantly hinder the ability of
                   agencies to recruit, hire, retain, and manage their human capital.
                   Additionally, in May 2003, we reported that OPM can better assist agencies
                   in using human capital flexibilities by, among other things, maximizing its
                   efforts to make the flexibilities more widely known to agencies through
                   compiling, analyzing, and sharing information about when, where, and
                   how the broad range of flexibilities are being used, and should be used, to
                   help agencies meet their human capital management needs.20 For
                   additional information on human capital flexibilities at the
                   13 police forces, see appendix III.


                   Nine of the 13 police forces reported difficulties recruiting officers to at
Most Forces        least a little or some extent. Despite recruitment difficulties faced by many
Experienced        of the police forces, none of the police forces used important human
                   capital recruitment flexibilities, such as recruitment bonuses and student
Recruitment        loan repayments, in fiscal year 2002. Some police force officials reported
Difficulties       that the human capital recruitment flexibilities were not used for various




                   19
                    U.S. General Accounting Office, Human Capital: Effective Use of Flexibilities Can
                   Assist Agencies in Managing Their Workforces, GAO-03-2 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 2002).
                   20
                    U.S. General Accounting Office, Human Capital: OPM Can Better Assist Agencies in
                   Using Personnel Flexibilities, GAO-03-428 (Washington, D.C.: May 2003).




                   Page 21                                          GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
    reasons, such as limited funding or that the flexibilities themselves were
    not available to the forces during the fiscal year 2002 recruiting cycle.21

    Officials at 4 of the 13 police forces (Bureau of Engraving and Printing
    Police, the FBI Police, Federal Protective Service, and NIH Police)
    reported that they were having a great or very great deal of difficulty
    recruiting officers. In addition, officials at 5 police forces reported that
    they were having difficulty recruiting officers to a little or some extent or
    to a moderate extent. Among the reasons given for recruitment difficulties
    were:

•   low pay;
•   the high cost of living in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area;
•   difficulty completing the application/background investigation process;
    and
•   better retirement benefits at other law enforcement agencies.

    Conversely, officials at 4 of the 13 police forces (Library of Congress
    Police, the Supreme Court Police, U.S. Mint Police, and U.S. Postal Service
    Police) reported that they were not having difficulty recruiting officers.
    Library of Congress officials attributed their police force’s lack of
    difficulty recruiting officers to attractive pay and working conditions and
    the ability to hire officers at any age above 20 and who also will not be
    subject to a mandatory retirement age.22 Supreme Court officials told us
    that their police force had solved a recent recruitment problem by
    focusing additional resources on recruiting and emphasizing the force’s
    attractive work environment to potential recruits. U.S. Postal Service
    officials reported that their police force was not experiencing a
    recruitment problem because it hired its police officers from within the
    agency. Table 6 provides a summary of the level of recruitment difficulties
    reported by the 13 police forces.




    21
      All executive branch agencies have the authority to use human capital flexibilities, such
    as recruitment bonuses and student loan repayments. However, agencies may choose not
    to offer them.
    22
     Police forces that are not covered by federal law enforcement retirement benefits do not
    have a mandatory retirement age.




    Page 22                                              GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Table 6: Extent to Which Police Forces Reported Experiencing Recruitment Difficulties in the Washington MSA

 Uniformed police force                                    Very great extent   Great extent   Moderate extent    Little or some extent   No extent
 Library of Congress                                                                                                                         •
 Supreme Court                                                                                                                               •
 U.S. Capitol                                                                                                              •
 Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                                                    •
 Secret Service                                                                                      •
 Park Police                                                                                         •
 Bureau of Engraving and Printing                                   •
 U.S. Mint Police                                                                                                                            •
 Government Printing Office                                                                          •
 Federal Bureau of Investigation                                                    •
 U.S. Postal Service                                                                                                                         •
 Federal Protective Service                                                          •
 National Institutes of Health                                                       •
 Total                                                              1               3               4                     1                 4
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                 Although many of the police forces reported facing recruitment
                                                                 difficulties, none of the police forces used human capital recruitment
                                                                 tools, such as recruitment bonuses and student loan repayments, in fiscal
                                                                 year 2002. For more information on human capital flexibilities, see
                                                                 appendix III.


                                                                 Without surveying each of the 599 officers who voluntarily separated from
Conclusions                                                      their police forces in fiscal year 2002, we could not draw any definitive
                                                                 conclusions about the reasons they left. However, officials at the 13 police
                                                                 forces included in our review reported that officers separated from their
                                                                 positions for such reasons as to (1) obtain better pay and/or benefits at
                                                                 other police forces, (2) work less overtime, and (3) assume greater
                                                                 responsibility.

                                                                 The number of separations across the 13 police forces included in our
                                                                 review increased by 354 between fiscal years 2001 and 2002. This increase
                                                                 almost equaled the number (316) of officers who voluntarily separated
                                                                 from their forces to join TSA. Given that TSA’s Federal Air Marshal
                                                                 Program has now been established, and the buildup in staffing has been
                                                                 substantially completed, the increase in turnover experienced in fiscal
                                                                 year 2002 at 12 of the 13 police forces may have been a one-time
                                                                 occurrence. Additionally, the recent pay increases received by officers at
                                                                 12 of the 13 police forces, along with the potential implementation of




                                                                 Page 23                                        GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                  various human capital flexibilities, might also help to address recruitment
                  and retention issues experienced by many of the police forces.


                  We requested comments on a draft of this report from each of the
Agency Comments   13 federal uniformed police forces included in our review. We received
                  written comments from 12 of the 13 police forces (the Federal Protective
                  Service did not provide comments). Of the 12 police forces that
                  commented, 11 either generally agreed with the information presented or
                  did not express an overall opinion about the report.

                  In its comments, the U.S. Secret Service raised four main issues relating to
                  the pay, retirement benefits, and job responsibilities information. First, it
                  suggested that we expand our review to include information on the
                  compensation packages offered to separating officers, particularly those
                  moving to TSA. However, our objective was to provide information on pay,
                  retirement benefits, types of duties, turnover, and the use of human capital
                  flexibilities at 13 federal uniformed police forces in the Washington, D.C.
                  area. Our aim was not to compare the officers’ previous and new job pay,
                  benefits, responsibilities, or training requirements.

                  Second, the U.S. Secret Service suggested that we report that a pattern
                  existed between employee turnover and pay. However, our discussions
                  with human capital officials in the 13 police forces found that separating
                  officers provided them with a variety of reasons why they chose to leave
                  their police forces, including increased pay, additional benefits, greater job
                  satisfaction, and personal reasons. We did not contact separating officers
                  to determine why they decided to move to other jobs and whether the new
                  jobs was comparable in pay, benefits, and job responsibilities.
                  Nevertheless, with the information we obtained, we were unable to
                  discern any clear patterns between employee turnover and pay. That is,
                  turnover varied significantly among police forces that had similar pay for
                  entry-level officers.

                  Third, the U.S. Secret Service suggested that we calculate the differences
                  in retirement benefits that would accrue to officers in the different forces.
                  We noted in our report that different forces had different retirement plans
                  with significant differences in benefits. However, calculating the
                  retirement benefits of a hypothetical police officer at each of the forces
                  was beyond the scope of our review.

                  Finally, the U.S. Secret Service noted that fundamental differences exist
                  among the agencies’ authorities, responsibilities, duties, and training


                  Page 24                                     GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
requirements, and that this could account for differences in compensation.
We agree that differences exist among the 13 agencies, and we captured
many of these differences in the report. However, we did not attempt to
determine the extent to which these differences accounted for differences
in police officer compensation.

We also requested and received comments from OPM. OPM was
concerned that the data provided in our report will lead to unintended
conclusions, citing what it considered to be a lack of substantive analysis
and comparisons of the pay systems involved. OPM further commented
that the data and information we report must not serve as a basis for
modifying the pay structure, salaries, or retirement system of any of the
police forces.

Our report provides information on 13 federal uniformed police forces that
had not been previously compiled, which is useful in comparing entry-level
pay, retirement benefits, types of duties, turnover rates, and the use of
human capital flexibilities. In preparing this report, we worked closely
with these police forces to obtain reliable information on these items, as
well as the conditions and challenges confronting their operations.
Nevertheless, we agree that more comprehensive information would be
useful in deciding how best to deal with pay, benefit, and retention issues.
As the executive branch agency responsible for establishing human capital
policies and monitoring their implementation, OPM is in a good position to
perform the additional analysis it believes would be useful to draw
conclusions on such issues.

Most of the police forces and OPM provided technical comments, which
were incorporated in the report, where appropriate. The Department of
the Interior (U.S. Park Police), NIH, OPM, and the U.S. Supreme Court
provided formal letters, and the U.S. Secret Service provided an internal
memorandum, which are included in appendixes V through IX.


We are sending copies of this report to the Attorney General, Secretary of
the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Department of
Homeland Security, Secretary of the Interior, Chair of the Capitol Police
Board, the Librarian of Congress, the Public Printer, the Marshal of the
Supreme Court, the Postmaster General, the Under Secretary of
Transportation for Security, and the Directors of NIH, OPM, and the
Pentagon Force Protection Agency. We will also provide copies of this
report to the directors of each of the 13 police forces, relevant
congressional committees, and Members of Congress. We will make


Page 25                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
copies of this report available to other interested parties upon request. In
addition, the report will be available at no charge on GAO’s Web site at
http://www.gao.gov. If you have any questions, please contact me at
(202) 512-8777 or at stanar@gao.gov or Weldon McPhail, Assistant
Director, at (202) 512-8644 or at mcphailw@gao.gov. See appendix X for
additional GAO contacts and staff acknowledgments.



Richard M. Stana
Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues




Page 26                                     GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              Appendix I: Counties and Cities Included in
Appendix I: Counties and Cities Included in
              the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area



the Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area

              Washington, D.C.

              Maryland counties

              Calvert County
              Charles County
              Frederick County
              Montgomery County
              Prince George’s County

              Virginia counties and cities

              Counties

              Arlington County
              Clarke County
              Culpeper County
              Fairfax County
              Fauquier County
              King George County
              Loudoun County
              Prince William County
              Spotsylvania County
              Stafford County
              Warren County

              Cities

              Alexandria city
              Fairfax city
              Falls Church city
              Fredericksburg city
              Manassas city
              Manassas Park city

              West Virginia counties

              Berkeley County
              Jefferson County




              Page 27                                        GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                      Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the                           13 Police Forces



13 Police Forces

                                                                      Table 7 shows, among other things, that during fiscal year 2002, 12 of the
                                                                      13 police forces experienced increased turnover from the prior fiscal year,
                                                                      while 8 of the 13 police forces experienced their highest turnover rates
                                                                      over the 6-year period, from fiscal years 1997 through 2002.

Table 7: Number of Separations and Turnover Rates of Uniformed Police Officers in the Washington MSA for Fiscal Years
1997 through 2002

                                                                               FY 1997        FY 1998          FY 1999          FY 2000          FY 2001          FY 2002




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Library of Congress                                      13               12     4       4       3       3       22      18       26      19       14      11
Supreme Court                                             4               5      4       5       5       6        6       7       10      10       17      16
U.S. Capitol                                             84               16    76       7      73       7      110       9       88       7      160      13
Pentagon Force Protection Agency                         23               11    29       12     52      21       42      16       31      12       33      13
Secret Service                                           73               7     122      11    108      11      150      15      110      10      277      25
Park Police                                              31               6     30       6      44       9       33       7       31       7       55      13
Bureau of Engraving and Printing                         11               9     18       14     10       8       15      11       12       8       36      27
                                                          a               a      a       a       a       a
U.S. Mint                                                                                                        24       7        5       9       22      41
Government Printing Office                                5               10     7       13     10      18        4       7        7      13       8       16
Federal Bureau of Investigation                           1               1     10       6      5        3        6       3        9       5       32      17
U.S. Postal Service                                       4               b     11              14      11                8       12                       14
                                                                                         9                       11                       10       16
Federal Protective Service                               23               b              b               6       38      20       21      12       29      19
                                                                                14              13
National Institutes of Health                            19               45     5       12     19      45        9      19       13      25       30      58
Total                                                   291                     330            356              470              375              729
Percentage change from prior year                                              13%             8%               32%             -20%              94%

Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 forces.
                                                                      a
                                                                       U.S. Mint Police reported that it used mainly contract police officers during fiscal years 1997 through
                                                                      1999.
                                                                      b
                                                                      Turnover rate cannot be calculated due to incomplete data.


                                                                      Table 8 shows that officers with fewer than 5 years of experience on their
                                                                      forces accounted for about 65 percent of the voluntary separations in
                                                                      fiscal year 2002.




                                                                      Page 28                                                     GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                  Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
                                                                  13 Police Forces




Table 8: Fiscal Year 2002 Voluntary Separations by Years of Experience on a Police Force for 13 Police Forces in the
Washington MSA

                                                          2 yrs. to           5 yrs. to   10 yrs. to   15 yrs. to    20 yrs. to
                                   Less than           less than 5           less than    less than    less than     less than    25 yrs. or         Total
                                       2 yrs.                  yrs.             10 yrs.      15 yrs.      20 yrs.       25 yrs.     greater    separations
 Library of
 Congress                                       4                    4               1            0             0            0            0             9
 Supreme Court                                  2                    8               1            0             3            0            0            14
 U.S. Capitol                                  59                   50              23            8             2            1            0           143
 Pentagon Force
 Protection Agency                             12                   10               1            2             0            0            0            25
 Secret Service                                88                   42              34           67             3            0            0           234
 Park Police                                    3                   11               9           12             1            0            0            36
 Bureau of
 Engraving and
 Printing                                      14                   12               5            0             1            0            0            32
 U.S. Mint                                      6                   12               1            2             0            0            0            21
 Government
 Printing Office                                 1                    0              0            0             1            0            0             2
 Federal Bureau of
 Investigation                                   9                    9              8            4             0            0            0            30
 U.S. Postal
 Service                                         0                    5              1            1             0            0            0             7
 Federal Protective
 Service                                         2                  10               9            0             0            0            0            21
 National Institutes
 of Health                                    10                    8                4            0              2           1            0            25
 Total                                       210                  181               97           96             13           2            0           599
Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 police forces.

                                                                  Figure 5 shows that officers with fewer than 2 years of service on their
                                                                  forces accounted for about 35 percent of the voluntary separations in
                                                                  fiscal year 2002, and officers with 2 to 5 years of service comprised an
                                                                  additional 30 percent.




                                                                  Page 29                                            GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
13 Police Forces




Figure 5: Voluntary Separations, Excluding Retirements and Disability, by Years of
Service on a Force in Fiscal Year 2002


                                                                                    15 - 15 years or greater
210 - Less that 2 years                                      3%


                                                                                     96 - 10 to less than15 years
                                                              16%
                                              35%
                                                                  16%               97 - 5 to less than10 years


                                                        30%

181 - 2 to less than 5 years
Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 police forces.



Table 9 shows that approximately half (316) of the 599 police officers who
voluntarily separated from their forces in fiscal year 2002 went to TSA. Of
the 316 officers who went to TSA, about 53 percent (166) had fewer than
5 years of experience on their forces. An additional 19 percent (59) had
5 years to less than 10 years of experience on their forces.




Page 30                                                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                  Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
                                                                  13 Police Forces




Table 9: Separations to TSA in Fiscal Year 2002 by Police Force and Years of Service on a Force for 13 Police Forces in the
Washington MSA

                                                     2 yrs. to                    5 yrs. to   10 yrs. to   15 yrs. to   20 yrs. to   25 yrs.
                                        Less than less than 5                    less than    less than    less than    less than         or          Total
                                            2 yrs.        yrs.                      10 yrs.      15 yrs.      20 yrs.      25 yrs.   greater    separations
 Library of Congress                             2           1                            0            0            0            0         0              3
 Supreme Court                                   1           1                            1            0            2            0         0              5
 U.S. Capitol                                  13          27                           17             6            2            1         0             66
 Pentagon Force
 Protection Agency                                   3                    6              0            1            0             0         0             10
 Secret Service                                     39                   21             22           63            3             0         0            148
 Park Police                                         0                    8              5            8            1             0         0             22
 Bureau of Engraving
 and Printing                                         2                   5              4            0            1             0         0             12
 U.S. Mint                                            4                  11              1            2            0             0         0             18
 Government Printing
 Office                                               0                      0           0            0            0             0         0              0
 Federal Bureau of
 Investigation                                        5                      6           4            1            0             0         0             16
 U.S. Postal Service                                  0                      0           0            0            0             0         0              0
 Federal Protective
 Service                                              2                      3           2            0            0             0         0              7
 National Institutes of
 Health                                              4                    2              3            0            0             0         0              9
 Total                                              75                   91             59           81            9             1         0            316
Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                  Table 10 shows that about 25 percent (148) of the 599 police officers who
                                                                  voluntarily separated from their forces in fiscal year 2002 took other
                                                                  federal law enforcement positions. Officers with fewer than 5 years of
                                                                  experience on their forces accounted for about 79 percent (117) of the
                                                                  separations to other federal law enforcement positions, and officers with
                                                                  5 years to less than 10 years of experience accounted for an additional
                                                                  16 percent (23).




                                                                  Page 31                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                  Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
                                                                  13 Police Forces




Table 10: Separations to Other Federal Law Enforcement Positions, Excluding TSA, in Fiscal Year 2002 by Years of Service
on a Force for 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA

                                                     2 yrs. to                    5 yrs. to   10 yrs. to   15 yrs. to   20 yrs. to   25 yrs.
                                        Less than less than 5                    less than    less than    less than    less than         or          Total
                                            2 yrs.        yrs.                      10 yrs.      15 yrs.      20 yrs.      25 yrs.   greater    separations
 Library of Congress                             1           2                            1            0            0            0         0              4
 Supreme Court                                   0           5                            0            0            0            0         0              5
 U.S. Capitol                                  18          13                             4            1            0            0         0             36
 Pentagon Force
 Protection Agency                                   5                    4              1            0            0             0         0             10
 Secret Service                                     16                   17              9            3            0             0         0             45
 Park Police                                         0                    2              2            2            0             0         0              6
 Bureau of Engraving
 and Printing                                         7                      5           0            0            0             0         0             12
 U.S. Mint                                            2                      1           0            0            0             0         0              3
 Government Printing
 Office                                               0                      0           0            0            1             0         0              1
 Federal Bureau of
 Investigation                                        1                      0           0            0            0             0         0              1
 U.S. Postal Service                                  0                      5           1            1            0             0         0              7
 Federal Protective
 Service                                              0                      5           5            0            0             0         0             10
 National Institutes of
 Health                                              3                    5              0            0            0             0         0              8
 Total                                              53                   64             23            7            1             0         0            148
Source: GAO analysis of separations data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                  Table 11 shows that of the 13 police forces surveyed, 11 reported problems
                                                                  ranging in severity from a little or some extent, to a very great extent, with
                                                                  retaining officers in the Washington MSA. Of these 11 police forces,
                                                                  4 characterized their agencies retention difficulties as a very great extent.
                                                                  Two police forces, the Government Printing Office Police and the Library
                                                                  of Congress Police, reported no difficulty with retention.




                                                                  Page 32                                               GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
                                                                 13 Police Forces




Table 11: Extent to Which Police Forces Reported Experiencing Retention Difficulties in the Washington MSA

 Uniformed police force                                   Very great extent      Great extent    Moderate extent     Little or some extent    No extent
 Library of Congress                                                                                                                              •
 Supreme Court                                                                                            •
 U.S. Capitol                                                                                             •
 Pentagon Force Protection Agency                                                                                               •
 Secret Service                                                      •
 Park Police                                                                           •
 Bureau of Engraving and Printing                                    •
 U.S. Mint                                                           •
 Government Printing Office                                                                                                                         •
 Federal Bureau of Investigation                                                       •
 U.S. Postal Service                                                                   •
 Federal Protective Service                                                            •
 National Institutes of Health                                        •
 Total                                                               4                 4                 2                      1                  2
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.


                                                                 Police forces reporting difficulties indicated a number of commonalities in
                                                                 terms of why officers had left the forces. Among the reasons given were1

                                                            •    better pay at other agencies;
                                                            •    better benefits, including law enforcement retirement, at other agencies;
                                                            •    better morale at other agencies;
                                                            •    more challenging work at other agencies;
                                                            •    promotional opportunities at other agencies;
                                                            •    too much overtime at their police forces; and
                                                            •    retirements from their police forces.

                                                                 Library of Congress Police officials attributed their low turnover rate to
                                                                 pay, working conditions, and the fact that the force does not have any age
                                                                 restrictions, which allows the force to hire older, more experienced
                                                                 officers. Each of the forces with retention difficulties reported steps taken
                                                                 to address the problem, including providing retention allowances,
                                                                 improving training, and improving working conditions. Additionally,
                                                                 officials from several police forces reported that they were considering
                                                                 providing increases in retention allowances and student loan repayments
                                                                 to address their retention difficulties.



                                                                 1
                                                                  The forces determined why officers were leaving primarily through exit interviews and
                                                                 other paperwork associated with resignations, as well as through anecdotal information.




                                                                 Page 33                                            GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix II: Selected Turnover Data for the
13 Police Forces




Only two police forces, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency and the
Supreme Court Police, reported that the measures they had taken had
solved the retention problem to a great extent; the remaining police forces
indicated either that the measures taken had had a little or no effect or
that it was too early to determine whether the measures taken would solve
the retention problem.




Page 34                                       GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
              Flexibilities



Flexibilities

              Table 12 illustrates the use of human capital flexibilities by the 13 police
              forces included in our review. While agency officials reported that a
              variety of human capital flexibilities were available across the agencies,
              there was variation among agencies both in terms of the specific
              flexibilities available and in the frequency of use. For instance, only 3 of
              the 13 agencies reported the availability of recruitment bonuses, and none
              were given in fiscal year 2002. Ten of the 13 reported the availability of
              performance-based cash awards, and 9 of these agencies made these
              awards in amounts averaging $109-$2,500.




              Page 35                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                             Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
                                             Flexibilities




Table 12: Reported Availability and Use of Human Capital Flexibilities at 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA

                                                             Bureau of      Federal       Federal        Government
                                                             Engraving      Bureau of     Protective     Printing       Library of
                                                             and Printing   Investigation Service        Office         Congress
 Monetary incentives
 Relocation bonuses                                          N              Y             Y              N              N
 Number used in fiscal year 2002                             N/A            0             0              N/A            N/A
 Recruitment bonuses                                         N              Y             Y              N              N
 Number used in fiscal year 2002                             N/A            0             0              N/A            N/A
 Retention allowances                                        N              Y             Y              N              N
 Number used in fiscal year 2002                             N/A            0             120            N/A            N/A
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          N/A            N/A           $3,496         N/A            N/A
 Increase in pay upon completion of basic training           N              N             N              Y              Y
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          N/A            N/A           N/A            $1,702         $1,381
 Student loan repayment                                      N              Y             Y              N              N
 Number of officers that received repayments                 N/A            0             0              N/A            N/A
 Incentive awards and recognition
 Performance-based cash awards                               N              Y             Y              N              Y
 Number of awards in fiscal year 2002                        N/A            100           12             N/A            8
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          N/A            $2,500        $388           N/A            $656
 Quality step increases                                      Y              Y             Y              N              N
 Number of increases in fiscal year 2002                     1              9             1              N/A            N/A
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          $1,087         $1,000        $1,148         N/A            N/A
 Honorary and informal recognition awards                    Y              N             Y              Y              N
                                                                                          a
 Number of awards in fiscal year 2002                        11             N/A                          0              N/A
 Time-off awards                                             Y              Y             N              N              N
 Number of awards in fiscal year 2002                        1              3             N/A            N/A            N/A
 Average amount, in hours, in fiscal year 2002               8              8             N/A            N/A            N/A
 Performance development and training
 Tuition assistance                                          N              Y             Y              N              N
 Are all officers eligible?                                  N/A            Y             Y              N/A            N/A
 Number of officers who received this assistance in fiscal   N/A            0             8              N/A            N/A
 year 2002
                                                                                          a
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          N/A            0                            N/A            N/A
 External training reimbursement                             N              Y             Y              Y              N
 Are all officers eligible?                                  N/A            Y             Y              N              N/A
 Number of officers who received reimbursement in fiscal     N/A            10            28             0              N/A
 year 2002
                                                                                          a
 Average amount in fiscal year 2002                          N/A            $750                         0              N/A




                                             Page 36                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                        Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
                                        Flexibilities




National        Pentagon Force
Institutes of   Protection                                                                       U.S. Park    U.S. Postal
Health          Agency         Secret Service     Supreme Court     U.S. Capitol   U.S. Mint     Police       Service

N               Y              N                  N                 N              Y             N            N
N/A             0              N/A                N/A               N/A            0             N/A          N/A
N               Y              N                  N                 N              N             N            N
N/A             0              N/A                N/A               N/A            N/A           N/A          N/A
Y               Y              N                  N                 N              N             N            N
51              253            N/A                N/A               N/A            N/A           N/A          N/A
$4,225          $1,013         N/A                N/A               N/A            N/A           N/A          N/A
N               N              N                  Y                 Y              N             Y            N
N/A             N/A            N/A                $1,381            $1,381         N/A           $788         N/A
N               N              N                  N                 N              N             N            N
N/A             N/A            N/A                N/A               N/A            N/A           N/A          N/A

Y               Y              Y                  Y                 N              Y             Y            Y
48              196            1,161              20                N/A            0             392          100
$2,000          $1,364         $438               $555              N/A            0             $827         $109
Y               Y              Y                  Y                 N              Y             N            Y
1               44             0                  1                 N/A            2             N/A          0
$3,000          $2,406         0                  $2,152            N/A            $4,445        N/A          0
Y               Y              Y                  Y                 Y              Y             Y            Y
38              3              5                  20                0              1             70           54
Y               Y              Y                  N                 N              Y             Y            N
10              0              0                  N/A               N/A            4             717          N/A
8               0              0                  N/A               N/A            40            10           N/A

Y               Y              Y                  Y                 N              Y             N            Y
Y               Y              Y                  Y                 N/A            N             N/A          Y
0               10             11                 3                 N/A            20            N/A          0

0               $302           $1,536             $2,304            N/A            $1,508        N/A          0
N               Y              Y                  Y                 N              N             N            Y
N/A             Y              Y                  Y                 N/A            N/A           N/A          Y
N/A             185            0                  21                N/A            N/A           N/A          0

N/A             $1,155         N/A                $1,226            N/A            N/A           N/A          0




                                        Page 37                                          GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
                                                                 Flexibilities




                                                                                   Bureau of         Federal             Federal         Government
                                                                                   Engraving         Bureau of           Protective      Printing          Library of
                                                                                   and Printing      Investigation       Service         Office            Congress
 Work-life policies and programs
 Gym/health program                                                                Y                 Y                   Y               N                 N
 Are all officers eligible?                                                        Y                 Y                   Y               N/A               N/A
 Child care program                                                                N                 Y                   Y               N                 Y
 Are all officers eligible?                                                        N/A               Y                   Y               N/A               Y
 Alternative work schedule                                                         N                 N                   N               N                 N
 Are all officers eligible?                                                        N/A               N/A                 N/A             N/A               N/A
 Transportation subsidies                                                          Y                 Y                   Y               Y                 Y
 Are all offices eligible?                                                         Y                 Y                   Y               Y                 Y
 Take home vehicle                                                                 N                 N                   Y               N                 N
 Number of officers with take home vehicles in fiscal year                         N/A               N/A                 122             N/A               N/A
 2002
 Other human capital flexibilities
 Waiver of qualification requirements                                              N                 Y                   Y               N                 N
 Number of waivers in fiscal year 2002                                             N/A               11                  0               N/A               N/A
 Specialized unit opportunities                                                    Y                 Y                   Y               N                 N
 Are all officers eligible?                                                        Y                 Y                   Y               N/A               N/A
 Referral bonuses                                                                  N                 Y                   N               N                 N
 Number used in fiscal year 2002                                                   N/A               0                   N/A             N/A               N/A
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.
                                                                 a
                                                                 The Federal Protective Service reported that it was unable to produce reliable data for this item.




                                                                 Page 38                                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                      Appendix III: Use of Human Capital
                                      Flexibilities




National        Pentagon Force
Institutes of   Protection                                                                      U.S. Park    U.S. Postal
Health          Agency         Secret Service    Supreme Court       U.S. Capitol   U.S. Mint   Police       Service

N               Y              Y                 Y                   Y              Y           N            Y
N/A             Y              Y                 Y                   Y              Y           N/A          Y
N               N              N                 Y                   N              Y           N            N
N/A             N/A            N/A               Y                   N/A            Y           N/A          N/A
Y               N              Y                 N                   N              Y           Y            N
N               N/A            Y                 N/A                 N/A            Y           Y            N/A
Y               Y              Y                 Y                   Y              Y           N            N
N               Y              Y                 Y                   Y              Y           N/A          N/A
N               N              Y                 Y                   Y              N           Y            N
N/A             N/A            84                2                   34             N/A         133          N/A


N               N               N                N                   N              N           Y            Y
N/A             N/A             N/A              N/A                 N/A            N/A         3            0
Y               Y               Y                Y                   Y              Y           Y            Y
Y               Y               Y                Y                   Y              Y           Y            Y
N               N               N                N                   N              N           N            N
N/A             N/A             N/A              N/A                 N/A            N/A         N/A          N/A




                                      Page 39                                        GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
              Hire Selection Process



Hire Selection Process

              Table 13 provides information on the recruiting strategies used as reported
              by the 13 police forces during fiscal year 2002. A number of strategies were
              employed, including placement of announcements in various media
              sources. Also, in addition to agency and OPM Web sites, a number of
              agencies reported using various independent Web sites related to
              employment searches.




              Page 40                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
Hire Selection Process




Page 41                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
                                                                 Hire Selection Process




Table 13: Use of Recruiting Strategies as Reported by the 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA

                                       Bureau of                                  Federal                                                 National
                                       Engraving and             Federal Bureau Protective        Government           Library of         Institutes of
                                       Printing                  of Investigation Service         Printing Office      Congress           Health
 Colleges/universities
 Local                                        •                                         •                                  •                  •
 Nationwide                                   •
 Job Fairs
 Local                                        •                      •                  •             •                                       •
 Nationwide                                   •
 Internet
 Agency Web site                              •                      •                  •             •                    •                  •
 OPM Web site                                 •                      •                  •             •                    •                  •
 Other Web site(s)                            •                                         •
 Newspaper                                    •                      •                                                     •                  •
 Radio                                        •                      •                                                                        •
 Television
 Military                                     •                      •                  •             •                                       •
 Unemployment offices                         •                                                       •                    •
 Libraries                                    •                                                                                               •
 Mailings                                     •                                                       •                    •
 Other                                                                                                                                        •
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.




                                                                 Page 42                                            GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                  Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
                                  Hire Selection Process




Pentagon Force
Protection                                                                                            U.S. Postal
Agency           Secret Service      Supreme Court     U.S. Capitol    U.S. Mint   U.S. Park Police   Service

   •                 •                      •               •              •           •
   •                 •                      •               •              •           •

   •                 •                      •               •              •           •
   •                 •                                      •              •           •

   •                 •                                      •              •           •                  •
   •                 •                      •               •              •           •
   •                 •                      •               •              •           •
   •                 •                      •               •              •           •                  •
   •                 •                                      •                          •
   •                                                                                   •
   •                 •                      •               •              •           •
   •                 •                                      •                          •
                     •                      •                                          •
                     •                      •                                          •
                                                                                       •


                                  Table 14 shows that qualification requirements and the selection process
                                  used were similar across the agencies. The U.S. Postal Service Police was
                                  the only force that did not require a high school diploma or prior law
                                  enforcement experience. Additionally, as part of the selection process, all
                                  13 police forces required new hires to have successfully completed an
                                  application, an interview(s), a medical examination, a background
                                  investigation, and a drug test. Each force also had at least one additional
                                  requirement, such as a secret clearance or physical fitness evaluation.




                                  Page 43                                          GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                                                                 Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
                                                                 Hire Selection Process




Table 14: Minimum Qualification Requirements and Selection Process Reported by 13 Police Forces in the Washington MSA

                                                                  Bureau of        Federal           Federal      Government              National
                                                                  Engraving        Bureau of         Protective   Printing     Library of Institutes
                                                                  and Printing     Investigation     Service      Office       Congress of Health
 Minimum qualification requirements
 High school diploma/equivalent                                                        •                 •                         •
 2-year college degree in any major
 4-year college degree in criminal justice
 related major
 1-year law enforcement experience                                                                                   •
 2-year college degree in any major OR 1-
 year of law enforcement experience
 4-year college degree in any major OR 1
 year of law enforcement experience
 4-year college degree in a criminal justice                           •                                                                       •
 related major OR 1 year of law enforcement
 experience
 Selection process
 Application                                                           •               •                 •           •             •           •
 Written examinations(s)                                               •               •
 Interview                                                             •               •                 •           •             •           •
 Medical examination                                                   •               •                 •           •             •           •
 Physical fitness evaluation                                           •               •                 •                         •
 Psychological evaluation                                                              •
 Background investigation                                              •               •                 •           •             •           •
 Polygraph test                                                                        •
 Secret clearance                                                      •                                 •           •                         •
 Top secret clearance                                                                  •
 Drug test                                                             •               •                 •           •             •           •
Source: GAO analysis of data provided by the 13 police forces.




                                                                 Page 44                                          GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                            Appendix IV: Recruiting Strategies and New
                            Hire Selection Process




Pentagon Force
Protection     Secret    Supreme         U.S.               U.S.          U.S.             U.S. Postal
Agency         Service   Court           Capitol            Mint          Park Police      Service

                   •                          •




                                                                              •


                            •

   •                                                             •



   •               •        •                 •                  •            •                 •
   •               •        •                 •                               •                 •
   •               •        •                 •                  •            •                 •
   •               •        •                 •                  •            •                 •
   •               •                                                          •
                            •                 •                               •
   •               •        •                 •                  •            •                 •
                   •                          •
   •                                                             •
                   •
   •               •        •                 •                  •            •                 •




                            Page 45                                      GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
             Appendix V: Comments from the Department
Appendix V: Comments from the Department
             of the Interior



of the Interior




             Page 46                                    GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
             Appendix VI: Comments from the National
Appendix VI: Comments from the National
             Institutes of Health



Institutes of Health




             Page 47                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VI: Comments from the National
Institutes of Health




Page 48                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VI: Comments from the National
Institutes of Health




Page 49                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VI: Comments from the National
Institutes of Health




Page 50                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              Appendix VII: Comments from the Office of Personnel Management
Appendix VII: Comments from the Office of
Personnel Management




              Page 51                                         GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VII: Comments from the Office of Personnel Management




Page 52                                         GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
              Appendix VIII: Comments from the United States Secret Service
Appendix VIII: Comments from the United
States Secret Service




              Page 53                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VIII: Comments from the United States Secret Service




Page 54                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VIII: Comments from the United States Secret Service




Page 55                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VIII: Comments from the United States Secret Service




Page 56                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
Appendix VIII: Comments from the United States Secret Service




Page 57                                           GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
             Appendix IX: Comments from the Supreme
Appendix IX: Comments from the Supreme
             Court of the United States



Court of the United States




             Page 58                                  GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
                  Appendix X: GAO Contacts and

Appendix X: GAO Contacts and
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Richard M. Stana (202) 512-8777
GAO Contacts      Weldon McPhail (202) 512-8644


                  In addition to the persons named above, Leo M. Barbour,
Staff             Susan L. Conlon, Evan Gilman, Kimberley Granger, Geoffrey Hamilton,
Acknowledgments   Laura Luo, Michael O’ Donnell, Doris Page, George Scott, Lou V.B. Smith,
                  Edward H. Stephenson, Jr., Maria D. Strudwick, Mark Tremba, and
                  Gregory H. Wilmoth made key contributions to this report.




(440126)
                  Page 59                                   GAO-03-658 Federal Uniformed Police
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