oversight

Workforce Investment Act: One-Stop Centers Implemented Strategies to Strengthen Services and Partnerships, but More Research and Information Sharing is Needed

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-06-18.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States General Accounting Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




June 2003
             WORKFORCE
             INVESTMENT ACT
             One-Stop Centers
             Implemented
             Strategies to
             Strengthen Services
             and Partnerships, but
             More Research and
             Information Sharing is
             Needed




GAO-03-725
             a
                                                June 2003


                                                WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT
                                                One-Stop Centers Implemented
 Highlights of GAO-03-725, a report to
 Congressional Requesters
                                                Strategies to Strengthen Services and
                                                Partnerships, but More Research and
                                                Information Sharing Is Needed


To create a more comprehensive                  Of the 14 one-stop centers in GAO’s study that were identified as exemplary
workforce investment system, the                by government officials and workforce development experts, all had
Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of               implemented a range of promising practices to streamline services for
1998 requires states and localities             jobseekers, engage the employer community, and built a solid one-stop
to coordinate most federally
                                                infrastructure. The one-stop centers GAO visited streamlined services for job
funded employment and training
services into a single system, called           seekers by ensuring access to needed services, educating program staff
the one-stop center system. This                about all of the one-stop services available to job seekers, and consolidating
report examines how selected one-               case management and intake procedures. In addition, all of the one-stop
stop centers have used the law’s                centers GAO visited used at least one of the following three methods to
flexibility to implement their own              engage employers—dedicating specialized staff to work with employers or
vision of WIA and provides                      industries, working with employers through intermediaries, such as
information on promising practices              Chambers of Commerce or economic development entities, or tailoring
for (1) streamlining services for job           services to meet specific employers’ needs. To provide the infrastructure to
seekers, (2) engaging the employer              support better services for job seekers and employers, many of the one-stops
community, (3) building a solid                 GAO visited found innovative ways to strengthen program partnerships and
one-stop infrastructure by
                                                to raise additional funds beyond those provided under WIA. Center
strengthening partnerships across
programs and raising additional                 operators fostered the development of strong program partnerships by
funds. In addition, it provides                 encouraging partner collaboration through functional work teams and joint
information on the actions the                  projects, and they raised additional funds through fee-based services, grants,
Department of Labor is taking to                and contributions from partners and state or local governments.
collect and share information about
what is working well for job seeker             While Labor currently tracks outcome data--such as job placement, job
and employer customers in one-                  seeker satisfaction and employer satisfaction--and funds several studies to
stop centers.                                   evaluate workforce development programs and service delivery models,
                                                little is known about the impact of various one-stop service delivery
                                                approaches on these and other outcomes. Labor's studies largely take a
GAO recommends that the                         program-by-program approach rather than focusing on the impact on job
Secretary of Labor collaborate with             seekers of various one-stop integrated service delivery approaches, such as
the Departments of Education,
                                                sharing customer intake forms across programs, or on employers, such as
Health and Human Services, and
                                                dedicating staff to focus on engaging and serving employers. Further,
Housing and Urban Development to
develop a research agenda that
                                                Labor's efforts to collaborate with other federal agencies to assess the
examines the impact of various                  effects of different strategies to integrate job seeker services or to serve
approaches to one-stop program                  employers through the one-stop system have been limited. While Labor has
integration on outcomes, such as                developed a promising practices Web site to facilitate such information
job placement and retention, and                sharing, it is unclear how well the site currently meets this objective.
jobseeker and employer                          One-Stop Customers Include Job Seekers and Employers
satisfaction. GAO also recommends
that the Secretary conduct a
systematic evaluation of the                                                                     Job search
                                                                                                                                             Employers
                                                                      Job seekers                     and support      Services to
promising practices Web site and                                                                         services  better meet
ensure that it is effective.                                                    Available
                                                                                                                  employers'
                                                                                                               labor needs                 Job listings
                                                                                      labor                                             and job
                                                                                        supply                                       opportunities
www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-725
To view the full report, including the scope
and methodology, click on the link above.                                                                     One-stop
                                                                                                            center system
For more information, contact Dianne Blank at
                                                Source: GAO illustration. Clip art source: Art Explosion.
(202) 512-5654 or blankd@gao.gov.
Contents



Letter                                                                                                  1
                             Results in Brief                                                           5
                             Background                                                                 7
                             One-Stops Used Strategies to Streamline Services for Job
                                Seekers                                                                12
                             One-Stops Developed Strategies to Engage and Provide Services to
                                Employers in the One-Stop System                                       17
                             One-Stop Centers Built a Solid Infrastructure by Strengthening
                                Program Partnerships and Raising Additional Funds                      23
                             Little Is Known about the Impact of Strategies to Improve One-Stop
                                Services and Management                                                28
                             Conclusions                                                               34
                             Recommendations for Executive Action                                      35
                             Agency Comments                                                           35


Appendixes
              Appendix I:    Characteristics of the 14 One-Stop Centers GAO Visited                    37
             Appendix II:    Promising Practices from Site Visits                                      39
                             Aurora, Colorado                                                          39
                             Blaine, Minnesota                                                         40
                             Boston, Massachusetts                                                     41
                             Clarksville, Tennessee                                                    42
                             Dayton, Ohio                                                              43
                             Erie, Pennsylvania                                                        44
                             Kansas City, Missouri                                                     45
                             Kenosha, Wisconsin                                                        46
                             Killeen, Texas                                                            47
                             Pikeville, Kentucky                                                       48
                             Salt Lake City, Utah                                                      49
                             Santa Rosa, California                                                    50
                             Sunnyvale, California                                                     51
                             Vineland, New Jersey                                                      52
             Appendix III:   Comments from the Department of Labor                                     53
             Appendix IV:    GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                    56
                             GAO Contacts                                                              56
                             Staff Acknowledgments                                                     56


Related GAO Products                                                                                   57



                             Page i                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
          Contents




Tables    Table 1: WIA’s Mandatory Programs, Their Related Federal
                   Agencies, and Fiscal Year 2003 Program Appropriations                          8
          Table 2: Selected Studies Supported by ETA                                             31


Figures   Figure 1: GAO Site Visits to One-Stop Centers                                              4
          Figure 2: One-Stop Customers Include Job Seekers and
                    Employers                                                                    11
          Figure 3: Promising Strategies in Streamlining and Integrating
                    Services for Job Seeker Customers                                            13
          Figure 4: Promising Strategies for Engaging Employers                                  18
          Figure 5: Promising Strategies for Improving the One-Stop Center
                    Infrastructure                                                               24




          Abbreviations

          ATA          Area Transit Authority
          ETA          Employment and Training
          GED          General Educational Development
          HHS          Department of Health and Human Services
          HUD          Department of Housing and Urban Development
          ITA          Individual Training Accounts
          JTPA         Job Training Partnership Act
          TANF         Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
          WIA          Workforce Investment Act


           This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
           United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further
           permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or
           other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to
           reproduce this material separately.




          Page ii                                             GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
A
United States General Accounting Office
Washington, D.C. 20548



                                    June 18, 2003                                                                  Lert




                                    The Honorable John A. Boehner
                                    Chairman
                                    Committee on Education and the Workforce
                                    House of Representatives

                                    The Honorable Howard P. McKeon
                                    Chairman
                                    Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness
                                    Committee on Education and the Workforce
                                    House of Representatives

                                    The Honorable Edward M. Kennedy
                                    Ranking Minority Member
                                    Committee on Health, Education,
                                     Labor and Pensions
                                    United States Senate

                                    The Congress passed the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) in 1998 to begin
                                    unifying a fragmented employment and training system and to better serve
                                    job seekers and employers. To create a more comprehensive workforce
                                    investment system, WIA requires states and localities to bring together over
                                    $15 billion of federally funded employment and training services into a
                                    single system, called the one-stop center system. Four separate federal
                                    agencies—the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services (HHS),
                                    Education, and Housing and Urban Development (HUD)—fund about
                                    17 categories of programs that are required to provide services through the
                                    one-stop system. Labor takes a lead role in this new system and is
                                    responsible for assessing the effectiveness of Labor-funded programs and
                                    for providing guidance to states and localities as programs deliver their
                                    services through the one-stop system.




                                    Page 1                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
WIA is designed to give states and localities flexibility in deciding how to
implement the one-stop system, allowing local one-stops to try new
approaches and tailor their systems to the needs of local job seeker and
employer customers. Labor encourages states and localities to create a
customer-focused one-stop system that uses innovative approaches to help
job seekers find and maintain employment and help employers find skilled
workers. In past reports, we identified key areas critical to successfully
providing services to job seekers and employers, such as providing job
seeker services that are tailored and seamlessly delivered and serving
employers in ways that minimize wasted time and reduce frustration.1 As
the Congress moves toward reauthorization of WIA, you wanted to know
how some of the nation’s 1,972 one-stop centers have built on these
concepts and used their flexibility to streamline and integrate services for
job seekers, involve the private sector, and coordinate operations and
service delivery across employment and training programs.

As requested, this report examines how some one-stop centers have used
the law’s flexibility to implement their own vision of WIA and provides
information on promising practices for (1) streamlining services for job
seekers, (2) engaging the employer community, and (3) building a solid
one-stop infrastructure by strengthening partnerships across programs and
raising additional funds. In addition, we are providing information on the
actions the Department of Labor is taking to collect and share information
about what is working well for job seeker and employer customers in one-
stop centers.

Our report is based on in-depth site visits to 14 one-stop centers from
across the nation that government officials and workforce experts
identified as exemplary and on interviews with Labor Department officials.
Because no systemwide data exists by which to judge the success of
various one-stop approaches, we selected our sites based on information
about promising practices in one-stop centers and information about the
potential impact of those practices. We asked the following officials or
experts to identify exemplary one-stop centers: Labor headquarters and
regional officials; HHS, Education, and HUD headquarters offices; and
workforce development experts. We restricted the request for exemplary


1
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Workforce Investment Act: Coordination of TANF
Services Through One-stops Has Increased Despite Challenges, GAO-02-739T (Washington
D.C.: May 16, 2002) and Workforce Investment Act: Implementation Status and the
Integration of TANF Services, GAO/T-HEHS-00-145 (Washington, D.C.: June 29, 2000).




Page 2                                           GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
one-stops to a single site in each of the three key areas—serving job
seekers, engaging employers, and operating the one-stop center. The
officials and experts provided us with specific information on each site’s
innovations and the potential impact of each promising practice. After
officials and experts identified approximately 50 one-stop centers across
the three areas, we winnowed down the list of one-stops by considering the
number of times a site was recommended and each site’s characteristics,
including its location and the size of its service area. Figure 1 shows the
locations of the 14 sites we visited. The 14 one-stop centers represented a
geographic and a demographic mix, ranging from rural to urban centers.
(See app. I for information on each one-stop site.) Some of the sites, such
as Kansas City, Missouri, represented a mix of urban, suburban, and rural
customers. The one-stops we visited varied in the average number of
customers they served—from 500 to 42,500 each month. The sites also
represented a mix of one-stop operators—those responsible for
administering the one-stop centers—including nonprofit organizations,
consortia of one-stop partners, and local government entities. We
conducted our work between August 2002 and June 2003 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards.




Page 3                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Figure 1: GAO Site Visits to One-Stop Centers



                                South County                                      Anoka County
                                Employment Center                                 Workforce Center
                                Salt Lake City, UT                                Blaine, MN
                                                                                               Kenosha County
                                                 Arapahoe/
                                                                                               Job Center
                                                 Douglas Works!
                                                                                               Kenosha, WI
                                                 Aurora, CO
                                                                                                      The Job Center
                                                                                                      Dayton, OH
                                                                                                                    Erie Team          Maine
                                                                                                                    PA CareerLink
                                                                                                                    Erie, PA


                                                                                                                                               The Work Place
                                                                                                                                               Boston, MA



                                                                                                                                               Cumberland
                                                                                                                                               County One-Stop
                                                                                                                                               Vineland, NJ

                                                                                                                                               Pike County
                                                                                                                                               JobSight Center
                                                                                                                                               Pikeville, KY




                                                                                                                 Florida



                                                                             Full
                                                                             Employment
                                                                             Council
                                                                             Kansas City, MO
               CONNECT!
               Sunnyvale, CA                                      Central Texas
                                                                  Workforce                          WorkForce
               Job Link
                                                                  Killeen, TX                        Essentials, Inc.
               Santa Rosa, CA
                                                                                                     Clarksville, TN




Source: GAO site visits.




                                                     Page 4                                                                GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Results in Brief   The one-stop centers we visited embraced the customer-focused provisions
                   of WIA by streamlining one-stop services for job seekers. All of the centers
                   used at least one of three different strategies to build a streamlined one-
                   stop system—ensuring that job seekers could readily access needed
                   services, educating program staff about all of the one-stop services
                   available to job seekers, and consolidating case management and intake
                   procedures. Thirteen of the 14 one-stop centers we visited took special
                   care to ensure that job seekers could readily access needed services. For
                   example, officials in Erie, Pennsylvania, positioned a staff person at the
                   entrance to the one-stop to help job seekers entering the center find needed
                   services and to ensure that exiting job seekers had received the services
                   they sought. To educate program staff on all one-stop services, almost all of
                   the one-stop centers we visited used cross-training sessions to help staff
                   understand the range of services available at the one-stop. For example, in
                   Pikeville, Kentucky, regularly scheduled cross-training workshops
                   educated staff about the one-stop’s diverse array of services, such as adult
                   education classes and services for the disabled, so that they could better
                   ensure that job seekers received the tools they needed to become
                   successfully employed. Finally, 10 of the 14 one-stops we visited
                   streamlined services for job seekers by consolidating intake procedures or
                   case management across multiple programs. For example, in Blaine,
                   Minnesota, job seekers received comprehensive services from a team of
                   caseworkers who collaborated to meet all job seekers’ needs.

                   To engage employers and provide them needed services, all of the one-stop
                   centers we visited used at least one of three different strategies—
                   dedicating specialized staff to work with employers or industries; working
                   with employers through intermediaries, such as Chambers of Commerce or
                   economic development entities; or tailoring services to meet specific
                   employers’ needs. All of the centers dedicated specialized staff to work
                   with employers or industries. For example, the Killeen, Texas, one-stop
                   center dedicated specialized staff to work with employers to identify job
                   openings and to act as a central point of contact so that employers were not
                   burdened with multiple calls from each of the one-stop programs. In Santa
                   Rosa, the specialized staff for employers were dedicated to specific
                   industries in order to better address local labor shortages. When the
                   tourism industry had a labor shortage, for example, a staff person was in
                   place who used his or her existing relationships with tourism employers to
                   more effectively match job seekers with job-specific training. In addition to
                   employer-focused staff, many of the one-stops worked with employers
                   through intermediaries, such as the Chambers of Commerce or economic



                   Page 5                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
development entities, to expand the number of employer customers and
provide these employers with one-stop services. For example, the one-stop
staff in Clarksville, Tennessee, worked with Chamber members to provide
math training in order to improve the pool of entry-level employees for the
banking industry. In addition, almost all of the one-stops we visited went
beyond providing basic services to employers by tailoring services to meet
individual employers’ unique labor needs, including specialized recruiting
and applicant pre-screening, customized training opportunities, and
assessments using employer specifications. The Pikeville, Kentucky, one-
stop offered a range of tailored services to employers that were
instrumental in attracting a major cabinet manufacturer to the area and
helping this company hire over 105 employees.

To provide the infrastructure to support better services for job seekers and
employers, many of the one-stops we visited found innovative ways to
develop and strengthen program partnerships and to raise additional funds
beyond those provided under WIA. Center operators fostered the
development of strong program partnerships by encouraging
communication and collaboration among partners, which enabled them to
pursue common one-stop goals and to support the development of a shared
one-stop identity. For example, in Blaine, Minnesota, partners at the one-
stop center participated in a joint project to apply for a local one-stop
implementation grant from the state of Minnesota. Blaine one-stop
managers told us that the planning process involved in applying for the
grant allowed partners to develop a better understanding of one another’s
services and enabled them to identify common functions and thereby
reduce service duplication. Several one-stop managers reported that such
collaboration among partners was facilitated by the co-location of
programs in one building, which one-stops encouraged by offering
attractive physical space and flexible rental agreements. Many one-stops
also supported a strong infrastructure by raising funds through fee-based
services, grants, and contributions from partners and state or local
governments. The centers used the additional funds to improve operations
and to provide additional services. For example, managers at the one-stop
in Kansas City, Missouri, told us that their full-time grant writer was able to
generate two-thirds of the center’s entire operating budget through
competitive grants available from the federal government as well as from
private foundations. This money allowed the center to expand its services,
including a new internship program in high-tech industries for at-risk
youth.




Page 6                                        GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
             While Labor currently tracks outcome data—such as job placement, job
             seeker satisfaction and employer satisfaction—and funds several studies to
             evaluate workforce development programs and service delivery models,
             little is known about the impact of various one-stop service delivery
             approaches on these and other outcomes. Labor’s studies largely take a
             program-by-program approach rather than focusing on the impact on job
             seekers of various one-stop integrated service delivery approaches, such as
             sharing customer intake forms across programs, or on employers, such as
             dedicating staff to focus on engaging and serving employers. Further,
             Labor’s efforts to collaborate with other federal agencies to assess the
             effects of different strategies to integrate job seeker services or to serve
             employers through the one-stop system have been limited. In addition, one-
             stop administrators do not have enough opportunities to share existing
             information about how to improve and integrate services for job seeker and
             employer customers. While Labor has developed a promising practices
             Web site to facilitate such information sharing, it is unclear how well the
             site currently meets this objective.

             In order to better understand and disseminate information on how well
             different approaches to program integration are meeting the needs of one-
             stop job seekers and employers, we recommend that the Secretary of Labor
             collaborate with the Departments of Education, Health and Human
             Services, and Housing and Urban Development to develop a research
             agenda that examines the impact of various approaches to program
             integration on job seeker and employer satisfaction and outcomes, such as
             job placement and retention. We also recommend that the Secretary
             conduct a systematic evaluation of the promising practices Web site and
             ensure that it is effective. In its written comments, Labor generally agreed
             with our findings and recommendations.



Background   The Workforce Investment Act created a new, comprehensive workforce
             investment system designed to change the way employment and training
             services are delivered. When WIA was enacted in 1998, it replaced the Job
             Training Partnership Act (JTPA) with three new programs—Adult,
             Dislocated Worker, and Youth—that allow for a broader range of services,
             including job search assistance, assessment, and training for eligible
             individuals.2 In addition to establishing three new programs, WIA requires

             2
              While WIA was enacted in 1998, Labor did not require states to implement major provisions
             of WIA until July 1, 2000.




             Page 7                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                                          that a number of employment-related services be provided through a one-
                                          stop system, designed to make accessing employment and training services
                                          easier for job seeker customers. WIA also requires that the one-stop system
                                          engage the employer customer by helping employers identify and recruit
                                          skilled workers. While WIA allows states and localities flexibility in
                                          implementing these requirements, the law emphasizes that the one-stop
                                          system should be a customer-focused and comprehensive system that
                                          increases the employment, retention, and earnings of participants.

                                          The major hallmark of WIA is the consolidation of services through the
                                          one-stop center system. About 17 categories of programs, totaling over
                                          $15 billion from four separate federal agencies, are required to provide
                                          services through the system. (See table 1.)



Table 1: WIA’s Mandatory Programs, Their Related Federal Agencies, and Fiscal Year 2003 Program Appropriations

Federal agency                               Mandatory program                                 Fiscal Year 2003 appropriations
Department of Labor                          WIA Adult                                                            $898,778,000
                                             WIA Dislocated Worker                                               1,461,145,495
                                             WIA Youth                                                             994,458,728
                                             Employment Service (Wagner-Peyser)                                    756,783,723
                                             Trade adjustment assistance programs                                  972,000,000
                                             Veterans’ employment and training programs                            167,199,097
                                             Unemployment Insurance                                              2,634,253,000
                                             Job Corps                                                           1,522,240,700
                                             Welfare-to-Work grant-funded programs                                           0
                                             Senior Community Service Employment                                   442,306,200
                                             Program
                                             Employment and training for migrant and                                77,330,066
                                             seasonal farm workers
                                             Employment and training for Native Americans                           55,636,000
Department of Education                      Vocational Rehabilitation Program                                   2,506,948,000
                                             Adult Education and Literacy                                          571,262,500
                                             Vocational Education (Perkins Act)                                  1,513,170,925
Department of Health and Human Services      Community Services Block Grant                                        645,762,085
Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD-administered employment and training                                65,000,000
Total                                                                                                          $15,284,274,519
Source: GAO-03-589 and Labor.




                                          Page 8                                            GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
WIA allows flexibility in the way these mandatory partners provide services
through the one-stop system, allowing co-location, electronic linkages, or
referrals to off-site partner programs. While WIA requires these mandatory
partners to participate, WIA did not provide additional funds to operate
one-stop systems and support one-stop partnerships. As a result,
mandatory partners are expected to share the costs of developing and
operating one-stop centers. However, several of the programs have
limitations in the way the funds may be used, giving rise to one-stop
funding challenges.3

Beyond the mandatory partners, one-stop centers have the flexibility to
include other partners in the one-stop system. Labor suggests that these
additional, or optional partners, may help one-stop systems better meet
specific state and local workforce development needs. These optional
partners may include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)4 or
local private organizations, for example. States have the option of
mandating particular optional partners to participate in their one-stop
systems. For example, in 2001, 28 states had formal agreements between
TANF and WIA to involve TANF in the one-stop system.5 In addition,
localities may partner with other programs to meet the specific needs of
the community.




3
 Several of the mandatory one-stop partner programs are subject to restrictions on the use
of their funds, such as which populations they may serve and limits on the amount of
allowable administrative spending. See U.S. General Accounting Office, Workforce
Investment Act: Better Guidance Needed to Address Concerns Over New Requirements,
GAO-02-72 (Washington D.C.: Oct. 4, 2001).
4
 TANF provides low-income families with income support and employment-related
assistance.
5
For more information on TANF participation in one-stop centers, see GAO-02-739T.




Page 9                                               GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-stop centers serve two customers—job seekers and employers (see
fig. 2). In serving job seekers, one-stop centers are encouraged to develop
strategies to achieve a streamlined set of services. In past reports, we
identified key areas critical to successfully integrating services under WIA,
such as ensuring that job seekers have ready access to employment and
program information, reducing job seekers’ confusion by providing them
with a streamlined path from one program to another, providing job seeker
services that are tailored and seamless, and helping job seekers identify
and obtain needed program services without the burden of completing
multiple intake and assessment procedures.6 One-Stop centers provide job
seekers with job search and support services, while the job seekers act as
an available labor pool for the one-stops’ employer customers. In serving
employers, one-stops have the flexibility under WIA to provide a variety of
tailored services, including hiring, assessments and training services that
meet the specific needs of each employer.7 The degree to which the one-
stop system engages and provides services to employers is left to the
discretion of state and local officials. However, Labor suggests that
employer involvement is critical for one-stop officials to better understand
what skills are needed, what jobs are available, and what career fields are
expanding.




6
For more information, see GAO-02-739T and GAO/T-HEHS-00-145.
7
 WIA has a general requirement for local boards to promote the participation of private
sector employers in the workforce investment system and specifically requires that
employers and the private sector community represent a majority of the state and local
workforce investment boards’ memberships and that the chairperson of each board be
elected from those members.




Page 10                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Figure 2: One-Stop Customers Include Job Seekers and Employers




                         Job seekers                                                                                   Employers

                                                                                           Services to
                                                                   Job search
                                                                                        better meet
                                                                     and support
                                                                                       employers'
                                                                       services
                                                                                   labor needs
                                         Available                                                                Job listings
                                              labor                                                             and job
                                               supply                                                         opportunities




                                                                           One-stop
                                                                         center system
                                                                      17 mandatory partner
                                                                      programs
                                                                      Optional programs at state
                                                                      and local discretion


Source: GAO illustration. Clip art source: Art Explosion.




                                                            In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the WIA programs, WIA
                                                            requires that states and localities track performance and Labor holds states
                                                            accountable for their performance. The measures gauge outcomes in the
                                                            areas of job placement, employment retention, and earnings change, as
                                                            well as skill attainment and customer satisfaction.8 In addition to the WIA
                                                            programs, most of the 17 employment and training programs have their



                                                            8
                                                             For more information, see U.S. General Accounting Office, Workforce Investment Act:
                                                            Improvements Needed in Performance Measures to Provide a More Accurate Picture of
                                                            WIA’s Effectiveness, GAO-02-275 (Washington D.C.: Feb. 1, 2002).




                                                            Page 11                                           GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                          own performance measures. There are no overall one-stop performance
                          measures.



One-Stops Used            The one-stop centers we visited embraced the customer-focused provisions
                          of WIA by streamlining one-stop services for job seekers. All 14 one-stop
Strategies to             centers we visited used at least one of three different strategies to build a
Streamline Services for   streamlined one-stop system—ensuring job seekers could readily access
                          needed services, educating program staff about all of the one-stop services
Job Seekers               available to job seekers, and consolidating case management and intake
                          procedures (see fig. 3). To ensure that job seekers could readily access
                          needed services, one-stops we visited allocated staff to help job seekers
                          navigate the one-stop system, expanded services for one-stop customers,
                          and provided support to customers with transportation barriers. Ensuring
                          access is designed to minimize confusion for job seekers as they navigate
                          one-stop services. To educate program staff about one-stop services,
                          centers used cross-training sessions in which partners informed one
                          another about the range of services available at the one-stop. Finally,
                          centers sought to reduce the duplication of effort across programs and the
                          burden on job seekers navigating programs by consolidating case
                          management and intake procedures across multiple programs through joint
                          service plans for customers and shared computer networks.




                          Page 12                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Figure 3: Promising Strategies in Streamlining and Integrating Services for Job Seeker Customers




                                                                 Job seekers                                                       Employers

                                                                                             Job search
                                                                                               and support
                                                                                                 services
                                                                       Available
                                                                            labor
                                                                             supply




                     Promising Strategies                   Designed to:                            One-stop
                                                                                                  center system
                     Ensuring job seekers                   Minimize confusion and
                     ready access to needed                 frustration when accessing
                     services                               one-stop services
                     Educating program staff                Improve the job seeker's
                     to better understand all               ability to receive appropriate
                     available one-stop services            services
                     Consolidating case                     Reduce duplication of efforts
                     management and intake                  and burden on job seeker
                     procedures for job seekers             when navigating multiple
                                                            program services




Source: GAO illustration. Clip art source: Art Explosion.




One-Stop Staff Ensured Job                                  Nearly all of the one-stop centers we visited implemented specific
Seeker Access to Needed                                     strategies to ensure that job seekers had access to needed services. We
                                                            previously reported that the range of services provided by multiple
One-Stop Services
                                                            programs in the one-stop center caused confusion for job seekers. To
                                                            minimize confusion, nearly all of the sites we visited looked for ways to
                                                            ensure job seekers would have ready access to program information and a
                                                            clear path from one program to another within the one-stop system. For
                                                            example, when one-stop center staff in Killeen, Texas, and Clarksville,
                                                            Tennessee, referred job seekers to another partner, the staff personally
                                                            introduced the job seeker to the referred program staff to prevent job
                                                            seekers from getting lost between programs. Similarly, officials in Erie,



                                                            Page 13                                               GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Pennsylvania, positioned a staff person at the entrance to the one-stop to
help job seekers entering the center find needed services and to assist
exiting job seekers if they did not receive the services they sought. (See
app. II for more examples from each of the sites we visited.)

In addition to improving access to one-stop center services on-site, some of
the one-stops we visited found ways to serve job seekers who may have
been unable to come into the one-stop center for services. For example, in
Boston, Massachusetts, the one-stop placed staff in off-site locations,
including family courts, correctional facilities, and welfare offices to give
job seekers ready access to employment and program information.
Specifically, Boston one-stop staff worked with an offender re-entry
program that conducted job fairs inside the county prison to facilitate
incarcerated offenders’ transition back into the workplace.

One-stops also improved job seeker access to services by expanding
partnerships to include optional service providers—those beyond the
17 program partners mandated by WIA. These optional partners ranged
from federally funded programs, such as TANF, to community-based
organizations providing services tailored to meet the needs of local job
seekers. The one-stop in Dayton, Ohio, was particularly proactive in
forming optional partnerships to meet job seekers’ service needs. At the
time of our visit, the Dayton one-stop had over 30 optional partners on-site,
including the Montgomery County Combined Health District, which
operated a health clinic on-site; Clothes that Work!, which provides free
business attire to low-income women; and an alternative high school. The
most common optional partner at the one-stops we visited was the TANF
program—which was an on-site partner at 13 of the 14 sites. One-stop
managers in Clarksville told us that co-location with the Tennessee
Department of Human Services, which administers TANF, benefited all job
seekers because the department helped to fund various services, including
computer classes, soft skills classes, and parenting classes that could be
provided to those not eligible for TANF. Additionally, Killeen, Texas, one-
stop staff told us that co-location with TANF helped welfare recipients
address barriers to employment by facilitating easier access to other
services, such as housing assistance and employment and training
programs.

Many one-stop centers, such as in Killeen, Texas, and Vineland, New Jersey,
ensured access to one-stop services by addressing customers’
transportation challenges. Staff in Killeen partnered with the libraries in
rural areas to provide computer access to one-stop resume writing and job



Page 14                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                             search services and an on-line TANF orientation. In Kansas City, Missouri,
                             the one-stop management decided to locate the one-stop center next to the
                             bus company, the Area Transit Authority (ATA). This strategic decision
                             meant that all bus routes passed by the one-stop center, thus ensuring that
                             customers with transportation challenges could access one-stop center
                             services. Additionally, the ATA partnered with the one-stop to create an
                             Urban Employment Network program to assist job seekers with
                             transportation to and from work. The ATA provided bus service 7 days a
                             week from 5:00 in the morning until midnight and set up a van service to
                             operate during off-peak hours.



One-Stops Ensured That All   To help ensure that job seekers receive services tailored to meet their
Program Staff Understood     needs, nine of the one-stops we visited focused on educating all one-stop
                             staff about the range of services available through the one-stop.9 In earlier
the Range of Services
                             work, we identified challenges for job seekers in receiving the right set of
Available for Job Seekers    services to meet their needs.10 One-stop officials at the centers we visited
                             reported that staff who were cross-trained could better assess the
                             particular needs of job seekers, including identifying barriers to getting a
                             job, and were able to provide job seekers with more appropriate referrals.11
                             Cross-training activities ranged from conducting monthly educational
                             workshops to offering shadow programs through which staff could become
                             familiar with other programs’ rules and operations. Officials in Salt Lake
                             City, Utah, reported that cross–training improved staff understanding of
                             programs outside their area of expertise and enhanced their ability to make
                             referrals. The Pikeville, Kentucky, one-stop supported cross-training
                             workshops in which one-stop staff from different partner programs
                             educated each other about the range of services they could provide. After
                             learning about the other programs, Pikeville staff collaboratively designed
                             a service delivery flow chart that effectively routed job seekers to the
                             appropriate service providers, providing a clear entry point and a clear path
                             from one program to another. In addition, the Vocational Rehabilitation

                             9
                              While WIA requires that specific programs provide services within the one-stop system,
                             WIA does not require that one-stop staff are cross-trained to understand the array of one-
                             stop services.
                             10
                                  GAO-02-739T and GAO/T-HEHS-00-145.
                             11
                                Officials from some of the sites we visited told us that they believe the best service delivery
                             approach included one-stop staff that specialized in their own program area but were also
                             cross-trained in the services and basic eligibility requirements of other programs in the one-
                             stop system.




                             Page 15                                                  GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                           staff at the Pikeville one-stop told us that cross-training enabled other
                           program staff to more accurately identify hidden disabilities and to better
                           refer disabled customers to the appropriate services.

                           In the one-stop centers we visited, cross-training occurred among the
                           majority of on-site co-located partners as well as between some of the on-
                           site and off-site one-stop programs. One-stop managers in Dayton, Ohio,
                           told us that cross-training staff resulted in increased referrals to service
                           providers that had previously been unknown, such as to smaller programs
                           within the one-stop or to local neighborhood programs that could better
                           meet the specific needs of particular job seekers. Specifically, Dayton
                           managers also reported that cross-training one-stop staff dramatically
                           improved referrals to the Child Support program,12 thereby enhancing
                           efforts to establish paternity, a requirement for determining eligibility for
                           TANF.



One-Stop Centers           To provide streamlined service delivery, 10 of the 14 one-stops we visited
Streamlined Services for   consolidated their intake processes or case management systems, reducing
                           the need for job seekers to go through multiple intake processes. This
Job Seekers through        consolidation took many forms, including having case workers from
Consolidated Intake        different programs work as a team to develop service plans for customers
Procedures and Case        and having a shared computer network across programs. As a result, case
Management                 workers reduced the duplication of effort across programs and job seekers
                           were not burdened with completing multiple intake and assessment
                           procedures. For example, the Youth Opportunity Program and Workforce
                           WIA Youth program staff at the one-stop in Kansas City, Missouri, shared
                           intake and enrollment forms to streamline the delivery of services to youth.
                           In Blaine, Minnesota, job seekers were originally served by multiple service
                           providers, meeting independently with each provider for each program
                           service received. Caseworkers from the various one-stop programs in
                           Blaine met regularly to collaborate in developing and implementing joint
                           service plans for customers who were co-enrolled in multiple programs. As
                           a result, the number of caseworkers involved had been reduced
                           significantly, and job seekers received a more efficient and tailored
                           package of services. To efficiently coordinate multiple services for one-stop
                           customers in Erie, Pennsylvania, the staff used a networked computer



                           12
                              The Child Support Enforcement and Paternity Establishment Program collects support
                           from noncustodial parents and helps establish paternity for TANF families.




                           Page 16                                            GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                          system with a shared case management program, so that all one-stop
                          program staff could share access to a customer’s service plan and case file.



One-Stops Developed       All of the one-stops we visited implemented at least one of three different
                          approaches to engage and provide services to employers—dedicating
Strategies to Engage      specialized staff to establish relationships with employers or industries,
and Provide Services to   working with employers through intermediaries, and providing tailored
                          services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs (see fig.4). All of the
Employers in the One-     one-stops dedicated staff to establish relationships with employers,
Stop System               minimizing the burden on employers who previously may have been
                          contacted by multiple one-stop programs. A few of these one-stops also
                          had employer-focused staff work with specific industries in order to
                          respond better to local labor shortages. Many of the one-stops also worked
                          with employers through intermediaries, such as the Chambers of
                          Commerce or economic development entities, in order to market one-stop
                          services and expand their base of employer customers. Finally, most one-
                          stops went beyond providing basic services to employers by tailoring
                          services to meet individual employers’ needs, such as specialized recruiting
                          and applicant pre-screening, customized training opportunities, and
                          assessments using employer specifications. Tailored services were used to
                          maintain employer involvement and increase employment opportunities
                          for job seekers.




                          Page 17                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Figure 4: Promising Strategies for Engaging Employers




              Job seekers                                                                      Employers
                                                                      Services to
                                                                   better meet
                                                                  employers'
                                                              labor needs
                                                                                           Job listings
                                                                                          and job
                                                                                        opportunities




                                                              One-stop              Promising Strategies              Designed to:
                                                            center system
                                                                                    Dedicating specialized staff      Better understand labor market
                                                                                    to establish relationships with   needs, and minimize time for
                                                                                    employers and industries          employers who had to respond
                                                                                                                      to multiple inquiries from
                                                                                                                      programs
                                                                                    Working with intermediaries       Market services and expand
                                                                                    to engage and serve               the employer customer base
                                                                                    employers
                                                                                    Providing tailored services to    Provide employers with
                                                                                    meet employers' specific          services that maintain employer
                                                                                    workforce needs                   involvement and increase job
                                                                                                                      seeker opportunities




Source: GAO illustration. Clip art source: Art Explosion.




One-Stops Dedicated                                              To help employers access the workforce development system, all of the
Specialized Staff to                                             one-stops we visited dedicated specialized staff to establish relationships
                                                                 with employers. One-stop officials told us that engaging employers was
Establish Relationships with
                                                                 critical to successfully connecting job seekers with available jobs.
Employers and Industries                                         Specialized staff outreached to individual employers and served as
                                                                 employers’ primary point of contact for accessing one-stop services. For
                                                                 example, the one-stop in Killeen, Texas, dedicated specialized staff to serve
                                                                 not only as the central point of contact for receiving calls and requests from
                                                                 employers but also as the primary tool for identifying job openings
                                                                 available through employers in the community. A one-stop manager in



                                                                 Page 18                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Killeen told us that in the past, staff from each partner agency would
outreach to employers to find jobs for their own job seekers. Now they
have eliminated the duplication of effort and burden on employers by
designating specialized staff to conduct employer outreach for all one-stop
programs.

In addition to working with individual employers, staff at some of the one-
stops we visited also worked with industry clusters, or groups of related
employers, to more efficiently meet local labor demands—particularly for
industries with labor shortages. One-stop managers at these sites told us
that having staff work with industry clusters helped them better respond to
labor shortages because it enabled staff to develop a strong understanding
of the employment and training needs of those industries. These one-stops
were better prepared to match job seekers with appropriate training
opportunities, enabling those job seekers to become part of a qualified
labor pool for these industries. For example, the one-stop in Santa Rosa,
California, assigned staff to work with employers in local high-demand
industries, including health care, high tech, and tourism. These staff
established relationships with employers from these industries, assessed
their specific workforce needs, and shared this information with one-stop
case workers. Specifically, when Santa Rosa’s tourism industry was in
need of more skilled workers, the one-stop worked with the local
community college to ensure there were certification courses in hotel
management and the culinary arts, for exam. The one-stop in Aurora,
Colorado, also dedicated staff to work with specific industries. For
example, in response to a nursing shortage of 1,600 nurses in the Denver
metro area, staff from the Aurora one-stop assisted in the creation of a
healthcare recruitment center designed to provide job placement
assistance and access to health-care training.




Page 19                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-Stops Worked with      In addition to dedicating specialized staff, all of the one-stops we visited
Intermediaries to Engage   worked with intermediaries to engage and serve employers.
                           Intermediaries, such as local Chambers of Commerce or economic
and Serve Employers        development entities, served as liaisons between employers and the one-
                           stop system, helping one-stops to engage employers while connecting
                           employers with one-stop services. For example, the one-stop staff in
                           Clarksville, Tennessee, worked with Chamber of Commerce members to
                           help banks in the community that were having difficulties finding entry-
                           level employees with the necessary math skills. To help connect job
                           seekers with available job openings at local banks, the one-stop developed
                           a training opportunity for job seekers that was funded by Chamber
                           members and was targeted to the specific skills needed for employment in
                           the banking community.13 Similarly, staff at the one-stop in Kenosha,
                           Wisconsin, were in frequent contact with the Kenosha Area Business
                           Alliance, a community development corporation, to identify and address
                           hiring and training needs of the local manufacturing industry. This
                           partnership not only helped employers access human resources
                           assistance—such as recruitment, networking, and marketing—but it also
                           assisted employers with assessment and training of new and existing
                           employees. Specialized staff at most of the one-stops we visited also
                           worked with local economic development entities to serve employers or
                           recruit new businesses to the area. For example, the staff at the Erie,
                           Pennsylvania, one-stop worked with a range of local economic
                           development organizations14 to develop an outreach program that assessed
                           the workforce needs of employers, linked employers with appropriate
                           services, and developed incentive packages to attract new businesses to
                           the community.




                           13
                             The one-stop in Kansas City, Missouri, provides another example of how specialized staff
                           at the one-stop worked with the local Chambers of Commerce to better connect employers
                           with job seekers, specifically disabled job seekers. While staff at the Kansas City one-stop
                           identified job seekers with disabilities, the Chamber worked with local employers to
                           educate them about hiring disabled workers and integrating them into the workplace.
                           14
                            Erie CareerLink worked with numerous economic development entities, such as the Erie
                           County Executive, Economic Development Corporation of Erie County, and Northwest
                           Pennsylvania Industrial Resource Center, which are agencies and organizations dedicated to
                           promoting the local economy by attracting new employers to the region and by providing
                           support for local employers.




                           Page 20                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-Stops Provided          In addition to dedicating specialized staff to engage employers and working
Services Tailored to Meet   with intermediaries, all of the one-stops we visited tailored their services to
                            meet employers’ specific workforce needs by offering an array of job
Employers’ Specific         placement and training assistance designed for each employer. These
Workforce Needs             services included specialized recruiting, pre-screening, and customized
                            training programs. For example, when one of the nation’s largest cabinet
                            manufacturers was considering opening a new facility in the eastern
                            Kentucky area, the one-stop in Pikeville, Kentucky, offered a tailored set of
                            services to attract the employer to the area. The services included assisting
                            the company with pre-screening and interviewing applicants and
                            establishing an on-the-job training package that used WIA funding to offset
                            up to 50 percent of each new hire’s wages during the 90-day training period.
                            According to a company representative, the incentive package offered by
                            the one-stop was the primary reason the company chose to build a new
                            facility in eastern Kentucky instead of another location. Once the company
                            arrived, the Pikeville one-stop administered the application and assessment
                            process for job applicants and held a 3-day job fair, resulting in the
                            company hiring 105 people through the one-stop and planning to hire an
                            additional 350 employees.

                            To help industries address labor shortages and strengthen local businesses,
                            several of the one-stops we visited actively developed and marketed
                            training opportunities for current and potential new employees, helping to
                            keep jobs in the community and promote local economic growth. For
                            example, Pikeville, Kentucky, encountered a labor shortage in the local
                            coal mining industry. Because of the high cost of training for inexperienced
                            miners, many companies considered hiring experienced coal miners from
                            foreign countries. To help companies save on training costs and hire
                            workers from the local area—one of historically high unemployment—the
                            Pikeville one-stop created an on-the-job training program using WIA funds,
                            which paid for half of new miners’ salaries during their training period.
                            The co-owner of a local mining company, who hired 15 percent of his
                            workforce through the one-stop, told us that, without the assistance of the
                            one-stop, he would not have been able to hire as many miners. Because he
                            saved money on training costs, the co-owner said he was also able to
                            promote his experienced workers to more advanced positions and provide
                            better benefits, such as health insurance, for all his employees.

                            Tailored services were used not only to attract new employers, but to retain
                            employers in the one-stop system and train new workers for employers
                            struggling to find job-ready staff. For example, for over 9 years, the
                            Clarksville, Tennessee, one-stop has provided tailored hiring services,


                            Page 21                                       GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
including drug-testing and pre-screening of applicants, for a nearby
manufacturing company. As a result, the company has hired over 75 people
through the one-stop. One-stops also provided customized workshops and
classes to help employers train new and current workers. When a local
nursing home expressed concern about hiring non-English-speaking
workers, the one-stop in Blaine, Minnesota, created a job-specific English
as a Second Language course that was taught on-site at the nursing home
by one-stop staff.

Many of the one-stops we visited also provided employers with tailored
business support services and educational resources. One-stop managers
told us that these services helped the one-stops attract and retain employer
involvement in the one-stop system and enhanced employers’ ability to
maintain a skilled workforce. For example, some one-stops we visited
allowed employers to use office space in the one-stop for interviewing job
applicants. A few of the one-stop centers had specific business centers on-
site, such as the Business Resource Center in Killeen, Texas. The center
served entrepreneurs and over 400 small businesses by providing
information about starting a small business, such as tax information,
economic development information, marketing resources, and business
workshops. Similarly, the Sunnyvale, California, one-stop addressed the
specific needs of customers seeking entrepreneurial opportunities by co-
locating with a patent and trademark library that is electronically linked to
the national trademark office. Finally, several one-stops offered employers
help with accessing business tax credits. For example, when the employer
services staff at the one-stop in Vineland, New Jersey, realized the
application process for tax credits was cumbersome for employers, they
began automatically completing the required paperwork for employers so
that the employers could more readily apply for the tax credit incentives.15




15
 Officials at the Vineland one-stop told us that tax credits serve as an incentive for
businesses to participate in certain federal workforce programs such as the Empowerment
Zone, Welfare-to-Work, and Education Opportunity Programs.




Page 22                                            GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-Stop Centers Built   To build the solid infrastructure needed to support better services for job
                         seekers and employers, many of the one-stops we visited developed and
a Solid Infrastructure   strengthened program partnerships and raised funds beyond those
by Strengthening         provided under WIA. Center operators fostered the development of strong
                         program partnerships by encouraging communication and collaboration
Program Partnerships     among partners through functional teams and joint projects. As shown in
and Raising Additional   figure 5, this collaboration allowed one-stop partners to better integrate
Funds                    their respective programs and services. Many one-stops also worked
                         toward improving one-stop operations and services by raising additional
                         funds through fee-based services, grants, and contributions from partners
                         and state or local government. The revenue raised through these activities
                         helped one-stops improve operations and services despite the lack of WIA
                         funding for one-stop operations and restrictions on the ways in which one-
                         stop programs can spend their funds.




                         Page 23                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Figure 5: Promising Strategies for Improving the One-Stop Center Infrastructure




                                              Job seekers                                                                  Employers




                                                                                       One-stop
                                                                                     center system




                                                            Promising Strategies               Designed to:
                                                            Empowering partners to             Better integrate one-stop
                                                            collaborate through functional     programs and services
                                                            teams and joint projects
                                                            Raising funds through fee-         Improve operations and
                                                            based services, grants, and        services despite lack of WIA
                                                            contributions from partners        funds for one-stop operations
                                                            and state and local government     and restrictions on one-stop
                                                                                               programs' funding streams




Source: GAO illustration. Clip art source: Art Explosion.




One-Stop Centers Promoted                                          In order to build a cohesive, well-functioning one-stop infrastructure,
Strong Partnerships by                                             9 of the 14 one-stop centers we visited gave partners the opportunity to
                                                                   collaborate through functional teams and joint projects. One-stop
Facilitating Communication                                         managers told us that collaboration through teams and joint projects
and Collaboration among                                            allowed partners to better integrate their respective programs and services,
Partner Programs                                                   as well as pursue common one-stop goals and share in one-stop decision



                                                                   Page 24                                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
making. For example, partners at the Erie, Pennsylvania, one-stop center
were organized into four functional teams—a career resource center team,
a job seeker services team, an employer services team, and an operations
team—which together operated the one-stop center. As a result of the
functional team meetings, partners reported that they worked together to
solve problems and develop innovative strategies to improve services in
their respective functional area. For instance, to improve intake and
referral processes, the Erie job seeker services team created a color-coded
intake form shared by multiple partners. Certain customers, such as
veterans and dislocated workers, received intake forms that were a
different color from those of other customers, so that staff could easily
identify the different customer groups and direct each toward the services
that best met their needs. Similarly, in Salt Lake City, Utah, partners created
a committee to address issues of common concern, such as cross-program
referrals, cross-training of partner staff, and employer involvement. Staff
from the Vocational Rehabilitation Program in Salt Lake City told us that
this committee helped to increase referrals to their program by producing
flow charts of the service delivery systems of various partner programs to
identify points at which referrals and staff collaboration should occur.

In addition to fostering integration across programs, one-stop managers
said that the joint decision making done through functional teams
facilitated the development of a shared one-stop identity. Pikeville,
Kentucky, one-stop managers told us that shared decision-making was
instrumental in developing a common one-stop identity and in ensuring
partners’ support for the one-stop system. The process of creating a shared
one-stop identity in Pikeville was also supported by the adoption of a
common logo, nametags, and business cards, and was reinforced by a
comprehensive marketing campaign, which gave partners a common
message to rally behind. Pikeville one-stop managers told us that, as a
result of this shared one-stop identity, partner staff no longer focused
exclusively on serving their individual program customers; rather, staff
developed a “can-do” attitude of meeting the needs of all one-stop
customers. In addition, managers told us that because of their shared one-
stop identity, partners were more willing to contribute resources to one
another and to the center as a whole. For instance, in order to streamline
services for job seekers, the Adult Basic Education Program administered
skills assessments to all one-stop customers, regardless of which program
they were enrolled in.




Page 25                                       GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-stop managers at several of the sites we visited told us that the co-
location of partner programs in one building facilitated communication and
collaboration. For this reason, one-stop managers at several of the centers
we visited reported that they fostered co-location by offering attractive
physical space and flexible rental agreements.16 For example, in Pikeville,
Kentucky, the local community college donated free space to the one-stop
on its conveniently located campus, making it easier to convince partners
to relocate there. Partners were also eager to relocate to the Pikeville one-
stop because they recognized the benefits of co-location for their
customers. For instance, staff from the Vocational Rehabilitation Program
said that co-location at the one-stop increased their customers’ access to
employers and employment services. Pikeville managers also told us that
co-location at the community college made it easier for partners to share
information and made them more visible to students likely to need
employment services in the near future. In addition, because co-location
sometimes presents a challenge to partners with limited resources, several
centers offered flexible rental agreements to make it easier for partners to
co-locate. For example, the Kansas City, Missouri, one-stop enabled the
Adult Basic Education Program to co-locate by allowing it to contribute
instructors and General Educational Development (GED) classes instead
of paying rent. Partners in some locations, including Dayton, Ohio, and
Kenosha, Wisconsin, donated space to enable other partners to be on-site.

Several one-stops where all partners were not co-located found ways to
create strong linkages with off-site partners. For example, in addition to
regular meetings between on-site and off-site staff, the one-stop in Aurora,
Colorado, had a staff person designated to act as a liaison and facilitate
communication between on-site and off-site partners. When an on-site
partner specializing in senior services raised concerns about the lack of
employment opportunities for its customers, the liaison set up a meeting
with Vocational Rehabilitation, an off-site partner, to enable both parties to
begin exchanging referrals to jobs and services.




16
  In fostering co-location of partner programs, the one-stops we visited were following a
trend toward increased co-location at one-stop centers nationwide. We found that the
number of states with co-located mandatory and optional programs increased appreciably
between 2000 and 2001. We considered a mandatory program to be co-located in a state if
more than 50 percent of the state’s one-stops had the program on-site. For more
information, see GAO-02-696.




Page 26                                             GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
One-Stop Centers Raised   Managers at all but two of the one-stops we visited said that they were
Additional Funds to       using the flexibility under WIA to creatively increase one-stop funds
                          through fee-based services, grants, or contributions from partner programs
Improve One-Stop          and state or local governments. Managers said these additional funds
Operations and Expand     allowed them to cover operational costs and expand services in spite of the
Services for Customers    lack of WIA funding to support one-stop infrastructure and restrictions on
                          the use of program funds. For example, one-stop operators in Clarksville,
                          Tennessee, reported that they raised $750,000 in fiscal year 2002 through a
                          combination of business consulting, drug testing, and drivers’ education
                          services. Using this money, the center was able to purchase a new
                          voicemail and computer network system, which facilitated communication
                          among staff and streamlined center operations.17 Similarly, in Sunnyvale,
                          California, one-stop managers said they raised $20,000 through downsizing
                          and training services for employers, and used this money to expand the
                          one-stop’s training services.

                          Centers have also been proactive about applying for grants from public and
                          private sources. For example, the one-stop center in Kansas City, Missouri,
                          had a full-time staff person dedicated to researching and applying for
                          grants. The one-stop generated two-thirds of its entire program year 2002
                          operating budget of $21 million through competitive grants available from
                          the federal government as well as from private foundations. This money
                          allowed the center to expand its services, such as through an internship
                          program in high-tech industries for at-risk youth. One-stop centers also
                          raised additional funds by soliciting contributions from local or state
                          government and from partner agencies. For instance, Boston one-stop
                          managers reported that the state of Massachusetts matched the one-stop’s
                          Wagner-Peyser funds dollar for dollar, which enabled the center to fund its
                          resource room and library. In addition, the Dayton, Ohio, one-stop received
                          $1 million annually from the county to pay for shared one-stop staff salaries
                          and to provide services to job seekers who do not qualify for services under
                          any other funding stream. Dayton one-stop partners also contributed
                          financial and in-kind resources to the center on an as-needed basis.




                          17
                             While several centers had adopted fee-based services as a method of raising funds, it is
                          important to note that managers of at least one center said they chose not to charge for
                          services because they felt this might deter some employers or job seekers from accessing
                          needed services.




                          Page 27                                               GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                        In addition to raising money through grants, managers at the one-stop in
                        Santa Rosa, California, told us that they made more efficient use of existing
                        funds by having staff use a funding source determination worksheet to
                        maximize training funds from various sources. The worksheet is
                        continually updated to show how much funding is available through each
                        program, allowing caseworkers to choose the most economical source for
                        eligible customers’ Individual Training Accounts (ITAs)18 based on the
                        amount of money available through each funding stream and the date it is
                        scheduled to expire.



Little Is Known about   While Labor currently tracks outcome data—such as job placement, job
                        seeker satisfaction, and employer satisfaction—and funds several studies
the Impact of           to evaluate workforce development programs and service delivery models,
Strategies to Improve   little is known about the impact of various one-stop service delivery
                        approaches on these and other outcomes. Labor’s studies largely take a
One-Stop Services and   program-by-program approach rather than focusing on the impact on job
Management              seekers of various one-stop integrated service delivery approaches, such as
                        sharing customer intake forms across programs, or on employers, such as
                        dedicating staff to focus on engaging and serving employers. Further,
                        Labor’s efforts to collaborate with other federal agencies to assess the
                        effects of different strategies to integrate job seeker services or to serve
                        employers through the one-stop system have been limited. In addition, one-
                        stop administrators do not have enough opportunities to share existing
                        information about how to improve and integrate services for job seeker and
                        employer customers. While Labor has developed a promising practices
                        Web site to facilitate such information sharing, it is unclear how well the
                        site currently meets this objective.




                        18
                           Individual Training Accounts are training vouchers that participants can use to procure the
                        training of their choice, so long as the training program is on a state’s eligible training
                        provider list.




                        Page 28                                               GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
While Labor Currently Has    Labor currently tracks performance measures under the three WIA
Several Impact and Process   programs using 17 separate outcome measures, including job placement
                             and job seeker and employer customer satisfaction, designed to gauge the
Evaluations Underway, the    success of WIA funded services.19 However, managers at a few of the one-
Scope of These Studies Is    stop centers we visited told us that customer satisfaction data, for example,
Limited                      could not be linked to specific services or strategies, so one-stop managers
                             could not use the data to improve services for their job seeker and
                             employer customers. While outcome measures are an important
                             component of program management in that they assess whether a
                             participant is achieving an intended outcome-such as obtaining
                             employment—they cannot measure whether the outcome is a direct result
                             of program participation.20 Other influences, such as the state of the local
                             economy, may affect an individual’s ability to find a job as much or more
                             than participation in an employment and training program. Many
                             researchers consider impact evaluations to be the best method for
                             determining the effectiveness of a program—that is, whether the program
                             itself rather than other factors leads to participant outcomes.




                             19
                               WIA’s measures are only tracked for those customers who receive staff-assisted core,
                             intensive or training services using WIA funding. They are not tracked for those who
                             receive self-service core services. For more information, see GAO-02-275.
                             20
                              For more information, see U.S. General Accounting Office, Food Stamp Employment and
                             Training Program: Better Data Needed to Understand Who Is Served and What the
                             Program Achieves, GAO-03-388 (Washington D.C.: Mar. 12, 2003).




                             Page 29                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
While Labor is currently supporting a large number of impact and process
evaluations21 of various workforce development programs and initiatives,
none of these studies include an evaluation of the impact of different
integrated service delivery approaches on outcomes, such as job placement
or retention, or job seeker and employer satisfaction (see table 2).
Examples of integrated service delivery initiatives that we observed at one-
stops and that Labor could evaluate include cross-training one-stop staff,
sharing customer intake across programs, and consolidating case
management for customers enrolled in multiple programs. While these
integrated service delivery approaches were common at the one-stops we
visited, little is currently known about their impact on one-stop customer
outcomes and satisfaction. In addition, there is a lack of information about
which approaches to serving employers are most effective, such as
dedicating staff to engage and serve employers or tailoring services for
employers by offering customized training or pre-screening job applicants,
for example. Employment and Training Administration (ETA)22 officials
provided us with information on their current research, such as the
Microanalysis of the One-Stop—a process evaluation that Labor has
initiated to analyze how job seekers and employers access the array of
available one-stop services. While this study offers an analysis of the
implementation and operation of integrated service delivery, it does not
measure the impact of this integration on one-stop customers’ satisfaction
or outcomes. In addition, the impact evaluations that Labor is currently
undertaking typically take a program-by-program approach and do not
measure the effectiveness of integrated services. For instance, Labor’s
evaluation comparing the impact of various approaches to implementing


21
 Impact evaluations measure a program’s effect on participant outcomes, such as job
placement and retention, by isolating the program effect from the effects of other factors.
Process evaluations, on the other hand, offer an analysis of the processes involved in
program implementation. To isolate a program’s effect, impact evaluations often divide
participants into two groups: those who receive program services and a similar group who
do not (the control or comparison group). Some impact evaluations assign participants
randomly to one group or the other, which increases the likelihood that the two groups are
roughly equivalent on all characteristics that could affect outcomes. When participants are
randomly assigned, the comparison group is called a control group. Aspects of program
implementation that process evaluations typically assess include the extent to which a
program is reaching the appropriate target population, whether a program’s delivery of
services is consistent with its design specifications, and the amount of resources being
spent on the program.
22
  ETA is an agency within the U.S. Department of Labor that oversees WIA and provides job
training, employment, labor market information, and income maintenance services
primarily through state and local workforce development systems.




Page 30                                              GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                                               Individual Training Accounts only includes WIA program participants, and
                                               its evaluation of self-directed job search in a one-stop environment focuses
                                               only on UI recipients.



Table 2: Selected Studies Supported by ETA


Title                                   Description of study                                                 Expected release date
Center for Employment Training          Impact evaluation that examines the post-program impacts on    Mid-2003, with a follow-up
(CET) Replication Impact Study          employment, earnings, and arrests among youth who participated report in late 2004
                                        at CET replication sites. Includes control group.
Connecting UI Remote Services to        Process evaluation that examines how best to strengthen the          Information not available
One-Stop Services Demonstration         connection between UI and one-stop services.
Project

Employment Retention and Career         A joint study with HHS, Labor is contributing funds for an impact,   Fall 2007
Advancement Evaluation                  process and cost-benefit analysis of the role of one-stops in job
                                        retention and advancement. Includes control groups.
Evaluation of Self-Directed Labor       Impact evaluation that examines the impact, efficiency and        Summer 2005
Exchange Services in a One-Stop         effectiveness of self-directed labor exchange services on UI
Environment                             recipients’ earnings and job search behavior. Includes comparison
                                        group.
Evaluation of the Individual Training   Impact evaluation to determine the effectiveness of three            Late 2003
Account Experiment                      progressively more intensive job search assistance approaches.
                                        The most intensive approach includes a training component.
                                        Includes control group.
Evaluation of the School-to-Work        A joint study with Education, Labor contributed funds for a process Released 2000
Out-of-School Youth Demonstration       evaluation of the implementation of school-to-work strategies at
and Job Corps Model Centers             Job Corps Model Centers and other programs serving out-of-
                                        school youth.
Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment      Impact evaluation to measure the impacts of the Trade Adjustment Interim reports 2005/2007,
Assistance Program (planned)            Assistance Program on participants’ employment, earnings, and    final 2008
                                        receipt of fringe benefits. Includes comparison group.
Evaluation of WIA Implementation        Process evaluation to assess the early experience of states      Interim report published, final
                                        implementing WIA, including those states that opted to implement 2004
                                        before July 1, 2000.
Growing America Through                 Process, impact and cost-benefit analysis to measure the           Information not available
Entrepreneurship (GATE)                 effectiveness of combining a variety of small business initiatives
Demonstration Project                   into one program offered through the one-stop system. Study is in
                                        collaboration with the Small Business Administration. Includes
                                        control group.
H1-B High Skills Training Grant         Process and impact evaluation to determine the near and long-        Interim report released,
Evaluation                              term impacts of the H1-B Technical Skills training initiative,       impact study report late 2006
                                        including impacts on society, employers, participants, and the
                                        government sector. Impact evaluation includes control group.




                                               Page 31                                               GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
(Continued From Previous Page)

Title                               Description of study                                                         Expected release date
Center for Employment Training      Impact evaluation that examines the post-program impacts on    Mid-2003, with a follow-up
(CET) Replication Impact Study      employment, earnings, and arrests among youth who participated report in late 2004
                                    at CET replication sites. Includes control group.
Connecting UI Remote Services to    Process evaluation that examines how best to strengthen the                  Information not available
One-Stop Services Demonstration     connection between UI and one-stop services.
Project

Low-Wage Worker Retention and       Process evaluation to assess the effectiveness of new strategies             Oregon in late 2004;
Advancement Demonstration           for improving low-wage workers’ employment status, retention                 California in late 2005
Projects                            rate, wage gain, career advancement, public assistance usage,
                                    and other elements.
Microanalysis of the One-Stop       Process evaluation that analyzes how individuals flow through                Information not available
                                    one-stops and the extent to which they access the array of
                                    available services.
National Job Corps Study            Impact evaluation to evaluate the impact of the Job Corps program Released 2001
                                    on student employment outcomes. Includes control group.
Worker Profiling and Reemployment   Process evaluation to identify promising strategies for improving Released 2002
Service Significant Improvement     reemployment services administered to unemployed individuals
Demonstrations                      through state worker profiling and reemployment service systems.

Youth Opportunity Areas             Impact and process evaluation to measure the effectiveness of the Late 2005
Demonstration Evaluation            Youth Opportunity Area Demonstration. Impact evaluation
                                    includes comparison group.
Quantum Opportunities Program       Impact evaluation to assess whether the QOP program has a                    Interim report released 2003,
(QOP) Replication                   positive effect on high school graduation rates, enrollment in               final report 2005
                                    postsecondary education, employment, and earnings. Includes
                                    control group.
Source: ETA, 2003.

                                           Note: GAO identified approximately 40 studies supported by ETA of workforce development programs
                                           and initiatives. This table is indicative of studies that ETA is supporting; we excluded studies that were
                                           similar to studies listed here or that did not assess programs involved in the one-stop system. For more
                                           information about these and other studies that ETA is supporting, see the ETA Five-Year Strategic Plan
                                           for Pilots, Demonstrations, Research, and Evaluations July 2000-June 2005
                                           (http://wdr.doleta.gov/opr/fulltext/document.asp?docn=6162.)


                                           ETA officials told us that a major barrier they face to conducting a broader
                                           array of impact studies is their limited research budget—$35 million for
                                           demonstration grants and $9 million for evaluations in fiscal year 2003. In a
                                           few cases, Labor has sought to address these funding limitations by
                                           collaborating with other federal agencies to fund studies. For example,
                                           Labor is helping HHS fund the $26 million Employment, Retention and
                                           Advancement Study, an evaluation assessing strategies to promote
                                           employment retention and advancement among welfare recipients and low-
                                           wage workers. Labor is also collaborating with the Department of
                                           Education on a process evaluation examining the implementation of



                                           Page 32                                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                             school-to-work programs at selected Job Corps centers. Such collaboration
                             not only enables Labor to address funding limitations, but it also has the
                             potential to facilitate evaluations of service delivery approaches that span
                             multiple programs overseen by different agencies. However, in spite of
                             these benefits, Labor is currently engaging in only a limited number of such
                             collaborations. Moreover, none of these collaborative studies are
                             specifically directed towards evaluating the impact of one-stop services or
                             integrated service delivery approaches.



One-Stop Administrators Do   While Labor has developed several mechanisms for providing guidance and
Not Have Enough              allowing local one-stop administrators to share information on how to
                             move beyond the basic requirements of WIA toward improving and
Opportunities to Share
                             integrating one-stop services, these efforts have been limited. Labor’s
Information about            primary mechanisms for disseminating information about promising
Promising Strategies in      practices at one-stop centers are a Web site, forums, and conferences.
Serving One-Stop
Customers                    The promising practices Web site, which is funded by Labor and is operated
                             by Northern Illinois University’s Center for Governmental Studies,
                             represents a promising step toward building a mechanism to support
                             information sharing among one-stop administrators. However, neither ETA
                             nor the Web site’s administrators have conducted a customer satisfaction
                             survey or user evaluation of the site, so little is known about how well the
                             site currently meets its objective to promote information sharing about
                             promising practices. Much of the information available on the Web site
                             comes from submissions by one-stop centers or research organizations, yet
                             Web site administrators told us that these submissions have not been
                             screened to ensure that their content is useful. Furthermore, relevant
                             literature stresses that information presented through Web sites should be
                             accessible, useful, and well organized. When we attempted to use the Web
                             site, we found that useful information on the site was difficult to access. In
                             order to find information about promising practices through the site, one
                             must conduct a search by key word, which often did not yield satisfactory
                             results. Search results were organized alphabetically, not by relevance, and
                             some of the results addressed the search topic only marginally. In addition,
                             search results included a disorganized mixture of external documents,
                             links to other Web sites, and submissions. For instance, a search under the
                             keywords "service integration" yielded six results, including two links to
                             external Web sites, two external documents, and two promising practices
                             submissions. Of these six results, two did not directly address promising
                             practices in the area of service integration.




                             Page 33                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
              In addition to the Web site, Labor hosts regular regional meetings and
              cosponsors several national conferences to promote information
              dissemination and networking opportunities for state and local grantees
              and stakeholders. Labor also hosted several forums during WIA
              implementation to allow information exchanges to occur between the
              department and state and local one-stop administrators. While these
              conferences and forums provide a venue for one-stop managers to talk with
              one another about what is and is not working at their centers, participation
              is limited to those who can physically take part.



Conclusions   The workforce development system envisioned under WIA represents a
              fundamental shift from prior systems, and barely 3 years have passed since
              it was fully implemented. States and localities are learning how to use the
              flexibility afforded by WIA to develop systems that work for their local
              areas and that implement WIA’s vision of a customer-focused system. The
              one-stop centers we visited are coordinating with the 17 mandatory
              partners, and often multiple optional partners, to create a one-stop system
              that strives to streamline services for job seekers and make employers a
              significant part of the one-stop system. While the one-stops we visited
              ranged in terms of their location—from urban to suburban to rural—we
              saw numerous examples of one-stops streamlining services for job seekers,
              developing business-related services to meet the needs of employers, and
              supporting a one-stop infrastructure that provides the full range of
              assistance needed by job seekers and employers to serve local workforce
              needs.

              While these strategies show promise for improving services to job seekers
              and employers alike, there is no clear understanding of whether these
              integrated service delivery approaches are actually increasing job seeker
              and employer satisfaction or outcomes, such as job placement and
              retention. Labor’s current research efforts focus within individual
              programs and have yet to take into account that customers are now served
              by a one-stop system where multiple programs from four federal agencies
              provide services. Moreover, few efforts have been made to share
              information on promising practices. It is unclear whether one effort, a
              promising practices Web site supported by Labor, is effective in meeting its
              objective to promote information sharing about promising practices.
              Without the right research or information sharing tools, it is difficult to
              know which one-stop practices are, in fact, successful and how the system
              might be improved in the long run.




              Page 34                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Recommendations for   In order to better understand and disseminate information on how well
                      different approaches to program integration are meeting the needs of one-
Executive Action      stop job seekers and employers, we recommend that the Secretary of Labor

                      • collaborate with the Departments of Education, Health and Human
                        Services, and Housing and Urban Development to develop a research
                        agenda that examines the impacts of various approaches to program
                        integration on job seeker and employer satisfaction and outcomes, such
                        as job placement and retention and

                      • conduct a systematic evaluation of the promising practices Web site and
                        ensure that it is effective.



Agency Comments       We provided a draft of this report to Labor for comment. Labor agreed with
                      our recommendations and expressed appreciation for our
                      acknowledgment of the progress made by local one-stop centers. However,
                      Labor suggested we recognize other research activities undertaken by ETA
                      and its efforts to share promising practices. We have incorporated Labor’s
                      comments in our report, as appropriate. A copy of Labor’s response is in
                      appendix III.

                      Specifically, Labor agrees with our recommendation that better
                      information is needed to assess the impact of integrated services on
                      customer outcomes and satisfaction, but noted that it collects performance
                      information that includes job seeker and employer customer satisfaction
                      data. In addition, Labor told us it is working on implementing common
                      performance measures for the one-stop system. As we noted in the report,
                      outcome measures are an important part of program management, but
                      alone, do not allow for an understanding of whether the outcome is a direct
                      result of program participation. We continue to stress the need for more
                      impact studies in order to understand whether integrated services are
                      making a difference.

                      Labor agrees with our recommendation that Labor conduct a systematic
                      evaluation of the Web site to ensure that it is effective. Labor told us that it
                      is undertaking a strategic review of its Web sites, including the promising
                      practices site that is intended to identify ways to improve customer access
                      to information. Labor also said that it is engaged in other activities to
                      effectively share information about what is working well in one-stop
                      centers. For example, ETA hosts regular regional meetings for state



                      Page 35                                       GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
administrators and funds a number of efforts that produce, recognize, and
share promising practices within the workforce system.


We are sending copies of this report to the Secretary of Labor, appropriate
congressional committees, and other interested parties. In addition, the
report will be available at no charge on GAO’s Web site at
http://www.gao.gov.

Please contact me on (202) 512-7215 if you or your staff have any questions
about this report. Other major contributors to this report are listed in
appendix IV.




Sigurd R. Nilsen
Director, Education, Workforce
 and Income Security Issues




Page 36                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Appendix I

Characteristics of the 14 One-Stop Centers                                                                                      Append
                                                                                                                                     xeis




GAO Visited                                                                                                                      AppenIx
                                                                                                                                       di




                                                                                                                       Estimated
GAO one-stop         Name of one-stop                                                                                   monthly
center site visits   center                Operator               Geographic location Major industries             customer flow
Aurora, CO           Arapahoe/Douglas      Arapahoe/Douglas       Suburb of Denver        Retail, construction,            6,000
                     Works!                Works! (local                                  accommodation &
                                           government                                     food services
                                           consortium)

Blaine, MN           Anoka County          Partner consortium     Suburb of               Manufacturing, retail,           5,100
                     Workforce Center                             Minneapolis             healthcare
Boston, MA           The Work Place        Partnership between Located in downtown        Healthcare, finance &              800
                                           Jewish Vocational      Boston                  insurance,
                                           Service (nonprofit)                            professional &
                                           and the City of Boston                         technical services

Clarksville, TN      Workforce Essentials, Workforce Essentials, Close to Nashville,      Manufacturing, retail,           4,600
                     Inc.                  Inc. (nonprofit)      otherwise rural          healthcare


Dayton, OH           The Job Center        Consortium of          Urban city              Manufacturing, retail,          42,500
                                           partners, led by an                            healthcare
                                           independent director
Erie, PA             Erie Team PA          Partner consortium,   Small urban              Manufacturing,                   2,800
                     CareerLink            led by Greater Erie   metropolitan area        healthcare, retail
                                           Community Action
                                           Committee (nonprofit)

Kansas City, MO      Full Employment       Full Employment        Covering rural, urban, Healthcare, retail,               4,500
                     Council               Council (nonprofit)    and suburban areas     manufacturing


Kenosha, WI          Kenosha County Job    Kenosha County         Mixed urban and rural Manufacturing, retail,             4,000
                     Center                                       county located on     healthcare
                                                                  Lake Michigan
Killeen, TX          Central Texas         Central Texas          Suburban, rural area.   Healthcare, retail,             11,000
                     Workforce             Workforce Center       Fort Hood is nearby.    manufacturing

Pikeville, KY        Pike County JobSight Eastern Kentucky   Located in rural      Retail, mining,                           500
                     Center               Concentrated       Appalachia in eastern healthcare
                                          Employment Program Kentucky
                                          (nonprofit)

Salt Lake City, UT   South County          Utah Department of     Located in Salt Lake    Retail, manufacturing           24,500
                     Employment Center     Workforce Services     City




                                          Page 37                                             GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                                                                    Appendix I
                                                                    Characteristics of the 14 One-Stop Centers
                                                                    GAO Visited




(Continued From Previous Page)

                                                                                                                                                                Estimated
GAO one-stop                      Name of one-stop                                                                                                               monthly
center site visits                center                             Operator                           Geographic location Major industries                customer flow
Santa Rosa, CA                    Job Link                           Partner consortium                 Largely rural              Manufacturing, retail,     Not available
                                                                                                                                   healthcare
Sunnyvale, CA                     Connect!                           NOVA (North Valley     Urban and suburban, Manufacturing,                                       2,500
                                                                     Job Training           located in the heart of professional &
                                                                     Consortium), 6 -       Silicon Valley          technical services
                                                                     county consortium
                                                                     with city of Sunnyvale
                                                                     as lead member


Vineland, NJ                      Cumberland County                  Cumberland County    A mix of urban,                          Manufacturing, retail,     Not available
                                  One-Stop                           Office of Employment suburban, and rural                      healthcare
                                                                     & Training           communities in
                                                                                          southwestern New
                                                                                          Jersey
Sources: U.S. Census county Business Patterns, U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics, and GAO site visits, 2003.




                                                                    Page 38                                                            GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Appendix II

Promising Practices from Site Visits                                                              AppenIx
                                                                                                        di




                   While sites were identified as exemplary based on their promising practices
                   in one of three key areas—serving job seekers, engaging employers, and
                   operating the one-stop center—we found that all 14 of the one-stops we
                   visited exhibited numerous promising practices in multiple areas. The
                   selection of promising practices described below represents some of the
                   strongest or most unique examples from each site.



Aurora, Colorado   Arapahoe/Douglas Works! Colorado Workforce Center
                   14980 E. Alameda Drive
                   Aurora, CO 80012

                   • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers -
                     Arapahoe/Douglas Works! works closely with local Chambers of
                     Commerce and economic development entities to conduct outreach to
                     employers. Each year Arapahoe/Douglas Works! and the local Chamber
                     hold an employer recognition awards event, which not only markets the
                     one-stop system to business, but also encourages workplace innovation
                     by honoring three employers with awards for work-life balance,
                     community partnerships, and outstanding youth employer.

                   • Dedicating specialized staff to address local industry needs -
                     Because of a local nursing labor shortage, the one-stop dedicated
                     specialized staff to establish an on-site healthcare recruitment center to
                     help job seekers find training opportunities in the healthcare field.

                   • Promoting partner collaboration - In addition to regular meetings
                     between on-site and off-site staff, the one-stop has a staff person
                     designated to act as a liaison and facilitate communication between on-
                     site and off-site partners.

                   • Developing optional partnerships to expand services -
                     Arapahoe/Douglas Works! partners with the Department of Corrections
                     to provide transition services for juvenile offenders.

                   • Raising additional funds to expand services - Arapahoe/Douglas
                     Works! raised about $620,000 through contracts with local schools to
                     provide workforce development services for at-risk high school
                     students. The one-stop also raised about $80,000 through an on-site
                     learning lab for students at risk of dropping out of school.




                   Page 39                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                    Appendix II
                    Promising Practices from Site Visits




Blaine, Minnesota   Anoka County Workforce Center
                    1201 89th Avenue NE
                    Blaine, MN 55434

                    • Ensuring partner staff understand the range of services –Staff
                      periodically participate in center-wide meetings where they make
                      presentations to one another about their program’s services and role at
                      the center. In addition, partners lead workshops on how to better serve
                      their particular customer base. Officials reported that cross-training
                      results in increased referrals across partner programs.

                    • Streamlining services through consolidated case management -
                      The caseworkers from the various one-stop programs meet regularly to
                      collaborate in developing and implementing joint service plans for
                      customers who are co-enrolled in multiple programs.

                    • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                      The one-stop developed an English-as-a-Second-Language course
                      tailored to the needs of a local nursing home. The course was taught on-
                      site at the nursing home by one-stop staff.

                    • Promoting partner collaboration - Partners collaborate in functional
                      teams to manage the one-stop. Collaboration among partners was
                      enhanced when they jointly applied for a One-Stop Implementation
                      grant from the state of Minnesota. Because of the strong sense of
                      cooperation among them, partners pooled their resources when
                      possible to ensure the continued funding of services.

                    • Raising additional funds to expand services - An H1-B grant and a
                      grant from the McKnight Foundation enabled the center to expand
                      services for customers. The grants enabled the center to implement a
                      training program in healthcare-related fields and develop a social
                      services and car donation program for people who do not qualify for any
                      other program.




                    Page 40                                   GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                        Appendix II
                        Promising Practices from Site Visits




Boston, Massachusetts   The Work Place
                        99 Chauncy Street
                        Boston, MA 02111

                        • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - Because the majority of
                          the Work Place’s partners are located off-site, the one-stop placed staff
                          in off-site locations, including family courts, correctional facilities, and
                          welfare offices to give job seekers ready access to employment-related
                          services.

                        • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                          employers - The Work Place has staff dedicated to recruiting, engaging,
                          and maintaining employer involvement. The Work Place has focused on
                          measuring employer satisfaction and soliciting employer feedback to
                          guide them in improving their employer services. The center has
                          established employer focus groups to identify the services employers
                          used and their satisfaction with those services.

                        • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                          The Work Place screens applicants and provides referrals to the
                          Marriott Hotel’s Pathways to Independence program, a nationwide job
                          readiness program for people with multiple barriers to employment.
                          About 75 percent of program graduates over the past 5 years were
                          recruited through The Work Place.

                        • Developing optional partnerships to expand services - The Work
                          Place has developed an optional partnership with the Suffolk County
                          House of Corrections to provide community reintegration services for
                          prisoners prior to their release. One of the programs is an offender re-
                          entry program that conducts job fairs inside the county jail to facilitate
                          incarcerated offenders’ transition back into the workplace.

                        • Raising additional funds to expand services - The state of
                          Massachusetts matches the Boston one-stop’s Wagner-Peyser funds
                          dollar for dollar, which enables the center to fund its resource room and
                          library.




                        Page 41                                       GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                         Appendix II
                         Promising Practices from Site Visits




Clarksville, Tennessee   WorkForce Essentials, Inc.
                         110 Main Street
                         Clarksville, TN 37040

                         • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - The Clarksville one-stop
                           provides a clear path for job seekers to follow between one-stop
                           services. When job seekers are referred to another partner program,
                           staff personally walk them over to the referred program staff to prevent
                           them from getting lost between programs.

                         • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                           employers - WorkForce Essentials, Inc., dedicates staff to conduct
                           employer outreach in order to provide employer services and identify
                           employment opportunities for job seekers. One-stop operators said that
                           outreach to employers has helped engender employer trust in the
                           organization and the job seekers it serves.

                         • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                           Clarksville one-stop staff worked with Chamber of Commerce members
                           to provide math training in order to improve the pool of entry-level
                           employees for the local banking industry. This helped connect job
                           seekers with available job openings at local banks.

                         • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                           The one-stop provided tailored hiring services, including drug testing
                           and pre-screening of applicants, for a manufacturing company, resulting
                           in the company hiring over 75 people through the one-stop.

                         • Developing optional partnerships to expand services- Managers in
                           Clarksville told us that co-location with the Tennessee Department of
                           Human Services, which administers TANF, benefits all job seekers
                           because the department helps fund various services, including computer
                           classes, soft skills classes, and parenting classes that can be provided to
                           those not eligible for TANF.

                         • Raising additional funds to expand services - WorkForce
                           Essentials, Inc., raised $750,000 in fiscal year 2002 through drivers’
                           education courses, drug testing, recruitment, and skills assessment
                           services. This money was used to pay salaries and to purchase voicemail
                           and a computer network system. In addition, the one-stop received a




                         Page 42                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
               Appendix II
               Promising Practices from Site Visits




                  $2.8 million H-1B Technical Skills Training Grant from DOL, through
                  which it has provided high-skills training to over 900 workers so far.



Dayton, Ohio   The Job Center
               111 S. Edwin C. Moses Boulevard
               Dayton, OH 45422

               • Streamlining services through consolidated case management -
                 Caseworkers from various programs, including TANF, Medicaid, Food
                 Stamps, and WIA share caseloads and coordinate their service plans for
                 job seekers.

               • Ensuring partner staff understand the range of services - One-
                 stop managers reported that cross-training on-site and off-site partners
                 dramatically improves referrals to the Child Support Program, thereby
                 enhancing efforts to establish paternity, a requirement for determining
                 eligibility for TANF. Additionally, they indicated that their cross-trained
                 staff referred job seekers to service providers that had previously been
                 unknown, such as to smaller programs within the one-stop or local
                 neighborhood programs.

               • Promoting partner collaboration and co-location - Partners
                 collaboratively operate the one-stop through four councils. All partners
                 are asked to participate and all have equal voice in decision-making.
                 Additionally, partners contributed space and other resources to help
                 other partners co-locate. The Center is housed in a former shopping
                 mall, which offers plenty of flexible space to allow all partners to co-
                 locate.

               • Developing optional partnerships to expand services - At the time
                 of our visit, the Dayton one-stop had over 30 optional partners on-site,
                 including the Montgomery County Combined Health District, which
                 operates a health clinic on-site; and Clothes that Work! which provides
                 free business attire to low-income women; and an alternative high
                 school.

               • Raising additional funds to expand services - The one-stop receives
                 $1 million annually from the county to pay for shared one-stop staff
                 salaries and to provide services to job seekers who do not qualify for
                 services under any other funding stream. Dayton one-stop partners also




               Page 43                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                     Appendix II
                     Promising Practices from Site Visits




                        contribute financial and in-kind resources to the center on an as-needed
                        basis.



Erie, Pennsylvania   Pennsylvania CareerLink
                     1309 French Street
                     Erie, PA 16501

                     • Streamlining services through consolidated case management -
                       To efficiently coordinate multiple services for one-stop customers, Erie
                       one-stop staff use a networked computer system with a shared case
                       management program, so that they can share access to a customer’s
                       service plan and case file.

                     • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - The one-stop positions a
                       staff person at the doors to the center to help job seekers entering the
                       center find needed services and to ensure that exiting job seekers
                       received the services they sought.

                     • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers -
                       CareerLink staff collaborated with numerous local economic
                       development entities to develop an outreach program that assesses the
                       workforce needs of employers and links employers with appropriate
                       services.

                     • Promoting partner collaboration - The one-stop staff is organized
                       into four functional teams that meet weekly to work on common goals
                       and develop new strategies. These teams have developed innovative
                       strategies to improve service delivery, including the creation of a
                       resource guide for caseworkers and a color-coded intake form.

                     • Strengthening relationships among partners - Staff at CareerLink
                       participate in frequent team-building activities, such as social events and
                       recognition ceremonies, to promote a positive, integrated working
                       environment.




                     Page 44                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                        Appendix II
                        Promising Practices from Site Visits




Kansas City, Missouri   Full Employment Council
                        1740 Paseo
                        Kansas City, MO 64108

                        • Streamlining services through consolidated intake procedures -
                          Youth Opportunity and the WIA Youth program staff share intake and
                          enrollment forms to streamline the delivery of services to youth. This
                          process alleviates the burden of multiple intake and assessment forms
                          when registering participants.

                        • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - The one-stop
                          management decided to locate the one-stop center next to the bus
                          company, the Area Transit Authority, (ATA). This strategic decision
                          meant that all bus routes passed by the one-stop center, ensuring that
                          customers with transportation problems could access one-stop services.
                          Additionally, the ATA partners with the one-stop to create an Urban
                          Employment Network program to assist job seekers with transportation
                          to and from work, 7 days a week from 5:00 in the morning until midnight
                          and has set up a van service to operate during off-peak hours.

                        • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                          Full Employment Council uses the Chamber of Commerce as an
                          intermediary with employers. The chamber has a workforce issues
                          division that does outreach to educate employers about recruitment and
                          retention strategies and services offered at the one-stop center. While
                          staff at the Kansas City one-stop assist job seekers with disabilities, the
                          Chamber works with local employers to educate them about hiring
                          disabled workers and integrating them into the workplace.

                        • Promoting partner co-location - The one-stop enabled the Adult
                          Basic Education program to co-locate by allowing it to contribute
                          instructors and GED classes instead of paying rent.

                        • Raising additional funds to expand services - The Kansas City one-
                          stop has a staff person specifically designated to researching grant
                          opportunities and writing grant applications. Through pursuing grant
                          opportunities, the center has been able to raise about $14 million, which
                          represents two-thirds of its total budget in program year 2002. These
                          additional funds enable the one-stop staff to address local workforce
                          concerns and provide services, such as internship opportunities in high-
                          tech industries for at-risk youth.



                        Page 45                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                     Appendix II
                     Promising Practices from Site Visits




Kenosha, Wisconsin   Kenosha County Job Center
                     8600 Sheridan Road
                     Kenosha, WI 53143

                     • Streamlining services through consolidated and case
                       management - Case files for economic support, case management, job
                       placement, and childcare services are shared on a networked computer
                       system that staff from these four programs can access. Staff from these
                       programs collectively develop an action plan for their customers and
                       share an electronic calendar for scheduling customers’ appointments
                       and workshops.

                     • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                       one-stop collaborates with local community colleges and the Kenosha
                       Area Business Alliance, an economic development association, to
                       identify labor and skills shortages in local industry. These partnerships
                       have not only helped employers with human resources assistance--such
                       as recruitment, networking, and marketing--but they have also assisted
                       employers with assessment and training of new and existing employees.
                       For example, the one-stop’s relationship with a local community college
                       led to the development of a Certified Nursing Assistant course taught in
                       Spanish.

                     • Promoting partner collaboration - Regular functional team meetings
                       allow partners to share ideas, work together to solve problems, and
                       develop strategies to improve services. For example, through functional
                       teams, partners were able to establish an on-site childcare center.

                     • Promoting partner co-location - Goodwill Industries, a one-stop
                       partner, pays rent for smaller partners that cannot afford to pay rent on
                       their own to expand services for job seekers.




                     Page 46                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                 Appendix II
                 Promising Practices from Site Visits




Killeen, Texas   Central Texas Workforce Center
                 300 Cheyenne
                 Killeen, TX 76541

                 • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - To serve customers with
                   transportation challenges, staff in Killeen partner with the libraries in
                   rural areas to provide computer access to one-stop resume writing and
                   job search services. They also provide an on-line TANF orientation, so
                   that customers can access it remotely. Additionally, when one-stop
                   center staff refer job seekers to one of their many partners, the staff
                   personally introduce the job seeker to the referred program staff to
                   prevent job seekers from getting lost between programs.

                 • Developing optional partnerships to expand services - The one-
                   stop improved job seeker access to services by forming relationships
                   with optional partners such as TANF. One-stop staff told us that co-
                   location with TANF services helps welfare recipients address barriers to
                   employment by facilitating easier access to services, such as housing
                   assistance and employment and training programs.

                 • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                   employers - The one-stop has specialized staff serving not only as the
                   central contact for receiving calls and requests from employers but also
                   as the primary source for identifying job openings available through
                   employers in the community.

                 • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                   In collaboration with local community colleges and the Chamber of
                   Commerce, the one-stop created a Business Resource Center that offers
                   services specifically for entrepreneurs and new businesses, including
                   tax assistance and workshops on starting or improving a business.

                 • Raising additional funds to expand services - The one-stop has
                   applied for multiple transportation grants to improve access to jobs for
                   rural job seekers. In addition, the one-stop raised $309,000 in fiscal year
                   2001 by renting out space to local businesses and by providing services
                   to employers.




                 Page 47                                      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                      Appendix II
                      Promising Practices from Site Visits




Pikeville, Kentucky   Pike County JobSight Center
                      120 South Riverfill Drive
                      Pikeville, KY 41501

                      • Ensuring partner staff understand the range of services - Cross-
                        training workshops taught by partner staff educate staff about the one-
                        stop’s diverse array of services. Although partners specialize in a
                        particular area of expertise, cross-training has improved referrals and
                        enabled staff to better ensure that job seekers get the tools they need to
                        become successfully employed.

                      • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                        When eastern Kentucky encountered a labor shortage in the coal mining
                        industry, the one-stop recruited a large pool of local applicants and
                        created an on-the-job training program using WIA funds, which paid for
                        half of new miners’ salaries during their training period.

                      • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                        employers - Specific JobSight staff are dedicated to employer outreach
                        and customizing services. These staff were able to help attract a large
                        cabinet manufacturer to the area by offering a customized service
                        package, including prescreening and assessment, on the job training,
                        and a 3-day job fair.

                      • Promoting partner collaboration - When the one-stop was created,
                        partners participated in intensive workshops and collaboratively
                        designed a service delivery plan to reduce service duplication. In
                        addition, partners collaboratively designed a common intake form and a
                        service delivery flow chart.

                      • Creating a shared one-stop identity - One-stop managers told us that
                        shared decision making was instrumental in developing a common one-
                        stop identity and in ensuring partners’ support for the one-stop system.
                        The process of creating a shared one-stop identity in Pikeville was also
                        supported by the adoption of a common logo and nametags, and was
                        reinforced by a comprehensive marketing campaign.

                      • Promoting partner co-location - The local community college
                        donated free space to the one-stop on its conveniently located campus,
                        making it desirable for partners to relocate there.




                      Page 48                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                       Appendix II
                       Promising Practices from Site Visits




Salt Lake City, Utah   South County Employment Center
                       5735 S. Redwood Road
                       Taylorsville, UT 84123

                       • Streamlining services through consolidated case management -
                         The caseworkers at the Salt Lake City one-stop are divided into four
                         teams that share case management of customers. The Job Connection
                         Team is stationed at the front desk and helps customers by doing quick
                         assessments, referrals, UI profiling, and assisting with computer access.
                         Caseworkers from the three Employment Teams specialize in a
                         particular program and all caseworkers meet once a month to discuss
                         program requirements and how to streamline services for co-enrolled
                         customers.

                       • Ensuring partner staff understand the range of services -
                         Department of Workforce Services and Vocational Rehabilitation
                         caseworkers participate in frequent cross-training sessions, so they are
                         capable of assisting co-enrolled customers. One-stop managers
                         reported that cross–training has improved staff understanding of
                         programs outside their area of expertise and enhanced their ability to
                         make referrals. There is also a shadow program in which staff members
                         shadow one another for a few hours to learn about one another’s jobs
                         and the programs they administer.

                       • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - The one-stop established
                         a Web-based job search program on which job seekers can post resumes
                         and look for jobs. This Web site reduces customer flow, saves money,
                         and makes it more convenient for people to look for jobs from their
                         homes or offices.

                       • Dedicated specialized staff to establish relationships with
                         employers – Employers have a separate one-stop center where they
                         can conduct interviews, access labor market information, attend
                         seminars, and use computers. The center has specialized employer
                         outreach and business services staff that act as liaisons to employers,
                         organize job fairs, and assist with job placements.

                       • Promoting partner collaboration - Partners created a “MOUse”
                         committee to address Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) issues,
                         including referrals, information systems, employer involvement, cross-
                         training, and service accessibility. Staff from the Vocational



                       Page 49                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                         Appendix II
                         Promising Practices from Site Visits




                            Rehabilitation Program in Salt Lake City told us that this committee
                            helped to increase referrals to their program by producing flow charts of
                            the service delivery systems of various partner programs to identify
                            points at which referrals and staff collaboration should occur.



Santa Rosa, California   Sonoma County Job Link One-Stop Center
                         2245 Challenger Way
                         Santa Rosa, CA 95407

                         • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                           industries - In Santa Rosa, staff are dedicated to specific industries in
                           order to better address local labor shortages. When Santa Rosa’s
                           tourism industry was in need of more skilled workers, the one-stop
                           worked with the local community college to ensure that job seekers
                           were connected to certification courses in hotel management and the
                           culinary arts. Also, the one-stop center has a Small Business
                           Development Center, funded by the Small Business Administration, that
                           provides consulting services to small businesses.

                         • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                           one-stop focuses heavily on using existing partnerships with
                           intermediaries, such as the Economic Development Board, to market
                           their services to employers and to utilize information gathered from
                           employer surveys. Managers told us this partnership has helped
                           caseworkers better understand particular industries and job market
                           fluctuations.

                         • Developing optional partnerships to expand services - The one-
                           stop is collaborating with CalWORKS, the state TANF program, which
                           allows them to provide additional services, such as the employer
                           account representatives. These representatives work with employers,
                           the Workforce Investment Board, and caseworkers to gather and
                           disseminate information about the labor market, particularly high-
                           demand industries.

                         • Raising additional funds to expand services - Santa Rosa has been
                           better equipped to receive national grants and grants from the state of
                           California by collaborating with three other Workforce Investment
                           Boards in the area. In addition, this collaboration has improved local
                           labor market information and sharing of promising practices.




                         Page 50                                     GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                        Appendix II
                        Promising Practices from Site Visits




                        • Improving one-stop operations - Partner staff use a Funding Source
                          Determination Worksheet to ensure that customers’ services are paid
                          for by the most appropriate grant or by a variety of funding streams to
                          maximize funding in the long run. The funding sheet helps alleviate
                          some cost burden on partners with tighter training budgets.



Sunnyvale, California   Connect!
                        420 S. Pastoria Avenue
                        Sunnyvale, CA 94086

                        • Dedicating specialized staff to establish relationships with
                          employers - Connect! has dedicated staff to providing a variety of
                          services (both free and fee-based) to meet business needs, including
                          staffing services, such as prescreening of job applicants and on-site
                          recruiting; transition/outplacement services to help downsizing
                          businesses assist displaced workers; educational resources; and
                          training, such as technical training for small business IT workers.

                        • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                          The one-stop is co-located with a patent and trademark library that is
                          electronically linked to the national trademark office to assist
                          customers seeking entrepreneurial opportunities.

                        • Gathering labor market information on local industries - Connect!
                          conducted Labor Market Information Plus (LMI+) studies of local
                          industries to gather information on current workforce issues and
                          challenges and predict future labor market trends.

                        • Raising additional funds to expand services - One-stop managers
                          raised $20,000 through fee-based downsizing and training services for
                          employers and used this money to expand the one-stop’s business
                          services.

                        • Improving one-stop operations - In order to improve its operations,
                          Connect! conducted an assessment (Voice of the Customer Initiative) to
                          better understand customer expectations and needs. As a result, the
                          one-stop reorganized its operations, redefined relationships with
                          partners, developed a new outcome budget structure, and created
                          specialized one-stop centers for businesses, job seekers, and youth.




                        Page 51                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                       Appendix II
                       Promising Practices from Site Visits




Vineland, New Jersey   Cumberland County One-stop
                       415 Landis Avenue
                       Vineland, NJ 08360

                       • Ensuring job seekers’ access to services - By addressing customers’
                         transportation challenges, the Cumberland County One-Stop enhanced
                         access to training and employment opportunities for rural customers.
                         The one-stop now provides transportation to employment sites that are
                         difficult for customers to access, such as the Atlantic City casino
                         industry.

                       • Ensuring partner staff understand the range of services - Program
                         staff attend monthly meetings to educate one another about various
                         program rules, which improves referrals and eligibility determination
                         for customers. For example, all program staff attended training on how
                         to assess customers’ eligibility for the TANF program.

                       • Tailoring services to meet employers’ specific workforce needs -
                         When employer services staff realized the application process for tax
                         credits was cumbersome for employers, they completed the required
                         paperwork themselves so that employers could receive the tax credit
                         incentives.

                       • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                         Cumberland County One-Stop negotiated an agreement with the local
                         Empowerment Zone Office, requiring that new businesses use the one-
                         stop center for recruitment before using their own private resources.
                         This arrangement allows the one-stop to stay informed of employer
                         needs and potential opportunities for job seekers.

                       • Working with intermediaries to engage and serve employers - The
                         Vineland one-stop belongs to the three Chambers of Commerce in the
                         area and attends many of their events. Business services staff make
                         presentations about the one-stop’s services at professional conferences,
                         chamber meetings, and other local events.




                       Page 52                                    GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Appendix III

Comments from the Department of Labor                          Appen
                                                                   Ix
                                                                    di




Now on p. 29.




                Page 53      GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                Appendix III
                Comments from the Department of Labor




Now on p. 32.




                Page 54                                 GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Appendix III
Comments from the Department of Labor




Page 55                                 GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Appendix IV

GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                                        Appen
                                                                                                  V
                                                                                                  Id
                                                                                                   xi




GAO Contacts      Dianne Blank (202) 512-5654
                  Katrina Ryan (202) 512-3214



Staff             Elisabeth Anderson, Elizabeth Caplick, and Tamara Harris made significant
                  contributions to this report. In addition, Shana Wallace assisted in the
Acknowledgments   study design; Jessica Botsford provided legal support; and
                  Patrick DiBattista assisted in the message and report development.




                  Page 56                                   GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
Related GAO Products


             Workforce Investment Act: Exemplary One-Stops Devised Strategies to
             Strengthen Services, but Challenges Remain for Reauthorization. GAO-
             03-884T. Washington D.C.: June 18, 2003.

             Workforce Investment Act: Issues Related to Allocation Formulas for
             Youth, Adults, and Dislocated Workers. GAO-03-636. Washington D.C.:
             April 25, 2003.

             Multiple Employment and Training Programs: Funding and
             Performance Measures for Major Programs. GAO-03-589. Washington,
             D.C.: April 18, 2003.

             Food Stamp Employment and Training Program: Better Data Needed to
             Understand Who Is Served and What the Program Achieves. GAO-03-388.
             Washington D.C.: March 12, 2003.

             Workforce Training: Employed Worker Programs Focus on Business
             Needs, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access for
             Some Workers. GAO-03-353. Washington, D.C.: February 14, 2003.

             Older Workers: Employment Assistance Focuses on Subsidized Jobs and
             Job Search, but Revised Performance Measures Could Improve Access to
             Other Services. GAO-03-350. Washington, D.C.: January 24, 2003

             Workforce Investment Act: States’ Spending Is on Track, but Better
             Guidance Would Improve Financial Reporting. GAO-03-239. Washington,
             D.C.: November 22, 2002.

             Workforce Investment Act: States and Localities Increasingly Coordinate
             Services for TANF Clients, but Better Information Needed on Effective
             Approaches. GAO-02-696. Washington, D.C.: July 3, 2002.

             Workforce Investment Act: Coordination of TANF Services Through One-
             Stops Has Increased Despite Challenges. GAO-02-739T. Washington, D.C.:
             May 16, 2002.

             Workforce Investment Act: Youth Provisions Promote New Service
             Strategies, but Additional Guidance Would Enhance Program
             Development. GAO-02-413. Washington, D.C.: April 5, 2002.




             Page 57                                  GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
           Related GAO Products




           Workforce Investment Act: Coordination of TANF Programs and One-
           Stop Center Is Increasing, but Challenges Remain. GAO-02-500T.
           Washington, D.C.: March 12, 2002.

           Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance and Revised Funding
           Formula Would Enhance Dislocated Worker Program. GAO-02-274.
           Washington, D.C.: February 11, 2002.

           Workforce Investment Act: Improvements Needed in Performance
           Measures to Provide a More Accurate Picture of WIA’s Effectiveness.
           GAO-02-275. Washington, D.C.: February 1, 2002.

           Workforce Investment Act: Better Guidance Needed to Address Concerns
           Over New Requirements. GAO-02-72. Washington, D.C.: Oct. 4, 2001.

           Workforce Investment Act: New Requirements Create Need for More
           Guidance. GAO-02-94T. Washington, D.C. October 4, 2001.

           Workforce Investment Act: Implementation Status and the Integration of
           TANF Services. GAO/T-HEHS-00-145. Washington, D.C.: June 29, 2000.




(130173)   Page 58                                   GAO-03-725 Workforce Investment Act
                         The General Accounting Office, the audit, evaluation and investigative arm of
GAO’s Mission            Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional responsibilities
                         and to help improve the performance and accountability of the federal
                         government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public funds;
                         evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses,
                         recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed
                         oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO’s commitment to good government
                         is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.


                         The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is
Obtaining Copies of      through the Internet. GAO’s Web site (www.gao.gov) contains abstracts and full-
GAO Reports and          text files of current reports and testimony and an expanding archive of older
                         products. The Web site features a search engine to help you locate documents
Testimony                using key words and phrases. You can print these documents in their entirety,
                         including charts and other graphics.
                         Each day, GAO issues a list of newly released reports, testimony, and
                         correspondence. GAO posts this list, known as “Today’s Reports,” on its Web site
                         daily. The list contains links to the full-text document files. To have GAO e-mail
                         this list to you every afternoon, go to www.gao.gov and select “Subscribe to daily
                         E-mail alert for newly released products” under the GAO Reports heading.


Order by Mail or Phone   The first copy of each printed report is free. Additional copies are $2 each. A
                         check or money order should be made out to the Superintendent of Documents.
                         GAO also accepts VISA and Mastercard. Orders for 100 or more copies mailed to a
                         single address are discounted 25 percent. Orders should be sent to:
                         U.S. General Accounting Office
                         441 G Street NW, Room LM
                         Washington, D.C. 20548
                         To order by Phone:     Voice:    (202) 512-6000
                                                TDD:      (202) 512-2537
                                                Fax:      (202) 512-6061


                         Contact:
To Report Fraud,
                         Web site: www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm
Waste, and Abuse in      E-mail: fraudnet@gao.gov
Federal Programs         Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7470


                         Jeff Nelligan, Managing Director, NelliganJ@gao.gov (202) 512-4800
Public Affairs           U.S. General Accounting Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149
                         Washington, D.C. 20548
United States                  Presorted Standard
General Accounting Office      Postage & Fees Paid
Washington, D.C. 20548-0001           GAO
                                 Permit No. GI00
Official Business
Penalty for Private Use $300
Address Service Requested