United States General Accounting Office GAO Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Competition, Foreign Commerce, and Infrastructure, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate For Release on Delivery Expected at 2:30 p.m. EDT, Thursday, May 22, 2003 HIGHWAY SAFETY Factors Contributing to Traffic Crashes and NHTSA’s Efforts to Address Them Statement of Peter Guerrero, Director Physical Infrastructure Issues GAO-03-730T May 22, 2003 HIGHWAY SAFETY Factors Contributing to Traffic Crashes Highlights of GAO-03-730T, a testimony and NHTSA’s Efforts to Address Them before the Subcommittee on Competition, Foreign Commerce, and Infrastructure, Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate From 1975 through 2002, annual Most motor vehicle crashes have multiple causes. Experts and studies have traffic fatalities decreased from identified three categories of factors that contribute to crashes—human, 44,525 to 42,850, while the rate of roadway environment, and vehicle factors. Human factors involve the fatalities per 100 million vehicle driver’s actions (speeding and violating traffic laws) or condition (effects of miles traveled decreased from 3.35 alcohol or drugs, inattention, decision errors, and age). Roadway to 1.51. However, decreases in fatalities have leveled off since the environment factors include the design of the roadway, roadside hazards, early 1990s, as shown in the figure. and roadway conditions. Vehicle factors include any failures in the vehicle Since 1999, the number of alcohol- or its design. Human factors are generally seen as contributing most often to related fatalities has risen. crashes, followed by roadway environment and vehicle factors. In 1998, the Transportation Equity To improve highway safety through programs that primarily address the Act for the 21st Century funded a human factors that contribute to traffic crashes and fatalities, about $2 series of highway safety programs. billion was provided to states over the last 5 years for highway safety These programs, administered by programs under the act. About $729 million was provided under Section 402, the National Highway Traffic Safety the core highway safety program, and about $936 million was provided Administration (NHTSA), increased through seven incentive programs, mainly for efforts to influence driver funding to the states for activities designed to encourage, among behavior. Another $361 million was transferred from state highway other things, the use of seat belts construction to state highway safety programs under provisions that and to prevent drinking and penalized states for not complying with federal requirements for passing driving. The states establish laws to reduce drinking and driving. highway safety goals and initiate projects to help reach those goals. GAO found that NHTSA’s oversight of state highway programs could be NHTSA provides advice, training, improved. NHTSA regional offices have made inconsistent use of and technical assistance to states management reviews and improvement plans because NHTSA’s guidance and can use management reviews does not specify when to use them. As a result, some states do not have and improvement plans as tools to improvement plans, even though their alcohol-related fatality rates have help monitor and strengthen the increased or their seat-belt usage rates have declined. Without improvement states’ performance. plans NHTSA may not fully realize its goals in working with the states to This testimony discusses (1) the improve highway safety. GAO recommended in an April 2003 report that factors that contribute to motor NHTSA provide guidance to its regional offices on when it is appropriate to vehicle crashes, (2) the funds use these oversight tools. NHTSA is taking steps to improve this guidance. provided to the states for highway safety programs, and (3) NHTSA’s Traffic Fatality Statistics, 1975-2002 oversight of state programs. The testimony is primarily based on two GAO reports on these topics issued in March and April 2003. www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-730T. To view the product, click on the link above. For more information, contact Peter Guerrero at (202) 512-2834 or email@example.com. Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: We appreciate the opportunity to testify today on the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) efforts to reduce traffic fatalities. Highway safety is a major concern for the country, given that over 1.2 million people have died on our roadways over the last 25 years. Since 1982, about 40 percent of traffic deaths were from alcohol-related crashes, and traffic crashes are the leading cause of death for people ages 4 through 33. In addition to the tragic loss of life, the economic cost of fatalities and injuries from crashes totaled almost $231 billion in 2000 alone, according to NHTSA. In 1998, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) funded a series of highway safety programs, administered by NHTSA, that increased funding to the states to encourage, among other things, the use of seat belts and child passenger seats and to prevent drinking and driving. The states implement these programs by establishing highway safety goals and initiating projects to help reach those goals. NHTSA reviews state goals and provides oversight of state highway safety programs. My testimony today will discuss (1) the factors that contribute to traffic crashes, (2) the funds provided to the states for highway safety programs, and (3) NHTSA’s guidance provided to states and oversight of the states’ programs. My statement is primarily based on two GAO reports on these topics. The first report, issued in March 2003, dealt with the factors that contribute to traffic crashes.1 To complete that effort, we analyzed three Department of Transportation databases that contained data through 2001; interviewed experts from academia, insurance organizations, and advocacy groups as well as department officials; and reviewed studies on various aspects of motor vehicle crashes. In addition, NHTSA recently released 2002 traffic fatality data, which we used to update some of the information contained in the March 2003 report for this testimony. The second report, issued in April 2003, provides information on TEA-21 funds for state highway safety programs, how the states have used those funds, and NHTSA’s oversight of the state programs.2 To conduct this effort, we 1 U.S. General Accounting Office, Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes, GAO-03-436 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 31, 2003). 2 U.S. General Accounting Office, Highway Safety: Better Guidance Could Improve Oversight of State Highway Safety Programs, GAO-03-474 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 21, 2003). Page 1 GAO-03-730T visited six states and the NHTSA regional offices responsible for them to determine how these states were using the funds and to review NHTSA’s oversight of the states’ programs. We also interviewed representatives of the Governors Highway Safety Association and other highway safety organizations to obtain their perspectives. In summary: • Many factors combine to produce circumstances that may lead to a motor vehicle crash—there is rarely a single cause of such an event. Experts and studies have identified three categories of factors that contribute to crashes—human factors, roadway environment factors, and vehicle factors. Human factors involve the actions taken by or the condition of the driver of the automobile, including speeding, being affected by alcohol or drugs, violating traffic laws, inattention, decision errors, and age. Roadway environment factors include the design of the roadway, roadside hazards, and roadway conditions. Vehicle factors include any failures that may exist in the automobile or design of the vehicle. Human factors are generally seen as the most prevalent contributing factor of crashes, followed by roadway environment and vehicle factors. • About $2 billion has been provided to states over the last 5 years for highway safety programs under TEA-21. About $729 million went to the core highway safety program, Section 402, to carry out traffic safety programs designed to influence drivers’ behavior in such areas as seat belt use, drinking and driving, and speeding. About $936 million went to seven incentive programs also designed to encourage state efforts to improve seat-belt use, reduce drinking and driving, and contribute to improvement of state highway safety data. In addition, about $361 million was transferred from state highway construction to state highway safety programs under provisions that penalized states that had not complied with federal requirements for passing repeat offender or open container laws to reduce drinking and driving. • To oversee state highway safety programs, NHTSA focuses on providing advice, training, and technical assistance to the states, which are responsible for setting and achieving highway safety goals. NHTSA can also use management reviews and improvement plans as tools to help ensure that the states are operating within guidelines and achieving the desired results. However, we found that NHTSA’s regional offices have made inconsistent use of management reviews and improvement plans because NHTSA’s guidance to the regional offices does not specify when to use them. As a result, some states do not have improvement plans, even though their alcohol-related fatality rates have increased or their seat-belt Page 2 GAO-03-730T usage rates have declined. We recommended that NHTSA provide guidance to its regional offices on when it is appropriate to use these oversight tools. NHTSA is taking steps to improve this guidance. Since 1975, progress has been made in reducing the number of fatalities on Background our nation’s roads, but in recent years improvement has slowed and some downward trends have been reversed. As figure 1 shows, from 1975 through 2002, annual fatalities decreased from 44,525 to 42,850, or by about 4 percent. Annual fatalities reached a low of 39,250 in 1992 and have been edging up since then. During the same period, the fatality rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT), a common method of measurement, dropped from 3.35 in 1975 to 1.51 in 2002, or by about 55 percent. Since 1992, the decline in the fatality rate has slowed. Figure 1: Fatality Statistics, 1975▬2002 Alcohol-related crashes account for a large portion of traffic fatalities.3 Between 1982, when NHTSA began tracking alcohol-related fatalities, and 2002, about 430,000 people died in alcohol-related crashes. In 1982, 3 Alcohol-related fatalities represent crash victims killed with blood alcohol concentrations at any level above 0.01. At this concentration, a person’s blood contains 1 one-hundredth of 1 percent alcohol. Page 3 GAO-03-730T NHTSA reported 26,173 alcohol-related deaths, representing 59.6 percent of all traffic fatalities. Alcohol-related fatalities declined to 39.7 percent of all traffic fatalities in 1999, but rose to 17,970—41.9 percent of fatalities— in 2002. (See fig. 2.) Figure 2: Number of Alcohol-Related Fatalities, 1982▬2002 As figure 3 shows, alcohol-related fatality rates declined steadily (except in 1986) from 1982 through 1997. However, there has been almost no further decline in rates since 1997, when the rate was 0.65 fatalities per 100 million VMT. In 2002, the rate was 0.64 fatalities per 100 million VMT. Page 4 GAO-03-730T Figure 3: Rate of Alcohol-Related Fatalities, 1982▬2002 The overall decline in fatalities over the past quarter century is attributable to many actions. For example, during this period, a number of countermeasures were developed and installed in new vehicles. Seat belts and air bags are credited with saving thousands of lives—seat-belt use rates have grown from about 14 percent in 1983 to over 75 percent nationwide today. In addition, federal and state programs have resulted in improvement in some areas. For example, increased enforcement and greater public awareness of the dangers of drinking and driving have, according to NHTSA officials, reduced the incidence of casual drinkers becoming traffic fatalities. Having made improvements in reducing casual drinking and driving, NHTSA and the states are now faced with more challenging problems such as alcohol dependency, which has hindered progress in reducing alcohol-related fatalities. Multiple factors typically combine to produce circumstances that lead to a A Variety of Factors motor vehicle crash—there is rarely a single cause for such an event. For Contribute to Motor example, it would be challenging to identify a single cause of a crash that occurred on a narrow, curvy, icy road when an inexperienced driver, who Vehicle Crashes had been drinking, adjusted the radio or talked on a cell phone. In examining the causes of motor vehicle crashes, a number of experts and studies identified three categories of factors that contribute to crashes: Page 5 GAO-03-730T human factors, roadway environment factors, and vehicle factors. Human factors involve the actions taken by or the condition of the driver of the automobile, including speeding, being affected by alcohol or drugs, violating traffic laws, inattention, decision errors, and age. Roadway environment factors include the design of the roadway, roadside hazards, and roadway conditions. Vehicle factors include any failures that may exist in the automobile or design of the vehicle. Human factors are generally seen as the most prevalent contributing factor of crashes, followed by roadway environment and vehicle factors. Two examples of human factors that have a significant impact on traffic crashes are speeding and alcohol. Speeding—driving either faster than the posted speed limit or faster than conditions would safely dictate— contributes to traffic crashes. Speeding reduces a driver’s ability to steer safely around curves or objects in the roadway, extends the distance necessary to stop a vehicle, and increases the distance a vehicle travels when a driver reacts to a dangerous situation. According to our analysis of NHTSA’s databases, from 1997 through 2001, speeding was identified as a contributing factor in about 30 percent of all fatal crashes, and almost 64,000 lives were lost in speeding-related crashes. From 1997 through 2001, 36 percent of male drivers and 24 percent of female drivers 16 to 20 years old who were involved in fatal crashes were speeding at the time of the crash. The percentage of speeding-related fatal crashes decreases as drivers age.4 (See fig. 4.) 4 It should be noted that in addition to the factors discussed, other elements, such as nonuse of seat belts or other occupant-protection measures, might have affected the number of fatalities. Page 6 GAO-03-730T Figure 4: Speeding Drivers in Fatal Crashes, by Age and Gender, 1997▬2001 Alcohol consumption is a significant human factor that contributes to many motor vehicle crashes. It is illegal in every state and the District of Columbia to drive a motor vehicle while under the influence of, impaired by, or with a specific level of alcohol or drugs in the blood. Only Massachusetts lacks a law that defines the specific concentration of blood alcohol at which it becomes illegal to drive.5 As of January 2003, 17 states had set the standard at 0.10 percent blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (the level at which a person’s blood contains 1/10th of 1 percent alcohol) and the remaining states had set the standard at 0.08 percent BAC.6 NHTSA recently reported that in 2002, 42 percent of all fatal crashes were alcohol-related, and nearly 18,000 people died in alcohol-related crashes. BACs of 0.08 or greater were reported for about 87 percent of the alcohol- 5 BAC of 0.08 percent in Massachusetts is evidence of alcohol impairment, but it is not illegal per se. 6 Louisiana, New York, and Tennessee have 0.08 percent BAC laws that will be effective during the latter half of 2003. Page 7 GAO-03-730T related fatalities in 2002. According to our analysis of NHTSA data, from 1997 through 2001, for each age category, more male than female drivers were involved in fatal alcohol-related crashes (see fig. 5). Figure 5: Drivers in Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes, by Age and Gender, 1997▬2001 There is also a strong relationship between a driver’s age and the likelihood of being involved in a crash. While age, in itself, would not be the cause of the crash, some of the characteristics displayed at various ages can lead to a higher probability of being involved in traffic crashes. Younger drivers’ crash rates are disproportionately higher mainly because of a risky driving style combined with driving inexperience. Older drivers also pose greater risks; fatal crash rates are higher for the elderly than for all but the youngest drivers. The roadway environment—factors that are external to the driver and the vehicle that increase the risk of a crash—is generally considered the second most prevalent contributing factor of crashes. Roadway environment factors that contribute to, or are associated with, crashes include the design of the roadway, including features such as medians, narrow lanes, a lack of shoulders, curves, access points, or intersections; Page 8 GAO-03-730T roadside hazards or features adjacent to the road that vehicles can crash into such as poles, trees, or embankments; and roadway conditions (for example, rain, ice, snow, or fog). However, the contribution of these factors to crashes is difficult to quantify. NHTSA’s crash databases contain limited data on roadway design features at the crash location or immediately preceding the crash location. In addition, the significance of adverse weather, including both slippery roads and reductions in driver visibility, is not fully understood because there are no measurements (for example, VMTs under adverse weather conditions) available to compare crash rates under various conditions. Vehicle factors can also contribute to crashes through vehicle-related failures and vehicle design characteristics (attributes that may increase the likelihood of being involved in certain types of crashes). While such recent events as the number of crashes involving tire separations have highlighted the importance of vehicle factors, data and studies generally show, and experts believe, that vehicle factors contribute less often to crashes than do human or roadway environment factors. For example, our analysis of NHTSA’s data found that of the 32 million crashes from 1997 through 2001, there were about 778,000 crashes (about 2 percent) in which police determined that a specific vehicle-related failure might have contributed to the crash. In addition, vehicle design has been shown to affect handling in particular types of maneuvers. For example, high- performance sports cars have very different handling characteristics from those of sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Recent changes in the composition of the nation’s vehicle fleet, in part attributable to the purchase of many SUVs, have resulted in an overall shift toward vehicles with a higher center of gravity (more top-heavy), which can roll over more easily than some other vehicles. Rollover crashes are particularly serious because they are more likely to result in fatalities. Our analysis of NHTSA’s 2001 data shows that passenger cars were the vehicle type least likely to roll over in a crash; passenger cars rolled over in about 2 percent of all crashes and rolled over nearly 16 percent of the time in fatal crashes. In comparison, our analysis shows that SUVs were over three times more likely to roll over in a crash than were passenger cars; that is, they rolled over in almost 6 percent of all crashes. In addition, the proportion of SUVs that rolled over in fatal crashes was over twice as high as the proportion of passenger cars. NHTSA recently reported that in 2002, fatalities in rollover crashes involving SUVs and pickup trucks accounted for 53 percent of the increase in traffic deaths. Page 9 GAO-03-730T About $2 billion was provided to the states for highway safety programs Funding for State for the first 5 years under TEA-21, from fiscal years 1998 through 2002. Highway Safety TEA-21 funded state programs three ways as follows: Programs Has Grown • The core Section 402 State and Community Safety Grants Program provided $729 million for behavioral highway safety programs. • Seven incentive programs provided $936 million. States could use funds from two of the incentive programs for behavioral highway safety programs or highway construction. As a result, states allocated about $789 million of the incentive funds to behavioral programs and $147 million to highway construction. • Two penalty transfer programs provided $361 million in fiscal years 2001 and 2002. These programs transferred funds from highway construction to highway safety programs to penalize states for not complying with federal requirements for passing laws prohibiting open alcoholic beverage containers in cars and establishing specific penalties for people convicted of repeat drinking and driving offenses.7 States could use both penalty transfers for either alcohol-related behavioral safety programs or highway safety construction projects. As a result, states allocated about $113 million of the transfer funds to behavioral programs and $248 million (about 66 percent) to highway construction programs to eliminate road safety hazards. Funding for states’ behavioral safety programs nearly doubled from fiscal year 1998 through fiscal year 2001. (See fig. 6.) 7 TEA-21, as amended through the TEA-21 Restoration Act, established these two penalty provisions. Page 10 GAO-03-730T Figure 6: NHTSA Highway Safety Funding to States, Fiscal Years 1998▬2002 Funding for the core Section 402 State and Community Grants Program has been fairly level, in constant dollars, since 1991. Four major program categories account for most of the states’ use of the $729 million in Section 402 State and Community Grants funds provided between 1998 and 2002: police traffic services, impaired driving, seat belts, and community safety programs. Combined, these four categories account for about 72 percent of the grant funds. Figure 7 shows how the states used their Section 402 State and Community Grants funds during the first 5 years covered by TEA-21. Page 11 GAO-03-730T Figure 7: Uses of State and Community Grants Funds, Fiscal Years 1998▬2002 Other P o lice traffic services 16.2% 22.1% Traffic reco rds 5.9% P lanning and administratio n 6.0% Impaired driving 15.4% Co mmunity safety pro grams Seat belts 19.9% 14.5% Note: “Other” includes roadway safety, pedestrian safety, emergency medical services, speed control, driver education, motorcycle safety, school bus safety, and paid advertising to support Section 402 programs. The seven incentive programs under TEA-21 also provide funds to encourage greater seat belt use, implement programs or requirements to reduce drinking and driving, and contribute to the improvement of state highway safety data. The funding available for these programs grew from $83.5 million in 1998 to $257.2 million in 2002. While most of these funds were used for funding additional behavioral safety programs, the act provided that two programs, the 0.08 percent Blood Alcohol Concentration Incentive (Section 163) and the Seat-belt Use Incentive (Section 157) programs, could be used for any highway purpose—highway construction, construction that remedied safety concerns, or behavioral safety programs. Appendix I contains additional information on the seven incentive programs. Under the penalty transfer programs, the states that did not adopt either the open container or the repeat offender requirements were required to Page 12 GAO-03-730T transfer a specified percentage of their federal highway construction funds to their Section 402 State and Community Grants Program.8 During fiscal years 2001 and 2002, the first 2 years that funds have been transferred, 34 states were subject to one or both of the penalty provisions, and about $361 million was transferred from these states’ Federal-Aid Highway Program funding. (See fig. 8.) States can keep transferred funds in their Section 402 State and Community Grants program when they are to be used to support behavioral programs designed to reduce drunk driving or the states can allocate any portion of the transferred funds to highway safety construction projects to eliminate road safety hazards. States varied greatly in their decisions on how to use these funds, from allocating 100 percent of the funds to highway safety construction projects to allocating 100 percent of the funds to highway safety behavioral projects. Overall, the states allocated about 69 percent to highway safety construction projects under the Hazard Elimination Program, and 31 percent went to highway safety behavioral projects. Twenty-eight of the 34 states with transferred funds allocated a majority to highway safety construction activities under the Hazard Elimination Program. 8 For the first 2 years, the transfer penalty was 1.5 percent of the funds apportioned to the state’s National Highway System, Surface Transportation Program, and Interstate Maintenance funding, for each penalty. This amount rose to 3 percent for each penalty in October 2002. Page 13 GAO-03-730T Figure 8: States Transferring Funds under Open Container and Repeat Offender Provisions, October 1, 2002 Note: Alaska (both transfers), District of Columbia (no transfers), Hawaii (no transfers), and Puerto Rico (both transfers) are not shown. NHTSA’s 10 regional offices focus on providing advice, training, and NHTSA Has Not Made technical assistance to the states, which are responsible for setting and Consistent Use of achieving their highway safety goals. In addition, among other things, NHTSA uses management reviews and improvement plans as oversight Oversight Tools tools to help it ensure that states’ programs are operating within guidelines and are achieving desired results. Page 14 GAO-03-730T NHTSA regions can conduct management reviews to help improve and enhance the financial and operational management of the state programs. In conducting these reviews, a team of NHTSA regional staff visit the state and examine such items as its organization and staffing, program management, financial management, and selected programs like impaired driving, occupant protection, public information and education, and outreach. The team’s report comments on the state activities and may make recommendations for improvement. For example, in some management reviews we examined, NHTSA regions found instances of inadequate monitoring of subgrantees, a lack of coordination in state alcohol program planning, costs incurred after a grant was over, and improper cash advances by a state to subgrantees. However, NHTSA has no written guidance on when to perform management reviews. We found that the management reviews were not being conducted consistently. For example, in the six NHTSA regions we visited, we found goals of conducting state management reviews every 2 years, on no set schedule, or only when requested by a state. Improvement plans are another tool for providing states oversight and guidance. According to program regulations, if a NHTSA regional office finds that a state is not making progress toward meeting its highway safety goals, NHTSA and the state are to develop an improvement plan to address the shortcomings. For example, NHTSA, working with one state, developed an improvement plan that identified specific actions that NHTSA and the state would accomplish to improve alcohol-related highway safety. The plan included such actions as implementing a judicial education program, requiring all police officers working on impaired driving enforcement to be adequately trained in field sobriety testing, and developing a statewide system for tracking driving-while-intoxicated violations. NHTSA regional offices have made limited and inconsistent use of improvement plans. Since 1998, only seven improvement plans have been developed. In addition, we found that the highway safety performance of a number of states that were not operating under improvement plans was worse than the performance of other states that were operating under such plans. For example, we compared the performance of the three states that had developed improvement plans for alcohol-related problems with the performance of all other states. We found that for seven states, the rate of alcohol-related fatalities increased from 1997 through 2001 and their alcohol-related fatality rates exceeded the national rate in 2001. Only one of these seven states was on an improvement plan. Furthermore, for one state that was not on an improvement plan, the alcohol-related fatality rate Page 15 GAO-03-730T grew by over 40 percent from 1997 through 2001 and for 2001 was about double the national average. The limited and inconsistent use of improvement plans is due to a lack of specificity in the criteria for requiring such plans. To ensure more consistent use of management reviews and improvement plans, we recommended in our report that NHTSA provide more specific guidance to the regional offices on when it is appropriate to use these oversight tools. In commenting on a draft of the report, NHTSA officials said they agreed with the recommendations and had begun taking action to develop criteria and guidance to field offices on the use of management reviews and improvement plans. Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be pleased to answer any questions that you or members of the Subcommittee may have. For further information on this testimony, please contact Peter Guerrero Contact and at (202) 512-2834 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Richard Calhoon, Robert Acknowledgments Ciszewski, Glenn C. Fischer, Bonnie Pignatiello Leer, and Glen Trochelman made key contributions to this testimony. Page 16 GAO-03-730T Appendix I: Highway Safety Incentive Grant Programs Incentive category Title of incentive Description of incentive Seat belt/ occupant Section 157 Safety Incentive Creates incentive grants to states to improve seat belt use rates. A state protection incentives Grants for the Use of Seat Belts may use these funds for any highway safety or construction program. The act authorized $500 million over 5 years. Section 157 Safety Innovative Provides that unallocated Section 157 incentive funds be allocated to Grants for Increasing Seat-Belt states to carry out innovative projects to improve seat belt use. Use Rates Section 405 Occupant Creates an incentive grant program to increase seat belt and child safety Protection Incentive Grant seat use. A state may use these funds only to implement occupant protection programs. The act authorized $68 million over 5 years. Section 2003(b) Child Creates a program designed to prevent deaths and injuries to children, Passenger Protection educate the public on child restraints, and train safety personnel on child Education Grants restraint use. The act authorized $15 million over 2 years for Section 2003(b). However, the Congress appropriated funds to support the program for 2 additional years. Alcohol incentives Section 163 Safety Incentives Provides grants to states that have enacted and are enforcing laws stating to Prevent the Operation of that a person with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 or higher while Motor Vehicles by Intoxicated operating a motor vehicle has committed a per se driving-while-intoxicated Persons offense. A state may use these funds for any highway safety or construction program. The act provides $500 million over 6 years for the program. Section 410 Alcohol Impaired Revises an existing incentive program and provides grants to states that Driving Countermeasures adopt or demonstrate specified programs, or to states that meet performance criteria showing reductions in fatalities involving alcohol- impaired drivers. The act provides $219.5 million over 6 years, which is to be used for alcohol-impaired driving programs. Data incentives Section 411 State Highway Provides incentive grants to states to improve the timeliness, accuracy, Safety Data Improvements completeness, uniformity, and accessibility of highway safety data. The act provides $32 million over 4 years. Source: GAO presentation of NHTSA data. (545034) Page 17 GAO-03-730T This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO. 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Highway Safety: Factors Contributing to Traffic Crashes and NHTSA's Efforts to Address Them
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-05-22.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)