oversight

Challenges and Risks Associated with the Joint Tactical Radio System Program

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2003-08-11.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States General Accounting Office
Washington, DC 20548




          August 11, 2003

          The Honorable Jerry Lewis
          Chairman
          Subcommittee on Defense
          Committee on Appropriations
          House of Representatives

          The Honorable John P. Murtha
          Ranking Minority Member
          Subcommittee on Defense
          Committee on Appropriations
          House of Representatives


          Subject: Challenges and Risks Associated with the Joint Tactical Radio System
          Program

          The recent emergence of software-defined radio technology offers the potential
          to address key communications shortfalls and significantly improve military
          capabilities. The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) program was initiated in 1997
          to develop and apply this technology and to bring together separate service-led
          programs into a joint software-defined radio development effort. JTRS radios are
          intended to interoperate with existing radio systems and provide the war fighter
          with additional communications capability to access maps and other visual data,
          communicate via voice and video with other units and levels of command, and
          obtain information directly from battlefield sensors. As such, the JTRS program is
          considered a major transformational effort for the military and is expected to enable
          information superiority, network-centric warfare as well as modernization efforts,
          such as the Army’s Future Combat Systems.1 Although total program costs have yet
          to be determined, the Army’s effort to acquire and field close to half of the estimated
          250,000 JTRS radios that are needed is expected to cost $14.4 billion.

          You asked us to review the JTRS program to determine if there are either
          management or technical challenges and risks that could jeopardize a successful
          program outcome. We briefed your staff on May 5, 2003, on the results of our review.
          This report summarizes that information and transmits the briefing itself (see enc. I).


          1
           The Future Combat Systems program is a major Army transformational effort, comprised of
          18 networked weapon systems that will replace several current combat systems.


                                                          GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Challenges Facing the JTRS Program

We found that the JTRS Program has made considerable progress to date in planning
and developing key aspects of the JTRS radios. At a fundamental level, a Joint
Program Office has been established to bring together the services’ individual
efforts to develop software-defined radios. The program office was instrumental
in developing a standard software communications architecture that provides a
foundation for building JTRS radios and evolving an open systems approach to
facilitate technology insertion. The program office has reduced risk by employing
an evolutionary acquisition strategy, whereby improved communications capabilities
will be delivered in increments.

However, the program still faces several managerial and technological challenges
that could affect the Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) ability to develop and procure
JTRS radios successfully. These include managing requirements and funding,
maturing key technologies, integrating system components, testing, and developing
secure communications. The most significant challenge we identified is the lack of a
strong, joint-management structure.

The current JTRS management structure is made up of a Joint Program Office,
designated service-led program clusters, and other DOD organizations carrying
out several related acquisition activities.2 The Joint Program Office is responsible
for developing the communications architecture, radio waveforms, and security
components, while the services are primarily responsible for developing, acquiring,
and funding the actual radios. This structure, while preferable over individual service
efforts, is still fragmented, making it difficult to resolve interservice differences
involving requirements and funding, and hampering the production of key program
documents, as in the following examples:

•   It has been difficult to get the services to commit the funding necessary to
    execute the JTRS program.
•   The program management structure has been unable to get the services to reach
    agreement over new and changing requirements expeditiously.
•   Key program documents, such as the Concept of Operations and Migration
    Plans, have not effectively provided a joint vision for how JTRS capabilities will
    be developed and used.

As a consequence, several program development efforts, such as handheld radios,
have been delayed by more than a year. In the meantime, the Army has purchased
more existing radios with fewer communications capabilities, which may further
delay the delivery of JTRS capabilities to users.

Technology maturity is another significant challenge facing the JTRS program. Our
work on best practices has shown that programs that move to product development

2
 Clusters are radio development efforts that are organized around weapons platforms, such as ground
vehicles and helicopters, as well as fixed-wing aircraft and maritime systems.


2                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
with immature technologies have greater difficulty meeting cost, schedule, and
performance requirements than programs that mature technologies before moving
into product development.3 The initial JTRS radio development, for helicopters
and ground vehicles, was allowed to proceed into the Systems Development
and Demonstration phase with technology readiness levels lower than those
recommended by best practices. Further, technologies that are critical to several
JTRS variants—such as miniaturized components, batteries, and multimodal
antennas—are not sufficiently advanced to meet requirements and will take several
more years to mature. Examples of other technological challenges include the
development of complex software, the difficulty of integrating radios with host
platforms, and a compressed testing schedule. In addition, developing encrypted
capabilities and secure communications will be difficult because of the complex
nature of the radio.

Recommendations for Executive Action

While significant accomplishments have been realized, management and
technological challenges exist that could impair JTRS’s success. We recommend
the Secretary of Defense take steps to strengthen the joint-program management
structure to facilitate program funding and requirements outcomes and assure
configuration management of JTRS. In strengthening the structure, the Secretary
should consider (1) establishing centralized program funding, (2) realigning the Joint
Program Office under a different organizational arrangement, and (3) placing the
cluster development programs under the Joint Program Office control. We also
recommend that the Secretary of Defense take action to ensure the JTRS Program
realizes its full potential by (1) directing the completion of key program documents
detailing the program’s vision; (2) making sure key enabling technologies, such as
networking capabilities, are adequately addressed; and (3) assessing the impact that
the continued purchase of existing radios may have on JTRS.

Agency Comments and Our Evaluation

In written comments to a draft of this report (see enc. II), DOD concurred with our
findings and both of our recommendations. However, DOD disagreed with one of the
options we suggested for implementing our recommendation on strengthening the
JTRS joint management structure. While DOD supports consolidation of all research,
development, test, and evaluation funding for JTRS, it believes that procurement and
integration funding is best left in the individual service budgets. We agree that this
would be a good first step, but we also believe funding needs to be closely monitored
as the program progresses towards procurement.




3
 U.S. General Accounting Office, Best Practices: Better Matching of Needs and Resources Will Lead to
Better Weapon System Outcomes, GAO-01-288 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 8, 2001).


3                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Scope and Methodology

To assess the status of the program, we reviewed relevant DOD and service program
documents and interviewed key officials. In examining the program, we analyzed
technological and management factors that could affect the program’s success and
key program development efforts as well as projected funding and schedule profiles.
We conducted our work from October 2002 through April 2003 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards.

                                       - - - - -

We are sending copies of this report to the Secretary of Defense; Secretary of the Air
Force; Secretary of the Army; Secretary of the Navy; Commandant of the Marine
Corps; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; and interested congressional
committees. We will also make copies available to others upon request. In addition,
the report will be available at no charge on the GAO Web site at http://www.gao.gov.

Should you or your staff have any questions on matters discussed in this report,
please contact me on (202) 512-2811 or John Oppenheim at (202) 512-3111. Principal
contributors to this report were Joel Christenson, Gary Middleton, John Swain, Hai
Tran, and Nicole Volchko.




Paul L. Francis
Director, Acquisition and Sourcing Management


Enclosures




4                                          GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                Enclosure I




              Joint Tactical Radio System
                    (JTRS) Program

              Briefing to the
     House Committee on Appropriations
         Subcommittee on Defense                         JTRS

               May 5, 2003




5                                        GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                               Enclosure I




         Focus of Review

         • Are there challenges and risks associated with the JTRS
           program that could jeopardize a successful outcome?




                                                                                          2




6                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                               Enclosure I




         Briefing Structure

         • JTRS background

         • Program details

         • Factors affecting program success

         • Summary observations

         • Options to increase likelihood of JTRS program success



                                                                                          3




7                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                Introduction
         • JTRS was born out of a desire to address key shortfalls in
           tactical battlefield communications capabilities, and bring
           separate service-led, software-defined radio programs
           together into a joint development effort.
         • Many legacy radios do not interoperate with one another,
           are out of date, and are expensive to maintain.
         • Recent emergence of software-defined radio technology in
           the commercial sector provides DOD with new opportunities
           to address past problems and increase communications
           capabilities.




                                                                                           4




8                                        GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                       Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                  Intended Impacts
         • JTRS:
              • Is a major transformational effort for the military
                 • Enables information superiority, network-centric warfare, and
                   modernization efforts such as the Future Combat Systems
              • Combines functions and uses common components,
                reducing the unit cost and number of radios needed (250,000
                JTRS radios, compared to 750,000 legacy radios currently in
                use)
              • Increases communications capabilities
                 • High data throughput, improved interoperability, and networking




                                                                                                  5




9                                               GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                     Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                 Program Objectives
         • Develop a family of interoperable, digital, modular, software-
           defined radios that:
            • Provide voice, data, video capabilities as needed
            • Interoperate with legacy systems (32 legacy waveforms to be
               developed such as Link-16)
            • Utilize a common, standard software architecture
            • Provide flexibility to fit radios into a broad range of platforms
            • Supply new wideband networking capability—Wideband
               Networking Waveform (WNW)




                                                                                                6




10                                            GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                 Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                Acquisition Strategy
         • Employ an evolutionary acquisition approach, fielding
           capabilities in blocks and allowing for technology insertion
         • Develop software communications architecture to provide
           foundation for building interoperable radios
         • Assign development and acquisition responsibilities to
           different organizations—the Joint Program Office (JPO) to
           develop architecture and manage waveform acquisition,
           while services manage and acquire radios
         • Migrate and field radios in a phased approach as new
           platforms are produced and as legacy systems are retired



                                                                                            7




11                                        GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                            Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
              Program Management Structure



                                      Endorses
                                    JTRS Clusters
                     ASD (C3I)
                                                       SAE
                                                                                           A Lead Service
                                                                                            PMO acquires
                                                                                          JTRS Radio Sets
                  General Officer                                                         based on Cluster
                  Steering Council                                                          requirements
                                                        JPO           CIO                 recommended by
                                 Waveforms,
                                                                                          the Joint Service
               Recommends        Architecture,
                                                                                           Working Group,
               JTRS Clusters     Certification
                                                                                           and approved by
                                                                                              the DAE
                     Joint Service
                                                      Cluster
                    Working Group                                       PEO           SAE
                                                       PMO
                                                    Cluster Radios



                                                                                                                     8




12                                                               GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                       Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                  Program Management Structure
         • The JPO, which reports to the Army Acquisition Executive,
           is responsible for:
              • Evolving the open systems architecture,
              • Developing waveform applications and associated cryptographic
                algorithms,
              • Certifying compliance of hardware and software waveforms, and
              • Ensuring overall joint interoperability.
         • Radio development and acquisition is conducted through
           service-led clusters, based on grouping platforms with
           similar requirements.
              • Each cluster to be considered a separate acquisition program;
                currently two acquisition programs have ACAT 1D designations
                (Cluster 1 and JPO/waveform).


                                                                                                  9




13                                              GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                Enclosure I




         JTRS Background
                Program Management Structure
         • A Joint Service Working Group and General Officers
           Steering Council monitor, guide, and coordinate
           development of JTRS and provide forum for resolving
           issues.
         • Additional guidance and planning are facilitated through
           Integrated Product Teams.
         • Funding of JTRS (JPO and clusters) is not centralized but
           comes from individual service budgets.




                                                                                      10




14                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                                      Enclosure I




         Program Details

                      JPO            Cluster 1                  Cluster 2              Cluster 3      Cluster 4      Cluster X
                    (ACAT ID)       (ACAT ID)

        Platform   N/A             Helicopters     Handheld           Manpack        Maritime &      Airborne       Embedded
                                   & ground                                          fixed station
                                   vehicles

        Lead       Army            Army            Special            Special        Navy            Air Force      Army
        Service                                    Operations         Operations

        Deliver-   33              Aviation set    Handheld set       Manpack set    Maritime –      Aviation       TBD
        ables      waveforms       (4 channel),    (1 and 2           (2 channel)    fixed station   sets (8
                   (21 + WNW       Ground          channel)                          set (4          channel)
                   contracted to   vehicle radio                                     channel)
                   Cluster 1)      (3 channel),
                   and
                                   21 legacy
                   26 Crypto-      waveforms,
                   graphic         and WNW
                   algorithms


        Other      Marine          Air Force       Air Force,         Air Force,     Air Force       Navy, Army,    TBD
        Services   Corps, Air      and Marine      Army, Marine       Army, Marine                   Marine
                   Force, and      Corps           Corps, and         Corps, and                     Corps, and
                   Navy                            Navy               Navy                           Special
                                                                                                     Operations


                                                                                                                             11




15                                                                   GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                                           Enclosure I




         Program Details

                           JPO         Cluster 1                  Cluster 2             Cluster 3         Cluster 4        Cluster X
                         (ACAT ID)    (ACAT ID)
        Total           $796.3       $14.4            Unknown          Unknown        Unknown           Unknown           Unknown
        acquisition     million*     billion*
        cost
        Required        N/A          138,913          72,692           44,175         7,467             9,540             47,270
        number of
        radios
        Program         4 Q 97       2 Q 01           TBD              TBD            3 Q 02            3 Q 02            TBD
        initiation

        Milestone B     3 Q 02       3 Q 02           3 Q 03           2 Q 04         1 Q 04            4 Q 04            2 Q 04
                                                      (Delayed)
        Milestone C     1 Q 07       2 Q 06           2 Q 06           4 Q 06         4 Q 06            4 Q 07            1 Q 07

        Full-rate       N/A          3 Q 07           N/A              N/A            1 Q 09            4 Q 08            2 Q 09
        production
        Possible        N/A          N/A              Multiband        Multiband,     Digital modular   Multifunctional   TBD
        interim                                       inter/intra      multimission   radio (I) or      information
        radios (I) or                                 team radio       radio (I)      multifunctional   distribution
        alternate                                     (I)                             information       system (I)
        radios (A)                                                                    distribution
                                                                                      system (A)


       * Current estimate, base year FY2002 dollars                                                                                 12




16                                                                        GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                                                           Enclosure I




         Program Details

                                                                     Identified JTRS Program Funding*

                                                1200.0

                                                1000.0
                          Dollars in millions




                                                 800.0

                                                 600.0

                                                 400.0

                                                 200.0
                                                      0.0
                                                            2002 +    2003       2004     2005     2006    2007    2008     2009
                                                                                           Fiscal Year


                                                JPO         Army     Air Force     Navy     Marine Corps     Special Operations    Other

         * See slide number 29 for information supporting this chart.


                                                                                                                                                13
                                                                     Total = $5,908.0 million




17                                                                                               GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                JTRS Knowledge Development
         • JTRS is a large, multi-faceted, and complex program that
           will take time to reach its full capabilities.
         • Program success will mean developing, producing, and
           delivering joint tactical radios that are affordable,
           interoperable, and offer enhanced communications
           capability.
         • GAO’s best practices work has shown that complex
           weapons programs are more likely to reach a successful
           outcome when a high level of knowledge exists about
           critical facets of the product being developed at key
           junctures during its development.



                                                                                      14




18                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                             Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                   JTRS Knowledge Development
         •    The knowledge-based process followed by leading commercial firms
              can be broken down into three key knowledge points:
              1.   A match must be made between user needs and the available resources—
                   technology, engineering, time, and funding—before system development is
                   launched. The results achieved from this match are balanced and realistic
                   requirements, sufficient investment to complete the development, and a firm
                   commitment to deliver the product.
              2.   A product’s design must demonstrate its ability to meet performance
                   requirements and be stable about midway through development.
              3.   The developer must show the product can be manufactured within cost,
                   schedule, and quality targets and demonstrate it is reliable before
                   production begins.
         •    To date, the JTRS program has made considerable progress in
              acquiring knowledge on several key aspects of product development,
              but it also faces numerous technical and management challenges that
              could affect a successful outcome.


                                                                                                   15




19                                                    GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                             Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                   Positive Developments
         • DOD recognizes the need for a transformational, joint, interoperable
           radio solution to enable network centric operations.
         • The evolutionary acquisition strategy for developing and delivering
           JTRS radios can provide improved capabilities at reduced risk.
         • As technology advances, enhanced capabilities should be able to be
           added because of the open systems architecture.
              •   DOD envisions upgrades being delivered through new software, much like
                  desktop personal computers.
         • Development of a software communications architecture provides a
           foundation for building compatible radios and may become the
           standard for software programmable radios.
              •   Architecture has received strong support from commercial sector and is
                  currently going through certification process by the Object Management
                  Group.



                                                                                                   16




20                                                    GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                         Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                  Positive Developments
         • Demonstrated JTRS concept
              • Recent test conducted of small network of prototype JTRS radios in
                a field environment exercise
         • Established Integrated Product Teams and Joint Services
           Working Group to facilitate coordination and knowledge
           sharing
              • Clusters have also established ad hoc communications
                arrangements to augment formal channels
         • Cluster 1 program office has recognized product development
           risks and defined risk management processes
         • DOD has emphasized competitiveness in contract awards to
           address affordability
              • Cluster 1 prime contractor is responsible for qualifying two
                subcontractors to develop and build Cluster 1 JTRS radios

                                                                                               17




21                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                              Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                   Management Challenges
         • Managing requirements: Ensuring the services jointly identify and
           coordinate requirements of JTRS has been problematic since the
           program began. Joint program management process has been
           unable to effectively resolve some interservice differences.
              •   ORD has gone through several iterations since the program began
              •   Disagreement exists between Army and OSD over new and changing
                  requirements for Cluster 2 and proposed Cluster X radios. As a consequence,
                  initiation of Cluster 2 development has been delayed more than a year.
              •   Other differences in meeting requirements have recently surfaced and have
                  slowed progress of Clusters 3 and 4 (e.g., how to fold the Multifunctional
                  Information Distribution System program into JTRS).
              •   Further requirements changes (e.g., bringing other information data systems
                  like the Joint Tactical Terminal into the JTRS program) may hinder JTRS
                  progress.
              •   Army, as the service acquisition executive, has greater clout over requirements
                  determination than other services.



                                                                                                    18




22                                                     GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                         Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                  Management Challenges
         • Concept of Operations: Should provide vision for how JTRS
           capabilities will be used in an operational environment and should
           guide key aspects of the program such as requirements definition
           and fielding strategies.
              • JTRS Concept of Operations has not sufficiently provided this
                perspective.
              • According to program officials, Concept of Operations does not
                reflect the joint vision of JTRS but instead reflects service-centric,
                radio-replacement perspective.
              • Services are currently revising Concept of Operations, to be issued
                later this year




                                                                                               19




23                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                    Management Challenges
         • Funding: Ensuring service funding commitments to cluster radio
           development efforts and articulating overall JTRS program costs
           has been difficult.
              •   Services have been slow to commit funding to the program, although situation has
                  gotten better over time.
              •   However, services (except for some limited Army funding) have not committed
                  funding to Cluster 2 development.
                    • Restriction on Special Operations Command funds further hampers program.
              •   Acquisition costs still undefined for major components of the program.
              •   JPO must rely on funding by the Army for its activities and has been unable to meet
                  staffing goals.
         • Migration planning: Creating a road map for integrating JTR sets
           into the services in the most timely, cost efficient, and productive
           way has been difficult.
              •   An Acquisition Decision Memorandum called for a joint migration plan by October
                  2001; still no plan has been issued, although the services are working on one.



                                                                                                        20




24                                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                              Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                   Management Challenges
         • Schedule: Direction from DOD leadership is trying to accelerate
           development schedules to field capabilities and meet anticipated
           needs.
              •   Cluster 1 schedule is rated medium to high risk by program office, due to a
                  compressed test and evaluation phase which leaves little room for error.
              •   Other clusters have taken a significant amount of time to get started.
         • Waiver process: Balancing immediate service needs to acquire
           legacy radios with longer-term service JTRS requirements.
              •   DOD-wide waiver process was created in 1998 to minimize purchases of
                  legacy radios or development of other radios that are not JTRS compliant.
              •   Since January 2003 alone, more than $75 million approved for purchases of
                  legacy radios to satisfy immediate requirements.
                   • Army made a significant number purchases of handheld radios via this
                     process while reducing its requirement for JTRS radios.
              •   Additional funding for legacy radios may increase costs and delay delivery of
                  JTRS capabilities to users.

                                                                                                    21




25                                                     GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                     Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                  Technology Challenges
         • Technology readiness: Continued focus needed on
           maturing and integrating technologies into JTRS
              • Cluster 1 approved at Milestone B with technology readiness
                levels lower than those recommended by best practices.
              • Additional technological advances will be needed for handheld
                and embedded radios such as miniaturization, batteries, and
                heat dissipation.
              • Furthermore, advanced antennas that can operate over
                different frequencies and transmit and receive with other radios
                on-the-move are essential.
                  • Antenna development is not a part of JTRS program,
                    although some research and development efforts are
                    underway elsewhere in DOD.


                                                                                           22




26                                            GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                    Technology Challenges
         • Waveforms: Adapting waveforms, developing new WNW, and
           transitioning from legacy waveforms to WNW
              •   Waveform development is software intensive
              •   Cluster 1 developing 22 waveforms (21 legacy + WNW)
              •   WNW development complex (operating frequency, channel bandwidth
                  requirements, hardware processing requirements)
         • Software Communications Architecture: Architecture provides a
           core framework for software applications to operate on different
           JTRS platforms but alone is not sufficient to ensure interoperability
              •   JTRS program must closely manage cluster development efforts to ensure
                  similar interpretation of the architecture, and it must evolve the architecture to
                  meet evolving requirements
              •   Clusters 2 and 3 are evolving existing radios into software communications
                  architecture-compliant as an interim capability, but will begin distinct
                  development efforts for the longer term to achieve JTRS capabilities




                                                                                                       23




27                                                       GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                          Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                  Technology Challenges
         • Portability: Ensuring waveform and other software capabilities are
           available to all JTR sets in “plug and play” format.
              • Each cluster must adapt “core” waveforms for use in its particular
                radios.
         • Integration: Two key sets of integration issues must be adequately
           addressed—integrating hardware and software components into a
           workable radio that meets requirements and integrating radio sets
           into a broad range of different platforms.
              • Radio set integration: Cluster 1 technology readiness assessment
                highlighted the lack of a hardware and software integrated radio.
              • Platform integration: Cluster 4 must plan for over 65 distinct aircraft
                platforms.
         • Testing: Testing process required to ensure interoperability among
           diverse set of radios.
              • JPO has established consortium of testing components to coordinate
                testing, but aggressive testing schedules planned for some clusters.

                                                                                                24




28                                                 GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                         Enclosure I




         Factors Affecting Program Success
                  Technology Challenges
         • Security/encryption: Developing, integrating, and certifying
           security into JTRS sets.
              • Requires development of new cryptographic algorithms.
              • Must go through a National Security Agency certification process,
                which can be lengthy and is outside control of JTRS program.
         • Networking: Development and fielding of networks will be
           essential to realize full capabilities of JTRS.
              • Services have other network programs underway (e.g., Army
                Warfighter Information Network-Tactical), but it is not clear whether
                they are well coordinated and aligned with JTRS.
         • Spectrum management: Obtaining spectrum certification for
           JTRS radios will be challenging because current spectrum
           approval process has never addressed the multi-channel, multi-
           mode, multi-frequency nature of software programmable radios.

                                                                                               25




29                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                             Enclosure I




         Summary Observations

         •    JTRS is a critical program to the military’s transformational efforts.
         •    The concept of JTRS and what it can provide for the military is very promising.
         •    To date, significant accomplishments have been realized such as the software
              communications architecture, open systems approach, demonstration of prototype
              radios, risk management processes, and contract competitiveness.
         •    However, progress (particularly, in starting several of the clusters) has been
              hampered by difficulties in reaching a match between user requirements and
              resources.
         •    The lack of a strong joint management structure has made it difficult to resolve
              funding and requirements issues and produce key documents that articulate the
              JTRS vision (Concept of Operations, migration plans).
         •    Success will also depend on key enablers that have not been incorporated into
              JTRS development efforts and it is not clear they are being adequately addressed
              elsewhere in DOD—development of networking capabilities and advanced
              antennas.
         •    Furthermore, the services are spending large amounts of money on legacy radio
              purchases which may have significant impacts on JTRS.

                                                                                                   26




30                                                    GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                             Enclosure I




         Options to Increase Likelihood of JTRS
         Program Success
         • Strengthen joint management structure to facilitate program funding and
           requirements outcomes and assure configuration management of JTRS.
           For example, consider:
              •   Establishing centralized program funding
              •   Realigning JPO under different/rotating/independent leadership
              •   Putting cluster programs under JPO control
         • Complete principal documents (Concept of Operations, migration plans)
           and ensure they provide joint vision for the program
         • Ensure that the key enablers that will be necessary for JTRS to reach its
           full capabilities are adequately addressed, such as the
             • Need for networking capabilities and
             • Need for technology advances (e.g., miniaturization, batteries,
                 antennas)
         • Examine current radio waiver process and assess potential impact that
           continued waiver purchases of legacy radios may have on JTRS

                                                                                                   27




31                                                    GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                    Enclosure I




              Joint Tactical Radio System
                    (JTRS) Program



                       Backup Slide




32                           GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure I                                                                                            Enclosure I




         Program Details

                                       Identified JTRS Program Funding
          Millions of Dollars   FY02 + FY03      FY04      FY05      FY06      FY07      FY08      FY09      TOTAL
          JPO RDT&E               $192.5  $62.9    $134.7     $91.6     $62.8     $55.9     $28.8     $27.3    $656.5
          ARMY RDT&E               110.9    95.6    270.8     194.1     122.5       82.6        57      31.4    964.9
          ARMY PROCURE                  0      0       1.9    159.2     165.6     194.4     185.1     189.8       896
          AF RDT&E                      4   18.3        54      52.1    112.8       77.9      52.6        37    408.7
          AF PROCURE                    0      0         0       6.8    134.8        486    537.5     567.6    1732.7
          AF O&M                        0      0         0         0         0      11.5      11.7      11.8       35
          NAVY RDT&E                  8.8   19.9      87.9      84.1      57.7        11       9.7       7.1    286.2
          NAVY PROCURE                  0      0        26      40.6    127.2     123.2     112.7     117.4     547.1
          NAVY O&M                      0    2.6       2.8         3       3.1       3.2       3.3       3.4     21.4
          USMC RDT&E                    0    0.6       8.1       8.7       4.1       3.7       1.6       1.6     28.4
          USMC PROCURE                  0      0      13.9      33.1      32.5      90.9      80.7      73.2    324.3
          SOCOM                         5      0         0         0         0         0         0         0        5
          OTHER                       1.2    0.6         0         0         0         0         0         0      1.8

          TOTAL                   $322.4    $200.5   $600.1    $673.3   $823.1 $1,140.3 $1,080.7 $1,067.6 $5,908.0




                                                                                                                   29




33                                                                GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
Enclosure II                                                            Enclosure II


               Comments from the Department of Defense




(120182)


34                                     GAO-03-879R Joint Tactical Radio System Program
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