oversight

Afghanistan Security: Department of Defense Effort to Train Afghan Police Relies on Contractor Personnel to Fill Skill and Resource Gaps

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-02-23.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548


          February 23, 2012

          Congressional Committees

          Subject: Afghanistan Security: Department of Defense Effort to Train Afghan Police Relies on
          Contractor Personnel to Fill Skill and Resource Gaps

          The U.S. strategy in Afghanistan depends in part on building that country’s capacity to provide
          for its own security by training and equipping the Afghan National Security Forces, which
          includes the Afghan National Army and the Afghan National Police (ANP). 1 Since 2002, the
          United States has allocated over $43 billion to train, equip, and sustain the Afghan National
          Security Forces, which includes about $14 billion to train, equip, and sustain the ANP. The
          ANP training program is intended to create and sustain a professionally-led police force that is
          accountable to the Afghan people and is capable of enforcing laws and maintaining civil order.
          Currently, U.S., coalition, and Department of Defense (DOD) civilian contractor personnel
          assist the Afghan Ministry of Interior in training the ANP at 23 North Atlantic Treaty
          Organization (NATO) training sites and in mentoring ANP units in the field. 2

          From 2002 through 2010, the Department of State (State) was involved in the ANP training
          program. During this time, State contracted with DynCorp International (DynCorp) to provide
          police mentors and trainers and to develop and execute the ANP training program. DOD
          became involved in ANP training in 2004, working in conjunction with State, DynCorp, and
          others. In 2009, DOD became the lead U.S. agency for helping Afghanistan reform the ANP
          and the Afghan Ministry of Interior, which oversees the ANP. 3 In December 2010, DOD
          awarded DynCorp a new contract for ANP training, mentoring, maintenance, logistics, and
          security support. The contract has a potential value over $1 billion, if all options are exercised.

          In a June 2010 report, the Senate Committee on Armed Services expressed concern about
          problems with the ANP training program, including lapses in oversight and management of the
          contract that were identified by the DOD and State Inspectors General. 4 In January 2011,
          Congress required that we report on the use of U.S. government (USG) personnel, rather than
          contractor personnel, to train the ANP. 5 In response, this report describes (1) the roles and

          1
           For more information on the Afghan National Army, see GAO, Afghanistan Security: Afghan Army Growing, but
          Additional Trainers Needed; Long-term Costs Not Determined, GAO-11-66 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 27, 2011).
          2
           The United States is a member of an international coalition that conducts security operations in Afghanistan. The
          coalition is led by NATO. The coalition includes non-NATO member countries, such as Sweden and Australia.
          3
           DOD manages the ANP training program through the NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan/Combined Security
          Transition Command-Afghanistan (NTM-A/CSTC-A). NTM-A/CSTC-A is an integrated NATO and U.S. command,
          currently led by a U.S. Army Lieutenant General, with the mission of generating and developing the Afghan National
          Security Forces.
          4
          S. Rep. 111-201, at p. 210, June 4, 2010.

          5
          Pub. L. No. 111-383, §1235(b), Jan. 7, 2011.

                                                                                  GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
responsibilities of USG and contractor personnel in the ANP training program; (2) the extent to
which DOD has assessed (a) the advantages and disadvantages of using USG or contractor
personnel for ANP training and (b) the potential impact of transferring responsibilities for ANP
training from contractor to USG personnel; and (3) lessons learned from other DOD foreign
police training programs that directly relate to the advantages and disadvantages of using
USG personnel or contractors.

To describe the roles and responsibilities of USG and contractor personnel, we reviewed DOD
and State documents and prior GAO work, as well as USG audit reports by the Special
Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan
Reconstruction, the DOD Inspector General, and the State Inspector General. For the
purposes of this report, “USG personnel” refers to DOD military and civilian personnel
supporting the ANP training program, while “non-USG coalition personnel” refers to personnel
from other coalition countries supporting the ANP training program. We interviewed DOD and
State officials in Washington, D.C.; and Kabul, Khandahar, and Konduz, Afghanistan; and
DynCorp officials in Falls Church, Virginia; and Khandahar and Konduz, Afghanistan. 6 We also
visited three ANP training sites in Afghanistan to further develop information found in
documents and provided via interviews. We obtained data on the numbers of USG and non-
USG coalition trainers and mentors, DOD contractor personnel operating under the December
2010 contract, and the location of USG and DOD contractor personnel at NATO ANP training
sites. While we assessed the data's reliability and determined they were sufficient for our
purposes, we did not independently verify this information.

To describe the extent to which DOD assessed (a) the advantages and disadvantages of
using USG or contractor personnel for ANP training and (b) the potential impact of transferring
responsibilities for ANP training from contractor personnel to USG personnel, we reviewed
relevant contract documents, including DOD’s acquisition plan and strategy, statement of
work, and contract performance reports and obtained information from DOD officials in
Washington, D.C., and in Kabul, Afghanistan.

To describe the lessons learned from the execution and oversight of other DOD foreign police
training programs regarding the relative advantages and disadvantages of using USG or
contractor personnel, we obtained information from DOD officials in Washington, D.C., and in
Afghanistan. We also interviewed two retired USG officials with expertise in U.S. foreign police
training efforts. 7 In addition, we reviewed several reports on recent U.S. foreign police training
efforts published by research organizations based in Washington, D.C., and by the Center for
Army Lessons Learned in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

We conducted this performance audit from July 2011 to February 2012 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and
perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for
our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence
obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit
objectives.

6
 We also spoke with officials from the Departments of Homeland Security and Justice to obtain information on their
roles and responsibilities in the ANP training program. These departments provide mentoring and training in
counternarcotics, customs and border issues, weapons, procedures, crime scene protocols, investigations, crime
scene management, and financial crime.
7
 We contacted these individuals based on our prior police training work. We used their views to assess the
statements of current DOD officials. These officials may not be the only individuals with relevant information to offer.

Page 2                                                                        GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Results in Brief

U.S. government (USG), non-USG coalition, and DOD contractor personnel perform various
roles in the ANP training program. These roles include: (1) serving as advisors and mentors to
build ministerial capacity in areas such as financial and human resource management at the
Afghan Ministry of Interior; (2) serving as mentors and trainers to develop Afghan
commanders’ abilities to operate training sites and provide training to ANP recruits in areas
such as criminal investigation, weapons, survival skills, and physical fitness; and (3) serving as
embedded mentors to help deployed ANP units develop civilian policing skills. DOD
contractor personnel also provide maintenance, logistics, and security support at training sites.
As of November 2011, about 778 USG, non-USG coalition, and DOD contractor personnel
provided ANP training and mentoring at 23 NATO-managed sites. Approximately 66 percent of
these trainers and mentors were non-USG coalition personnel, 21 percent were USG
personnel, and the remaining 13 percent were DOD contractor personnel. In addition, about
2,825 DOD contractor personnel provided maintenance, logistics, and security services at 12
NATO-managed training sites.

After assuming program responsibility from State in 2009, DOD did not assess the advantages
or disadvantages of using USG or contractor personnel for the ANP training program and has
not assessed the potential impact of transferring responsibilities to USG personnel for the ANP
training program since awarding the contract to DynCorp in 2010. Prior to awarding the
DynCorp contract, DOD officials considered the use of government personnel to perform the
mission and found that the ANP training program did not include any inherently governmental
functions. 8 We did not find any additional information in the contract files underlying their
decision. DOD policy officials told us that DOD had “implicitly” approved State’s previous
decision to use contractor personnel when DOD assumed responsibility. DOD officials told us
they did not assess the impact of transferring ANP training responsibilities from contractors to
USG personnel because USG agencies do not have sufficient personnel with the needed skills
in civilian policing available to provide all the trainers and mentors needed by the ANP training
program. DOD officials in Washington, D.C., and Afghanistan agreed that contractor personnel
were used to fill skill and resource gaps. For that reason, these officials informed us, the ANP
training program cannot fulfill its mission without using contractor personnel.

DOD officials reported that they were not aware of any lessons learned from other DOD-led
foreign police training programs that directly address the advantages and disadvantages of
using USG or contractor personnel to carry out the ANP training program. While we did not
identify any such lessons, we reported in March 2009 that the United States lacked sufficient
personnel to carry out the ANP training mission. We also identified several reports that
focused on broader issues concerning the use of contractor personnel in a wartime
environment. For instance, we reported in April 2011 that DOD faces a number of long-
standing and systemic challenges that hinder its ability to achieve more successful acquisition
outcomes. In addition, the bipartisan Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and
Afghanistan reported on deficiencies in several areas of wartime contracting, including
competition, management, and enforcement.




8
 Activities are considered to be inherently governmental when they are so intimately related to the public interest as
to mandate performance by federal government employees. 31 U.S.C. § 501 note. See 48 C.F.R. § 7.503(c) for
examples of functions considered to be inherently governmental.

Page 3                                                                       GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
USG, Non-USG Coalition, and DOD Contractor Personnel Perform Various Roles in the
ANP Training Program

USG, non-USG coalition, and DOD contractor personnel perform various roles in the ANP
training program. These roles include: (1) serving as advisors and mentors to build ministerial
capacity in areas such as financial and human resource management at the Afghan Ministry of
Interior and ANP Training General Command Headquarters; (2) serving as mentors and
trainers to develop Afghan commanders’ abilities to operate training sites and provide training
to ANP recruits in areas such as criminal investigation, weapons, survival skills, and physical
fitness; and (3) serving as embedded mentors to help deployed ANP units develop civilian
policing skills. According to NATO, the United States and 12 other NATO coalition countries
provided 325 police mentoring and liaison teams (consisting of 15 to 20 personnel each) as of
January 2012. In addition, over 3,400 DOD contractor personnel provided mentoring, training,
maintenance, logistics, and security support to the ANP training program.




Page 4                                                       GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Figure 1: Roles of USG, Non-USG,a and DOD Contractor Personnel within the Afghan National Police
Training Program




Non-USG Personnel refers to personnel from coalition countries other than the United States.
a




USG, non-USG, and DOD contractor personnel advise and mentor Afghan officials at the
Ministry of Interior and the ANP Training General Command Headquarters to build ministerial
capacity in areas such as logistics, financial, and human resources management. According to
DOD and contractor officials, about 166 of these advisors and mentors are USG personnel
and 177 are DOD contractor personnel.

USG and non-USG coalition personnel manage 23 NATO-led ANP training sites. 9 A
designated NATO country manages each site and provides training site mentors for the

9
 According to DOD documents, as of October 2011, 37 training sites in Afghanistan provided police training. NATO
coalition personnel operated 23 of these 37 sites. The Afghan Ministries of Interior and Justice and their bilateral
partners, such as Germany and the Czech Republic, operated the remaining sites. Since these other sites are not
NATO-led, we did not include them within the scope of our review.

Page 5                                                                            GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Afghan training site commander, who oversees the administrative responsibilities for the
training site. 10 The United States manages 8 of the 23 NATO training sites. Figure 2 shows the
sites managed by USG and non-USG coalition personnel.

Figure 2: Location of USG Personnel and DOD Contractor Personnel at NATO-Leda ANP Training Sites




a
 NATO training sites include sites operated by NATO coalition partners, including Sweden and Australia.
b
 Regional training site.
c
 National training site.
d
 Central training site.


At the 23 NATO-led ANP training sites, USG, non-USG coalition, and DOD contractor
personnel serve as trainers and mentors. These trainers and mentors work with the Afghan
site commanders and staff to develop their ability to (1) operate the training sites and (2)
provide training to ANP recruits in areas such as criminal investigation, weapons, survival
skills, and physical fitness. As of November 2011, USG personnel comprised about 21
percent of the 778 trainers and mentors at these training sites, non-USG coalition personnel

10
  Sweden and Australia are not NATO countries, but they are part of the NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan. For the
purposes of this report, the 23 ANP training sites led by NATO include those led by Sweden and Australia. Sweden
serves as the lead for the Shaheen training site and Australia is the lead for the Tarin Kowt training site. See
enclosure I for more information.

Page 6                                                                             GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
comprised approximately 66 percent, and DOD contractor personnel comprised about 13
percent (see fig. 3). Of the 267 total USG and DOD contractor personnel involved in training
and mentoring at the NATO-led sites, about 61 percent (163) were USG personnel, and about
39 percent (104) were DOD contractor personnel. USG personnel, DOD contractor personnel,
or both provided training and mentoring at 19 of the 23 NATO-led sites (see encl. I for more
details). 11

Figure 3: USG, Non-USG Coalition, a and DOD Contractor Personnel Trainers and Mentors at 23 NATO ANP
Training Sites




a
Non-USG coalition Personnel refers to personnel from coalition countries other than the United States.


Also at the training sites, approximately 2,825 DOD contractor personnel provided support
services. These services included maintenance, logistics, and security. As a result, most DOD
contractor personnel at the training sites—more than 80 percent—were not directly involved in
the training and mentoring of ANP personnel. As of November 2011, DOD contractor
personnel provided these support services at 12 of the 23 sites, according to DOD documents
(see fig. 2 and encl. I for locations).

USG, non-USG, and DOD contract personnel serve as embedded mentors to deployed ANP
units. According to DOD and contractor officials, 319 USG personnel and 329 DOD contractor
personnel serve as embedded mentors that work directly with deployed ANP units to help
develop civilian policing skills (see fig. 4).




11
  DOD documents show that DOD contractor personnel were also involved in providing training and mentoring
services at two additional non-NATO ANP training sites managed by the Ministry of Interior.

Page 7                                                                             GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Figure 4: DOD Contractor Personnel Employed, by Type of Service Performed (as of November 2011)




Note: The figure’s percentages do not add to 100 percent due to rounding.


DOD Did Not Assess the Advantages or Disadvantages of Using Contractor Personnel
or the Impact of Transferring Responsibilities to USG Personnel for the ANP Training
Program

DOD did not assess the advantages or disadvantages of using USG personnel rather than
contractor personnel for the ANP training program after assuming responsibility for the
program from State in 2009. DOD policy officials informed us that DOD had “implicitly”
approved State’s previous decision to use contractor personnel when DOD assumed
responsibility for the contract. In reviewing the contract file, we found that DOD officials in
Afghanistan had considered the use of USG instead of contractor personnel in June 2010 but
decided that the requirements for the contractor did not include inherently governmental
functions.12 Our review of the contract files and our discussions with DOD officials in
Afghanistan did not provide any additional information or support for the decision. We also
found that Army contracting officials had noted concerns in the acquisition strategy regarding
the wartime environment in Afghanistan (including the regular rotations of USG personnel in
and out of the country) in justifying the need for contractor personnel to train the ANP.

DOD officials also stated that they had not assessed the impact of transferring contractor
responsibilities for the ANP program to USG personnel after DOD awarded the contract in
2010. DOD officials informed us that transferring contractor ANP training responsibilities is not

12
  The officials were required to prepare a request for services contract approval form under Army Federal
Acquisition Regulation Supplement Subpart 5107.503. The regulation does not require the officials who signed the
form to include an assessment or analysis to support the request for contract services.

Page 8                                                                      GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
feasible because the U.S. government does not have sufficient personnel with the right skills
available to fulfill the multiple requirements of the mission. 13 DOD officials in Washington, D.C.,
and Afghanistan agreed that contractor personnel are used to fill skill and resource gaps.
According to these officials, DOD needs contractor personnel to provide training and
mentoring in civilian policing skills, as well as in more advanced areas of expertise such as
criminal investigation, interrogation, and forensic crime scene analysis. DOD officials stated
that the U.S. government lacks available personnel to train the ANP and perform all the
support roles that DOD contractor personnel fill. 14

None of the Lessons Learned from DOD Police Training Efforts Directly Address the
Use of Contractor Personnel Instead of USG Personnel to Train ANP

DOD officials reported that they were not aware of any lessons learned from other DOD-led
foreign police training programs that directly address the advantages and disadvantages of
using USG or contractor personnel to implement the ANP training program. Additionally, we
spoke with former USG officials with considerable foreign police training experience,
specifically a retired U.S. Army Lieutenant General who was in charge of the police training
mission in Iraq and a former Department of Justice official who led the department’s
international police training efforts. These retired officials also indicated that they were
unaware of any specific lessons from Iraq or other DOD foreign police training missions that
directly address the relative advantages and disadvantages of using USG or contractor
personnel for the ANP training program.

While we did not identify any lessons learned that directly address the advantages and
disadvantages of using USG rather than contractor personnel for the ANP training program,
we reported in March 2009 that the United States lacked sufficient personnel to carry out the
ANP training mission. 15 We recommended that DOD and State provide more personnel to
support the ANP training program, and the President responded by authorizing an additional
4,000 troops. Also, an August 2011 joint audit by the Inspectors General of DOD and State
reported that additional personnel were needed for program management and contract
oversight for the ANP training program. 16 Other reports have focused on broader issues
concerning the use of contractor personnel in a wartime environment. For instance, in
February 2010, the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction issued a report on
applying lessons learned from Iraq that included a section on contract and acquisition
management. 17 We reported in April 2011 that DOD faces a number of long-standing and

13
  In 2009, GAO reported that the lack of personnel to serve on police mentor teams constrained expansion of the
ANP training program. For additional information, see GAO, Afghanistan Security: U.S. Programs to Further Reform
the Ministry of Interior and National Police Challenged by Lack of Military Personnel and Afghan Cooperation, GAO-
09-280 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 9, 2009).
14
  Similarly, DynCorp was contracted by State to provide police advisors and logistical support in Iraq. See Special
Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Long-Standing Weakness in Department of State Oversight of DynCorp
Contract for Support of the Iraqi Police Training Program (Arlington, VA: January 2010).
15
 GAO-09-280.

16
  Inspectors General of the Department of State and Department of Defense, Afghan National Police Training
Program: Lessons Learned During the Transition of Contract Administration, Department of Defense Report No. D-
2011-095, DOS Report No. AUD/CG-11-42 (Washington, D.C., and Arlington, VA: Aug. 15, 2011).
17
  Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, Applying Iraq’s Hard Lessons to the Reform of Stabilization
and Reconstruction Operations (Arlington, VA: February 2010).

Page 9                                                                     GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
systemic challenges that hinder its ability to achieve more successful acquisition outcomes in
contingency operations like Iraq and Afghanistan. 18 DOD generally agreed with our
recommendations and has taken steps to implement them (see encl. II for a list of other
related GAO reports). In August 2011, the bipartisan Commission on Wartime Contracting in
Iraq and Afghanistan reported that (1) U.S. government agencies have not institutionalized
acquisition as a core function for operations such as Afghanistan police training and that (2)
contract competition, management, and enforcement are ineffective. 19

We are not making any recommendations in this report.

We provided the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, and State a draft of
this report. DOD and State provided technical comments on our draft, which we have
incorporated as appropriate. The Departments of Justice and Homeland Security had no
comments. We provided DynCorp with portions of the draft report describing the roles of DOD
contractor personnel. DynCorp had no comments on these portions.

                                                   -----

We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional committees and the
Secretaries of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, and State. In addition, the report will be
available at no charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff members have questions concerning this report, please contact me at (202)
512-7331 or johnsoncm@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional Relations
and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this report. Key contributors to this report
are listed in enclosure III.




Charles Michael Johnson, Jr.
Director, International Affairs and Trade

Enclosures – 3




18
 GAO, Contingency Contracting: Observations on Actions Needed to Address Systemic Challenges, GAO-11-580
(Washington, D.C.: Apr. 25, 2011).
19
 Commission on Wartime Contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan, Transforming Wartime Contracting: Controlling
Costs, Reducing Risks (Washington, D.C.: August 2011).

Page 10                                                                 GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
List of Committees

The Honorable Carl Levin
Chairman
The Honorable John McCain
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
United States Senate

The Honorable John Kerry
Chairman
The Honorable Richard G. Lugar
Ranking Member
Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate

The Honorable Joseph I. Lieberman
Chairman
The Honorable Susan M. Collins
Ranking Member
Committee on Homeland Security
 and Governmental Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye
Chairman
The Honorable Thad Cochran
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable Patrick J. Leahy
Chairman
The Honorable Lindsey Graham
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations,
  and Related Programs
Committee on Appropriations
United States Senate

The Honorable Howard P. McKeon
Chairman
The Honorable Adam Smith
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
House of Representatives




Page 11                                      GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
The Honorable Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
Chairman
The Honorable Howard L. Berman
Ranking Member
Committee on Foreign Affairs
House of Representatives

The Honorable Darrell Issa
Chairman
The Honorable Elijah Cummings
Ranking Member
Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
House of Representatives

The Honorable C.W. Bill Young
Chairman
The Honorable Norman D. Dicks
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Defense
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives

The Honorable Kay Granger
Chairwoman
The Honorable Nita M. Lowey
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on State, Foreign Operations,
  and Related Programs
Committee on Appropriations
House of Representatives




Page 12                                        GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Enclosure I


Roles of USG Personnel and DOD Contractor Personnel at 23 NATO ANP Training Sites

Table 1 identifies the lead NATO coalition country that serves at each of NATO's 23 ANP
training sites. It also shows where USG and DOD contractor personnel serve as trainers and
mentors and where DOD contractor personnel provide maintenance, logistics, and security.

Table 1: Roles of USG Personnel and DOD Contractor Personnel at 23 NATO ANP Training Sites


                                                                                                             DOD contractor
                                                              USG military           DOD contractor           maintenance,
    Training site name              Lead NATO                 trainers and            trainers and            logistics, and
    (alphabetical)                  coalition country           mentors                 mentors                  security
    ANP Academy                     Germany
    Bamyan                          United States                                                                    
    Gardez (Regional)               United States                                                                    
    Ghazni                          Poland
    Herat (Regional)                Italy                                                                           
    Kabul (Central)                 Italy                                                    
    Kandahar                        United States                                           
    Kandahar (Regional)             Romania                                                                          
    Khowst                          United States                                                                    
    Konduz (Regional)               Germany                                                                         
    Laghman (Regional)              United States                   
    Lashkar Gah                     United Kingdom                                                                   
    Mazar-e-Sharif (Regional)       France                                                                           
    Nangarhar (Regional)            United States                                                                    
    Pacheragram                     United States                                           
    Paktika                         Poland                                                                            
    Shaheen                         Swedena                         
    Sherberghan                     Turkey                                                                           
    Shouz                           United States                                                                   
    Spin Baldak                     Romania                                                  
    Staff College                   Germany
    Tarin Kowt                      Australiaa                      
    Wardak (National)               France                                                   
    Total                                                        12 sites                12 sites                 12 sites
Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.

a
 Sweden and Australia are not NATO countries, but serve in the NATO-led coalition in Afghanistan. For the purposes of this
report, the 23 ANP training sites led by NATO include those led by Sweden and Australia.




Page 13                                                                              GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Enclosure II


                                   Related GAO Products

Afghanistan Governance: Performance-Data Gaps Hinder Overall Assessment of U.S. Efforts
to Build Financial Management Capacity. GAO-11-907. Washington, D.C.: September 20,
2011.

Afghanistan: Actions Need to Improve Accountability of U.S. Assistance to Afghanistan
Government. GAO-11-710. Washington, D.C.: July 20, 2011.

Multiple U.S. Agencies Provided Billions of Dollars to Train and Equip Foreign Police Forces.
GAO-11-402R. Washington, D.C.: April 27, 2011.

Afghanistan Security: Afghan Army Growing, but Additional Trainers Needed; Long-term
Costs Not Determined. GAO-11-66. Washington, D.C.: January 27, 2011.

The Strategic Framework for U.S. Efforts in Afghanistan. GAO-10-655R. Washington, D.C.:
June 15, 2010.

Afghanistan’s Security Environment. GAO-10-613R. Washington, D.C.: May 5, 2010.

Afghanistan’s Security Environment. GAO-10-178R. Washington, D.C.: November 5, 2009.

Afghanistan Drug Control: Strategy Evolving and Progress Reported, but Interim Performance
Targets and Evaluation of Justice Reform Efforts Needed. GAO-10-291. Washington, D.C.:
March 9, 2010.

Afghanistan: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight. GAO-09-473SP. Washington, D.C.:
April 21, 2009.

Afghanistan Security: U.S. Programs to Further Reform Ministry of Interior and National Police
Challenged by Lack of Military Personnel and Afghan Cooperation. GAO-09-280. Washington,
D.C.: March 9, 2009.

Afghanistan Security: U.S. Efforts to Develop Capable Afghan Police Forces Face
Challenges and Need a Coordinated, Detailed Plan to Help Ensure Accountability. GAO-
08-883T. Washington, D.C.: June 18, 2008.

Afghanistan Security: Further Congressional Action May Be Needed to Ensure Completion
of a Detailed Plan to Develop and Sustain Capable Afghan National Security Forces. GAO-
08-661. Washington, D.C.: June 18, 2008.

Securing, Stabilizing, and Reconstructing Afghanistan: Key Issues for Congressional
Oversight. GAO-07-801SP. Washington, D.C.: May 24, 2007.

Afghanistan Security: Efforts to Establish Army and Police Have Made Progress, but Future
Plans Need to Be Better Defined. GAO-05-575. Washington, D.C.: June 30, 2005.




Page 14                                                        GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
Enclosure III


                          GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments

GAO Contact

Charles Michael Johnson, Jr. at 202-512-7331, or johnsoncm@gao.gov

Staff Acknowledgments

In addition to the individual above, Pierre Toureille, Assistant Director; Timothy J. DiNapoli;
Hynek Kalkus; Rhonda M. Horried; Christopher Mulkins; Angie Nichols-Friedman;
David Schneider; Jennifer Zakarian; Ashley Alley; Melissa Hermes; David Dayton;
Cindy Gilbert; and Etana Finkler made key contributions to this report.




(320860)



Page 15                                                          GAO-12-293R Afghanistan Security
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