oversight

Defense Infrastructure: DOD Did Not Fully Address the Supplemental Reporting Requirements in Its Energy Management Report

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-01-31.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548



           January 31, 2012

           Congressional Committees

           Subject: Defense Infrastructure: DOD Did Not Fully Address the Supplemental
                    Reporting Requirements in Its Energy Management Report

           This report formally transmits our January 2012 briefing to committees in response
           to section 332(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year
           2010 1 (section 332) and our response to House Report 111-166 2 regarding the
           Department of Defense’s (DOD) energy- efficiency programs. The act and House
           report directed DOD to report on a specific set of energy issues and directed GAO to
           review DOD’s report and submit to Congress a report on our findings. A summary of
           the eight required energy- efficiency reporting issues is included as enclosure I.
           Details on our findings and the basis for them are provided in enclosure II.

           Background

           The House Report (H.R. Rep. No. 111-166) directed the Secretary of Defense to
           conduct an assessment of seven specific energy issues and to submit the findings
           and recommendations resulting from the assessment to the Senate Committee on
           Armed Services and the House Committee on Armed Services. Also, the National
           Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, section 332(b), states that the first
           report submitted by the Secretary of Defense under 10 U.S.C. § 2925(a) (DOD’s
           Annual Energy Management Report) after the date of the enactment of the NDAA for
           Fiscal Year 2010 shall include information on a similar list of eight specific energy
           issues. 3

           The first report submitted by DOD in response to 10 U.S.C. § 2925(a) after the date
           of the enactment of the NDAA for Fiscal Year 2010 was its Fiscal Year 2009 Annual
           Energy Management Report, issued in May 2010. As we previously reported, 4 the

           1
            Pub. L. No.111-84 (2009).
           2
            The committee report accompanying H.R. 2647, a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for
           Fiscal Year 2010.
           3
            There is considerable overlap between the two lists of issues, and seven of the eight issues are
           substantively similar. The one issue that is in section 332 that is not reflected in the committee report
           (H.R. Rep. No. 111-166) relates to DOD’s making a determination of the cost and feasibility of
           developing or acquiring equipment or systems that would result in maximized use of renewable
           energy sources at contingency locations.
           4
            GAO, Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense’s Energy Supplemental Report, GAO-10-988R
           (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 29, 2010).



           Page 1                                                           GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Energy Management Report did not include information on
the eight specific issues identified by the NDAA for Fiscal Year 2010. DOD officials
stated that they planned to comply with the reporting requirement by including the
required information in their Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management Report.
The officials noted that the Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management Report
would be the first report commenced and developed under the expanded section
332 reporting requirements. DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management
Report was issued in July 2011.

Scope and Methodology

To examine the extent to which DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy
Management Report addresses the expanded reporting requirements contained in
the NDAA for Fiscal Year 2010, we analyzed the report and compared it with the
legislative requirements. Additionally, we interviewed officials in the Office of the
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Installations and Environment; and in the Office
of the Assistant Secretary of Operational Energy Plans and Programs, to ascertain
what changes, if any, were incorporated into the 2010 Report to address the
reporting requirements, and what challenges DOD faced in complying with those
reporting requirements. We determined that the data were sufficiently reliable for the
purposes of our review.

We conducted this performance audit from November 2011 through January 2012 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those
standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate
evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on
our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable
basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective.


Summary

Our analysis showed that DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management
Report fully addressed two, did not address one (issue 4), and partially addressed
five of the eight expanded reporting requirements (see table 1). In some cases, it
was difficult to determine the extent to which DOD had addressed an issue because
information related to a specific reporting requirement was fragmented or scattered
throughout the report. With regard to the one issue not addressed, DOD indicated it
had plans to address it in a separate report tentatively scheduled to be published in
early 2012.




Page 2                                                GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Table 1: Extent to Which DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management
Report Addressed the Eight Expanded Reporting Requirements (Issues) Mandated
by Section 332 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010




a
DOD plans to address this in a separate report tentatively scheduled to be published in early 2012.

For additional information on the results of our work, see the briefing at pages 7
through 21 of this report.

Agency Comments and Our Evaluation

In oral comments on a draft of our briefing, officials from the Office of the Deputy
Under Secretary of Defense for Installations and Environment (Facilities Energy)
commented that they believed the finding that DOD has not addressed issue number
4 is inaccurate. Department officials stated that they are in the process of preparing
a report in response to Section 333 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense




Page 3                                                       GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 5 that will address this issue and provided
GAO a copy of the draft. In our report we acknowledged that the department plans to
issue a separate report on this issue and shared a draft of the report with GAO.
However, because the department previously told us it planned to include the
required information in its fiscal year 2010 Annual Energy Management Report but
did not, we stand behind our finding that DOD’s 2010 report did not address this
issue. DOD also provided technical comments, which we have incorporated into this
report as applicable.
                                          ----

We are sending copies of this report to appropriate congressional committees and to
the Secretary of Defense. In addition, this letter will be made available at no charge
on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

Should you or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please contact
James R. McTigue, Jr., at (202) 512-7968 or mctiguej@gao.gov or Frank Rusco at
(202) 512-3841 or ruscof@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional
Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this letter. Key
contributors to this correspondence are listed in enclosure III.




James R. McTigue, Jr., Acting Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Frank Rusco, Director
Natural Resources and Environment

Enclosures-3




5
Pub. L. No. 110-417 (2008)


Page 4                                                GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
List of Committees

The Honorable Carl Levin
Chairman
The Honorable John McCain
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
United States Senate

The Honorable Howard McKeon
Chairman
The Honorable Adam Smith
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
House of Representatives




Page 5                        GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Enclosure I


Summary of Section 332(b) of the National Defense Authorization Act for
Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. No. 111-84, 2009)): Additional Material Required for
DOD’s First Expanded Report

1. A determination of whether the tools that exist as of the date of the enactment of
this Act, including the Energy Conservation Investment Program and the Energy
Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs) Program, are sufficient to support
renewable energy projects to achieve the Department’s installation energy goals, or
if new funding mechanisms would be beneficial.

2. A determination of the cost and feasibility of a policy that would require new power
generation projects established on installations to be able to switch to provide power
for military operations in the event of a commercial grid outage.

3. An assessment of the extent to which state and regional laws and regulations and
market structures provide opportunities or obstacles to establish renewable energy
projects on military installations.

4. A determination of the cost and feasibility of developing or acquiring equipment or
systems that would result in maximized use of renewable energy sources at
contingency locations.

5. An assessment of the feasibility of meeting the Department’s renewable energy
goals with on-base renewable energy production rather than with renewable energy
credits.

6. An analysis of the percentage of new construction projects subject to the
Department’s current building construction sustainable design standards
(Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standards) that include a
renewable energy component, and a determination as to whether the criteria of the
Department’s design standards, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act,
are consistent with the overall goals, including renewable energy goals, of the
Secretary.

7. The feasibility and cost of developing net-zero energy installations and a detailed
assessment, by installation, of power production (including renewable energy)
measured against energy consumption.

8. A determination of whether a dedicated funding mechanism for renewable energy
projects for stand-alone facilities, including National Guard and Reserve centers,
would encourage greater use of renewable energy sources both at existing facilities
and in new construction.




Page 6                                                GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Enclosure II



    Enclosure II


     Defense Infrastructure: DOD Did Not Fully
       Address the Supplemental Reporting
   Requirements in Its Energy Management Report



                   Briefing for Congressional
                           Committees
                          January 2012



                                                                    Page 1




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Enclosure II




                                       Contents
           Introduction
           Researchable Objective
           Scope and Methodology
           Summary and Findings
           Discussion of Energy Issues 1 through 8
           Agency Comments and Our Evaluation
           Related GAO Product




                                                                                          2




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Enclosure II




                                                            Introduction

      The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for fiscal year 20101 House Report
      111-166, directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to conduct assessments and
      report on a specific set of energy issues. By doing so, the committee stated that DOD
      could identify impediments that inhibit installations from furthering their renewable-
      energy goals and make recommendations for actions to address those impediments.
      Furthermore, the committee report and NDAA directed the GAO Comptroller General
      to review DOD’s report and submit to Congress a report on such review.


      On September 29, 2010, we reported2 that DOD’s first submission following the
      enactment of the NDAA, the Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Energy Management Report, did
      not include information on the eight specific issues as required. We also reported that
      according to DOD officials, DOD planned to comply with the reporting requirement by
      including the required information in its Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management
      Report. That report was issued in July 2011.
      1Pub.   L. No. 111-84, § 332 (2009).
      2GAO,   Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense’s Energy Supplemental Report, GAO-10-988R (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 29, 2010).




                                                                                                                                            3




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Enclosure II




                        Researchable Objective

      To what extent does the Fiscal Year 2010 Department of Defense Annual Energy
      Management Report address the supplemental reporting requirements mandated by
      the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010?




                                                                                           4




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Enclosure II




                          Scope and Methodology

      To conduct this work we did the following:
      • We examined the extent to which DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy
        Management Report addressed the reporting requirements from the fiscal year
        2010 NDAA, by reviewing the report and comparing it with the legislative
        requirements.
      • We interviewed officials in the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense,
        Installations and Environment; and in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of
        Operational Energy Plans and Programs about any changes that might have been
        incorporated into the 2010 report to address the legislative requirements, and about
        any challenges in complying with the reporting requirements.
      • We conducted this performance audit from November 2011 through January 2012
        in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those
        standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient,
        appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions
        based on our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a
        reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective.
                                                                                                5




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Enclosure II




                                     Summary and Findings
    Table 1. Extent to which DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management Report addresses the eight supplemental
    reporting requirements (issues) mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010.




                          aDOD   plans to address this in a separate report tentatively scheduled to be published in early 2012.

                                                                                                                                               6




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Enclosure II




    Issue 1: A determination of whether the tools that exist as of the date of the enactment of this Act, including the
    Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP)3 and the Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs)4
    Program, are sufficient to support renewable energy projects to achieve the Department’s installation energy goals,
    or if new funding mechanisms would be beneficial.


       •   DOD reported: DOD determined that it is currently taking advantage of existing tools as well as exploring
           other financing mechanisms for renewable energy projects. DOD’s report emphasizes that all the military
           departments plan on continuing the use of existing tools and discusses using other financing alternatives.
           For example, while some projects may be cost-prohibitive if the department must rely solely on existing
           tools, such as military construction or ECIP appropriations, other funding mechanisms such as third-party
           financing from utilities and private developers could provide the level of funding needed for these projects.
       •   What GAO found: In its report DOD discusses both existing tools–such as the ECIP and the ESPCs–and
           new funding mechanisms–such as third-party financing. DOD’s report provides specific information on
           funding and includes examples of the various tools that the department currently employs, and is pursuing,
           in order to fund projects to meet its energy goals. Furthermore, according to Officials from the Office of the
           Deputy Under Secretary of Defense, Installations and Energy, DOD has the tools to execute renewable-
           energy projects appropriately by using both appropriated funding as well as leveraging other funding
           mechanisms.
       •   What GAO concluded: DOD fully addressed this issue.

       3Energy  Conservation Investment Program (ECIP)–An Office of the Secretary of Defense centrally managed, project-oriented element within the Defense-
       wide military construction account that is programmed annually and represents the primary direct DOD investment in energy and water conservation.
       4Energy Savings Performance Contracts allow federal agencies to hire a contractor to develop energy-conservation or renewable-energy projects with the
       expectation that the annual savings from the project will fund the project’s annual costs.




                                                                                                                                                                7




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Enclosure II




       Issue 2: A determination of the cost and feasibility of a policy that would require new power
       generation projects established on installations to be able to switch to provide power for military
       operations in the event of a commercial grid outage.


      •   DOD reported: DOD considered the feasibility of a new policy to address this issue; however, it did not
          address cost. In its report DOD determined the following in terms of feasibility:
               •   The department can benefit from the flexibility to decide whether new power-generation projects
                   must be able to operate independently from the commercial grid based primarily on protecting
                   critical DOD missions.
               •   A requirement to include this capability will increase costs due to requirements for new
                   infrastructure, such as installing electrical transmission lines to areas on an installation where they
                   would not normally be installed.
      •   What GAO found: DOD did not address the cost element of this issue in its report. According to DOD
          officials, cost is difficult to address due to risk that is regional and site-specific. Further, DOD officials
          explained that the Defense Critical Infrastructure Program considers costs of a variety of resources, such
          as water and electricity, in its evaluations of how to protect an installation. The results of these evaluations
          are contained in classified assessments.
      •   What GAO concluded: DOD has partially has addressed this issue in that it determined feasibility, but has
          not addressed the cost element of the issue.




                                                                                                                             8




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Enclosure II




      Issue 3: An assessment of the extent to which state and regional laws and regulations and
      market structures provide opportunities or obstacles to establish renewable energy projects on
      military installations.



       •   DOD reported: The Department discussed the consideration of market and regulatory factors when
           planning renewable-energy projects. For example, the report emphasizes the importance of three factors:
           local demand for energy, local/regional energy prices, and regulatory incentives. In its discussion of
           regulatory incentives, DOD refers to several market structures, such as low-cost loans, loan guarantees,
           grants, and tax incentives.
       •   What GAO found: It is unclear whether DOD’s assessment included a review of state and regional laws and
           regulations, and if so, there is no explanation of how DOD assessed the various state and regional laws
           and regulations in its report. According to officials from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of
           Defense, Installations and Energy, laws and regulations were assessed and the results of those
           assessments are summarized in a by-installation chart included in the report. However, there is no
           reference to the chart in the section of the report that addresses this issue, and there are no references on
           the chart to laws and regulations.
       •   What GAO concluded: DOD has partially addressed this issue by discussing market structures, but it is
           unclear from reading the report whether, how, or to what extent state and regional laws and regulations
           were assessed.




                                                                                                                           9




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Enclosure II




       Issue 4: A determination of the cost and feasibility of developing or acquiring equipment or
       systems that would result in maximized use of renewable energy sources at contingency
       locations.


       •   DOD reported: This issue was not addressed in DOD’s Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management
           Report.
       •   What GAO found: DOD officials had previously stated that they would address the reporting requirements
           in their Fiscal Year 2010 Annual Energy Management Report. However, the report does not include a
           discussion of this issue. According to officials from the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s Office of
           Operational Energy Plans and Programs, this issue will be addressed in a report that they are preparing in
           response to other legislation. That report is currently being reviewed by the department with a target
           release date in early 2012.
       •   What GAO concluded: The fiscal year 2010 report that DOD submitted to the Congressional committees
           did not address this issue.




                                                                                                                        10




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Enclosure II




      Issue 5: An assessment of the feasibility of meeting the Department’s renewable energy goals
      with on-base renewable energy production rather than with renewable energy credits.5



     •    DOD reported: The department is subject to two statutory renewable-energy targets: one mandates that renewable
          energy produced or procured must total a specific percentage of total facility electricity consumption by 2025, and
          the other mandates that a specific percentage of electricity consumption come from renewable sources.6 DOD
          reports that it conducted a preliminary assessment of renewable-energy potential at its installations using fiscal year
          2009 data that determined the department is well positioned to meet its 2025 goal. The report notes that to add
          certainty to the assessment, DOD will need additional in-depth feasibility studies on a project-by-project basis at the
          installation level. In meeting the second goal, DOD reports that the statute has established targets, such as
          increasing renewable-energy consumption to 5 percent in fiscal year 2010, and while it has not met this requirement,
          the department continues to make progress. According to the report, DOD expects that without using renewable-
          energy certificates it can attain the 2025 goal, but it does not expect to attain the other goal.
     •    What GAO found: DOD’s report includes an assessment of the feasibility of meeting the department’s renewable
          energy goals with on-base renewable-energy production rather than with renewable-energy certificates. DOD’s
          results are clearly provided in trend analysis at both the service and department wide level.
     •    What GAO concluded: DOD has fully addressed this issue. As stated in its report, DOD has conducted an
          assessment and reported its conclusion on the feasibility of meeting its renewable-energy goals with on-base
          renewable-energy production rather than with renewable-energy certificates.

     5Although the statute refers to renewable-energy credits, in its report DOD referred to them as renewable-energy certificates. Renewable-energy certificates
     are tradable, non tangible energy commodities, that can be bought and sold between multiple parties, and represent the environmental attributes of
     renewable-energy generation. Generation of renewable energy in effect produces two products: the energy and accompanying renewable-energy certificate.
     6(1)Title
             10 U.S.C. § 2911(e) mandates that renewable energy (electric and non electric) produced or procured must total 25 percent of total electricity
     consumption by the year 2025, and (2) the Energy Policy Act of 2005 mandates that 5 percent of electricity consumption come from renewable sources,
     increasing to 7.5 percent by 2013.

                                                                                                                                                                    11




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Enclosure II




     Issue 6: An analysis of the percentage of new construction projects subject to the Department’s current building
     construction sustainable design standards (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standards)7 that
     include a renewable energy component, and a determination as to whether the criteria of the Department’s design
     standards, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this Act, are consistent with the overall goals, including
     renewable energy goals, of the Secretary.

     •    DOD reported: On-site renewable energy generation at the facility level does not contribute significantly to the
          Department’s renewable energy generation. DOD plans to achieve renewable energy goals by initiating large-
          scale, renewable energy generation projects, which are not incorporated into current Leadership in Energy and
          Environmental Design standards. Those standards are consistent with renewable energy goals, but likely will
          not significantly contribute to adding generation capacity. Furthermore, DOD is including new approaches to
          renewable technology in the overall design for new military construction to make its infrastructure more energy
          self-sufficient.
     •    What GAO found: DOD provided a list of new construction and funded renewable energy initiatives for both the
          Army and the Air Force, including a variety of renewable energy projects such as solar, wind, and geothermal.
          The Navy did not submit its data to DOD for inclusion in the report. The report does not include an analysis of
          the percentage of new construction projects subject to DOD’s design and the Leadership in Energy and
          Environmental Design standards. Although DOD’s design standard criteria appear to be consistent with
          renewable energy goals, DOD informed us that these renewable energy projects will not significantly contribute
          to meeting renewable energy goals.
     •    What GAO concluded: DOD has partially addressed this issue. The report does not include data on the Navy,
          nor does it provide an analysis of the percentage of new construction projects subject to the Department’s
          current building construction sustainable design standards that include a renewable energy component.

     7Leadership  in Energy and Environmental Design standards – are an internationally recognized green building certification system. Green building practices are
     construction and maintenance practices designed to make efficient use of resources, reduce environmental problems, and provide long-term financial and health
     benefits through lower annual operating costs and better indoor air quality. According to DOD, DOD Instruction 4170.11 and Executive Order 13514 require new
     buildings to be constructed to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver standards, where cost effective.

                                                                                                                                                                       12




Index point for: GAO-12-79, page 24, footnote 1 for LEED definition in footnote and page 1, first
paragraph after the word “quality” in the footnote.




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Enclosure II




      Issue 7: The feasibility and cost of developing net-zero energy installations8 and a detailed
      assessment, by installation, of power production (including renewable energy) measured
      against energy consumption.


      •    DOD reported: Net-zero energy is a concept of energy self-sufficiency, based on minimized demand and use
           of local renewable-energy sources. DOD determined that net-zero assessments on an installation require in-
           depth analyses of energy use, the potential for energy-consumption reduction, the potential for on-site
           renewable-energy production, and local grid modifications required to control energy supply from more-
           diverse and often intermittent sources. DOD identified four pilot installations and several other net-zero
           energy candidate installations and reported that a more-comprehensive and in-depth net-zero feasibility
           study for each installation will be required to develop cost estimates. Furthermore, each military department
           will refine its net-zero energy installations focus based on results from ongoing and planned studies.
      •    What GAO found: DOD officials reported that although the feasibility of net-zero installations was assessed,
           cost was not assessed.
      •    What GAO concluded: DOD has partially addressed this issue. DOD’s report describes its approach for
           evaluating the feasibility of net-zero energy installations; however, it does not address the cost aspect of the
           issue.




      8A net-zero energy installation is one that produces as much energy on-site or nearby as it consumes in its buildings and facilities, and maximizes the use of
      renewable energy resources.




                                                                                                                                                                       13




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Enclosure II




       Issue 8: A determination of whether a dedicated funding mechanism for renewable energy
       projects for stand-alone facilities, including National Guard and Reserve centers, would
       encourage greater use of renewable energy sources both at existing facilities and in new
       construction.


       •   DOD reported: DOD components will execute energy projects that are cost-effective over their life cycles,
           both at stand-alone facilities and those that are connected with the commercial grid. The report also notes
           that DOD has not identified a need for any funding mechanisms for renewable-energy projects beyond
           those currently available.
       •   What GAO found: According to DOD officials, existing funding mechanisms are sufficient to encourage
           greater use of renewable-energy sources both at existing facilities and in new construction. They also said
           the department has determined it will have the tools to execute renewable-energy projects appropriately by
           using appropriated funding and third-party financing.
       •   What GAO concluded: DOD has partially addressed this issue. DOD’s response to this issue in its report
           was not complete. For example, the report does not specifically address whether a dedicated funding
           mechanism would encourage greater use of renewable-energy sources, and it does not address National
           Guard and Reserve centers in the discussion of stand-alone facilities.




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Enclosure II




               Agency Comments and Our Evaluation

    In oral comments on a draft of this briefing, officials from the Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for
    Installations and Environment (Facilities Energy) commented that they believed the finding that DOD has not
    addressed issue number 4 is inaccurate. Department officials stated that they are in the process of preparing a
    report in response to Section 333 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 that
    will address this issue and provided GAO a copy of the draft. In our briefing we acknowledged that the department
    plans to issue a separate report on this issue and provided GAO a copy of the draft. However, because the
    department previously told us it planned to include the required information in its fiscal year 2010 Annual Energy
    Management Report but did not, we stand behind our finding that DOD’s 2010 report did not address this issue. DOD
    also provided technical comments, which we have incorporated into this briefing as applicable.




                                                                                                                      15




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Enclosure II




                                  Related GAO Products
          Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense’s Energy Supplemental Report. GAO-10-988R. Washington,
          D.C.: September 29, 2010.
          Defense Infrastructure: Department of Defense Renewable Energy Initiatives. GAO-10-681R. Washington,
          D.C.: April 26, 2010.
          Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Take Actions to Address Challenges in Meeting Federal Renewable
          Energy Goals. GAO-10-104. Washington, D.C.: December 18, 2009.
          Defense Critical Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Improve the Consistency, Reliability, and Usefulness of
          DOD’s Tier 1 Task Critical Asset List. GAO-09-740R. Washington, D.C.: July 17, 2009.
          Federal Energy Management: Addressing Challenges through Better Plans and Clarifying the Greenhouse
          Gas Emission Measure Will Help Meet Long-term Goals for Buildings. GAO-08-977. Washington, D.C.:
          September 30, 2008.
          Defense Management: Overarching Organizational Framework Needed to Guide and Oversee Energy
          Reduction Efforts for Military Operations. GAO-08-426. Washington, D.C.: March 13, 2008.
          Advanced Energy Technologies: Budget Trends and Challenges for DOE’s Energy R&D Program. GAO-08-
          556T. Washington, D.C.: March 5, 2008.
          Transmission Lines: Issues Associated with High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission Lines along
          Transportation Rights of Way. GAO-08-347R. Washington, D.C.: February 1, 2008.
          Advanced Energy Technologies: Key Challenges to Their Development and Deployment. GAO-07-550T.
          Washington, D.C.: February 28, 2007.

                                                                                                                       16




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Enclosure II




                       Related GAO Products (cont.)
       Department of Energy: Key Challenges Remain for Developing and Deploying Advanced Energy Technologies
       to Meet Future Needs. GAO-07-106. Washington, D.C.: December 20, 2006.
       Renewable Energy: Increased Geothermal Development Will Depend on Overcoming Many Challenges. GAO-
       06-629. Washington, D.C.: May 24, 2006.
       Energy Savings: Performance Contracts Offer Benefits, but Vigilance Is Needed to Protect Government
       Interests. GAO-05-340. Washington, D.C.: June 22, 2005.
       National Energy Policy: Inventory of Major Federal Energy Programs and Status of Policy Recommendations.
       GAO-05-379. Washington, D.C.: June 10, 2005.
       Meeting Energy Demand in the 21st Century: Many Challenges and Key Questions. GAO-05-414T.
       Washington, D.C.: March 16, 2005.
       Capital Financing: Partnerships and Energy Savings Performance Contracts Raise Budgeting and Monitoring
       Concerns. GAO-05-55. Washington, D.C.: December 16, 2004.
       Geothermal Energy: Information on the Navy’s Geothermal Program. GAO-04-513. Washington, D.C.: June 4,
       2004.




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                                                                                     Page 18




Page 24                                                GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
Enclosure III

                     GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments

GAO Contacts

James R. McTigue, Jr., at (202) 512-7968 or mctiguej@gao.gov or Frank Rusco at
(202) 512-3841 or ruscof@gao.gov

Staff Acknowledgments

In addition to the contacts named above, GAO staff who made key contributions to this
report include Harold Reich, Assistant Director; Ernie Hazera, Assistant Director; Tim
Burke; Larry Bridges; Cheryl Weissman; Charles Perdue, and Michael Willems.




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Page 25                                                 GAO-12-336R Defense Infrastructure
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