oversight

Defense Logistics: Improvements Needed to Enhance DOD's Management Approach and Implementation of Item Unique Identification Technology

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-05-03.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to the Subcommittee on
             Readiness, Committee on Armed
             Services, House of Representatives


May 2012
             DEFENSE LOGISTICS

             Improvements Needed
             to Enhance DOD’s
             Management
             Approach and
             Implementation of
             Item Unique
             Identification
             Technology




GAO-12-482
                                            May 2012

                                            DEFENSE LOGISTICS
                                            Improvements Needed to Enhance DOD’s
                                            Management Approach and Implementation of Item
                                            Unique Identification Technology
Highlights of GAO-12-482, a report to the
Subcommittee on Readiness, Committee on
Armed Services, House of Representatives




Why GAO Did This Study                      What GAO Found
IUID technology allows DOD to assign        The Department of Defense (DOD) has taken some steps to improve its
a unique number to an item and use          approach to managing and implementing Item Unique Identification (IUID)
that number to manage that item in a        technology, but has yet to incorporate some key elements of best management
variety of logistics processes. In 2003,    practices into its evolving framework for management of IUID implementation.
DOD began implementation of IUID            These include internal controls and analysis of return on investment. DOD has
and has estimated that it could improve     included certain internal controls, such as defining key areas of authority for IUID
the accountability and maintenance of       implementation, and it is revising policy to incorporate IUID. However, DOD does
its property and equipment and save         not have performance measures, such as reliable schedules for predicting when
from $3 billion to $5 billion per year.     its enterprise information systems will be able to manage items using IUID data,
Also, integrating and sharing UII data      or a full estimate of IUID’s cost and benefits. Without a management framework
across DOD’s enterprise information         that includes such key practices, DOD has faced challenges in implementing
systems could enable DOD to track           IUID technology and may not be well positioned to achieve potential financial and
equipment as it moves between its           nonfinancial benefits.
components. GAO evaluated the
extent to which DOD has (1)                 DOD’s data on the number of items already in its inventory—legacy items—
incorporated key elements of best           marked with IUID labels to date is incomplete and DOD lacks assurance that
management practices into its               contractors are sufficiently marking newly-acquired items and government-
framework for IUID implementation,          furnished property. The military services mark legacy items and have reported
(2) marked items with IUID labels, and      marking more than 2 million items. However, DOD does not have complete
(3) developed the capability to share       information on the total number of legacy items its components have marked and
UII data across DOD in its enterprise       must mark in the future; does not have a full set of quantifiable goals or interim
information systems. GAO reviewed           milestones corresponding to its IUID marking criteria—such as certain items that
documents, interviewed cognizant            cost $5,000 or more—and does not use consistent criteria among its components
officials, and reviewed DOD and GAO
                                            to track progress. Without the components reporting complete and comparable
key practices for its analysis.
                                            data, DOD’s ability to assess progress in marking legacy items will remain
What GAO Recommends                         limited. Also, DOD does not have assurance that contractors are sufficiently
                                            marking newly-acquired items and government-furnished property. DOD reported
GAO is making nine recommendations          that as of January 2012, over 2,500 contractors had marked or registered over
for enhancing DOD’s implementation          11 million items. However, DOD does not require the components to examine
of IUID. They include actions to            and report on all types of contracts that should include IUID marking clauses, nor
improve DOD’s management of IUID
                                            does it have policies and procedures that provide for systematic assessment of
implementation through best practices;
                                            the sufficiency of data contained in these items’ labels. Hence, DOD cannot know
enable the components to report
complete data for marking items with        the full extent to which contractors are supplying IUID labels with the data
IUID labels; and enable the                 needed to track items.
components to share UII data across         DOD’s ability to track and share unique item identifier (UII) data across
DOD enterprise information systems.         components is hampered by the lack of full integration of data into components’
DOD concurred with eight                    enterprise information systems. DOD has made some progress but faces
recommendations and partially               challenges as it proceeds with its integration plans. DOD is revising its supply
concurred with one related to updating
                                            chain management policy and guidance to include IUID use, but has not fully
estimated financial costs and benefits
                                            defined requirements for using UII data, nor developed complete, integrated
of IUID implementation. DOD stated it
will continue to identify such costs, but
                                            master schedules for integrating IUID, DOD-wide and within components’
GAO continues to believe that updating      systems. Such schedules enable agencies to predict the cost and timelines of
benefits is also important, as discussed    their systems’ development. Without such requirements and schedules, DOD
more fully in the report.                   cannot adequately predict when the systems will be able to use UII data, or
                                            whether DOD will meet its fiscal year 2015 goal for using UII data to manage
View GAO-12-482. For more information,      items throughout their life cycle.
contact Zina Merritt at (202) 512-5257 or
merrittz@gao.gov.

                                                                                     United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                           1
                       Background                                                                5
                       DOD Has Taken Some Steps toward Developing a Framework for
                         Management of IUID Implementation, but Has Not Yet
                         Incorporated Several Key Elements of a Comprehensive
                         Management Approach                                                   13
                       DOD and Contractors Have Made Some Progress Marking Items
                         with IUID, but DOD Faces Challenges in Assessing Progress
                         toward Goals and Ensuring That Items Are Sufficiently Marked          26
                       DOD Has Made Some Progress in Preparing to Share UII Data
                         Enterprisewide, but Faces Challenges                                  40
                       Conclusions                                                             45
                       Recommendations for Executive Action                                    46
                       Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                      47

Appendix I             Scope and Methodology                                                   52



Appendix II            Key IUID Policy Issuances and Implementation Events, Fiscal Year
                       2003 to Fiscal Year 2011                                                55



Appendix III           Comments from the Department of Defense                                 56



Appendix IV            GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                   60



Related GAO Products                                                                           61



Tables
                       Table 1: Components’ Reported Spending on IUID Implementation
                                in Fiscal Years 2004 through 2011                              18
                       Table 2: Number of Legacy Items in Components’ Inventories That
                                Meet DOD’s IUID Marking Criteria and That the
                                Components Have Marked, as Of October 2011                     30




                       Page i                                          GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
          Table 3: DOD’s Methods of Assessing Progress in Legacy Item
                   Marking Using Categories Defined by Its IUID Marking
                   Criteria, as of October 2011                                                     34


Figures
          Figure 1: Data Plate with IUID Data Matrix                                                 8
          Figure 2: Electronic Scanner Being Used to Read a Data Plate with
                   an IUID Data Matrix                                                              9




          Abbreviations

          DASD(SCI)           Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Supply Chain
                              Integration
          DFARS               Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
          DOD                 Department of Defense
          IT                  information technology
          IUID                item unique identification
          ODASD(SCI)          Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense
                              for Supply Chain Integration
          OUSD(AT&L)          Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition,
                              Technology and Logistics
          UII                 unique item identifier




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          Page ii                                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   May 3, 2012

                                   The Honorable Randy Forbes
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Madeleine Bordallo
                                   Ranking Member
                                   Subcommittee on Readiness
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   House of Representatives

                                   The Department of Defense’s (DOD) inventory contains tens of millions of
                                   items, and it is a DOD priority to provide effective accountability over
                                   equipment and inventory items. 1 One aspect of accountability is asset
                                   visibility, a key component of DOD’s management of its supply chain.
                                   DOD describes asset visibility as the ability to provide timely and accurate
                                   information on the location, quantity, condition, movement, and status of
                                   items in its inventory. 2 Limitations in asset visibility—such as a lack of
                                   interoperability among information technology (IT) systems, or challenges
                                   in instituting new technologies for tracking assets 3—make it difficult to
                                   obtain this information in a timely and accurate fashion. One of the tools
                                   that DOD plans to use to improve asset visibility is a technology called
                                   item unique identification (IUID). This technology allows DOD to assign a
                                   unique number to an individual item and then use that unique number to
                                   manage that item in a variety of logistics processes. For example,
                                   according to DOD, tracking assets with IUID technology could enhance
                                   logistical efficiency and improve DOD’s visibility of these assets. We have
                                   long reported that DOD supply chain management is a high-risk area, due
                                   in part to ineffective and inefficient inventory management practices and
                                   procedures, and challenges in achieving widespread implementation of




                                   1
                                    Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) and Chief Financial Officer,
                                   Financial Improvement and Audit Readiness Guidance (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 2011).
                                   2
                                    GAO, Defense Logistics: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Address Challenges
                                   in Supply Chain Management, GAO-11-569 (Washington, D.C.: July 28, 2011).
                                   3
                                    GAO-11-569.




                                   Page 1                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
key technologies aimed at improving asset visibility. 4 We have also
previously reported on challenges DOD has faced in instituting new
technologies for improving asset visibility, 5 and with current technology
and processes DOD continues to have difficulties in systematically
identifying and managing individual items throughout their life cycles.

In 2003, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition,
Technology and Logistics issued DOD’s first policy on IUID technology,
directing DOD components—the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force,
and Defense Logistics Agency 6—to include IUID marking requirements in
contracts for certain types of items. In 2004, this office established the
requirement for DOD components to mark items already in their
inventories—known as legacy items 7—with IUID labels. 8 Contractors and
components mark items with IUID by placing a label on the item. 9 IUID



4
  GAO, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-11-278 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 16, 2011). The
title of this high-risk area was initially “DOD inventory management.” Subsequently, our
work demonstrated that the problems adversely affecting support to the warfighter
extended beyond DOD’s inventory management system to involve the entire supply chain.
As a result, we subsequently modified the title to “DOD supply chain management.”
5
 GAO, Defense Logistics: Efforts to Improve Distribution and Supply Support for Joint
Military Operations Could Benefit from a Coordinated Management Approach,
GAO-07-807 (Washington, D.C.: June 29, 2007).
6
  In this report, we are addressing IUID implementation efforts carried out by the Army,
Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Defense Logistics Agency. According to DOD, these
five components manage the majority of the items it plans to mark with IUID labels.
7
  For the purposes of this report, we have separated qualifying items into two categories:
legacy items and contractor-marked items. Items are marked with IUID labels either by
DOD components or by contractors. If an item qualifies for IUID marking, the DOD
components are responsible for marking the item if it is currently in their inventory (legacy
items), while contractors are responsible for marking the item if they are delivering it to
DOD, or are using property furnished to them by the government (contractor-marked
items).
8
  Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
memorandum, Policy for Unique Identification (UID) of Tangible Personal Property Legacy
Items in Inventory and Operational Use, Including Government Furnished Property (GFP)
(Dec. 23, 2004).
9
 For the purposes of this report, “IUID label” is used to refer to the following labeling
processes: embedding information directly to the item’s surface, affixing through a data
plate directly to the item, or printing on a label that is attached to the item. These labels
vary in size and material, depending on the item to which they are attached and the
durability they require to withstand the environmental conditions to which the item will be
exposed.




Page 2                                                         GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
labels contain information printed on them, and also encoded in a two-
dimensional bar code image, referred to as a data matrix. These data
matrices contain various pieces of information that—when combined—
make up a globally unique string of numbers referred to as the item’s
unique item identifier (UII). DOD has established criteria for the types of
items that are required to be marked with IUID labels. 10 According to
DOD, it has tens of millions of items in its inventory that meet these
criteria. It is DOD’s goal for its components to share UII data
departmentwide, and the components are to use these data for tracking
these items.

DOD has reported that the use of IUID could improve the accountability
and maintenance of its components’ property and equipment. For
example, by sharing UII data across the components’ IT systems, DOD
could follow equipment as it moves between components. In addition, a
component could use these data in its IT systems to more quickly identify
items that require higher amounts of maintenance. By replacing such
items with others that require normal amounts of maintenance, DOD
could potentially save money. In addition, according to DOD’s IUID Task
Force (task force), 11 managing individual items by their unique
identification numbers could save DOD an estimated $3 billion to $5
billion per year. In 2009, we noted that DOD had marked only a fraction of
the millions of legacy items in its inventory that required IUID labels; had
experienced delays in integrating IUID with its IT systems; and could not
adequately track the money it had spent on IUID. 12 In response to your
request, we are reporting on the current status of DOD’s IUID
implementation efforts. For this report, we are evaluating the extent to
which DOD has (1) incorporated key elements of best management
practices into its framework for IUID implementation; (2) marked legacy



10
  DOD Instruction 8320.04, Item Unique Identification (IUID) Standards for Tangible
Personal Property (June 16, 2008). In 2010, the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of
Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics revised certain aspects of the criteria in
a memorandum entitled Item Unique Identification (IUID) of Tangible Personal Property—
Policy Refinement for Secondary Items in Use or in Inventory (Dec. 30, 2010).
11
  The task force was formed at the direction of the Joint Logistics Board on July 7, 2009,
and was tasked to assess IUID implementation across DOD. The Joint Logistics Board
provides advice and recommendations regarding joint logistics concerns and issues at the
level of the Office of the Secretary of Defense.
12
 GAO, Defense Logistics: Lack of Key Information May Impede DOD’s Ability to Improve
Supply Chain Management, GAO-09-150 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 12, 2009).




Page 3                                                        GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
items with IUID and taken steps to ensure that newly-acquired items and
government-furnished property are sufficiently marked by contractors with
IUID; and (3) developed the capability to share UII data across DOD in its
enterprise information systems.

To determine the extent to which DOD has a comprehensive
management approach for its implementation of IUID, we reviewed
previously published DOD and GAO work to identify best management
and cost-estimation practices. 13 One of the best cost-estimation practices
is that historical data are important for creating credible cost estimates.
Because the task force used historical cost data in development of IUID
cost estimates, we collected and reviewed the components’ estimates of
historical IUID spending. In addition, we collected and reviewed the
components’ fiscal year 2012 budget requests for IUID implementation,
and the task force’s analysis of the potential costs and benefits of IUID
implementation. To determine the extent to which the DOD components
have marked legacy items with IUID and taken steps to ensure that
newly-acquired items and government-furnished property are sufficiently
marked by contractors with IUID, we reviewed DOD’s criteria for IUID
marking and its plans for marking items. We also gathered data on the
number of legacy items in components’ inventories, and how many had
been marked as of October 2011. In addition, we reviewed the Defense
Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement clauses that require
contractors to mark or register newly-acquired items and government-
furnished property, and we gathered data from DOD on contractor-
marked items. To determine the extent to which DOD has developed the
capability to share UII data across DOD in its enterprise information
systems, we reviewed our previously published work on best practices for




13
  DOD, Product Support Business Case Analysis Guidebook (Washington, D.C.: April
2011); GAO, Drug Control: DOD Needs to Improve Its Performance Measurement System
to Better Manage and Oversee Its Counternarcotics Activities, GAO-10-835 (Washington,
D.C.: July 21, 2010); GAO, Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide, GAO-09-3SP
(Washington, D.C.: Mar. 2, 2009); GAO, Afghanistan Security: U.S. Efforts to Develop
Capable Afghan Police Forces Face Challenges and Need a Coordinated, Detailed Plan
to Help Ensure Accountability, GAO-08-883T (Washington, D.C.: June 18, 2008); GAO,
Tax Administration: IRS Needs to Further Refine Its Tax Filing Season Performance
Measures, GAO-03-143 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 22, 2002); GAO, Standards for Internal
Control in the Federal Government, GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 1999);
GAO, Executive Guide: Effectively Implementing the Government Performance and
Results Act, GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: June 1996).




Page 4                                                   GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                           developing schedules for these systems; 14 reviewed existing schedules
                           for these systems; and reviewed other system planning documents. We
                           reviewed a variety of DOD’s IUID implementation efforts and visited
                           selected sites (based on a non-generalizable, judgmental sample) to
                           observe key IUID activities; these sites represent each DOD component
                           and were selected in part based on the type of IUID activity performed at
                           each. For all our objectives, we interviewed officials knowledgeable about
                           DOD’s IUID implementation efforts. We assessed the reliability of data
                           provided by DOD by reviewing existing information about the data and the
                           systems that produced the data and by interviewing agency officials
                           knowledgeable about the data to determine the steps taken to ensure the
                           accuracy and completeness of the data. We have determined that the
                           data are sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting the findings in
                           this study.

                           We conducted this performance audit between May 2011 and May 2012
                           in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
                           Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
                           sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
                           findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
                           the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
                           conclusions based on our audit objectives. More detailed information on
                           our scope and methodology is provided in appendix I.



Background
Criteria and Process for   DOD has established criteria for the types of items that are required to be
Using IUID Technology      marked with IUID labels. 15




                           14
                             GAO, DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business
                           System Modernization Efforts Needed, GAO-11-53 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 7, 2010).
                           15
                             DOD Instruction 8320.04, Item Unique Identification (IUID) Standards for Tangible
                           Personal Property (June 16, 2008). In 2010, the Principal Deputy Under Secretary of
                           Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics revised certain aspects of the criteria in
                           a memorandum entitled Item Unique Identification (IUID) of Tangible Personal Property—
                           Policy Refinement for Secondary Items in Use or in Inventory (Dec. 30, 2010).




                           Page 5                                                        GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
For principal end items and contractor-marked secondary items, the
criteria are as follows: 16

1. all items for which the government’s unit acquisition cost is $5,000 or
more;

2. items for which the government’s unit acquisition cost is less than
$5,000, when identified by the requiring activity as DOD serially
managed, mission-essential or controlled-inventory; 17

3. when the government’s unit acquisition cost is less than $5,000 and the
requiring activity determines that permanent identification is required; and

4. regardless of value, (a) any DOD serially managed subassembly,
component, or part embedded within an item and (b) the parent item that
contains the embedded subassembly, component, or part.

For secondary items in use or in inventory, the criteria are as follows:

1. all DOD serially managed items including, but not limited to: sensitive,
critical safety, or pilferable items that have a unique item-level traceability




16
   These criteria vary for different categories of inventory: there are currently four criteria
for marking principal end items and new secondary items, and two criteria for marking
secondary items in use or in inventory. According to DOD, end items are a final
combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that are ready for their
intended use, such as a ship, tank, mobile machine shop, or aircraft, while secondary
items include reparable components, subsystems, and assemblies other than major end
items, consumable repair parts, bulk items and materiel, subsistence, and expendable end
items (E.g., clothing and other personal gear).
17
  According to DOD, serially managed items are tangible items used by DOD that are
designated by a DOD or Military Service Item Manager to be uniquely tracked, controlled,
or managed in maintenance, repair, and/or supply by means of their serial number;
mission-essential items are items that are designated as mission-essential on the basis of
the composite effect of that item on the overall military mission on the basis of the most-
critical significant application of the item; and controlled-inventory items are those items
that are designated as having characteristics that require that they be identified,
accounted for, segregated, or handled in a special manner to ensure their safeguard and
integrity.




Page 6                                                         GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
requirement at any point in their life cycle; and all depot-level reparable
items; 18 and

2. any other item that the requiring activity decides requires unique item-
level traceability at any point in their life cycle.

In order to use IUID technology, four processes must be completed. First,
each item that qualifies for IUID marking—according to DOD’s criteria—is
labeled. IUID labels often contain some human-readable information,
printed as text on the label. The amount and type of human-readable
information varies, 19 but it often contains key details about the item, such
as its National Stock Number, 20 part number, or serial number. These are
categories that DOD components use to identify items in their inventories.
In certain cases, items do not have labels attached to them, and instead
are labeled through a process known as direct part marking, in which the
human- and machine-readable information are applied directly to the
item. In addition, each individual label contains information about the
item, encoded in a machine-readable, two-dimensional image printed on
the label. Known as a data matrix, this image contains various pieces of
information encoded in a two-dimensional bar code. Figure 1 shows a
data plate with an IUID data matrix in the lower right-hand corner.


18
   According to DOD, sensitive items are items that require a high degree of protection and
control due to statutory requirements or regulations, such as narcotics and drug-abuse
items; precious metals; items that are of a high value, highly technical, or a hazardous
nature; and small arms, ammunition, explosives, and demolition material. Critical safety
items are parts, assemblies, installations, or production systems with one or more critical
or critical safety characteristics that, if missing or not conforming to the design data,
quality requirements, or overhaul and maintenance documentation, would result in an
unsafe condition that could cause loss or serious damage to the end item or major
components, loss of control, uncommanded engine shutdown, or serious injury or death to
personnel. Pilferable items are items that have a ready resale value or application to
personal possession and that are, therefore, especially subject to theft. Depot-level
reparable items are a reparable item of supply that is designated for repair at depot level
or that is designated for repair below the depot level, but if repair cannot be accomplished
at that level, shall have its unserviceable carcass either forwarded to the depot for repair
or condemnation or reported to a materiel management activity for disposition.
19
  According to DOD, the item’s acquiring activity has the prime responsibility for
determining the most effective use of human-readable and machine-readable information
on an item. See DOD MIL-STD-130N, Standard Practice for the Identification Marking of
U.S. Military Property (Dec. 17, 2007).
20
  According to DOD, a National Stock Number is a13-digit number that consists of a 4-
digit code—identifying an item in the federal supply classification system—and a 9-digit
national item identification number.




Page 7                                                       GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Figure 1: Data Plate with IUID Data Matrix




When combined, the pieces of information encoded in the data matrix
make up a globally unique string of numbers referred to as the item’s UII
number. To ensure that all items marked with IUID labels are globally
unique, DOD requires that UII numbers be formatted according to
international standards for syntax format. Further, UII numbers must be
entered into DOD’s IUID Registry. The registry is a database intended to
ensure that each UII number is unique. An item’s UII number may be
entered into the registry in one of two ways: the item is marked with an
IUID label and the UII number associated with that label is registered, or
DOD or contractors can establish a “virtual” UII number. According to
DOD guidance, these virtual UII numbers are assigned to an item that
has not yet been marked with an IUID label. The guidance states that a
virtual UII number may be used due to economic or logistical
considerations. For example, a DOD component may virtually mark one
item that is embedded in another item, so that DOD does not have to
remove the embedded item solely to mark the embedded item. For legacy
items already in a component’s inventory, marking and registration are
the responsibility of the component. For items that are not yet in DOD’s
inventory and are being delivered to a component—or for property
furnished by the government to a contractor—it is the responsibility of the
contractor to mark or register items. If the UII number in a data matrix is
improperly formatted, it cannot be used to properly identify the item, and
the data matrix must be replaced.

Second, personnel must electronically read the label’s data matrix, the
two-dimensional bar code in which the item’s UII number is encoded.



Page 8                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
There are several types of tools than can be used for this process,
including hand-held scanners and web-based software that can read an
image of a data matrix. Because data matrices cannot be read visually,
electronically reading the matrices is the only way to access the UII data
they contain. Figure 2 shows an electronic scanner being used to read a
data plate with an IUID data matrix.

Figure 2: Electronic Scanner Being Used to Read a Data Plate with an IUID Data
Matrix




Third, UII data from a data matrix is passed to an IT system. According to
DOD officials, there are a variety of IT systems that have a requirement to




Page 9                                                 GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
use UII data, 21 and some of these systems currently have the capability to
store UII data. Examples include the Army’s Property Book Unit Supply
Enhanced, the Navy’s Configuration Data Managers Database–Open
Architecture, the Marine Corps’ Joint Asset Maintenance Integrated
Support System, and the Air Force’s Automated Inventory Management
Tool. DOD officials have explained that some of these systems operate in
“pockets” within the components, and do not share UII data across the
components or DOD-wide. For instance, the Air Force’s Automated
Inventory Management Tool contains UII data that is specific to an Air
Force installation, and does not have the capability to share these data
with other installations. DOD’s goal is for the components to share UII
data across each of their individual IT systems, and DOD-wide, between
components. Within DOD, this type of data sharing is characterized as
“enterprisewide.” In order to accomplish enterprisewide data sharing of
UII data, the components intend to use certain IT systems referred to as
Enterprise Resource Planning systems. These automated systems
consist of multiple, integrated functional modules that perform a variety of
business-related tasks, such as general-ledger accounting, payroll, and
supply chain management. DOD officials have explained that certain
Enterprise Resource Planning systems will provide the capability to share
UII data enterprisewide, and in this report we are focusing on DOD efforts
to integrate IUID with these systems. 22 Once UII data is uploaded into an
IT system, such as an Enterprise Resource Planning system, DOD
intends to store UII data and share these data within and across DOD
organizations. In addition, IT systems can use software to analyze these




21
  The DOD Investment Review Board has established IUID conditions on certain types of
IT systems that must be satisfied before these systems can be funded.
22
   DOD operates a number of Enterprise Resource Planning systems. According to DOD,
its components plan to use the following Enterprise Resource Planning systems to share
UII data enterprisewide: The Army plans to use its Logistics Modernization Planning
System and Global Combat Support System. The Marine Corps plans to use its Global
Combat Support System. The Air Force plans to use its Expeditionary Combat Support
System; however, according to Air Force officials, the system is currently being
reevaluated by the Air Force and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The Navy was
planning to use its Navy Enterprise Resource Planning System for Supply. However, in
October 2011, senior Navy officials stated that the Navy did not have plans to integrate
IUID with the system. As of April 2012, the Navy stated that it had not integrated IUID with
the system, and while the latest version of the system’s software had some IUID
capabilities, the Navy had not upgraded to that version, assessed whether these
capabilities match DOD IUID requirements, or funded such upgrades. The Defense
Logistics Agency plans to use its Distribution Standard System.




Page 10                                                       GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                    data to improve logistics processes, such as property accountability and
                    maintenance, 23 in DOD’s supply chain.

                    Fourth, to achieve IUID technology’s potential benefits in many logistics
                    processes, DOD personnel will have to periodically repeat the previous
                    steps, including scanning the matrix on an item’s label; uploading the UII
                    data into an IT system; and then storing, sharing, and analyzing the data
                    as required by the specific logistics process. For example, in a property-
                    accountability process that we observed, each time a weapon was
                    checked in or out of an armory, personnel scanned the label’s data
                    matrix; the matrix’s UII number was uploaded into an electronic property
                    book; and software then matched the weapon’s UII number with data that
                    identified the weapon’s owner. For many of the logistics processes in
                    which IUID could be used, these steps would be repeated throughout an
                    item’s life cycle.


Key Organizations   It is DOD’s goal for its components to share UII data departmentwide, and
Involved in IUID    the components are to use these data for unique item tracking. The Office
Implementation      of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel
                    Readiness—under the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for
                    Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics—is the focal point for
                    implementing IUID capabilities for DOD’s supply chain materiel. As of July
                    2011, 24 that office delegated the responsibility for programmatic lead of
                    DOD-wide IUID implementation to the Office of the Deputy Assistant
                    Secretary of Defense for Supply Chain Integration (ODASD[SCI]).
                    According to component officials, each component has multiple
                    organizations carrying out IUID implementation tasks, such as creating
                    policy and defining requirements; planning and budgeting for
                    implementation of policy; and executing requirements. In addition,
                    according to component officials, each component has an office that


                    23
                       According to DODI 5000.64, property accountability should be enabled by IUID for
                    identification, tracking, and management, in accordance with DOD Directive 8320.03,
                    Unique Identification (UID) Standards for a Net-Centric Department of Defense (Mar. 23,
                    2007), which, among other things, establishes policy and criteria related to use of unique
                    item identification in DOD’s IT systems.
                    24
                      According to DOD officials, before the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Supply
                    Chain Integration (DASD[SCI]) assumed the programmatic lead for DOD-wide
                    implementation of IUID, the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy—within
                    the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics—
                    coordinated IUID implementation efforts within the Office of the Secretary of Defense.




                    Page 11                                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                        maintains the lead in IUID implementation policy. These respective offices
                        are:

                        •    Army—the Office of Life Cycle Logistics Policy, in the Office of the
                             Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and
                             Technology;
                        •    Navy—the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research,
                             Development, and Acquisition;
                        •    Marine Corps—the Office of the Director, Logistics Plans, Policies,
                             and Strategic Mobility, in the office of the Deputy Commandant of the
                             Marine Corps for Installations and Logistics;
                        •    Air Force—the Directorate of Transformation, Deputy Chief of Staff for
                             Logistics, Installations and Mission Support; and
                        •    Defense Logistics Agency—the Office of Logistics Management
                             Standards.
                        Also, to facilitate intercomponent communication and collaboration, the
                        components have established a number of working groups and other
                        bodies to facilitate coordination on IUID implementation.


DOD’s IUID Task Force   The Joint Logistics Board determined that there were ambiguities
                        concerning DOD’s IUID policy, requirements, and proposed value across
                        DOD, as well as wide variation in the components’ implementation
                        strategies, execution, and funding of IUID implementation. As a result, in
                        2009 the board chartered the task force, led by the Assistant Deputy
                        Under Secretary of Defense for Maintenance Policy and Programs, and
                        including representatives from the components and the Office of the
                        Secretary of Defense. The task force had several goals, to include
                        assessing the value of IUID within DOD’s supply chain, and
                        recommending changes to policy and guidance to adequately align IUID
                        implementation with the task force’s evaluation of IUID’s value. The task
                        force issued a report with recommendations in June 2010 that estimated
                        financial costs of IUID implementation, as well as financial and
                        nonfinancial benefits. Specifically, the report stated that DOD could begin
                        to achieve net financial benefits of IUID implementation in fiscal year
                        2017. In addition, the task force recommended modifying some of DOD’s
                        IUID-marking criteria. 25 Subsequently, the Office of the Under Secretary



                        25
                          DOD, Logistics Item Unique Identification Task Force, Implementation of Item Unique
                        Identification in DOD Logistics Processes (Washington, D.C.: June 8, 2010).




                        Page 12                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                       of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics modified DOD’s
                       IUID marking criteria to implement some of the task force’s recommended
                       changes, issuing the modification in December 2010. 26 In addition, the
                       task force issued a revision to its initial estimates, lowering its cost
                       estimate. The revision was issued in March 2011. 27 DOD’s key IUID
                       policy issuances and implementation events from fiscal year 2003 to
                       fiscal year 2011 are summarized in appendix II.


                       DOD has taken some steps to improve its approach to managing and
DOD Has Taken Some     implementing IUID technology, but has yet to incorporate some key
Steps toward           elements of best management practices into its evolving framework for
                       management of IUID implementation. These include internal controls and
Developing a           analysis of return on investment. According to GAO’s previously
Framework for          published work, internal controls are important in helping agencies
Management of IUID     improve operational processes and implement new technological
                       developments. 28 Internal controls include an organizational structure that
Implementation, but    clearly defines key areas of authority; policies that enforce management
Has Not Yet            directives; goals; and performance measures. 29 In addition, GAO and
                       DOD have identified best practices for analyzing a program’s return on
Incorporated Several   investment. The practices identified by GAO include providing estimates
Key Elements of a      of all potential costs and the timing of costs. 30 DOD has identified best
                       practices that include analyzing benefits, and making recommendations,
Comprehensive          based on relevant evaluation criteria. 31 DOD has defined key areas of
Management             authority and responsibility for IUID implementation, and is updating
                       policy to incorporate changes required by the implementation of IUID.
Approach               However, DOD has not incorporated other key elements of best
                       management practices into its evolving framework for management of
                       IUID implementation. For example, DOD lacks such key information as


                       26
                        Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
                       Memorandum, Item Unique Identification (IUID) of Tangible Personal Property—Policy
                       Refinement for Secondary Items in Use or In Inventory (Dec. 30, 2010).
                       27
                         DOD, Logistics Item Unique Identification Task Force, Implementation of Item Unique
                       Identification in DOD Logistics Processes—an Update (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 11, 2011).
                       28
                        GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1.
                       29
                        GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1.
                       30
                        GAO-09-3SP.
                       31
                        DOD, Product Support Business Case Analysis Guidebook (Apr. 2011).




                       Page 13                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                           quantitatively defined goals for marking legacy items; performance
                           measures, such as reliable schedules for predicting when its Enterprise
                           Resource Planning systems will have the capability to manage items
                           using UII data; and a full estimate of IUID’s cost and benefits. Without a
                           management framework that includes quantitatively defined goals,
                           performance measures, and a more complete estimate of all associated
                           costs and benefits, DOD has faced challenges in implementing IUID
                           technology and runs the risk of not fully realizing its potential benefits,
                           including financial benefits by fiscal year 2017.

DOD Has Taken Several      ODASD(SCI) and the components have taken some steps that could
Steps That Could Improve   improve DOD’s management approach for IUID implementation.
Its Management of IUID     According to the DASD(SCI), his office is in the process of developing a
                           framework for managing and implementing IUID, which we reviewed. As
Implementation             of March 2012, this framework consisted of two elements. The first
                           element is a set of July 2011 briefing slides titled “IUID Game Plan and
                           Actions Underway.” The slides include a summary of actions that DOD
                           needs to take in key areas of IUID implementation such as the marking of
                           items, the use of IUID in business processes, and modifying IT systems
                           to incorporate IUID. These slides also indicate that ODASD(SCI) is
                           following some best practices of a comprehensive management
                           framework. In the slides, DOD clearly defines the Office of the Assistant
                           Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness as the DOD
                           organization responsible for leading IUID implementation activities. As
                           previously discussed, that office delegated the responsibility to
                           ODASD(SCI). In addition, the slides discuss DOD policies that enforce
                           management directives concerning IUID implementation and that are
                           being updated to incorporate IUID. The second element of DOD’s
                           framework for managing and implementing IUID is a January 2012
                           timeline listing several planned implementation actions from fiscal years
                           2012 through 2017.

                           The components have also taken some steps toward improving their
                           management of IUID implementation. The Army and Marine Corps are
                           using some quantifiable goals—and certain IUID marking criteria—to
                           track the progress of their legacy marking efforts. In addition, officials
                           from some components told us that they had inspected some newly-
                           acquired items to determine whether these items were sufficiently marked
                           with IUID labels. For the items they reviewed, those inspections helped to
                           detect problems in contractors’ marking of items. Further, the Marine
                           Corps and Air Force are planning to integrate IUID elements into
                           implementation schedules for their Enterprise Resource Planning
                           systems.


                           Page 14                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD Has Not Fully            DOD has not fully incorporated internal controls, such as quantifiable
Incorporated Certain         goals or metrics to assess progress, into its framework for management
Internal Controls into Its   of IUID implementation. An agency’s establishment of internal controls is
                             key in helping an agency meet its goals, and we have previously reported
Framework for                that in the absence of quantifiable targets, it is difficult for officials to
Management of IUID           assess whether goals were achieved, because comparisons cannot be
Implementation               made between projected performance and actual results. 32 DOD has
                             identified tens of millions of legacy items that meet its IUID marking
                             criteria, but has not developed a full set of quantifiable goals or metrics to
                             assess its progress in marking these items. The task force has stated that
                             DOD will not achieve IUID’s potential benefits unless DOD marks a
                             “significant” number of these legacy items, and an ODASD(SCI) official
                             stated that DOD needs to mark a “majority” of these legacy items by fiscal
                             year 2015. However, the task force and ODASD(SCI) have not
                             quantitatively defined the terms “significant” or “majority,” respectively.
                             Further, according to the task force report, the number of legacy items
                             DOD will mark is an important factor in determining when DOD may begin
                             to realize IUID’s projected financial benefits. Therefore, without metrics to
                             quantify its progress in marking legacy items, it is unclear whether DOD
                             will begin to realize these benefits by fiscal year 2017, the year in which
                             the task force report projects these benefits may begin.

                             Another key internal control is the use of performance measures, and we
                             have previously reported that such metrics for a program’s main efforts—
                             including interim milestones and schedules—give decision makers the
                             information needed to assess progress and estimate realistic completion
                             dates. 33 In its framework for managing and implementing IUID,
                             ODASD(SCI) has an IUID timeline that contains targets for several types
                             of IUID implementation efforts, including requirements and business
                             rules; legacy-item marking; and Enterprise Resource Planning system
                             updates. In addition, the DASD(SCI) stated that he has asked
                             components to provide his office with IUID implementation plans that
                             contain interim milestones for the marking of legacy items. However,
                             ODASD(SCI) and the components have not fully developed interim
                             milestones, schedules, or metrics to assess DOD’s progress in IUID
                             implementation. For example, neither ODASD(SCI) nor the components



                             32
                              GAO-10-835.
                             33
                              GAO-11-53 and GAO-08-883T.




                             Page 15                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                          have adequate schedules for the integration of IUID with their Enterprise
                          Resource Planning systems.

                          We have previously reported that an important element of measuring
                          performance is the collection of data that are complete and consistent
                          enough to document performance and support decision making. 34 As
                          previously discussed, DOD has established IUID marking criteria for
                          different categories of inventory. We found that some components used
                          these criteria to track their progress in marking legacy items; however,
                          others did not. The DASD(SCI) stated that he has asked the components
                          to periodically report on their progress in marking legacy items to his
                          office. However, he stated that he has not asked the components to use
                          DOD’s IUID marking criteria in their reporting.


DOD Has Not Completed a   We have previously reported that another key element of best
Full Analysis of IUID’s   management practices is analysis of return on investment. A complete
Return on Investment      analysis on the return on investment consists of several best practices
                          identified in previously published GAO and DOD work. The practices
                          identified by GAO include providing estimates on all potential costs and
                          the timing of costs. 35 DOD has identified best practices for analyzing
                          benefits, and making recommendations, on the basis of relevant
                          evaluation criteria as a best practice. 36 In addition, GAO has reported that
                          performing a sensitivity analysis of these estimates demonstrates the
                          effects on the cost and schedule of an assumption that may no longer be
                          valid. 37 DOD began implementation of IUID in fiscal year 2003, and in
                          fiscal year 2009 the task force estimated some costs and benefits of
                          implementation. The task force report discusses how IUID could improve
                          DOD’s logistical efficiency and effectiveness. In addition, the report
                          provides a “rough order of magnitude” assessment of certain costs and




                          34
                           GAO/GGD-96-118.
                          35
                           GAO-09-3SP.
                          36
                           DOD, Product Support Business Case Analysis Guidebook (Apr. 2011).
                          37
                           GAO-09-3SP.




                          Page 16                                                GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                               financial benefits of implementation; 38 and projects when DOD may begin
                               to realize financial benefits. However, the components, ODASD(SCI), and
                               the task force did not fully follow certain best practices for the estimation
                               of costs and financial benefits. As a result, DOD does not have a full
                               analysis of IUID’s potential return on investment.

DOD Has Not Fully Estimated    DOD’s components could not provide complete historical and planned
Costs of IUID Implementation   spending data for IUID implementation, and ODASD(SCI) has not tracked
                               the components’ spending or budget requests for IUID. According to GAO
                               best practices for cost estimation, historical data on the cost of a system
                               is important for projecting a credible estimate of future costs. 39 Although
                               the Marine Corps and Air Force provided us with complete estimates of
                               the amount of money they have spent in their IUID budgets, the Army and
                               Navy provided incomplete estimates of their IUID spending, and the
                               Defense Logistics Agency did not provide an estimate. These
                               components were not able to provide complete estimates because they
                               do not track IUID spending as a distinct budget category. In addition,
                               ODASD(SCI) does not track the five components’ historical spending on
                               IUID.

                               Although the components were not able to provide complete historical
                               spending information, according to the information they provided, the
                               components spent at least $219 million on IUID implementation from
                               fiscal year 2004 through fiscal year 2011. Officials explained that they
                               spent this money on a variety of IUID implementation efforts, including the
                               acquisition of marking equipment, such as IUID label printers and
                               scanners; the marking of legacy items; and the development of software
                               to support marking processes. Table 1 summarizes the five components’
                               reported historical spending on IUID over 8 fiscal years.




                               38
                                 According to GAO’s previously published work on cost estimation, a rough order of
                               magnitude can be developed when a quick estimate is needed and few details are
                               available. Because it is developed from limited data and in a short time, a rough order of
                               magnitude analysis should never be considered a budget-quality cost estimate. See
                               GAO-09-3SP.
                               39
                                GAO-09-3SP.




                               Page 17                                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Table 1: Components’ Reported Spending on IUID Implementation in Fiscal Years
2004 through 2011

    Current dollars in millions
                                                                              Defense
    Fiscal                                      Marine                        Logistics
    year                 Army       Navy        Corps       Air Force         Agency      Total
    2004                    0.2     Did not         0.0             0.0       Did not        0.2
                                    report                                    report
    2005                    0.2     Did not         0.0             0.0       Did not        0.2
                                    report                                    report
    2006                    0.8     Did not         0.0           12.3        Did not      13.1
                                    report                                    report
    2007                    0.6     3.6             0.0           14.1        Did not      18.3
                                                                              report
    2008                    0.6     8.5             7.0           23.1        Did not      39.2
                                                                              report
    2009                    2.2     3.0            27.0           24.4        Did not      56.6
                                                                              report
    2010                    1.9     Did not        23.2           33.4        Did not      58.5
                                    report                                    report
    2011                    2.5     Did not        21.1             9.3       Did not      32.9
                                    report                                    report
                                                                                               a
    Total                   9.0     15.1           78.3          116.6        NA           219
Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.
a
The components’ total reported spending in fiscal year 2011 dollars is $226.1 million.


The Army provided an estimate of the money spent on IUID
implementation in its depots over this period but, as an official explained,
could not provide an estimate of IUID spending outside of its depots
because it does not track IUID funding as a distinct budget category. The
Navy was also able to report on a portion of its IUID spending that was
executed by one office within the Navy, but Navy officials stated that
because the Navy has not funded IUID implementation in a centralized
fashion, the Navy cannot track how much other Navy offices have spent
in implementing IUID. An official from the Defense Logistics Agency
explained that while the agency does spend money on IUID
implementation, it does not have a distinct budget for IUID
implementation, and so cannot specifically track its IUID costs.

With regard to future spending, the Marine Corps and the Air Force
reported that they requested a total of $19.2 million (Marine Corps: $10.8
million; Air Force: $8.4 million) for IUID implementation in fiscal year
2012. However, the Army and Navy were unable to provide their budget


Page 18                                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
requests for fiscal year 2012 because they do not budget for IUID
spending as a distinct budget category. According to officials from the
Defense Logistics Agency, an office within the agency submitted a
request for IUID implementation spending, but this request was not
included in the agency’s final fiscal year 2012 budget request.

In addition to the components not fully tracking their spending on IUID
implementation, ODASD(SCI) does not track the components’ spending
on IUID implementation. ODASD(SCI) explained that the office uses a set
of “scorecards” to track the components’ IUID implementation efforts. In
2011, ODASD(SCI) received two sets of scorecards, the first in January
and the second in November. In our review of these scorecards, we found
that the components do not report information on either the amount of
money they have spent on IUID implementation, or the amount of money
that they plan to request for IUID implementation.

In its report, the task force estimates that DOD would need to invest $3.2
billion to realize the benefits of IUID implementation. 40 This estimate
includes several types of costs, such as the cost of marking legacy items
and the labor required to perform various implementation tasks. However,
the estimate does not include the following four costs:

•    The task force could not completely estimate the costs associated
     with how individual logistics processes would need to change to
     incorporate the use of IUID technology, because it did not have
     sufficient information about these changes. As a relatively new
     technology, IUID is not widely used in existing DOD logistics
     processes. That means that the components will have to modify
     existing processes to use IUID. DOD has made some progress in
     defining the type of logistics processes that would need to change to
     incorporate IUID. For example, according to ODASD(SCI), DOD
     intends to modify 10 different categories of logistics processes, such
     as receipt and distribution of items. DOD has made some progress in
     planning for such modifications. For example, the Army Materiel
     Command has determined that 11 of its logistics processes will
     incorporate IUID functionality through one of the Army’s Enterprise



40
  According to officials from the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition,
Technology, and Logistics; the task force; and components, the estimates of the costs and
benefits of IUID implementation that have been produced by the task force are the only
estimates of their kind within DOD.




Page 19                                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
    Resource Planning systems. However, according to Army officials, the
    Army has not yet defined the distinct steps at which personnel will use
    IUID, within its logistics processes. Further, according to DOD
    officials, the components have not determined the full number or type
    of business processes within these categories that need to be
    modified. In addition, in their 2011 scorecard updates, the Army,
    Marine Corps, and Air Force reported challenges or concerns with
    progress in defining how their business processes will require
    modification because of IUID. Without information on the number of
    logistics processes that will require modification and the specific steps
    that will need to change to accommodate the incorporation of IUID,
    the task force could not have completely estimated costs. Several
    DOD officials we spoke with agreed with this assessment, explaining
    that without this information, the task force was not able to completely
    estimate IUID implementation costs.
•   The task force report states that the task force did not include the cost
    of modifying Enterprise Resource Planning systems to share and use
    UII data because the functionality to use UII data is inherent in these
    systems. However, if DOD is to achieve benefits from IUID, Enterprise
    Resource Planning systems must have the ability to share and
    analyze UII data, and according to DOD officials the ability to perform
    these two functions is not always inherent in these systems. For
    example, the core software package for one of the Army’s Enterprise
    Resource Planning systems has the capability to accept UII data, but
    in its current version this capability is not activated. For the system to
    accept UII data, the capability must be activated in a future update.
    According to DOD officials, such modifications to Enterprise Resource
    Planning systems can incur costs. Navy officials explained that the
    task force report does not include the additional cost that would be
    required to modify the Navy’s systems to communicate with other
    components’ systems, or to analyze UII data to improve logistics
    processes. By not including certain costs to modify the relevant
    Enterprise Resource Planning systems, the task force may have left
    out a substantial set of costs.
•   The report did not include the full cost of marking newly-acquired
    items with IUID. Because the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation
    Supplement contract clauses provide that contractors are responsible
    for marking or registering items, contractors are likely to build the cost
    of marking items into their contract pricing. Therefore, while contractor
    personnel are marking the items in question, this cost is borne by
    DOD to the extent that the contractor has built the cost of marking
    qualifying items into the costs of the goods or services provided.
    According to component officials, the components do not know how
    much of a newly-acquired item’s cost is attributable to contractors’


Page 20                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                              marking of that item. However, according to estimates in the task
                              force report and provided by the Air Force, contractors’ average cost
                              to mark a newly-acquired item is about $30 to $50. On the basis of
                              GAO analysis of information from the DOD registry on the number
                              and rate of contractors’ registration of newly-acquired items in
                              January 2012, IUID marking by contractors could result in
                              approximately $27 million to $45 million in marking costs to the
                              components per year. This cost is not included in the task force’s
                              estimate.
                          •   As previously discussed, an IUID label on an item may contain
                              human-readable information, such as the item’s National Stock
                              Number. In addition, the label has a data matrix that contains
                              information about the labeled item. For example, the matrix contains
                              various pieces of information that make up the globally unique string
                              of numbers referred to as the item’s UII number. Contractors have
                              delivered items to DOD that have labels with deficient data matrices. If
                              a label has a deficient data matrix, DOD cannot use the label’s data
                              matrix to track or manage items. The task force did not include the
                              cost to the components of fixing these deficient IUID data matrices on
                              contractor-marked items. Although component officials were not able
                              to estimate the financial cost of fixing these data matrices, officials
                              explained that there is productivity loss associated with fixing them.
                              For example, according to Army and Marine Corps officials, their
                              verification of a deficient matrix’s missing or incorrect data requires an
                              average of 10 to 15 minutes, and sometimes requires significantly
                              more time, when additional research into the item is needed. This
                              investment of time, multiplied by many thousands of deficient data
                              matrices, may result in a substantial amount of lost productivity for
                              DOD components’ personnel.
DOD May Not Have          The task force report assessed the potential benefits of IUID
Appropriately Estimated   implementation by examining three categories of logistics processes:
Financial Benefits        intensive item management, property accountability, and product life
                          cycle management. According to the task force’s analysis, DOD’s
                          implementation of IUID is unlikely to result in substantial financial benefit
                          in the categories of intensive item management or property accountability.
                          However, the report did discuss potential nonfinancial benefits of IUID
                          implementation in these two categories. The report states that the use of
                          IUID in intensive item management could enable strict accountability and
                          control of DOD’s most critical assets—such as nuclear weapon–related
                          material—across parts of DOD’s supply chain, enhancing the security and
                          safety of such assets. Moreover, according to the report, implementing
                          IUID into property-accountability processes on the enterprise level could
                          enable DOD to track equipment assets throughout their life cycle. The



                          Page 21                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
report explains that one benefit of tracking on the enterprise level is that
DOD may be able to more quickly address equipment losses. Further,
according to an official from the Office of Defense Procurement and
Acquisition Policy, the use of IUID in DOD’s logistics processes could
lead to improved data quality that may result from automatically entering
data into IT systems, as opposed to manually entering data.

While the report does not estimate substantial savings through the
integration of IUID with intensive item management or property-
accountability processes, the report estimates that IUID implementation
could result in annual savings of $3 billion to $5 billion through the
implementation of IUID in a collection of maintenance processes referred
to as product life cycle management. 41 According to our review of the
report and a task force official, the key to achieving savings through
product life cycle management is to track and manage individual items by
a unique identifier. That approach is called serialized item management.
According to DOD officials and the task force report, DOD can achieve
serialized item management by using any type of unique identifier,
including a traditional serial number; a UII number; or a unique identifier
provided by a different type of technology, such as a radio frequency
identification device or a contact memory button.

The task force estimated achieving substantial financial benefits from
product life cycle management, but it used a methodology for estimating
these benefits that may not be appropriate to the scale and complexity of
DOD’s IUID implementation efforts. The IUID task force report states that
projected savings will gradually increase as implementation of IUID
spreads throughout DOD and, by fiscal years 2016 to 2017, DOD may
reach a break-even point at which its annual financial savings would
equal its annual spending for implementation of IUID. After fiscal year
2017, the report projects that DOD may pass the break-even point, and
could begin to realize the annual savings of $3 billion to $5 billion.

To develop its estimate of cost savings through the use of serialized item
management in product life cycle management, the task force used the
following methodology:



41
  According to the task force report, product life cycle management is a collection of
processes that include reliability-centered maintenance, total-ownership cost
management, and precision maintenance.




Page 22                                                       GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
•    Reviewed case studies of five DOD maintenance programs that use
     serialized item management. The task force observed that by using
     serialized item management, 42 the maintenance programs reduced
     costs by an average of 4 to 6 percent in labor and materiel costs for
     maintenance, and in the cost to transport items to maintenance
     locations.
•    Next, the task force estimated maintenance costs by adding DOD’s
     fiscal year 2008 budget for depot- and field-level maintenance to
     DOD’s fiscal year 2009 budget for maintenance transportation, which
     together total about $83.2 billion.
•    Finally, by applying the 4 to 6 percent reduction to $83.2 billion in
     annual maintenance costs, the task force estimated that an annual
     savings of $3 billion to $5 billion could result from the use of serialized
     item management in product life cycle management maintenance
     processes.
However, three aspects of this methodology call into question whether it
is reasonable to assume that DOD-wide use of IUID technology in
maintenance processes would lead to the savings estimated by the task
force.

•    The task force estimated DOD-wide savings on the basis of a limited
     number of case studies, and conclusions developed from these
     studies may not be applicable to the substantial complexity and size
     of the DOD-wide maintenance enterprise. According to the Office of
     the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Maintenance Policy
     and Programs, DOD’s maintenance operations support a wide range
     of weapon systems including about 280 ships, 14,000 aircraft and
     helicopters, 900 strategic missiles, and 30,000 combat vehicles. Our
     review of the Task Force report indicates the five case studies
     address—in total—five individual weapon systems, whereas DOD
     performs maintenance on hundreds of different systems. Moreover,
     four of the five case studies address either Air Force or Navy
     programs; only one addressed Army programs. Because of the limited
     scope of the case studies used by the task force, conclusions based
     on these case studies may not apply to the DOD-wide maintenance
     budgets that the task force used in its estimation of savings.
•    The case studies did not address programs that use IUID as the
     technology that provides a unique identifier to track items through


42
  We did not validate the cost-savings estimates of the case studies reviewed by the task
force.




Page 23                                                     GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                                       serialized item management. Rather, the case studies addressed
                                       programs that use other means of uniquely tracking items, such as
                                       contact memory buttons. Thus, the case studies do not consider costs
                                       that may be specific to IUID technology, such as the cost to purchase
                                       scanners or software to read data matrices, or the cost to replace
                                       deficient IUID data matrices. Because of this, it may be inaccurate to
                                       assume that maintenance programs using IUID technology will
                                       achieve the same type or amount of savings claimed by the case
                                       studies of programs using other technologies.
                                 •     Even when a logistics program experiences cost savings after
                                       introducing a new technology or process, it can be difficult to link the
                                       savings directly to a specific cause or technology. For example, we
                                       visited an installation that is using a combination of IUID, passive
                                       radio frequency identification, new database software, and a
                                       reorganization of warehouse space to reduce the cost of managing its
                                       supply chain. However, an installation official explained that it was not
                                       possible to determine the extent to which the cost savings were
                                       attributable to a specific change, such as the introduction of IUID. For
                                       this reason, it may have been incorrect for the task force to assume a
                                       link between estimated cost savings and the use of a specific
                                       technology such as IUID.
The Task Force Report Did Not    We have previously reported that every estimate is uncertain because of
Include a Sensitivity Analysis   the assumptions that must be made about future projections, and
                                 because of this, cost estimators should always perform a sensitivity
                                 analysis that demonstrates the effects on the cost and schedule of an
                                 assumption that may no longer be valid. 43 The task force report estimates
                                 that DOD could begin to realize financial savings from IUID
                                 implementation after fiscal year 2017, and explains that its cost and
                                 benefit estimates are conditional, depending on a number of
                                 assumptions. However, the task force report does not contain a sensitivity
                                 analysis for either its cost or its benefit estimates. As a result, the task
                                 force’s report does not portray the potential effects of changing key
                                 assumptions on the report’s estimates of cost, financial benefits, or the
                                 time frames in which the report estimates DOD may realize financial
                                 benefits.

                                 There is a substantial amount of uncertainty associated with key
                                 assumptions on which the task force report’s estimates are based. For



                                 43
                                     GAO-09-3SP.




                                 Page 24                                              GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
example, the task force report states that the cost to mark legacy items is
one of the primary drivers of IUID implementation costs. However, as
discussed in more detail later, DOD may face challenges in determining
the total number of legacy items it must mark. The task force’s cost
estimate does not reflect the range of costs associated with marking a
population of legacy items that—according to DOD estimates—may
range between about 60 million and 122 million items. In addition, the
task force’s estimate of financial benefits assumes that the components’
IT systems, including their Enterprise Resource Planning systems, will
have the capability to use UII data for product life cycle management in
2015. However, as discussed later in the report, the components cannot
reliably predict when their Enterprise Resource Planning systems will be
able to use UII data for product life cycle management. The task force’s
estimate of when DOD will begin to realize these benefits does not reflect
the possibility that the components’ Enterprise Resource Planning
systems will not have this capability in fiscal year 2015.

Also, the task force’s estimates of financial benefits assume IUID
implementation across each of DOD’s components. However, as
discussed in more detail later, the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Logistics
Agency are currently not carrying out key IUID implementation efforts. For
example, the Navy is not systematically marking legacy items and the
potential integration of IUID with its Enterprise Resource Planning system
for Supply is unfunded. In addition, the Air Force is not actively integrating
IUID into its Enterprise Resource Planning system. Also, the Defense
Logistics Agency is not marking legacy items. The task force’s estimate of
financial benefits does not consider that some benefits may not be
achieved as a result of DOD’s partial implementation of IUID. Without a
sensitivity analysis of its cost and benefit estimates, the task force report
does not provide DOD leaders with information about how well the
estimates may hold up under reasonable changes to the assumptions on
which the estimates are based.




Page 25                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                       DOD components and contractors have been marking items with IUID,
DOD and Contractors    but due to several challenges, it is difficult for DOD to assess its progress
Have Made Some         in marking items or ensuring that contractors are sufficiently marking
                       items. DOD components have reported marking more than 2 million
Progress Marking       legacy items, 44 and DOD has identified tens of millions of legacy items
Items with IUID, but   that meet its IUID marking criteria. But, DOD does not have complete
DOD Faces              information on the total number of legacy items that its components have
                       marked and must mark in the future. Moreover, DOD has not developed a
Challenges in          full set of quantifiable goals to assess its progress in marking these items.
Assessing Progress     Further, DOD has not set interim milestones to determine the
                       components’ progress in marking items, and DOD’s components do not
toward Goals and       use consistent criteria to track progress in legacy item marking. With
Ensuring That Items    respect to newly-acquired items and pieces of government-furnished
                       property, DOD reports that as of January 2012, more than 2,500
Are Sufficiently       contractors had delivered newly-acquired items to DOD and had
Marked                 registered over 11.5 million such items and pieces of government-
                       furnished property in DOD’s IUID Registry. However, DOD cannot ensure
                       that contractors are sufficiently marking all of the items that require IUID
                       labels, for two reasons: DOD reporting requirements do not provide
                       assurance that appropriate marking clauses are included in all contracts,
                       and DOD components do not have systematic processes to assess the
                       sufficiency of IUID data matrices. As a result, DOD may be unable to
                       ensure that contractors are marking all newly-acquired items and pieces
                       of government-furnished property that require IUID labels, and DOD
                       cannot know the extent to which contractors are supplying IUID data
                       matrices that the components need to track items with IUID technology.




                       44
                          As previously discussed, we have separated qualifying items into two categories: legacy
                       items and contractor-marked items. Items are marked with IUID labels either by DOD
                       components or by contractors. If an item qualifies for IUID marking, the DOD components
                       are responsible for marking the item if it is currently in their inventory (legacy items), while
                       contractors are responsible for marking the item if they are delivering it to DOD, or are
                       using property furnished to them by the government (contractor-marked items).
                       Contractors either mark items that DOD is purchasing (newly-acquired items), or items
                       that DOD has provided to contractors (government-furnished property).




                       Page 26                                                         GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD Components Have           DOD has made some progress in marking legacy items. In late 2004, the
Made Some Progress in         Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
Marking Legacy Items, but     Logistics established the requirement for DOD components to mark
                              legacy items with IUID labels and for the military services to develop
Several Challenges Make       plans to accomplish such marking. An Army depot began marking legacy
Progress toward Marking       items in 2005, and according to information from DOD’s IUID Registry,
Goals Difficult to Assess     DOD components began registering legacy items in 2006. As of October
                              2011, the components reported marking more than 2 million legacy items.
                              However, DOD does not have complete information on the total number
                              of items to be marked and that have been marked; DOD has not
                              quantifiably defined its marking goals according to DOD’s IUID marking
                              criteria; DOD has not set interim milestones to determine the
                              components’ progress in marking items; and DOD’s components do not
                              use consistent criteria to track progress in legacy item marking.

Total Number of Items to Be   The components provided us with estimates of the total number of items
Marked and That Have Been     that must be marked in the future, according to DOD’s IUID marking
Marked Is Uncertain           criteria. According to the components, the total number of items in their
                              inventories that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria is about 122 million. In
                              addition, the components provided us with estimates of the total number
                              of legacy items they have marked, if estimates were available. As of
                              October 2011, 45 the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force reported that they
                              had marked a total of about 2.7 million legacy items. The Navy and
                              Defense Logistics Agency did not report the marking of legacy items.

                              •    The Army reported that its inventory contains about 15 million items
                                   that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria, and that it had marked about
                                   1.2 million legacy items.
                              •    The Marine Corps reported that its inventory contains about 3.1
                                   million items that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria, and that it had
                                   marked about 0.3 million legacy items.




                              45
                                Each of the five DOD components provided data in October 2011. To generate its
                              October 2011 data, the Marine Corps used a method that was not consistent with the
                              method used by the Army and Air Force to generate their data. To make its data
                              consistent with the other two components, the Marine Corps adjusted its method, and in
                              January 2012 provided us with data that are consistent with the data provided by the Army
                              and Air Force. The Air Force reported additional information in November 2011. We
                              included this additional information in the Air Force’s estimate of the total number of
                              legacy items in its inventory that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria.




                              Page 27                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
•    The Air Force reported that its inventory contains about 13.3 million
     items that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria, and that it had marked
     about 1.2 million legacy items.
•    The Navy reported that its inventory contains about 60.6 million items
     that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria. However, the Navy could not
     provide an estimate of the number of legacy items it had marked.
     According to a Navy official, there are “pockets of compliance” within
     the Navy, in which certain organizations had marked legacy items with
     IUID labels. But the Navy does not have a Navy-wide, systematic plan
     or approach to legacy marking; it does not track the number of legacy
     items being marked within these pockets; and it characterized its
     progress in legacy marking as “minimal.”
•    The Defense Logistics Agency reported that its inventory contains
     about 30.0 million items that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria.
     However, according to the agency, it is not currently marking legacy
     items; does not have the capability or required technical information to
     mark the legacy items in its inventory; and does not plan to mark
     legacy items in the future. For example, the agency does not have
     marking equipment. In addition, agency officials explained that the
     agency lacks information on how to appropriately mark legacy items
     with IUID labels. 46 According to the officials, the other components
     must provide this information to the agency, because the components
     manage the items that the agency stores in its inventory.
With regard to the total number of items to be marked in the future, some
component officials stated that their estimates are incomplete. For
example, Army officials explained that their estimate does not include
certain classified items because the system they used to estimate the
Army’s legacy item inventory does not interface with systems that track
those classified items. Navy officials stated that their estimate does not
include items that are embedded in other items—such as a circuit board
inside of an aircraft—because of system limitations and the time it would
have taken to include these items in the Navy’s estimate. Further,
Defense Logistics Agency officials explained that their estimate does not
include items that are classified by the components as serially managed.
Moreover, the components’ estimates of legacy items to be marked in the
future do not match the estimate of the total number of legacy items to be
marked according to the task force’s report. According to the report, DOD


46
  The components carry out the engineering support activity that determines where the
label should be placed on the item. Where the IUID mark is placed on the item influences
the mark’s durability and usefulness.




Page 28                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
has a total of about 60 million legacy items to be marked. However, the
components report that they must mark a total of about 122 million legacy
items, and the Navy alone estimates it has 60.6 million legacy items to
mark in the future. Because the task force’s estimate is 49 percent
smaller than the components’ estimates, DOD may not have complete
information on the total number of legacy items in its inventory that meet
IUID marking criteria, and that it must mark in the future.

As stated above, the components reported to us that they had marked
about 2.7 million legacy items. However, information from the DOD IUID
Registry indicates that about 4.9 million legacy items were registered as
of October 2011. 47 As previously discussed, an item’s UII may be entered
into the registry in one of two ways. First, the item can be marked with an
IUID label, and the UII associated with that label is registered. Second,
DOD or contractors can establish a virtual UII, registering an item before
it is eventually marked with a label. Because the registry’s estimate of
legacy items registered is 45 percent larger than the components’
estimate, it is unclear how many legacy items that DOD has marked.
Table 2 summarizes the components’ estimates of the total number of
legacy items in their inventories that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria;
the task force’s estimate of the total number of legacy items in the
components’ inventories that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria; the
components’ estimates of the total number of legacy items they have
marked; and the total number of legacy items recorded in the DOD IUID
Registry.




47
   The DOD IUID Registry contains information on legacy items marked by DOD
organizations other than the five components addressed in this report. However,
according to an official from the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, the
five DOD components addressed in this report are conducting the vast majority of legacy
item marking, and thus it is valid to assume that only a very small fraction of the legacy
items recorded in the registry were recorded by DOD organizations other than these five
components.




Page 29                                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Table 2: Number of Legacy Items in Components’ Inventories That Meet DOD’s IUID
Marking Criteria and That the Components Have Marked, as Of October 2011

    Items in millions
                           Components’             Task force
                            estimates of           estimate of Components’             DOD registry
                               number of     number of legacy estimates of               information
                        legacy items that      items that meet   number of             on number of
    DOD                  meet DOD’s IUID           DOD’s IUID legacy items              legacy items
                                         a                    b                                     c
    component            marking criteria     marking criteria     marked                 registered
    Army                             15.0                                       1.2
    Navy                             60.6                                  Did not
                                                                           provide
    Marine Corps                      3.1                                       0.3
    Air Force                        13.3                                       1.2
    Defense                          30.0                                       0.0
    Logistics
    Agency
                                                                                                         d
    Total                           122.0                   60.0                2.7                4.9
    Size                                                    62.0                                    2.2
    difference
    between totals
    Percent                                                 51.0                                   45.0
    difference
    between totals
Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.
a
 The Navy estimate was completed in December 2009. According to Navy officials, the Navy
developed its estimate on the basis of the task force’s recommended revisions of DOD’s IUID
marking criteria, which were adopted by DOD in December 2010. The Army, Air Force, and Defense
Logistics Agency estimates are as of October 2011; the Marine Corps’ estimate is as of January
2012.
b
 The task force first reported its estimate in June 2010 and reported the same estimate in March
2011.
c
 The DOD IUID Registry contains information on legacy items marked by DOD organizations other
than the five components addressed in this report. However, according to an official from the Office of
Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, the five DOD components addressed in this report are
conducting the vast majority of legacy item marking, and thus it is valid to assume that only a very
small fraction of the legacy items recorded in the registry were recorded by DOD organizations other
than these five components.
d
 According to ODASD(SCI), the DOD IUID Registry contained 1.6 million virtual UIIs as of October
2011. Officials stated that these virtual UIIs may account for a portion of the difference between the
components’ reported total of 2.7 million items marked and the DOD IUID Registry’s total of 4.9
million items registered.




Page 30                                                               GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Not All of the Goals               An agency’s establishment of goals is a key internal control, and we have
Established by DOD for             previously reported that in the absence of quantifiable targets, it is difficult
Measuring Progress in Marking      for officials to assess whether goals were achieved, because
Legacy Items Are Quantifiable      comparisons cannot be made between projected performance and actual
                                   results. 48 In 2010, the task force recommended that DOD focus its legacy
                                   marking efforts on those items from which DOD could derive the greatest
                                   benefit. According to an ODASD(SCI) official, it is DOD’s goal to complete
                                   the marking of the “majority” of these legacy items by the end of fiscal
                                   year 2015. In addition, according to the task force’s report, DOD’s
                                   marking of a “significant” number of legacy items is one of the keys to
                                   realizing the potential financial benefits of IUID implementation. We have
                                   previously reported that, where appropriate, to more easily assess
                                   agency progress, performance goals should have quantifiable, numerical
                                   targets. 49 However, neither ODASD(SCI) nor the task force has quantified
                                   DOD’s goals of marking a “majority” of legacy items, or a “significant”
                                   number of legacy items, respectively. Further, while some DOD
                                   components have quantifiable goals for marking certain legacy items,
                                   others do not. As previously discussed, DOD has established IUID
                                   marking criteria for different categories of inventory, such as certain items
                                   with a unit acquisition cost of $5,000 or greater; certain items that are
                                   serially managed; certain items that are controlled (sensitive or
                                   classified); and certain depot-level reparable items. We found that some
                                   components had set quantifiable goals using these criteria. For instance,
                                   the Marine Corps has quantifiable goals for each of the categories
                                   defined by DOD’s IUID marking criteria. The Army has quantifiable goals
                                   for each of these categories except for items that are controlled (sensitive
                                   or classified). Neither the Navy nor the Air Force have established
                                   quantifiable goals defined by DOD’s IUID marking criteria.

DOD Has Not Established a          Once quantifiable goals have been established, we have previously
Full Set of Quantifiable Interim   reported that metrics for a program’s main efforts—such as interim
Milestones for Measuring           milestones and schedules—give decision makers the information needed
Progress in Marking Legacy         to assess progress and estimate realistic completion dates. 50 As
Items                              previously discussed, we have noted that quantifiable target—such as
                                   interim milestones—can assist organizations in tracking progress toward



                                   48
                                    GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1 and GAO-10-835.
                                   49
                                    GAO-03-143.
                                   50
                                    GAO-08-883T.




                                   Page 31                                              GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
their goals. For example, quantifiable interim milestones could assist
DOD in evaluating whether the components are marking legacy items at a
rate that will allow DOD to meet its fiscal year 2015 goal of marking a
“majority” or “significant” number of legacy items in its inventory.

As of January 2012, ODASD(SCI), the task force, and the components
had not fully developed quantifiable interim milestones to track progress
toward DOD’s goals for marking legacy items. Neither ODASD(SCI) nor
the task force had set interim milestones for the number of items that
should be marked in fiscal year 2015, DOD’s target date for marking a
“majority” of legacy items and a “significant” number of legacy items.
Further, while some components have set interim milestones for tracking
their progress in marking certain legacy items, others have not. For
instance, the Air Force has established interim milestones for the marking
of some legacy items, such as class VII equipment, 51 but it is still working
on developing interim milestones for others, such as class II items. The
Marine Corps has established a goal of completing the marking of about
34 percent of its legacy items by December 2012. However, it has
established no interim milestones. Similarly, neither the Navy nor the
Defense Logistics Agency has developed interim milestones.

In January 2012, ODASD(SCI) provided us with an IUID timeline
containing targets that are not quantified. The IUID timeline indicates that
ODASD(SCI) expects the components to be marking legacy items at least
through fiscal year 2017. In addition, ODASD(SCI)’s IUID timeline lays
out fiscal year 2012 targets for the components to determine the number
of items they need to mark, and fiscal year 2013 targets for the
components to report on their legacy marking progress to ODASD(SCI).
According to ODASD(SCI) officials, the office intends for the components
to use the Federal Logistics Information System to eventually provide




51
  DOD organizes its materiel using a number of different categories. One such category is
classes of supply, in which DOD has defined 10 classes. Among these are class VII,
which contains items such as aircraft engines; and class II, which contains items such as
electronics and weapons.




Page 32                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                            quantifiable reports on their legacy marking efforts. 52 In addition, the
                            DASD(SCI) stated that he has asked the components to develop
                            quantifiable interim milestones for legacy marking. The components’ use
                            of the system may provide them with a means to report progress in
                            regard to these milestones. However, ODASD(SCI) officials stated that
                            the system does not yet have this capability and they do not yet have an
                            estimate for when the components could begin their reporting. Until
                            ODASD(SCI) and the components begin to use such milestones to
                            assess DOD’s progress in marking legacy items, it is difficult to know
                            whether DOD’s current number of marked legacy items represents what
                            DOD intended to achieve, almost 7 years after DOD established the
                            requirement to mark legacy items.

DOD Components Use          We have previously reported that an important element of measuring
Inconsistent Criteria for   performance is the collection of data that are complete and consistent
Tracking Progress           enough to document performance and support decision making. 53
                            However, we found that the various DOD components track their
                            progress in the marking of legacy items by using different criteria. As
                            previously discussed, DOD has established IUID marking criteria for
                            different categories of inventory. We found that some components used
                            these criteria to track their progress, while others did not. For instance,
                            the Army and the Marine Corps currently use DOD’s IUID marking criteria
                            to track their progress in marking legacy items. The Air Force defines its
                            progress in marking legacy items according to military classes of supply,
                            which is not one of the categories of inventory in DOD’s IUID marking
                            criteria. ODASD(SCI)’s January 2012 IUID timeline does not indicate
                            whether either ODASD(SCI) or the components intend to track and report
                            legacy marking progress using consistent criteria. Without the
                            components reporting complete and comparable data, DOD’s
                            assessment of its progress in marking legacy items will remain limited.
                            ODASD(SCI) and the components’ use of numerical goals, interim




                            52
                               According to DOD, the Federal Logistic Information System is the primary computer
                            system through which users are able to access, maintain, store, and retrieve necessary
                            information related to items of supply in the Federal Catalog Program, which provides a
                            uniform system of item identification; precludes/eliminates different identifications of like
                            items; reveals interchangeability among items; aids in parts standardization; facilitates
                            intra- and interdepartmental logistics support; and improves materiel management and
                            military effectiveness by promoting efficiency and economy in logistics operations.
                            53
                              GAO/GGD-96-118.




                            Page 33                                                         GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
milestones, and the tracking of progress with categories defined by
DOD’s IUID marking criteria is summarized in table 3.

Table 3: DOD’s Methods of Assessing Progress in Legacy Item Marking Using
Categories Defined by Its IUID Marking Criteria, as of October 2011

                           Is organization using categories defined by DOD’s IUID marking
                                                               a
                                                       criteria
                                                     Interim
    Organization         Numerical goals             milestones         Tracking progress
    ODASD(SCI)           No                          No                 No
    Army                 Yes, for 4 categories       No                 4 categories of DOD’s IUID
                                                                        marking criteria
    Navy                 No                          No                 No
    Marine Corps         Yes, for 5 categories       No                 All categories of DOD’s
                                                                        IUID marking criteria
    Air Force            No                          No                 Military class of supply,
                                                                        which is not a category of
                                                                        DOD’s IUID marking criteria
    Defense              Yes, for 4 categories       No                 No
    Logistics
    Agency
Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.
a
 As previously discussed, DOD has established criteria for the types of items required to be marked
with IUID labels. These criteria vary for different categories of inventory: there are currently four
criteria for marking principal end items and new secondary items, and two criteria for marking
secondary items in use or in inventory. The criteria include certain items for which the government’s
unit acquisition cost is $5,000 or more, as well as certain types of items that cost less than $5,000, to
include those that are serially managed; certain items that are depot-level reparable; and those
deemed by a DOD component to require unique item-level traceability at any point in their life cycle.




Page 34                                                                GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD Has Taken Some          While legacy items are marked by DOD, newly-acquired items and
Steps to Ensure That        government-furnished property must be marked by DOD’s contractors.
Contractors Are             DOD has made some progress in ensuring that these types of items are
                            marked by contractors. According to the DOD IUID Registry, more than
Sufficiently Marking        2,500 contractors had registered over 11.5 million newly-acquired items in
Newly-acquired Items and    the registry as of January 2012. DOD plans to eventually finish marking
Government-Furnished        its legacy items, but contractors will continue to mark items that are
Property Requiring IUID,    acquired by DOD, or provided by DOD to contractors, and meet its IUID
but Faces Challenges        marking criteria. 54 According to January 2012 data from the DOD IUID
                            Registry, the number of newly-acquired items and government-furnished
                            property already exceeds the number of legacy items. If current marking
                            trends continue, the ratio of these items to legacy items will continue to
                            increase, and newly-acquired items and government-furnished property
                            will continue to make up the majority of DOD’s inventory of IUID-labeled
                            items. For this reason, the future success of DOD’s IUID implementation
                            efforts depends on having contractors sufficiently mark newly-acquired
                            items and government-furnished property with IUID labels. While DOD
                            has made some progress, it cannot currently ensure that contractors are
                            sufficiently marking all of the items that require IUID labels, for two
                            reasons: reporting requirements do not provide assurance that
                            appropriate IUID-marking contract clauses are included, and DOD’s
                            inspection efforts are not systematic. Without adequate reporting
                            requirements regarding the components’ insertion of IUID clauses into
                            applicable contracts, DOD cannot know the extent to which it is requiring
                            contractors to mark all items that should have IUID labels. And, without
                            sufficient inspection of IUID data matrices, DOD cannot know the extent
                            to which contractors are supplying deficient data matrices.

Process for Marking, and    In order for DOD to use IUID technology to track contractor-marked items
Verifying the Marking, of   that qualify for IUID marking, DOD and its contractors must take certain
Qualified Items             steps to help ensure that qualified items are marked, and that the IUID
                            marks are usable. These steps are as follows:




                            54
                              There is no set number of newly-acquired items or pieces of government-furnished
                            property required to be marked with IUID labels. The number of such items marked
                            depends on the number of items acquired by DOD or provided to contractors in a given
                            year that meet DOD’s IUID marking criteria. Whatever the number of such items, DOD
                            policy holds that all these items meeting the DOD IUID marking criteria should be marked
                            with IUID labels by contractors.




                            Page 35                                                    GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
•     in contracts for qualified items, the components must ensure that the
      contracts contain appropriate contract clauses and that those clauses
      are correctly completed. These clauses require the contractor to mark
      or register qualified items;
•     the contractor must then mark items with an IUID label with a data
      matrix that can be read electronically or establish a virtual UII in some
      cases; and
•     the data matrix must contain the necessary information, organized
      with the proper data elements and syntax, which must be registered in
      DOD’s IUID Registry. 55
DOD components have processes in place to ensure the sufficiency of
data matrices in IUID labels the components use to mark legacy items.
Upon labeling an item, the component personnel electronically read the
label’s data matrix. If the matrix is not usable, personnel replace it with a
new label that has a functioning matrix. To ensure that contractors are
sufficiently marking newly-acquired items and government-furnished
property with IUID labels, DOD has taken two key steps. The Defense
Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement requires DOD components to
insert specific clauses into contracts that involve newly-acquired items
and government-furnished property that meet DOD’s IUID marking
criteria. One clause requires contractors to mark and register specified
types of items that DOD is acquiring from the contractor (the acquired-
items clause), 56 and the other clause requires contractors to establish a
unique identifier for—and register—specified pieces of government-
furnished property (the government-property clause). 57 These clauses
require contractors to mark with IUID labels or register all items meeting
specified criteria, or otherwise listed in the contract clause; and to format
the labels’ data matrices according to DOD-wide standards. In addition,
according to DOD officials, it is a good practice for the components or the
Defense Contract Management Agency to inspect items acquired from
contractors to determine whether qualified items are marked with an IUID



55
  In this report, we use the term “sufficiently” to describe marking efforts that correspond
to these steps, and “deficient” to describe data matrices that are not usable because they
lack necessary attributes identified in these steps. For example, a data matrix that cannot
be read electronically is considered deficient.
56
    Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement section 252.211-7003.
57
  Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement section 252.211-7007. The clause
requires contractors to either mark the item with a DOD-recognized UII or establish a
virtual identifier for the item in the DOD IUID Registry.




Page 36                                                       GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                               label and whether that label’s data matrix is formatted according to DOD-
                               wide standards. Officials from several components told us that they had
                               inspected some newly-acquired items to determine whether these items
                               were sufficiently marked with IUID labels. For the items they reviewed,
                               those inspections helped to detect problems in contractors’ marking of
                               items. Also, since 2009, the Defense Contract Management Agency has
                               had a surveillance program in place to inspect newly-acquired items and
                               assess contractors’ compliance with the acquired-items clause.

Reporting Requirements Do      A DOD memorandum requires that the components report to the Office of
Not Provide Assurance That     Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy on only a portion of
Appropriate Contract Clauses   contracts that should include the clauses related to IUID. 58 According to
Are Included                   the memorandum, components are required to report on, among other
                               things, whether the acquired-items clause is present in contracts for
                               newly-acquired items. However, they are not required to report on
                               whether the government-furnished property clause is present in contracts
                               involving government-furnished property. Several components are thus
                               reporting only on whether they are including the acquired-items clause in
                               contracts. While the Air Force reports on whether it is including both the
                               acquired-items clause and the government-property clause in contracts,
                               the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Defense Logistics Agency report only
                               on whether they are including the acquired-items clause. While certain
                               components are reviewing contracts for items that cost more than $5,000
                               or are serially managed, none of the components are reviewing contracts
                               for items that meet other DOD IUID marking criteria, such as those for
                               controlled (sensitive or classified) items. Consequently, DOD does not
                               know the full extent to which the components are complying with the
                               requirements to include IUID-related clauses in contracts. Without this
                               information, DOD may be unable to ensure that contractors are marking
                               all newly-acquired items and pieces of government-furnished property
                               that require IUID labels.

DOD’s Inspection Efforts Are   According to DOD officials, it is a good practice for either a DOD
Not Systematic                 component or the Defense Contract Management Agency to inspect
                               items to ensure that contractors have marked items with IUID labels, and
                               that the labels’ data matrices are not deficient. Inspection of newly-
                               acquired items is important because contractors have been delivering



                               58
                                Director of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy Memorandum, IUID DFARS
                               Rule Compliance Reporting (Dec. 4, 2007).




                               Page 37                                               GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
IUID labels with deficient data matrices that cannot be used by DOD.
However, neither the components nor the Defense Contract Management
Agency have been systematically inspecting the data matrices in IUID
labels applied to items by contractors. According to both the Marine
Corps and the Air Force, more than 10 percent of the newly-acquired
items’ data matrices they examined after receipt of the items from the
contractor have been deficient. For example, one Marine Corps
installation reported that from January 2010 through October 2011, there
were 8 months in which more than 10 percent of newly-acquired items
provided by contractors were marked with deficient data matrices.
Problems include having matrices in which the syntax of the UII data was
incorrect or missing key elements; matrices that could not be
electronically read; and matrices that contained a UII number that had not
been registered in DOD’s IUID Registry.

Although the Marine Corps and Air Force have assessed a portion of the
data matrices on newly-acquired items in their inventories, these
components are not systematically assessing whether contractors are
sufficiently marking these items. For example, the Marine Corps
estimates that it has assessed the sufficiency of contractors’ marking for
about 79 percent of all newly-acquired items’ data matrices in its
inventory. Officials from both the Marine Corps and Air Force explained,
however, that neither has developed a systematic approach for inspecting
these items’ data matrices. According to Army officials, the Army also
lacks a systematic approach to inspecting these items’ data matrices. For
example, the two depots identified by the Army as furthest along in IUID
implementation have not established a policy or set procedures for
assessing the sufficiency of the data matrices of newly-acquired items in
their inventories. Defense Logistics Agency officials explained that
although its personnel do perform various types of inspection and
acceptance procedures on items delivered to its sites, personnel are not
inspecting items’ data matrices. In addition, the Navy does not have a
policy or plans in place to systematically assess newly-acquired items’
data matrices.

According to the Defense Contract Management Agency’s information
memorandum that describes procedures for inspecting contractors’ data
matrices, the agency’s inspectors are to verify the readability of these
matrices if a scanner for reading matrices is available at the inspection
site. However, as previously discussed, the only way to assess the
functionality of a data matrix is to use a tool that can electronically read
the matrix. Because its memorandum does not require inspectors to
electronically read data matrices in all cases, the Defense Contract


Page 38                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Management Agency cannot ensure that the items it inspects have an
IUID label with a data matrix that can be properly read; that the data
matrix contains the necessary UII data, organized with the proper syntax;
and that the item’s UII number is registered in DOD’s IUID Registry.
Furthermore, officials from the Defense Contract Management Agency
said their inspectors rely on contractors to provide the technology to
electronically read data matrices. If contractors do not provide this
technology, inspectors at those manufacturing sites cannot electronically
read and verify the sufficiency of data matrices.

The Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy and the
components have taken steps to address some of these challenges. For
example, in February 2011, the office issued a DOD standard operating
procedure for assessing the sufficiency of data matrices. 59 Also, through
the Product Quality Deficiency Report process, 60 Marine Corps item
managers are beginning to work with contractors to address the
contractors’ delivery of deficient data matrices. In addition, in the first
quarter of fiscal year 2012, the Air Force began to track the number of
deficient data matrices it is discovering as it assesses the sufficiency of
newly-acquired items’ data matrices. However, unless all of the
components and the Defense Contract Management Agency are
systematically assessing whether contractors are sufficiently marking
newly-acquired items, DOD cannot know the full extent to which
contractors are supplying deficient data matrices.




59
  Office of the Director, Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, DOD Standard
Operating Procedure, Acquisition/Procurement Guide for Unique Item Traceability Data
Integrity (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 25, 2011).
60
  A product quality deficiency is a defective or nonconforming condition that limits or
prohibits the item from fulfilling its intended purpose. These include deficiencies in design,
specification, materiel, manufacturing, and workmanship. A noncompliant UII mark would
be reportable. A “Product Quality Deficiency Report” enables the component to report
contractor noncompliance. The purpose of reporting noncompliance is to determine the
cause of supply discrepancies and product quality deficiencies, effect corrective action,
prevent recurrence, and provide a measure for contractor past performance.
Discrepancies in packaging and deficiencies in marking and registration should be
reported.




Page 39                                                        GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                           DOD has made some progress in developing a capability to share UII
DOD Has Made Some          data enterprisewide and integrating IUID functionality with its Enterprise
Progress in Preparing      Resource Planning systems. 61 For example, DOD is in the process of
to Share UII Data          revising key guidance on using IUID technology and UII data across
                           DOD, and three components are temporarily storing UII data until they
Enterprisewide, but        are ready to use these data in their Enterprise Resource Planning
Faces Challenges           systems. However, DOD faces several challenges in sharing UII data
                           enterprisewide, and it is unlikely that it will meet a fiscal year 2015 goal to
                           use UII data for the management of items in enterprise information
                           systems. Further, DOD cannot reliably predict when it will meet this goal,
                           because ODASD(SCI) and the components have not fully scheduled for
                           integrating IUID functionality with the IT systems through which the
                           components plan to achieve this capability, their Enterprise Resource
                           Planning systems.


To Achieve Key Benefits,   It is DOD’s goal for its components to share UII data departmentwide, and
DOD Plans to Use IUID      the components are to use these data for unique item tracking. According
Technology in              to a DOD instruction, 62 the Director for Defense Procurement and
                           Acquisition Policy is to ensure unique IUID identifiers are established to
Enterprisewide Logistics
                           enable items to be tracked and traced throughout their life cycle in
Processes by the End of    acquisition and logistics business processes and systems, in an
Fiscal Year 2015           integrated approach across DOD. Further, a 2011 IUID implementation
                           schedule from ODASD(SCI) states that certain DOD item management
                           processes are to be using UII data to manage items by the end of fiscal
                           year 2015. Specifically, according to the schedule, by fiscal year 2015,
                           two categories of logistics processes—intensive item management and
                           product life cycle management—are to use IUID technology.




                           61
                             As previously discussed, there are a variety of IT systems that have a requirement to
                           use UII data, and some of these systems currently have the capability to store UII data.
                           DOD officials explained that some of these systems operate in “pockets” within the
                           components, and do not share UII data across the components or DOD-wide. DOD’s goal
                           is for the components to share UII data across many of their individual IT systems, and
                           DOD-wide, between components. In order to accomplish enterprisewide data sharing of
                           UII data, DOD officials stated that the components intended to use certain IT systems
                           referred to as Enterprise Resource Planning systems. According to officials, certain
                           Enterprise Resource Planning systems will provide the capability to share UII data
                           enterprisewide, and in this report, we are focusing on DOD efforts to integrate IUID with
                           these systems.
                           62
                            DODI 8320.04 (June 16, 2008).




                           Page 40                                                     GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                            As previously discussed, the task force report assessed the potential
                            benefits of using IUID technology in these logistics processes. In both
                            cases, the report explains that sharing UII data across DOD is key to
                            realizing the full benefits of these processes. Regarding intensive item
                            management, the report states it is clear that DOD requires an
                            enterprisewide approach to managing critical items and the largest
                            benefits of managing items intensively would be achieved by using UII
                            data across the enterprise.

                            With regard to product life cycle management, the task force report
                            estimates that DOD could achieve substantial financial benefits through
                            the use of UII data in this process. In our previous discussion, we
                            explained that the task force report’s methodology for estimating these
                            financial benefits may not be appropriate. However, if DOD is to achieve
                            potential benefits of product life cycle management, the report explains
                            that benefits would come primarily through analysis of UII data, and that
                            DOD should expect to see the full benefit of this analysis as its Enterprise
                            Resource Planning systems begin sharing and using these data. As
                            previously mentioned, the report states that DOD could begin to achieve
                            the net financial benefits of IUID implementation in fiscal year 2017.
                            However, in order to do so, the report assumes that DOD will have the
                            capability to share and use UII data, enterprisewide, by fiscal year 2015.


DOD and Its Components      Since DOD began its IUID technology implementation efforts in fiscal year
Have Made Some Progress     2004, it has made some progress in preparing to share UII data
in Integrating IUID with    enterprisewide through its Enterprise Resource Planning systems, in two
                            main areas. First, DOD is in the process of modifying its supply chain
Their Enterprise Resource   management policy and guidance to incorporate use of IUID technology
Planning Systems            and UII data across DOD. Second, three of the components have
                            developed IT systems to temporarily store data from IUID-labeled items
                            until these data can be uploaded into Enterprise Resource Planning
                            systems.

Revisions to Policy and     In January 2012, ODASD(SCI) provided us with sections from a draft
Guidance Are Underway       revision to the regulation that establishes DOD’s supply chain
                            management processes and procedures, including sections pertaining to




                            Page 41                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                                 IUID. 63 The draft sections we reviewed define standards and procedures
                                 for using IUID in DOD Enterprise Resource Planning systems. If
                                 implemented, the revisions would likely help DOD move forward in its
                                 integration of IUID technology and UII data with its IT systems—including
                                 its Enterprise Resource Planning systems—in two ways. First, the draft
                                 revisions would establish standards for acceptable electronic scanners,
                                 which should help ensure interoperability across DOD organizations that
                                 are scanning and uploading UII data from IUID labels’ data matrices.
                                 Second, the draft revisions would require DOD organizations to update
                                 their UII data-sharing capabilities by adopting a system to share UII data,
                                 such as the Defense Logistics Management Standards; according to
                                 DOD officials, this system is replacing an older one that is unable to share
                                 UII data. 64 Adoption of the Defense Logistics Management Standards is
                                 for that reason essential to IUID implementation.

UII Data Are Being Temporarily   Because their Enterprise Resource Planning systems are not currently
Stored                           capable of accepting or storing UII data at a componentwide level, the
                                 Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force have developed IT systems to
                                 temporarily store UII data generated by the labeling of both legacy and
                                 newly-acquired items. 65 However, these systems have limited capabilities
                                 to manage or use UII data. For example, these temporary systems are
                                 not capable of sharing UII data within or between components. As of
                                 January 2012, the Air Force’s temporary system was limited to use on
                                 individual computer workstations, and could not send or receive UII data
                                 from other Air Force or DOD computers. In addition, the Marine Corps
                                 used its temporary system to provide us with information on its inventory
                                 of IUID-labeled legacy items, but the system was not designed to perform
                                 more complex tasks such as analyzing UII data in support of product life
                                 cycle management processes.



                                 63
                                   This draft guidance would update DOD 4140.1-R, Supply Chain Materiel Management
                                 Regulation, (May 23, 2003). As of January 2012, DOD had not issued the revised version
                                 of DOD 4140.1-R, but ODASD(SCI) officials stated that they expect DOD will release the
                                 new version in fiscal year 2012.
                                 64
                                   According to DOD officials, the Defense Logistics Management Standards are a set of
                                 data-exchange protocols through which DOD organizations share logistics data. The
                                 system’s predecessor—the Military Logistics System—is unable to transmit UII data. DOD
                                 organizations are in the process of transitioning from the older Military Logistics System to
                                 the newer Defense Logistics Management Standards.
                                 65
                                   These are the Army’s IUID Data Warehouse; the Marine Corps’ Temporary Data
                                 Storage; and the Air Force’s Automated Inventory Management Tool.




                                 Page 42                                                       GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD Faces Several                DOD faces three challenges in sharing UII data enterprisewide and
Challenges in Integrating        integrating IUID functionality with its Enterprise Resource Planning
IUID and Is Unlikely to          systems. First, ODASD(SCI) and the components have not fully defined
                                 the requirements for using UII data across DOD, or within the
Meet Its Fiscal Year 2015        components’ Enterprise Resource Planning systems. Second, as of April
Goal                             2012, the Air Force and the Navy were not actively integrating IUID with
                                 their Enterprise Resource Planning systems. And third, ODASD(SCI) and
                                 the components have not fully scheduled for integration of IUID
                                 functionality with their Enterprise Resource Planning systems. As a result,
                                 DOD is unlikely to meet its fiscal year 2015 goal to use UII data in
                                 intensive item management and product life cycle management.

Requirements Are Not Fully       Officials from the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Defense Logistics
Defined                          Agency said that their components had not yet fully defined the
                                 component-specific UII requirements for their respective Enterprise
                                 Resource Planning systems. A Marine Corps official stated that, as of
                                 January 2012, requirements for how the Marine Corps system will
                                 interface with scanners were in draft form. Officials from the Defense
                                 Logistics Agency explained that because the agency manages items on
                                 the basis of the requirements of the other components, it could not
                                 finalize the business rules for using UII data in its system until the other
                                 components had determined their requirements. According to DOD
                                 officials, it is unclear when the requirements or related business rules will
                                 be fully defined and, until they are defined, the components cannot
                                 complete their integration of IUID technology with their IT systems,
                                 including their Enterprise Resource Planning systems.

Air Force and Navy Were Not      As of April 2012, the Air Force and the Navy were not actively integrating
Actively Integrating IUID with   IUID with their Enterprise Resource Planning systems. According to Air
Enterprise Resource Planning     Force officials, because of cost overruns and delays in the development
Systems                          of its Enterprise Resource Planning system, the Office of the Secretary of
                                 Defense and the Air Force are planning to evaluate alternatives to the
                                 system. Because this system is central to the Air Force’s IUID
                                 implementation efforts and the Air Force does not know when a decision
                                 will be made, officials stated that they cannot estimate when—or
                                 whether—the system will be ready to share and use UII data. According
                                 to Air Force officials, the Air Force has a data network that provides the
                                 capability to share UII data within the Air Force, between certain IT
                                 systems. However, they stated that this data network does not currently
                                 have the capability to share UII data with other components, across DOD.
                                 Further, the officials stated that the Air Force’s plan is to eventually share
                                 UII data enterprisewide through its Enterprise Resource Planning system.
                                 In October 2011, senior Navy officials stated that the Navy had no plans


                                 Page 43                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                                to integrate IUID with its Enterprise Resource Planning system for Supply,
                                and will not be ready to share or use UII across its systems—or with other
                                components’ systems—by the end of fiscal year 2015. Further, they
                                explained that the Navy was not actively integrating IUID with its
                                Enterprise Resource Planning system for Supply because strict budget
                                conditions compelled Navy leadership to allocate funds to programs the
                                Navy considered to be of higher priority than IUID implementation. As of
                                April 2012, the Navy stated that proposed integration efforts remained
                                unfunded.

ODASD(SCI) and the              Because neither ODASD(SCI) nor the components have complete
Components Do Not Have          integrated master schedules for the integration of IUID functionality with
Complete Integrated Master      their Enterprise Resource Planning systems, DOD cannot reliably predict
Schedules for Integration of    when it will be able to use these systems to meet its fiscal year 2015 goal
IUID Functionality with Their   to use UII data in intensive item management and product life cycle
Enterprise Resource Planning    management. A key internal control is the use of performance measures,
Systems                         and we have previously reported that such metrics for a program’s main
                                efforts—including interim milestones and schedules—give decision
                                makers the information needed to assess progress and estimate realistic
                                completion dates. 66 In addition, we have reported that a reliable
                                schedule—such as an integrated master schedule—is crucial to
                                estimating the overall timeline and cost of IT programs, including
                                Enterprise Resource Planning systems. An integrated master schedule is
                                the time-phased schedule DOD and other agencies use for assessing
                                technical performance. It contains the detailed tasks or work packages
                                necessary to ensure program execution. Further, we have reported that
                                without fully integrating the distinct activities that make up an IT program
                                with such a schedule, an organization will not be able to measure its
                                progress toward completion and cannot be held accountable for results. 67

                                Although the Army has integrated master schedules for its two Enterprise
                                Resource Planning systems, these schedules lack key elements, such as
                                distinct activities for IUID integration and detailed processes for
                                transmission of UII data across the systems. The Air Force has an
                                integrated master schedule for its Enterprise Resource Planning system,
                                and this schedule has distinct activities for IUID integration. However, as
                                previously discussed, the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Air


                                66
                                 GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1 and GAO-08-883T.
                                67
                                 GAO-11-53.




                                Page 44                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
              Force are in the process of evaluating whether to modify, or cancel and
              replace, the Air Force’s Enterprise Resource Planning system. According
              to Air Force officials, the system’s current schedule will need to be
              revised once the future of the system has been determined. The Marine
              Corps has an integrated master schedule for its Enterprise Resource
              Planning system, and Marine Corps officials have stated that they plan to
              amend the schedule to include distinct IUID activities. However, as of
              January 2012, it did not contain them. As discussed previously, the Navy
              is not actively integrating IUID with its Enterprise Resource Planning
              system for Supply and does not have an integrated master schedule for
              integrating IUID with its Enterprise Resource Planning system.
              ODASD(SCI) has produced an IUID timeline that contains general targets
              for the fielding of IUID-capable Enterprise Resource Planning systems.
              However, an ODASD(SCI) official stated that it does not have an
              integrated master schedule to coordinate or track the progress of the
              components’ efforts to integrate IUID with their Enterprise Resource
              Planning systems. Officials from ODASD(SCI) and several components
              have reported that they are unsure of when the components’ Enterprise
              Resource Planning systems will be able to share UII data within their
              networks, a key capability for both intensive item management and
              product life cycle management.

              Given the challenges ODASD(SCI) and the components face in sharing
              UII data enterprisewide and integrating IUID with their Enterprise
              Resource Planning systems, DOD likely will face difficulties in meeting its
              IUID integration goals. Without fully defined requirements; resolving the
              challenges posed by the Air Force and the Navy not actively integrating
              IUID with their Enterprise Resource Planning systems; and an integrated
              master schedule that includes IUID integration at the component level
              and at the DOD-wide level, DOD cannot reliably predict whether it will
              meet its goal to use these systems to manage items through intensive
              item management and product life cycle management by the end of fiscal
              year 2015, or predict when these systems will have this capability.


              Using UII data could enable DOD to improve accountability and
Conclusions   management of equipment and materiel, and increase efficiencies in
              maintenance, which could potentially result in cost savings in some
              cases. DOD is in the process of developing a framework for managing
              and implementing IUID technology, but could benefit from fully
              implementing best management practices that would enable the
              department to better determine the costs and benefits of IUID
              implementation, and progress toward goals. DOD components have


              Page 45                                           GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                      reported marking more than 2 million legacy items, and DOD has made
                      some progress in ensuring that its contractors are marking newly-
                      acquired items with IUID. As of January 2012, though, DOD’s
                      implementation of IUID technology faces several substantial challenges.
                      For example, while the components report marking more than 2 million
                      items, DOD does not have quantifiable goals or interim milestones that it
                      can use to assess progress in achieving its fiscal year 2015 goal of
                      marking a “majority” of legacy items, or the task force’s goal of marking a
                      “significant” number of legacy items. With regard to items that must be
                      marked by contractors, in the absence of policies and procedures that
                      establish a systematic process for assessing the sufficiency of contractor-
                      supplied data matrices, DOD is unable to determine the extent to which
                      contractors are sufficiently marking items. This limits DOD’s ability to
                      ensure that it can track those items. Also, DOD has not fully developed
                      the schedules needed to integrate IUID with existing IT systems, so that
                      DOD can share UII data enterprisewide. This impedes its successful
                      integration of IUID technology with these systems by the end of fiscal
                      year 2015, its stated goal, and prevents the department from determining
                      when it might achieve this integration. At a time when the nation faces
                      fiscal challenges, and defense budgets are becoming tighter, DOD
                      leaders’ lack of key information on IUID implementation could hinder
                      sound program management and decision making.


                      We recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the Under Secretary
Recommendations for   of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to complete its
Executive Action      implementation and management framework for IUID by incorporating
                      key elements of a comprehensive management approach, such as a
                      complete analysis of the return on investment, quantitatively-defined
                      goals, and metrics for measuring progress. To do so, we recommend that
                      the Secretary of Defense direct the following organizations to take six
                      actions:

                      •   The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
                          Logistics to update the IUID task force report’s estimates of costs and
                          benefits by incorporating key elements of a sound investment analysis
                          including a more complete estimate of all associated costs, an
                          appropriate methodology for estimating benefits, and a sensitivity
                          analysis of these estimates.
                      •   The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
                          Logistics, in coordination with the components, develop quantitatively-
                          defined goals for the number of legacy items that may allow DOD to
                          achieve the Task Force’s estimate of IUID’s potential benefits, by



                      Page 46                                           GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
                         marking a “significant” number of these legacy items, or meet
                         ODASD(SCI)’s goal that DOD needs to mark a “majority” of these
                         legacy items by fiscal year 2015.
                     •   The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
                         Logistics, in coordination with the components, establish quantifiable
                         interim milestones for marking legacy items that allow DOD to track
                         progress toward its goals.
                     •   The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
                         Logistics, in coordination with the components, track progress using a
                         consistent set of criteria, such as DOD’s IUID marking criteria.
                     •   The components and the Defense Contract Management Agency
                         develop policies and procedures that provide for systematic
                         assessment of the sufficiency of contractor-marked items’ data
                         matrices.
                     •   The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and
                         Logistics require the components to examine and report to the Office
                         of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy on all types of
                         contracts that should include the acquired-items and government-
                         property clauses.
                     In addition, to enable DOD to successfully share UII data enterprisewide
                     and integrate IUID functionality with its Enterprise Resource Planning
                     systems, we recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the Under
                     Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics to
                     coordinate with the military services and the Defense Logistics Agency to
                     take the following two actions:

                     •   Define the requirements for using UII data across DOD and within the
                         components’ Enterprise Resource Planning systems.
                     •   Develop or revise integrated master schedules for the integration of
                         IUID technology with the components’ individual Enterprise Resource
                         Planning systems—and between these systems—across DOD. These
                         schedules should fully integrate distinct IUID activities.
                     We also recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the Secretary of
                     the Navy to develop a plan to share UII data enterprisewide.


                     In commenting on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with eight
Agency Comments      recommendations and partially concurred with one recommendation.
and Our Evaluation   DOD’s comments are reprinted in appendix III. DOD also provided
                     technical comments, which we considered and incorporated where
                     appropriate.




                     Page 47                                           GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD concurred with our recommendation to develop quantitatively-
defined goals for the number of legacy items that may allow DOD to
achieve the task force’s estimate of IUID’s potential benefits. DOD stated
that an IUID working group will identify the target population of items that
qualify for IUID marking in a list of the items’ National Stock Numbers and
DOD will track progress in its marking of individual items on this list
according to component IUID implementation plans that are due to be
submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel
Readiness by September 2012.

DOD concurred with our recommendation to establish quantifiable interim
milestones for marking legacy items that allow DOD to track progress
toward its goals. DOD stated that its IUID working group will establish
interim milestones to track the progress of marking legacy assets as part
of the development of component IUID implementation plans to be
submitted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel
Readiness by September 2012.

DOD concurred with our recommendation to track progress using a
consistent set of criteria. DOD stated that progress will be tracked using a
consistent set of criteria, once developed by the IUID working group.

DOD concurred with our recommendation to develop policies and
procedures that provide for systematic assessment of the sufficiency of
contractor-marked items’ data matrices. DOD stated that the Defense
Contract Management Agency has risk-based assessment policies and
procedures in place. According to DOD, these include a review of
contracts to determine whether they contain an IUID requirement;
surveillance of a contractor’s IUID marking; and an IUID checklist that
requires agency personnel to examine an item’s data matrix. DOD
explained that agency personnel assess the sufficiency of a data matrix
by electronically reading it with a scanner supplied by a contractor or
through a statement of quality from contractors that the agency has
determined have adequate quality control. We believe that DOD’s
concurrence with our recommendation may lead to the components
improving their capability to systematically assess these matrices, and
that the agency’s policies and procedures may assist its inspectors in
doing the same. However, our review of the policies and procedures
provided by the agency indicate that it does not require inspectors to
assess the sufficiency of data matrices in all cases. For example, if a
contractor does not provide evidence that it has marked items with
sufficient data matrices, and no IUID scanner is available on site, neither
the agency’s 2009 information memorandum describing procedures for


Page 48                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
inspecting contractors’ data matrices, nor its IUID checklist, provide an
alternative method for inspectors to assess the sufficiency of items’
matrices. Because of this, we continue to believe that the agency cannot
ensure that the items it inspects have IUID labels with sufficient data
matrices, and that it should continue to develop policies and procedures
that provide for systematic assessment of the sufficiency of contractor-
marked items’ data matrices.

DOD concurred with our recommendation for the components to examine
and report to the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy
on all types of contracts that should include the acquired-items and
government-property clauses. DOD stated that the components will
provide contract evaluation reports—for items meeting any of DOD’s IUID
criteria, as well as pieces of government-furnished property that meet
these criteria—and report on compliance with the requirements to include
the appropriate Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement IUID
clauses in contracts.

DOD concurred with our recommendation to define the requirements for
using UII data across DOD and within the components’ Enterprise
Resource Planning systems. DOD stated that the IUID working group will
define DOD-wide IUID functional requirements.

DOD concurred with our recommendation to develop or revise integrated
master schedules for the integration of IUID technology with the
components’ individual Enterprise Resource Planning systems—and
between these systems—across the department. DOD stated that the
components have been tasked to submit revised IUID implementation
plans to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel
Readiness by September 2012. We believe that such plans could assist
DOD in improving its management approach for the implementation of
IUID. However, as previously discussed, an integrated master schedule
has specific characteristics that make it distinct from an implementation
plan. Specifically, an integrated master schedule is a time-phased
schedule that DOD and other agencies use for assessing technical
performance. It contains the detailed tasks or work packages necessary
to ensure program execution. Further, we have reported that without fully
integrating the distinct activities that make up an IT program with such a
schedule, an organization will not be able to measure its progress toward
completion and cannot be held accountable for results. Because of this,
we continue to believe that integrated master schedules should be
developed or revised for the integration of IUID technology with the
components’ Enterprise Resource Planning Systems.


Page 49                                           GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
DOD concurred with our recommendation that the Secretary of the Navy
develop a plan to share UII data enterprisewide. DOD stated that the
Navy—participating in the IUID working group—will develop IUID
requirements as part of the working group’s definition of DOD-wide IUID
functional requirements. Regarding the specific requirement for IUID
functionality in the Navy’s Enterprise Resource Planning system—Navy
Enterprise Resource Planning system for Supply—DOD stated that the
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness will
continue to work with the Chief of Naval Operations (Deputy Chief of
Naval Operations [Fleet Readiness and Logistics]) to develop a plan to
include IUID requirements in this system.

DOD partially concurred with our recommendation to update the IUID task
force report’s estimates of costs and benefits by incorporating key
elements of a sound investment analysis, including a more complete
estimate of all associated costs, an appropriate methodology for
estimating benefits, and a sensitivity analysis of these estimates. DOD
stated that the benefits to DOD of implementing IUID marking are to
improve asset accountability, tracking, and the life cycle management of
targeted items. Further, DOD stated that it will continue to identify costs of
implementing IUID as IUID is implemented across DOD. As previously
discussed, a best practice for analyzing a program’s return on investment
is the estimation of all potential costs, and DOD efforts to continue to
identify costs of IUID implementation may be a positive step in this
direction. According to DOD, another best practice for analyzing a
program’s return on investment is analyzing benefits, and making
recommendations, based on relevant evaluation criteria. DOD has
estimated that IUID implementation could cost $3.2 billion, and the
components report that they have already spent at least $219 million on
implementation efforts. Moreover, DOD has estimated that implementing
IUID technology could save $3 billion to $5 billion per year. As previously
discussed, DOD may have used a methodology for estimating these
benefits that may not be appropriate to the scale and complexity of DOD’s
IUID implementation efforts. For example, the task force estimated DOD-
wide savings on the basis of a limited number of case studies, these case
studies did not address programs that use IUID as the technology that
provides a unique identifier to track items through serialized item
management, and even when a logistics program experiences cost
savings after introducing a new technology or process, it can be difficult to
link the savings directly to a specific cause or technology such as IUID.
Given IUID’s potential costs and that DOD’s methodology for estimating
IUID’s potential financial benefits may not be appropriate, we continue to
believe that an estimate of both IUID’s costs and benefits, based on an


Page 50                                             GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
appropriate methodology, and a sensitivity analysis of these estimates,
would provide DOD leaders with key information to better enable sound
program management and determine whether continued spending on
IUID is likely to result in a significant return on investment.


We are sending copies of this report to the Secretaries of Defense, the
Army, the Navy, and the Air Force; the Commandant of the Marine Corps;
and the Directors of the Defense Logistics Agency and the Defense
Contract Management Agency. In addition, the report is available at no
charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff have any questions about this report, please contact
me at (202) 512-5257 or merrittz@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices
of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last
page of this report. GAO staff who made key contributions to this report
are listed in appendix IV.




Zina D. Merritt
Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 51                                          GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




             To determine the extent to which the Department of Defense (DOD) has a
             comprehensive management approach for its implementation of item
             unique identification (IUID), we reviewed previously published DOD and
             GAO work to identify best practices; 1 the IUID implementation framework
             documentation provided by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary
             of Defense for Supply Chain Integration (ODASD[SCI]); the DOD IUID
             task force’s analysis of the potential costs and benefits of IUID
             implementation; and the components’ estimates of historical spending
             and fiscal year 2012 budget requests for IUID implementation.

             To determine the extent to which DOD components have marked legacy
             items with IUID, we reviewed DOD criteria for the types of items to be
             marked with IUID labels; reviewed DOD’s plans for marking legacy items;
             and gathered data on the number and type of legacy items in
             components’ inventories, and how many had been marked as of October
             2011. To determine the extent to which DOD has taken steps to ensure
             that items are sufficiently marked by contractors with IUID, we reviewed
             the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement clauses that
             require contractors to mark items with labels—or establish virtual unique
             item identifiers (UII)—and register the items, and we gathered data from
             the components on the quality of contractors’ IUID data matrices.

             To determine the extent to which DOD has integrated IUID with its
             enterprise information systems, we reviewed our previously published
             work on best practices for the planning of large-scale information-
             technology efforts; 2 reviewed DOD-wide and component-level policy on
             the use of UII data in its information technology systems, which include
             DOD Enterprise Resource Planning systems; reviewed DOD-wide and


             1
              DOD, Product Support Business Case Analysis Guidebook (Washington, D.C.: April
             2011); GAO, Drug Control: DOD Needs to Improve Its Performance Measurement System
             to Better Manage and Oversee Its Counternarcotics Activities, GAO-10-835 (Washington,
             D.C.: July 21, 2010).GAO, Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide, GAO-09-3SP
             (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 2, 2009); GAO, Afghanistan Security: U.S. Efforts to Develop
             Capable Afghan Police Forces Face Challenges and Need a Coordinated, Detailed Plan
             to Help Ensure Accountability, GAO-08-883T (Washington, D.C.: June 18, 2008); GAO,
             Tax Administration: IRS Needs to Further Refine Its Tax Filing Season Performance
             Measures, GAO-03-143 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 22, 2002); GAO, Standards for Internal
             Control in the Federal Government, GAO/AIMD-00-21.3.1 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 1999);
             GAO, Executive Guide: Effectively Implementing the Government Performance and
             Results Act, GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: June, 1996).
             2
              GAO, DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business
             System Modernization Efforts Needed, GAO-11-53 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 7, 2010).




             Page 52                                                  GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




component-level integrated master schedules for the integration of IUID
technology with these systems, if available; and reviewed other types of
existing schedules and system planning documents.

In addition, we visited selected sites to observe key IUID activities. To
select the sites we used a nongeneralizable, judgmental sample based on
a number of criteria, including DOD component and the type of IUID
activity performed at the site. For all our objectives, we interviewed
officials knowledgeable about DOD’s IUID implementation efforts,
including officials from ODASD(SCI), as well as other officials from the
Office of the Secretary of Defense, the components, and the Defense
Contract Management Agency.

We assessed the reliability of all computer-generated data provided by
DOD for each of our objectives by reviewing existing information about
the data and the systems that produced the data and by interviewing
agency officials knowledgeable about the data to determine the steps
taken to ensure the accuracy and completeness of the data. In the course
of our assessment, we reviewed estimates provided by the components
on the number of legacy items marked and to be marked; deficient data
matrices; and historical and requested IUID spending.

•   Each of the components provided estimates on either the number of
    legacy items marked, or to be marked; several of the components
    provided estimates of both. On the basis of our review of the sources
    and methodology used by the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force to
    produce estimates of the number of legacy items they have marked,
    we determined that these data are sufficiently reliable for the
    purposes of reporting the components’ best estimates of the size of
    this population of items. The Navy was not able to estimate the
    number of legacy items it has marked; the Defense Logistics Agency
    reported that it has not marked legacy items. Based on our review of
    the sources and methodology used by the Marine Corps and Air
    Force to produce estimates of the number of legacy items they must
    mark in the future, we determined that these data are sufficiently
    reliable for the purposes of reporting on the components’ best
    estimates of the size of this population of items. As previously
    discussed, the Army, Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency explained
    that their estimates on the number of legacy items that must be
    marked in the future are not complete. Although not complete, we
    determined that the data on legacy items represent the components’
    best estimates, and are sufficiently reliable for the purposes of




Page 53                                          GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




    reporting on the general size of the population of legacy items they
    must mark in the future.
•   The Army, Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency did not provide data
    on deficient data matrices; the Marine Corps and Air Force did provide
    these data. We reviewed the data sources and methodology used by
    the Marine Corps and Air Force to produce data on the number of
    deficient data matrices they have discovered through their review of a
    portion of data matrices on newly-acquired items in their inventories.
    We determined that these data are sufficiently reliable for the
    purposes of reporting on the percentage of data matrices that these
    components classified as deficient, out of the portion of data matrices
    in their inventories that they have assessed for sufficiency.
•   The Defense Logistics Agency did not provide estimates on either
    historical or requested IUID spending; the Army and Navy provided
    estimates on historical IUID spending; and the Marine Corps and Air
    Force provided estimates of both historical and requested IUID
    spending. We discussed with component officials the sources and
    methodology they used to produce the data on their historical IUID
    spending and fiscal year 2012 budget requests for IUID spending. The
    Marine Corps and Air Force provided data on both their historical and
    future spending. On the basis of our review of their sources and
    methodology for producing these data, we determined that the
    spending data provided by the Marine Corps and Air Force are
    sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting on these components’
    historical spending and fiscal year 2012 IUID budget requests. As
    previously discussed, Army and Navy officials explained that their
    estimates on historical IUID spending are not complete. Although not
    complete, we determined that these data represent the best estimates
    of the Army and Navy on their historical IUID spending, and are
    sufficiently reliable for the purposes of reporting on the historical
    spending data that are available.




Page 54                                            GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix II: Key IUID Policy Issuances and
              Appendix II: Key IUID Policy Issuances and
              Implementation Events, Fiscal Year 2003 to
              Fiscal Year 2011


Implementation Events, Fiscal Year 2003 to
Fiscal Year 2011




              Page 55                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix III: Comments from the
              Appendix III: Comments from the Department
              of Defense



Department of Defense




              Page 56                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix III: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 57                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix III: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 58                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix III: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 59                                      GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Zina D. Merritt, (202) 512–5257 or merrittz@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the contact named above, Kimberly Seay, Assistant
Staff             Director; Emily Biskup; Cindy Brown Barnes; Cynthia Grant; Neelaxi
Acknowledgments   Lakhmani; Jason Lee; Alberto Leff; John Martin; Charles Perdue; Carol
                  Petersen; Karen Richey; Darby Smith; Chris Turner; Cheryl Weissman;
                  and Michael Willems made key contributions to this report.




                  Page 60                                         GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
Related GAO Products
             Related GAO Products




             Defense Logistics: DOD Needs to Take Additional Actions to Address
             Challenges in Supply Chain Management. GAO-11-569. Washington,
             D.C.: July 28, 2011.

             High-Risk Series: An Update. GAO-11-278. Washington, D.C.: February
             16, 2011.

             DOD’s 2010 Comprehensive Inventory Management Improvement Plan
             Addressed Statutory Requirements, but Faces Implementation
             Challenges. GAO-11-240R. Washington, D.C.: January 7, 2011.

             DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of
             Business System Modernization Efforts Needed. GAO-11-53.
             Washington, D.C.: October 7, 2010.

             DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Observations on DOD’s Progress and
             Challenges in Strategic Planning for Supply Chain Management.
             GAO-10-929T. Washington, D.C.: July 27, 2010.

             Department of Defense: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Financial
             Management of Military Equipment. GAO-10-695. Washington, D.C.: July
             26, 2010.

             DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Actions Needed to Reduce Vulnerabilities and
             Improve Business Outcomes. GAO-09-460T. Washington, D.C.: March
             12, 2009.

             Defense Logistics: Lack of Key Information May Impede DOD’s Ability to
             Improve Supply Chain Management. GAO-09-150. Washington, D.C.:
             January 12, 2009.

             DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Efforts to Improve Supply Chain Can Be
             Enhanced by Linkage to Outcomes, Progress in Transforming Business
             Operations, and Reexamination of Logistics Governance and Strategy.
             GAO-07-1064T. Washington, D.C.: July 10, 2007.

             Defense Logistics: Efforts to Improve Distribution and Supply Support for
             Joint Military Operations Could Benefit from a Coordinated Management
             Approach. GAO-07-807. Washington, D.C.: June 29, 2007.

             DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Progress Made Implementing Supply Chain
             Management Recommendations, but Full Extent of Improvement
             Unknown. GAO-07-234. Washington, D.C.: January 17, 2007.


             Page 61                                          GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
           Related GAO Products




           DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Challenges Remain to Achieving and
           Demonstrating Progress in Supply Chain Management. GAO-06-983T.
           Washington, D.C.: July 25, 2006.




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           Page 62                                     GAO-12-482 Defense Logistics
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