oversight

Defense Management: Steps Taken to Better Manage Fuel Demand but Additional Information Sharing Mechanisms Are Needed

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-06-28.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to the Chairman, Committee on
             Armed Services, U.S. Senate



June 2012
             DEFENSE
             MANAGEMENT
             Steps Taken to Better
             Manage Fuel Demand
             but Additional
             Information Sharing
             Mechanisms Are
             Needed




GAO-12-619
                                             June 2012

                                             DEFENSE MANAGEMENT
                                             Steps Taken to Better Manage Fuel Demand but
                                             Additional Information Sharing Mechanisms Are Needed
Highlights of GAO-12-619, a report to the
Chairman, Committee on Armed Services,
U.S. Senate




Why GAO Did This Study                       What GAO Found
According to DOD, the U.S. military’s        The Department of Defense (DOD) has taken steps to establish an approach for
dependence on liquid fuel in countries       managing DOD’s overall fuel demand, but is still developing comprehensive
like Afghanistan creates an enormous         guidance to address fuel demand management, including at forward-deployed
logistics burden that exposes forces to      locations in countries such as Afghanistan. In 2009, GAO reported that DOD
enemy attack and diverts operational         lacked (1) visibility and accountability for achieving fuel reduction, (2) incentives
resources from other mission areas to        and a viable funding mechanism to invest in the implementation of fuel demand
support delivery of this critical            reduction projects, and (3) guidance and policies that addressed fuel demand at
resource. In 2011, DOD consumed              forward-deployed locations. In response to GAO recommendations, DOD has
almost 5 billion gallons of fuel in
                                             taken steps since 2009 to increase its visibility and accountability for fuel demand
military operations worldwide, at a cost
                                             management at forward-deployed locations, including those located in
of approximately $17.3 billion. GAO
was asked to (1) assess DOD’s
                                             Afghanistan. In addition, with an increased focus on fuel demand management,
approach for fuel demand                     DOD has also provided funding and incentives to implement fuel demand
management, including at forward-            management projects. Further, DOD has issued some guidance on fuel demand
deployed locations in Afghanistan, (2)       management at forward-deployed locations since 2009 and is developing more
determine the extent to which DOD            comprehensive guidance on how DOD will incorporate energy efficiency
has initiatives to promote fuel efficiency   considerations into operations, planning, and training decisions for current
at forward-deployed locations in             military operations in Afghanistan and for future military operations. DOD’s 2012
Afghanistan and efforts to coordinate        Operational Energy Strategy Implementation Plan acknowledges the need for
and collaborate on such initiatives, and     additional comprehensive guidance and directs the Joint Staff and military
(3) assess efforts to measure the            departments to report, by the end of fiscal year 2012, on how operational energy
results of its fuel demand management        considerations will be reflected in policy, doctrine, and professional military
initiatives and establish a baseline         education. The Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
measure of fuel consumption in               Year 2009 requires DOD to report to Congress annually on its progress in
Afghanistan. To conduct this review,         implementing its operational energy strategy. DOD has yet to submit its first
GAO analyzed DOD and service                 report.
guidance and strategies related to fuel
demand management and fuel                   Multiple DOD organizations are developing initiatives to decrease fuel demand at
demand management initiatives,               forward-deployed locations, including in Afghanistan, and the department has
visited locations in Afghanistan, and        worked to facilitate some coordination and collaboration among the services on
met with DOD officials.                      fuel demand management efforts. However, it is still developing an approach to
                                             systematically identify and track all of the fuel demand management initiatives
What GAO Recommends                          that have been fielded, or are in the research and development phase throughout
GAO recommends that DOD finalize             DOD. GAO’s prior work found that utilizing a mechanism such as a database can
and implement a systematic approach          help organizations enhance their visibility and oversight of DOD programs. Until
that includes establishing a mechanism       DOD finalizes its approach to systematically identify and track fuel demand
to identify and track fuel demand            management initiatives, it may be limited in its ability to foster collaboration,
management initiatives that have been        achieve efficiencies, and avoid unintended duplication or overlap of activities.
fielded, or are in the research and
development phase. DOD partially             DOD has started to measure the results of some of the fuel demand
concurred with GAO’s                         management initiatives used in Afghanistan, but is still in the process of
recommendation, citing ongoing efforts       collecting and assessing comprehensive baseline data needed to measure
to identify and track initiatives. Until     current fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations. The Army and Marine
fully implemented, GAO is unable to          Corps have begun collecting data on the amount of fuel consumed by their
assess whether these efforts fully           current assets in Afghanistan. Recognizing the need for additional information,
address the recommendation.                  DOD’s 2012 Implementation Plan has tasked the services with developing and
                                             refining their fuel consumption baselines by mid-2012 and DOD has provided
View GAO-12-619. For more information,
contact Zina Merritt at (202) 512-5257 or    funding for this purpose. Once collected, these data should enhance DOD’s
merrittz@gao.gov.                            planning, programming, and operational decisions and help DOD assess
                                             progress toward meeting its operational energy goals.
                                                                                      United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                         1
                       Background                                                              4
                       DOD Has Taken Steps to Establish an Approach for Fuel Demand
                         Management, but Is Still Developing Comprehensive Guidance            7
                       DOD has Efforts Underway to Promote Fuel Efficiency,
                         Coordination, and Collaboration but Opportunities Exist to
                         Enhance Efforts to Identify and Track All Fuel Demand
                         Management Initiatives                                               22
                       DOD Has Measured the Results of Some Fuel Demand
                         Management Initiatives, and Is Developing Baseline Data to
                         Assess Progress Toward Achieving Operational Energy Goals            33
                       Conclusions                                                            41
                       Recommendation for Executive Action                                    42
                       Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                     42

Appendix I             Scope and Methodology                                                  45



Appendix II            Key Tasks and Milestones Included in DOD’s Operational Energy
                       Strategy Implementation Plan                                           50



Appendix III           Fuel Demand Management Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
                       Identified by DOD                                                 52



Appendix IV            Comments from the Department of Defense                                56



Appendix V             GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                  58



Related GAO Products                                                                          59




                       Page i                                GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Table
          Table 1: DOD Organizations Involved In Fuel Demand Management
                   Efforts for Forward-deployed Locations                                           25


Figures
          Figure 1: Forward-Deployed Locations in Afghanistan Visited
                   during GAO’s Review of DOD’s Fuel Demand
                   Management Efforts                                                               5
          Figure 2: Timeline of Key Events in OEP&P’s Efforts to Manage
                   Operational Energy Issues                                                        9
          Figure 3: Inefficient and Unnecessary Use of Multiple 60-kilowatt
                   Generator Sets at Camp Sabalu-Harrison                                           18
          Figure 4: Expeditionary Living Facilities at Camp Leatherneck
                   without DOD-recommended Solar Shading                                            19
          Figure 5: Entry Control Point at Joint Combat Outpost Pul-A-Sayed
                   Using a More Powerful than Necessary 60-kilowatt
                   Generator                                                                        20
          Figure 6: Advanced Medium Mobile Power Source (AMMPS)                                     35
          Figure 7: 1-megawatt Microgrid at Bagram Airfield                                         36
          Figure 8: Aerial shot of the Base Camp Integration Laboratory at
                   Fort Devens, MA                                                                  37
          Figure 9: Tactical Fuels Manager Defense System                                           39




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          Page ii                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   June 28, 2012

                                   The Honorable Carl Levin
                                   Chairman
                                   Committee on Armed Services
                                   United States Senate

                                   Dear Mr. Chairman:

                                   The Department of Defense (DOD) depends heavily on petroleum-based
                                   fuel to sustain its forward-deployed locations 1 around the world—
                                   particularly at remote locations that are not connected to local power grids
                                   and must rely on fuel-consuming generators for heating, cooling, lighting,
                                   and other base support activities. According to DOD, the U.S. military’s
                                   dependence on liquid fuel in countries like Afghanistan creates an
                                   enormous logistics burden that exposes forces to enemy attack and
                                   diverts operational resources from other mission areas to support delivery
                                   of this critical resource. In addition, global oil supply routes flow through
                                   unstable regions, which can pose supply vulnerabilities, and sharp rises
                                   in fuel prices have increased DOD’s operating costs at a time when the
                                   department faces mandated reductions to defense spending. In 2011,
                                   DOD consumed almost 5 billion gallons of fuel in military operations
                                   worldwide, at a cost of approximately $17.3 billion. To help reduce its
                                   demand for fuel in military activities abroad, the services expect to spend
                                   approximately $4 billion over the next 5 years on operational energy
                                   initiatives. 2

                                   Over the past several years, we and others have reported on the
                                   challenges DOD faces in managing fuel use at forward-deployed
                                   locations, and Congress has required action by DOD on this issue. In
                                   February 2008, the Defense Science Board 3 reported that the high


                                   1
                                    For the purposes of this report, we will use the term “forward-deployed locations” to refer
                                   to forward operating bases, combat outposts, and other contingency bases occupied by
                                   U.S military units.
                                   2
                                    These initiatives include efforts to reduce the demand for fuel, expand or diversify fuel
                                   supplies, and incorporate energy security into the future force. Approximately 58 percent
                                   of DOD’s funding for operational energy efforts is budgeted for science and technology.
                                   3
                                    The Defense Science Board is a federal advisory committee established to provide
                                   independent advice to the Secretary of Defense.




                                   Page 1                                             GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
demand for fuel in-theater degrades operational capabilities, exposes
support operations to greater risk than necessary, and increases life-cycle
costs. 4 In 2009, we reported that each of the services had efforts planned
or underway to reduce fuel demand, but these efforts were not well
coordinated and DOD lacked an effective approach for implementing its
fuel demand management initiatives and maintaining sustained attention
to fuel demand management at its forward-deployed locations. 5 The
Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009
established a Director of Operational Energy Plans and Programs
(OEP&P) and developed an operational energy strategy, providing the
department with an opportunity to increase attention on improving fuel
demand management. 6 As defined in that act, operational energy is
energy required for training, moving, and sustaining military forces and
weapons platforms for military operations, including tactical power
systems, generators, and weapons platforms. 7

Interested in DOD’s progress in addressing these issues since our 2009
report, you asked us to examine DOD’s efforts to reduce the demand for
and promote the efficient use of fuel by the U.S. military at forward-
deployed locations in Afghanistan. Specifically, this report addresses (1)
DOD’s approach for fuel demand management, including at forward-
deployed locations in Afghanistan; (2) the extent to which DOD has
initiatives to promote fuel efficiency at forward-deployed locations in
Afghanistan and efforts to coordinate and collaborate on such initiatives;
and (3) DOD’s efforts to measure the results of its fuel demand
management initiatives and establish a baseline measure of fuel
consumption in Afghanistan.

To address our objectives, we analyzed DOD and military service
guidance, relevant legislation, and other documents, and discussed fuel
demand issues with agency officials to gain their perspectives on DOD’s
fuel demand management efforts and challenges. We focused our review


4
 Defense Science Board Task Force on DOD Energy Strategy, More Fight—Less Fuel
(February 2008).
5
 GAO, Defense Management: DOD Needs to Increase Attention on Fuel Demand
Management at Forward-Deployed Locations, GAO-09-300 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 20,
2009).
6
Pub. L. No. 110-417, § 902 (2008).
7
Pub. L. No. 110-417, § 331 (2008).




Page 2                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
on efforts to manage fuel demand to include forward-deployed locations
within the Central Command’s area of responsibility in Afghanistan. 8
Based on discussions with DOD officials and site visits to forward-
deployed locations in Afghanistan, we analyzed the extent to which DOD
had established an approach for managing fuel demand at forward-
deployed locations and a means to facilitate coordination and
collaboration among the services on these initiatives since our 2009
report. Additionally, based on data provided by the services, we identified
key fuel demand management initiatives that are currently fielded or are
in development and expected to address fuel demand issues at forward-
deployed locations. Furthermore, we reviewed strategies the services
have in place to measure the results of their fuel demand management
initiatives, cost savings data, and the extent to which DOD uses
measures to track and assess the results of its initiatives in Afghanistan.

Our review focused on fuel demand management initiatives 9 planned for
or underway for use in Afghanistan at contingency bases, referred to as
forward-deployed locations throughout our report. Initiatives we reviewed
included items such as power generation equipment, soldier systems,
and energy efficiency improvements used at land-based forward-
deployed locations. To identify fuel demand management initiatives
planned for or currently in use in Afghanistan, we queried OEP&P, the
services, and DOD organizations involved in operational energy research
and development. Based on the information provided, we identified over
30 fuel demand management initiatives. After consultation with Central
Command and U.S. Forces-Afghanistan officials, we selected and visited
the following forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan to gain a firsthand
understanding of fuel demand reduction efforts and any implementation
challenges: Bagram Airfield, Camp Leatherneck, Camp Phoenix, Camp
Sabalu-Harrison, Joint Combat Outpost Pul-A-Sayed, the New Kabul
Compound, and Patrol Base Boldak. We chose to visit these locations
because they were using energy-efficient technologies that were included



8
 There are six geographic combatant commands: Africa Command, Central Command,
European Command, Northern Command, Pacific Command, and Southern Command.
9
 For the purposes of this report, the term fuel demand management initiatives includes
nonmateriel and materiel solutions to assist DOD in reducing its reliance on fuel
consumed at forward-deployed locations. Nonmateriel solutions include efforts such as
changes to policies and procedures, or modifications to staffing to perform fuel demand
management functions. Materiel solutions include developing equipment such as more
efficient generators or environmental control units.




Page 3                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                           in our review and/or are illustrative of DOD’s fuel demand management
                           initiatives and challenges. We concentrated our review on the steps the
                           Army and Marine Corps have taken to reduce fuel demand because
                           these two services have the responsibility for managing forward-deployed
                           locations in Afghanistan.

                           We conducted this performance audit from April 2011 to June 2012 in
                           accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
                           Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
                           sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
                           findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
                           the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
                           conclusions based on our audit objectives. Details about our scope and
                           methodology are contained in appendix I.



Background
DOD’s Forward-Deployed     At any given time, the United States has military personnel serving
Locations in Afghanistan   abroad in forward-deployed locations to support U.S. strategic interests.
                           The number of personnel and locations vary with the frequency and type
                           of military operations and deployment demands. In general, operational
                           control of U.S. military forces at forward-deployed locations is assigned to
                           the nation’s six geographic, unified overseas regional commands,
                           including Central Command. 10 Central Command’s area of responsibility
                           includes Afghanistan, where military operations have led to the creation of
                           several hundred locations that vary in size and structure to meet mission
                           requirements, and the military service components have been responsible
                           for establishing and maintaining these locations. Some forward operating
                           bases such as Bagram Air Field support thousands of personnel and are
                           large consumers of energy. Forward operating bases generally support a
                           brigade 11 or larger population and are typically composed of temporary or
                           semi-permanent structures that require energy for lighting, heating, and
                           air conditioning; electrical power grids; water and sewage systems; and



                           10
                             U.S. Transportation Command and U.S. Special Operations Command frequently retain
                           operational control over their respective forces when deployed.
                           11
                             A brigade ranges in size from about 1,500-3,200 military personnel. A company
                           generally consists of 60-200 personnel.




                           Page 4                                          GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                             force protection systems. At the other end of the spectrum, small units at
                             the company level and below have established combat outposts to
                             enhance local operations. These outposts have a short life-cycle and
                             unique configurations. Since these forward-deployed locations can be
                             constructed in a variety of ways, the amount of fuel they consume can
                             vary. Figure 1 shows the forward-deployed locations we visited during the
                             course of our review.

                             Figure 1: Forward-Deployed Locations in Afghanistan Visited during GAO’s Review
                             of DOD’s Fuel Demand Management Efforts




DOD Fuel Demand,             Military deployments generally rely on petroleum-based fuels, which
Delivery Responsibilities,   power communication equipment, expeditionary bases, tactical vehicles,
and Costs                    aircraft, some naval vessels, and other platforms. According to DOD



                             Page 5                                     GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
officials, more than 43 million gallons of fuel, on average, were supplied
each month to support U.S. forces in Afghanistan in 2011. 12 Equipment
such as generators provides power for base support activities such as air
conditioning, heating, lighting, and communications, and consumes a
significant amount of fuel

In Afghanistan, the Defense Logistics Agency-Energy (DLA-Energy)
delivers fuel to multiple points of delivery throughout the country via
contracted trucking assets, depending on the location of the bases. DLA-
Energy tracks the aggregate amount of fuel the services consume based
on sales receipts, and the U.S. government pays for fuel that is delivered
to each of these designated delivery points. The North Atlantic Treaty
Organization delivers fuel in the southern part of Afghanistan.

While the cost of fuel represents only about 2 percent of DOD’s total
budget, 13 it can have a significant impact on the department’s operating
costs. Since the military services prepare their annual budgets based on
the approved fuel price projections in the President’s budget, market
volatility in the year of execution can result in out-of-cycle fuel price
increases that are difficult for the services to absorb. A prior DOD report
has estimated that for every $10 increase in the price of a barrel of oil,
DOD’s operating costs increase by approximately $1.3 billion. 14 The
department has received supplemental appropriations from Congress in
prior years to cover budget shortages associated with rising fuel prices.

Moreover, the total cost of delivering fuel to a consumer on the
battlefield—which includes the aggregate cost of buying, moving, and
protecting fuel during combat operations—can be much greater than the
cost of the fuel itself. A 2008 Defense Science Board task force report
noted that preliminary estimates by the OSD Program Analysis and




12
  This figure includes the quantity of fuel supplied to U.S. forces by DOD and North
Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Joint Forces Command-Brunssum in its area of operations.
13
  The defense budget in fiscal year 2012 was approximately $646 billion, of which $14.8
billion was requested to fund DOD’s fuel requirements.
14
  Defense Science Board Task Force on DOD Energy Strategy, More Fight—Less Fuel
(February 2008).




Page 6                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                          Evaluation office 15 and the Institute for Defense Analyses showed that the
                          fully burdened cost 16 of a $2.50 gallon of fuel (DLA’s standard price for
                          fuel in 2008) 17 begins at about $15, not including force protection
                          requirements for supply convoys. In addition, fuel delivered in-flight was
                          estimated to cost about $42 a gallon at that time. However, the report
                          notes that these figures were considered low when the report was
                          published in 2008 and, according to DOD officials, in 2011, the cost of a
                          gallon of this fuel had risen to $3.95 (DLA standard price in 2011), making
                          the fully burdened cost of fuel even higher than previously reported. In
                          fiscal year 2009 Congress required the Secretary of Defense to
                          incorporate the fully burdened cost of fuel into its cost analyses, including
                          acquisition analyses of alternatives and program design trade decisions. 18
                          At the time of our review, DOD officials stated the department was in the
                          process of analyzing the fully burdened cost of fuel and how it will be
                          applied throughout DOD’s acquisition process.


                          DOD has taken steps since our 2009 report to establish an approach for
DOD Has Taken Steps       managing overall fuel demand, but is still developing comprehensive
to Establish an           guidance to address fuel demand management. In 2009, we reported that
                          DOD faced difficulty in reducing its reliance on fuel at forward-deployed
Approach for Fuel         locations because managing fuel demand had not been a departmental
Demand Management,        priority and its fuel reduction efforts had not been well coordinated or
                          comprehensive. As such, we recommended that DOD develop
but Is Still Developing   requirements for managing fuel demand at forward-deployed locations,
Comprehensive             and DOD concurred with this recommendation. Since that time, DOD has
Guidance                  taken several steps to increase its visibility and accountability for fuel
                          demand management, and is developing comprehensive guidance on
                          how DOD will incorporate energy efficiency considerations into


                          15
                            The Weapon Systems Acquisition Reform Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111-23, established a
                          Director of Cost Assessment and Performance Evaluation, who is responsible for ensuring
                          that cost estimates are fair, reliable, and unbiased, and for performing the program
                          analysis and evaluation functions previously performed by the Director of Program
                          Analysis and Evaluation.
                          16
                            Fully burdened cost is defined as the commodity price for fuel plus the total cost of all
                          personnel and assets required to move and, when necessary, protect the fuel from the
                          point at which the fuel is received from the commercial supplier to the point of use.
                          17
                            This is the standard price for JP-8, a fuel used in U.S. military aircraft, vehicles, and
                          other equipment.
                          18
                            Pub. L. 110-417, § 332(c).




                          Page 7                                               GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                             operations, planning, and training decisions for current and future military
                             operations.


Progress in Establishing     DOD has made progress in establishing visibility and accountability for
Visibility and               fuel demand management since our 2009 report by making organizational
Accountability for Overall   changes and issuing an Operational Energy Strategy (operational energy
                             strategy) 19 and related Operational Energy Strategy Implementation Plan
DOD Fuel Demand              (implementation plan) 20 to provide direction for DOD’s overall fuel
Management                   demand management efforts, including efforts at forward-deployed
                             locations in Afghanistan. Specifically, in our prior report we noted that
                             DOD’s organizational framework did not provide the department with
                             visibility or accountability over fuel demand management issues at
                             forward-deployed locations because there was no one office or official
                             specifically responsible for these issues. We also found that fuel demand
                             reduction efforts were not consistently shared across DOD. Our prior
                             work has shown that visibility and accountability for results are
                             established by assigning roles and responsibilities, establishing goals and
                             metrics, and monitoring performance.

                             Congress and DOD have taken multiple steps to address this issue. For
                             instance, the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for
                             Fiscal Year 2009 established a Director of Operational Energy Plans and
                             Programs (OEP&P) 21 responsible for serving as the principal advisor to
                             the Secretary of Defense for operational energy plans and programs,
                             which includes, among other responsibilities, monitoring and reviewing all
                             operational energy initiatives in DOD. Since its establishment, OEP&P
                             has worked in conjunction with all of the services’ energy offices to
                             provide visibility and accountability for operational energy issues,
                             including fuel demand management issues. For example, with input from
                             the services, OEP&P published the Operational Energy Strategy
                             Implementation Plan in March 2012 that assigns responsibilities for key
                             tasks and specifies milestones and reporting requirements that will
                             provide accountability for implementing the operational energy strategy


                             19
                              DOD Operational Energy Strategy, Energy for the Warfighter, May 2011.
                             20
                              Operational Energy Strategy Implementation Plan, Department of Defense, March 2012.
                             21
                               In 2011, Congress redesignated the Director of Operational Energy Plans and Programs
                             as the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy Plans and Programs. Pub.
                             L. No. 111-383, § 901(a)(1)(B).




                             Page 8                                         GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                        (see appendix II). Also, in March 2012, DOD established a Defense
                                        Operational Energy Board to help provide visibility and accountability over
                                        operational energy efforts that included fuel demand management. The
                                        board will be cochaired by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for
                                        Operational Energy Plans and Programs and the Joint Staff’s Director of
                                        Logistics. According to OEP&P officials, the board will help review,
                                        synchronize, and support departmentwide operational energy policies,
                                        plans, and programs. In addition, the board will monitor and, where
                                        necessary, recommend revisions to DOD policies, plans, and programs
                                        needed to implement the operational energy strategy. DOD’s operational
                                        energy strategy, the implementation plan, and the Defense Operational
                                        Energy Board are intended to support departmentwide operational energy
                                        efforts while also having a direct impact on DOD’s efforts to manage fuel
                                        demand at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. Figure 2 provides a
                                        timeline of key events in OEP&P’s efforts to manage operational energy
                                        issues.

Figure 2: Timeline of Key Events in OEP&P’s Efforts to Manage Operational Energy Issues




                                        To further enhance DOD’s operational energy efforts, the National
                                        Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 required the Chairman of




                                        Page 9                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
the Joint Chiefs of Staff to designate a senior official under the jurisdiction
of the Chairman to be responsible for operational energy plans and
programs. 22 In August 2011, the Chairman appointed the Joint Staff’s
Director of Logistics to this position with responsibility for coordinating
with OEP&P and implementing initiatives pursuant to the operational
energy strategy. According to Joint Staff officials, the Joint Staff is
committed to addressing operational energy capability gaps and in April
2012 formed a Joint Capabilities Task Group to identify and address fuel
demand management issues. The task group’s mission includes:

•     providing recommendations to better integrate operational energy into
      current and future materiel and nonmateriel solutions to improve
      operational capabilities, and
•     supporting evaluation of the operational energy requirements process,
      and providing recommendations through the requisite Functional
      Capabilities Boards and the Joint Logistics Board to the Joint
      Capabilities Board or Joint Requirements Oversight Council for
      validation/decision.
According to Joint Staff officials, the Joint Capabilities Task Group will
focus on developing a framework for analysis that supports service and
DOD efforts to inform leaders such as commanders in Afghanistan about
operational energy vulnerabilities. The group will also propose guidance
to support the combatant commands in assessing logistics plans and
evaluating energy assumptions that will influence the execution of
operational plans. OEP&P officials told us that the Joint Staff plays a key
role in collaborating with OSD to create policy, develop joint doctrine, and
advocate for combatant commander requirements. Joint Staff officials told
us their goal is to incorporate energy efficiency guidance into existing joint
publications when such documents are up for review. 23 As part of this
process the Joint Staff’s Joint Capabilities Task Group will prioritize which
guidance documents will be revised first, then work toward updating other
applicable guidance documents. According to DOD officials, when these
guidance documents are updated, operational energy issues, including
priorities for addressing fuel demand management, should be included in
the services’ and combatant commanders’ mission planning activities.



22
    Pub. L. No. 112-81, § 311.
23
  According to Joint Staff officials, guidance documents such as Joint Publications should
be reviewed and updated every 3 years.




Page 10                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                       Our prior work on government performance and management also notes
                       the importance of establishing goals and metrics to assess progress and
                       provide accountability. 24 DOD’s operational energy strategy established
                       three overarching operational energy goals to: (1) reduce demand for
                       energy in military operations, (2) expand and secure energy supplies, and
                       (3) build energy security into the future force, and DOD has begun to take
                       steps to establish metrics to measure progress toward these goals.
                       OEP&P officials told us that the Defense Operational Energy Board will
                       develop departmental operational energy performance metrics to promote
                       the energy efficiency of military operations by the end of fiscal year 2012.
                       The board will also monitor and, as needed, recommend revisions to
                       DOD policies needed to implement the operational energy strategy and
                       monitor progress to ensure DOD is meeting its operational energy goals.
                       OEP&P officials stated that establishing such strategies, goals, and
                       metrics will not only provide DOD with the direction and tools needed to
                       assess progress towards meeting fuel demand management goals at
                       forward-deployed locations, including those in Afghanistan, but will
                       enhance DOD’s efforts to achieve its overall fuel demand management
                       objectives worldwide.


DOD Funding and        Since our 2009 report, DOD has taken action to fund fuel demand
Incentives for Fuel    management initiatives and restructure maintenance contract task orders
Demand Management at   to include energy efficiency considerations and incentives. In our 2009
                       report on fuel demand management, we found that DOD had not
Forward-deployed       established incentives or a viable funding mechanism for fuel reduction
Locations              projects at forward-deployed locations and commanders were not
                       encouraged to identify fuel reduction projects as a priority. Specifically,
                       we found that much of the funding provided to support military operations
                       in Iraq and Afghanistan was provided through supplemental funding
                       measures, 25 making it difficult to plan for and fund costly projects such as
                       fuel demand management initiatives. As such, we recommended that
                       DOD establish incentives for commanders of forward-deployed locations
                       to promote fuel demand reduction at their locations, as well as identify a



                       24
                        GAO, Executive Guide: Effectively Implementing the Government Performance and
                       Results Act, GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: June 1996).
                       25
                         Supplemental appropriations provide additional budget authority for unanticipated
                       activities or requirements too urgent to be delayed until the regular appropriation is
                       enacted.




                       Page 11                                            GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
viable funding mechanism for the department and commanders of
forward-deployed locations to pursue fuel reduction initiatives. DOD
partially concurred with our recommendation and said it was not
convinced that financial incentives represent the best fuel reduction
strategy for forward-deployed locations, but stated that it will seek to
incorporate fuel reduction incentives while recognizing the primacy of
mission accomplishment. Since the release of our 2009 report, DOD’s
increased focus on fuel demand management at forward-deployed
locations, and the establishment of OEP&P and the U.S. Forces-
Afghanistan Operational Energy Division, increased priority has been
given to fuel demand management initiatives at forward-deployed
locations in Afghanistan. For example, DOD has undertaken a
widespread initiative to replace spot generation with centralized power
and the U.S. Forces-Afghanistan’s Operational Energy Division secured
$108 million in fiscal year 2011 from the Army to invest in more efficient
power production and distribution equipment for the Afghanistan area of
operations. According to DOD’s analysis, this investment will remove as
many as 545 spot generators saving an estimated 17.5 million gallons of
fuel per year, the equivalent of removing over 7,000 fuel trucks from the
roads in Afghanistan. Furthermore, the Marine Corps committed fiscal
year 2011 funds to support the accelerated procurement of a suite of
more efficient tactical energy systems. Also, in 2011, DOD completed the
Afghanistan Micro-Grid Project, 26 which was an effort at Bagram Airfield
to replace less efficient generator sets with a smart, more energy-efficient
power source. DOD provided over $2 million to fund this project.
Furthermore, to reinforce DOD’s commitment to reducing its reliance on
fuel at forward-deployed locations, in September 2011 the Under
Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics issued a
memorandum to support reprogramming overseas contingency
operations funds to expedite the deployment of more efficient generators,
centralized power projects, and shelter modification kits to forward-
deployed locations in Afghanistan. 27




26
  A microgrid is a power distribution system that includes multiple energy storage
components, such as solar power components, or generators, which can be managed by
controls depending on the power source and energy load.
27
  The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Memorandum for Commanders, U.S. Central Command, U.S. Forces Afghanistan;
Subject: Operational Energy Requirements for U.S. Forces in Afghanistan; Sept.14, 2011.




Page 12                                         GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
With the establishment of OEP&P, DOD also has increased its efforts to
obtain visibility over funding for initiatives aimed at reducing fuel
consumption at forward-deployed locations. For example, to help ensure
the services’ budgets support the implementation of DOD’s operational
energy strategy, OEP&P is now required by law to publish an annual
operational energy budget certification report. This report certifies that the
proposed services’ budgets are adequate for the implementation of the
operational energy aspects of their respective energy strategies.
According to OEP&P’s fiscal year 2012 budget certification report, the
services anticipate spending approximately $4 billion on operational
energy initiatives over the next 5 years. Although the operational energy
initiatives identified through OEP&P’s budget certification process are not
specifically targeted for use at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan,
many of them have been tested and fielded there, and will be applicable
to DOD’s fuel demand management efforts both in Afghanistan and
elsewhere. To improve the energy efficiency of DOD’s operational forces,
the fiscal year 2012 President’s Budget also included an additional $19
million in funding for an Operational Energy Capabilities Improvement
Fund. Its mission is to fund innovation to improve operational
effectiveness by investing in research and development for operational
energy innovation. These funds are intended as “seed money” to
consolidate or initiate promising operational energy programs. The initial
funding for these efforts will be administered by OEP&P, but the
programs will be ultimately sustained by the services. According to DOD,
the initiatives funded by this program will support efforts to develop and
rapidly transition energy technologies for the combat force, resulting in
improved military capabilities, fewer energy-related casualties, and lower
costs for the taxpayer. As part of this fund, in January 2012 DOD allotted
funds to begin developing six new operational energy initiatives. Although
these initiatives are not finalized and are still being developed, DOD
expects these efforts to play a role in reducing fuel demand at forward-
deployed locations. Initiatives such as the development of new energy-
efficient containerized living units used in expeditionary bases around the
world, energy-efficient heating and air conditioning systems, and newly
designed shelter systems used to decrease fuel demand at forward-
deployed locations are some of the products being developed under this
program.

In addition to the initiatives mentioned above, DOD has placed a higher
priority on ensuring contractors responsible for executing operations and




Page 13                                    GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                        maintenance contracts are addressing energy efficiency issues at
                        forward-deployed locations. For instance, the U.S. Army Materiel
                        Command 28 has taken steps to enforce the existing language included in
                        Logistics Civil Augmentation Program ( LOGCAP) 29 contracts to require
                        more attention be given to increasing energy efficiency at forward-
                        deployed locations. To address power generation concerns, a June 2011
                        LOGCAP policy letter indicates that contractors should complete
                        assessments for the more than 4,000 generators located on over 130
                        bases in Afghanistan to assess power load demand and energy
                        efficiency. The U.S. Army Materiel Command and U.S. Forces-
                        Afghanistan also plan to include energy efficiency standards in the
                        technical specifications for new and refurbished facilities maintained by
                        support contractors. Further, contractors will also now be required to
                        provide energy assessments and make recommendations for improved
                        efficiency to supported units. According to DOD and LOGCAP officials,
                        these and other efforts are ongoing and are expected to assist DOD in
                        reducing its fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations. Officials also
                        told us that by increasing efforts to reduce fuel demand, U.S. forces will
                        both reduce operational costs associated with high fuel consumption and
                        increase combat capability by freeing up forces used to protect fuel
                        convoys and reduce forces’ exposure to hostile action.


DOD Guidance for Fuel   DOD has issued guidance for fuel demand management and is
Demand Management       developing comprehensive guidance for its operational, planning, and
                        training decisions. Since our 2009 report on fuel demand management,
                        various DOD organizations have issued guidance for fuel demand
                        management and the department is still developing more comprehensive
                        guidance on how to incorporate energy efficiency considerations into
                        DOD’s operational, planning, and training decisions. In our 2009 report,
                        we found that DOD had not developed overarching fuel demand
                        management guidance to require commanders to manage and reduce
                        fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations. In addition, we found that


                        28
                          The U.S. Army Materiel Command is the Army’s provider of materiel readiness—
                        technology, acquisition support, materiel development, logistics power projection, and
                        sustainment—to the total force, across the spectrum of joint military operations.
                        29
                          The Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) is an Army program that plans for
                        the use of a private-sector contractor to support worldwide contingency operations.
                        Examples of the types of support that may be provided under these contracts include:
                        laundry and bath, food service, sanitation, billeting, maintenance, and power generation.




                        Page 14                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
there was little or no written guidance that addressed fuel demand
management or energy efficiency for base camp construction or for other
business decisions such as maintenance or procurement actions. We
recommended that multiple organizations within DOD develop specific
guidance on fuel demand management in their areas of responsibility.
DOD has since issued overarching, theater-level, and base camp
construction and development guidance, but is still developing policy and
doctrine to provide guidance on how energy efficiency considerations will
be included in operational decisions that affect fuel demand management
at forward-deployed locations, such as those in Afghanistan.

To provide overarching guidance to DOD’s operational energy efforts,
including reducing its reliance on fuel at forward-deployed locations, DOD
published its 2011 operational energy strategy and its 2012
implementation plan. As noted above, the implementation plan provides
DOD stakeholders involved in fuel demand management with a roadmap
for accomplishing key tasks to reduce fuel demand. However, because
OEP&P is a new organization and in the early stages of working within
DOD to develop guidance and policies, DOD has yet to address how
energy efficiency considerations will be incorporated into its joint
doctrine, 30 which provides the principles that guide the employment of
U.S. military forces in an operational environment and is essential to
organizing, training, and equipping its units. DOD’s Operational Energy
Strategy Implementation Plan also acknowledges the need for additional
comprehensive guidance and directs the Joint Staff and military
departments to report to the Defense Operational Energy Board by the
fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012 on how the strategy’s goals will be
reflected in policy, doctrine, and professional military education. The plan
further states that the scope of this task includes examining departmental
directives, instructions, field manuals, doctrine, professional military
education curricula, and other relevant guidance in order to include
energy efficiency considerations in its operational, planning, and training
decisions.




30
  Joint doctrine includes the fundamental principles that guide the employment of U.S.
military forces in coordinated action toward a common objective and may include terms,
tactics, techniques, and procedures. Doctrine is the fundamental principles by which the
military forces or elements thereof guide their actions in support of national objectives.
Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms
(As Amended Through 15 April 2012)




Page 15                                          GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Guidance for Construction and   Central Command has updated its guidance for construction and base
Base Camp Development Has       camp development to place more emphasis on energy efficiency for
Been Updated to Include         contingency and permanent base camps that support missions in its area
Energy Efficiency Standards     of responsibility. 31 Specifically, in 2009 we noted that some of DOD’s
                                combatant commands and military services had developed construction
                                standards for forward-deployed locations, but our analysis showed that
                                this existing guidance was largely silent with regard to fuel demand
                                management and energy efficiency. Pertinent Central Command
                                guidance in 2009 included only one reference to energy efficiency
                                requiring that semi-permanent facilities—those facilities with a life
                                expectancy of more than 2 years, but less than 25 years—be designed
                                and constructed with finishes, materials, and systems selected for
                                moderate energy efficiency. According to the guidance in effect at that
                                time, semi-permanent construction standards were to be considered for
                                operations expected to last more than 2 years. In 2009, we found that the
                                temporary status of many forward-deployed locations, combined with a
                                focus on quickly establishing the locations rather than on sustaining them,
                                limited DOD’s emphasis on constructing energy-efficient facilities. We
                                recommended that DOD develop specific guidelines that address energy
                                efficiency considerations in base construction. In October 2011, Central
                                Command revised its policy for base camp construction standards to
                                include a greater emphasis on energy efficiency. For example, the
                                revised policy now calls for energy conservation best practices to be
                                incorporated into all new construction that is to be environmentally
                                controlled. Also, in an effort to reduce fuel consumption at forward-
                                deployed locations, the policy requires all bases receiving power
                                generation support from contingency contracting programs, such as
                                LOGCAP, to conduct an electrical infrastructure assessment. According
                                to Central Command officials, conducting electrical infrastructure
                                assessments will allow base planners and commanders to determine
                                areas where energy efficiency shortfalls may be occurring, and identify
                                areas where energy generation and distribution adjustments should be
                                made in order to save fuel. The policy also includes other notable
                                provisions to promote energy efficiency such as encouraging the
                                insulation of temporary facilities when funds and time allow. Central
                                Command and OEP&P officials told us that revisions to this policy
                                encourage commanders to consider incorporating energy efficiency


                                31
                                  U.S. Central Command Regulation 415-1, Construction and Base Camp Development in
                                the USCENTCOM Area of Responsibility (AOR), “The Sandbook” Headquarters United
                                States Central Command (Oct. 17, 2011).




                                Page 16                                      GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                standards into base camp construction and development, which may not
                                have otherwise been an area of concern.

                                In addition, in April 2012, the Commander of Bagram Airfield, one of the
                                major U.S. logistics bases in Afghanistan, issued additional guidance to
                                direct the use of energy efficiency design and construction standards for
                                all new and renovation construction projects on Bagram Airfield. For
                                example, the guidance requires new or renovated projects to use energy-
                                saving equipment such as fluorescent or Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)
                                lighting, energy-efficient motors, and that windows, ceilings, walls, and
                                roofs be insulated, among other things. According to an OEP&P official,
                                all requests for approval to build or alter facilities must be reviewed by
                                Bagram’s Joint Facilities Utilization Board, which provides a way to
                                enforce efficiency standards throughout this location.

Commanders in Afghanistan       In 2011 and 2012, commanders in Afghanistan issued theater-level fuel
Have Recently Issued Theater-   demand management guidance regarding maintenance and procurement
level Fuel Demand               decisions for forward-deployed locations. In our 2009 report on fuel
Management Guidance to          demand management we found a lack of attention to fuel demand
Influence Maintenance and       management in guidance, including an absence of fuel usage guidelines
Procurement Decisions           and metrics to evaluate progress of reduction efforts, as forward-deployed
                                locations are maintained and sustained over time. We also found the
                                procurement of products for forward-deployed locations presents
                                opportunities for DOD to consider making purchases that take into
                                account fuel demand or energy efficiencies when practical. Since that
                                time, commanders in Afghanistan have issued general policy memoranda
                                on repairing, maintaining, and procuring equipment to help reduce fuel
                                consumption at forward-deployed locations. Specifically, in June and
                                December of 2011 the Commander, U.S. Forces-Afghanistan, issued
                                operational energy guidance in the form of policy memoranda 32 to
                                soldiers, sailors, airmen, Marines, and civilians of U.S. Forces-
                                Afghanistan located at forward-deployed locations. These memoranda
                                stated that commanders are expected to take ownership of fuel demand
                                management issues and explore methods for reducing fuel demand at
                                forward-deployed locations. For example, commanders are to ensure
                                personnel take action to repair faulty equipment, avoid using heating and
                                air conditioning in unoccupied buildings, and work with support


                                32
                                  Commander, U.S. Forces-Afghanistan policy memo, Subject: Supporting the mission
                                with operational energy, June 7, 2011; Commander, U.S. Forces- Afghanistan policy
                                memo, Subject: Supporting the mission with operational energy, Dec. 11, 2011




                                Page 17                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
contractors, suppliers, and the services to improve inefficient facilities and
devices such as generators and air conditioning units. In addition,
commanders should push for rapid fielding of new fuel savings methods,
where appropriate, and pursue existing, proven alternative energy options
that reduce the use and transport of fuel. During our visit to forward-
deployed locations in Afghanistan in October 2011, however, many of the
commanders and personnel we spoke with were unaware of this
guidance or commented that it did not provide specific direction on how to
implement needed fuel demand management actions. As such, many of
the commanders with whom we spoke had not establish specific
guidance or protocols to address day-to-day fuel use, such as
establishing a base policy on turning off lights in unoccupied buildings or
immediately repairing faulty equipment. In addition, we found that some of
the commanders we spoke with in Afghanistan were not using available
energy efficient equipment and/or had not fixed faulty equipment. For
example, at Camp Sabalu-Harrison we observed inefficient generator
configurations in which multiple generators were used to power individual
tents when one generator could have provided adequate power for
multiple tents (see fig. 3). At Camp Leatherneck we observed, and were
told that available tent shading used to provide cover from the sun was
not being used consistently throughout the base (see fig. 4).

Figure 3: Inefficient and Unnecessary Use of Multiple 60-kilowatt Generator Sets at
Camp Sabalu-Harrison




Page 18                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Figure 4: Expeditionary Living Facilities at Camp Leatherneck without DOD-
recommended Solar Shading




Additionally, at Joint Combat Outpost Pul-A-Sayed, we observed an entry
control checkpoint powered by a 60-kilowatt generator when, according to
the commander in charge of this outpost, a smaller more energy-efficient
5- or 10-kilowatt generator would have provided adequate power (see fig.
5). Army officials at this location told us that the previous generator used
to power this entry control checkpoint had failed and had not been
replaced because it was considered a lower priority. According to officials
at the outpost, these types of equipment breakdowns happen frequently,
and due to the lack of adequately trained personnel and other mission
requirements, may take weeks to be repaired or replaced.




Page 19                                      GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Figure 5: Entry Control Point at Joint Combat Outpost Pul-A-Sayed Using a More
Powerful than Necessary 60-kilowatt Generator




After our visit to Afghanistan, U.S. Forces-Afghanistan developed and
issued a fragmentary order 33 to provide specific guidance on fuel demand
management procedures, and specific operational energy practices
needed to comply with the policy memoranda. The April 2012 operational
energy fragmentary order 34 established milestone dates for accomplishing
tasks for reducing fuel demand at select forward-deployed locations.
According to DOD officials, this type of guidance provides U.S. Forces-
Afghanistan’s subordinate commands with the specific direction
necessary to begin reducing fuel demand at its forward-deployed
locations. The order requires commanders located at forward-deployed
locations in Afghanistan to distribute the December 2011 operational
energy policy memo so that personnel will be aware of fuel demand
management goals and objectives for forward-deployed locations. In



33
  A fragmentary order is an abbreviated form of an operation order issued as needed after
an operation order to change or modify that order or to execute a branch or sequel to that
order. When we use “order” in this section, we are referring to the fragmentary order.
34
 USFOR-A FRAGO 12-122: Directs Energy Guidance IAW USFOR-A Policy, April 2012.




Page 20                                          GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
addition, the order requires commanders to develop, distribute, and
implement policies that will complement the operational energy policy
memorandum no later than 30 days after the order was published.
Furthermore, the guidance requires that fuel accountability metrics be
established and made available by U.S. Forces-Afghanistan’s Joint Staff
(J-4) by the end of May 2012.

Further, service officials acknowledged the need for additional training
throughout the department on fuel demand management, and told us the
services are developing various curricula and training programs to make
sure personnel deployed to forward-deployed locations know how to
operate relevant equipment and understand the importance of reducing
fuel demand. For example, U.S. Marine Corps Training and Education
Command has begun developing and adding operational energy courses
to its expeditionary warfighting school curricula and, according to officials,
has begun working with other services to further educate military
personnel on the importance of energy conservation.

OEP&P officials stated that DOD’s focus on operational energy issues
and the organizations supporting this effort are new, and expect these
efforts to have an impact on fuel demand management at forward-
deployed locations as they are implemented. OEP&P officials added they
are monitoring progress and will report to the congressional defense
committees on operational energy management and the implementation
of the operational energy strategy as required by the 2009 National
Defense Authorization Act. 35




35
     Pub. L. No. 110-417, § 331 (2008).




Page 21                                    GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                         DOD has several ongoing initiatives to promote fuel efficiency at forward-
DOD has Efforts          deployed locations in Afghanistan and has established various methods
Underway to Promote      to facilitate some coordination and collaboration among the services.
                         However, it is still in the process of developing a systematic approach to
Fuel Efficiency,         identify and track the numerous fuel demand management initiatives that
Coordination, and        have been fielded, or are in the research and development phase
Collaboration but        throughout DOD. Without a systematic approach, DOD may be limited in
                         its ability to provide full visibility over all of its fuel demand management
Opportunities Exist to   initiatives, achieve efficiencies, and avoid unintended duplication or
Enhance Efforts to       overlap of activities. 36

Identify and Track All
Fuel Demand
Management
Initiatives

Fuel Demand Management   We found that DOD, the services, and Central Command have numerous
Initiatives              efforts underway to develop and test various fuel demand management
                         initiatives. The Army and the Marine Corps have each established
                         facilities to test fuel demand management initiatives being pursued by
                         their respective service for potential use at forward-deployed locations.
                         For a list of fuel demand management initiatives being evaluated by the
                         services for possible use in Afghanistan see appendix III.

                         The services are engaged in several fuel demand management initiatives
                         that can be applied to forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. In 2011,
                         the Army’s Base Camp Integration Laboratory located at Fort Devens,
                         Massachusetts, began assessing new systems and technology that may
                         help increase energy efficiency and reduce fuel usage at base camp
                         operations. The Base Camp Integration Laboratory seeks to integrate and
                         verify new technology concepts and allows product testing before field
                         evaluation by soldiers. According to Army officials, by conducting
                         laboratory, systems, and interoperability testing on the items at the lab,



                         36
                           Duplication occurs when two or more agencies or programs are engaged in the same
                         activities or provide the same services to the same beneficiaries. Overlap occurs when
                         programs that have similar goals, devise similar strategies and activities to achieve those
                         goals, or target similar users.




                         Page 22                                            GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
the Army can improve survivability, and sustainability, and reduce the
risks that may occur after new technology is deployed to the field.

Some of the specific initiatives currently being tested at the Base Camp
Integration Laboratory are:

•   Energy-efficient shelter testing to determine the energy efficiencies of
    various tent shelter alternatives.
•   Soft Wall Shelter/Environmental Control Unit/Insulated Liner/Solar
    Shade testing to determine the effects of solar shades and insulated
    liners in reducing the solar load and temperature differential in soft-
    sided shelters. Additionally, these tests will determine if downsizing
    the environmental control unit can sustain interior temperatures in
    soft-sided shelters, thereby reducing power consumption.
•   Force Provider Micro Grid testing to determine the efficiency and
    energy savings from replacing six generators with a microgrid within a
    150-man base camp environment.
In a separate initiative to evaluate Marine Corps-specific equipment, the
Marine Corps Experimental Forward Operating Base (ExFOB) was
established to provide industry with an opportunity to demonstrate their
latest capabilities to enhance the Marine Corps’ self-sufficiency and
reduce its need for bulk fuel and water at forward-deployed locations such
as those in Afghanistan. To date there have been four iterations of the
ExFOB. The first was conducted at Quantico, Virginia in March 2010 and
involved the evaluation of, among other things, tent liners, Light-Emitting
Diodes (LED) lights, soldier-portable solar recharging power devices, and
a solar power energy collection and storage device. Those technologies
were determined to have the potential to increase combat effectiveness
by reducing the requirements for fuel and batteries, and were deployed to
Afghanistan for further evaluation. The second was conducted at
Twentynine Palms, California in August 2010 and evaluated hybrid solar
systems, direct-current-powered efficient air conditioners, and solar
power refrigerators. As a result of this ExFOB demonstration, the Marine
Corps has finalized its evaluation of four items, which are now ready for
use at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. The third ExFOB was
conducted in Twentynine Palms, California in August 2011 and included
an evaluation of the fuel efficiency of tactical vehicles. The fourth ExFOB
was conducted at Camp Lejune, North Carolina in April and May 2012
and included an evaluation of wearable electronic power systems,
lightweight, man-portable, water purification systems.




Page 23                                   GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                          In addition, in fiscal year 2008 the U.S. Central Command and the OSD
                          Energy Task Force cosponsored an initiative called the NetZeroPlus Joint
                          Capabilities Technology Demonstration, an initiative used to determine
                          fuel demand reduction solutions for forward-deployed locations. 37 This
                          demonstration assessed technologies for reducing fuel demand and
                          improving infrastructure and alternative energy supply for the warfighter.
                          According to DOD officials, this demonstration used research and
                          development efforts from military research development and engineering
                          centers, federal and private labs, and commercial and government off-
                          the-shelf technology. DOD plans to use the combined capabilities
                          developed from these tests to establish more energy-efficient forward
                          operating base blueprints for use by operational commanders, theater
                          planners, and interagency organizations. The emphasis for this initiative
                          was on improving or replacing current facilities with more energy-efficient
                          structures and integrating renewable energy technologies with improved
                          energy generation solutions to power those structures. Some of the
                          initiatives tested as part of the technology demonstration included: air
                          beam energy-efficient tents; power shades; solar shades; insulation
                          liners; and flexible lighting surfaces. See appendix III for an overview of
                          these initiatives.


Efforts Underway to       DOD has taken some steps to foster coordination and collaboration on
Foster Coordination and   the department’s fuel demand management initiatives, but because there
Collaboration but         are multiple organizations within DOD engaged in developing these
                          initiatives, challenges remain. Our prior work has shown that leading
Challenges Remain         practices for collaborating to meet modern national security challenges
                          include, 38 developing and implementing overarching strategies, creating
                          collaborative organizations, and sharing and integrating information
                          across agencies via a comprehensive database to track initiatives. DOD
                          has multiple organizations—including some engaged in coordination and
                          collaboration—in the area of energy efficiency, but it currently lacks a



                          37
                            A NetZero installation, over the course of a fiscal year, matches or exceeds the total
                          electrical energy it consumes with alternative energy generated from nonfossil fuel
                          sources.
                          38
                            GAO, Interagency Collaboration: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight of National
                          Security Strategies, Organizations, Workforce, and Information Sharing, GAO-09-904SP
                          (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 25, 2009) and Warfighter Support: Actions Needed to Improve
                          Visibility and Coordination of DOD’s Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Efforts,
                          GAO-10-95 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 29, 2009).




                          Page 24                                            GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                             formal means of sharing and integrating information across various
                                             offices engaged in these efforts.

                                             Numerous organizations within each of the services and DOD have a role
                                             in managing, researching, and developing energy efficient technologies.
                                             See table 1 below for a list of the DOD organizations involved in fuel
                                             demand management efforts. While these organizations have different
                                             responsibilities and missions, they are each involved in fuel demand
                                             management efforts.

Table 1: DOD Organizations Involved In Fuel Demand Management Efforts for Forward-deployed Locations

Organization                                    Roles
Office of the Secretary of Defense
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for     ASD (OEP&P) provides oversight of DOD’s operational energy plans and programs,
Operational Energy Plans and Programs (ASD and is responsible for coordinating and overseeing the operational energy planning
(OEP&P))                                   and program activities of DOD and the services, and coordinating research and
                                           development efforts related to operational energy demand and supply technologies,
                                           and monitoring and reviewing all operational energy initiatives in DOD.
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for          ASD(R&E) provides science and technology leadership throughout DOD shaping
Research and Engineering (ASD (R&E))            strategic direction and strengthening the research and engineering coordination
                                                efforts within the DOD community.
Defense Advanced Research Projects              DARPA applies multi-disciplinary approaches to both advance knowledge through
Agency’s (DARPA)                                basic research and create innovative technologies to address current practical
                                                problems.
Joint Committee on Tactical Shelters            The role of the Committee is to eliminate duplication of tactical shelter research and
(JOCOTAS)                                       development; maximize usage of DOD standard family of tactical shelters; and share
                                                technical & program information.
Project Manager-Mobile Electric Power (PM-      PM-MEP provides modernized, technologically advanced, tactical, diesel fueled,
MEP)                                            lightweight, portable, reliable, rugged, power generating systems in a variety of sizes.
Joint Staff
Joint Staff for Engineering (J-4)               J-4 integrates logistics planning and execution in support of joint operations and
                                                advises the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on logistics matters. The J-4 also
                                                serves as the primary agent of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for all bulk
                                                petroleum matters.
Unified and Combatant Commands
U. S. Transportation Command                    TRANSCOM provides air, land, and sea transportation for the Department of
                                                Defense, during peace and in times of war. TRANSCOM is tasked with the
                                                coordination of people and transportation assets to allow the United States to project
                                                and sustain forces, whenever and wherever they are needed. TRANSCOM also
                                                develops long-range plans for petroleum support of the inter-theater mission and
                                                contingency operations worldwide.




                                             Page 25                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Organization                                    Roles
U. S. Central Command                           U.S. Central Command promotes cooperation among nations, responds to crises,
                                                and deters or defeats aggression, and supports development and, when necessary,
                                                reconstruction in order to establish the conditions for regional security, stability, and
                                                prosperity. CENTCOM also ensures fuel support is provided to combat forces to
                                                accomplish those missions assigned by the President and the Secretary of Defense.
Defense Agencies
Defense Logistics Agency Energy                 DLA Energy’s mission is to provide the Department of Defense and other
                                                government agencies with comprehensive energy solutions in the most effective and
                                                efficient manner possible. DLA meets the petroleum support requirements of the
                                                combatant commands and the military services.
Army
U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research,              The U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center, located in Natick, Massachusetts,
Development and Engineering Center              researches, develops, fields, and manages food, clothing, shelters, airdrop systems,
                                                and soldier support items.
Army Base Camp Integration Laboratory           The BCIL is a dedicated, open architecture laboratory environment for the rapid
(BCIL)                                          design, development, and evaluation of advanced prototype soldier systems. The
                                                BCIL facilitates the technology maturation assessment of new technology concepts
                                                related to soldiers and allows more extensive testing than is currently possible prior
                                                to soldier field evaluation.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers                    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provides engineering, construction, real estate,
                                                stability operations, and environmental management products and services for the
                                                Army, Air Force, other assigned U.S. Government agencies, and foreign
                                                governments. They create and shape policy and perform strategic planning,
                                                direction, and oversight of research and development for the Corps Military and Civil
                                                Works programs, and for the warfighter. Additionally, they advise the Chief of
                                                Engineers on matters of science and technology.
The 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power)      Prime Power provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical
                                                power and distribution systems; and generates and distributes prime electrical power
                                                in support of Army operations worldwide.
Army Rapid Equipping Force (REF)                The REF equips operational commanders with commercial off-the-shelf and
                                                government off-the-shelf solutions to increase effectiveness and reduce risk; inserts
                                                future force technologies and surrogates to validate concepts and speed capabilities
                                                to the soldiers; and assesses Army business practices, desired capabilities, and
                                                acquisition techniques to effect institutional Army change.
U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center       The ARCIC supports the Commanding General, U. S. Army Training and Doctrine
(ARCIC)                                         Command in the design, development, and integration of force capability
                                                requirements for the Army. The ARCIC uses wargaming, experimentation, and
                                                concepts to develop and integrate capability requirements from a comprehensive
                                                perspective of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education,
                                                personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). The ARCIC also provides the management
                                                structure for identifying capability gaps and directing analytical support of DOTMLPF
                                                developments. This includes validation of research and development priorities for key
                                                Army science and technology needs, and the development and validation of
                                                integrated operational architectures depicting warfighting capabilities.
Marine Corps
Deputy Commandant for Combat Development The Logistics Integration Division, within DC CD&I coordinates support for combat
and Integration (DC CD&I)                development and requirements, and coordinates with E2O on expeditionary energy.
                                         DC/CD&I also leads training, through Training and Education Command, and
                                         doctrine development.



                                             Page 26                                            GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Organization                                     Roles
Marine Corps Systems Command (MCSC)              MCSC is the Commandant of the Marine Corps’s agent for acquisition and
                                                 sustainment of systems and equipment used to accomplish their warfighting mission.
Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory              Marine Corps Warfighting Lab chairs the Experimental Forward Operating Base
                                                 (ExFOB) Executive Integrated Process Team.
Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Office         The USMC E2O analyzes, develops, and directs the Marine Corps’ energy strategy
(E2O)                                            in order to optimize expeditionary capabilities across all warfighting functions.
Experimental Forward Operating Base Office        ExFOB identifies, evaluates, and accelerates the Marine Corps’ ability to increase
(ExFOB)                                          energy efficiency as established in the Marine Corps’ Expeditionary Energy Strategy
                                                 and Implementation Plan.
Navy
Navy Energy Coordination Office (NECO)           The NECO supports Task Force Energy and coordinates the overall Navy Energy
                                                 strategy. Specifically, the NECO supports energy efficiency, conservation, and
                                                 alternative energy investments for Navy tactical (maritime, aviation, and
                                                 expeditionary) and shore forces, developing a comprehensive Navy energy strategy,
                                                 and coordinating with Naval Systems Commands to ensure programs are effectively
                                                 implemented.
Navy Research Laboratory (NRL)                   NRL is the corporate research laboratory for the Navy and Marine Corps and
                                                 conducts a broad program of scientific research, technology, and advanced
                                                 development.
Air Force
Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for         SAF/IE shapes policy direction, conducts oversight and liaison with the Office of the
Installations, Environment, and Logistics        Secretary of Defense, Congress, federal agencies, and external organizations.
(SAF/IE)                                         SAF/IE also provides guidance, direction, and oversight on all matters pertaining to
                                                 the formulation, review, and execution of plans, policies, programs, and budgets
                                                 relative to specific functional responsibilities.
Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)             AFRL develops and integrates affordable warfighting technologies for aerospace
                                                 forces. It is a full-spectrum laboratory, responsible for planning and executing the Air
                                                 Force’ science and technology program. AFRL leads a worldwide government,
                                                 industry and academia partnership in the discovery, development and delivery of a
                                                 wide range of technology. The laboratory provides leading-edge warfighting
                                                 capabilities to preserve U.S. advantages in air, space and cyberspace.
                                            Source: DOD.



Some Collaboration and                      Since our 2009 report on fuel demand management, DOD has taken
Coordination on Fuel Demand                 steps to facilitate collaboration and coordinate among the services’ fuel
Management Initiatives Is                   demand management efforts. In that report, we found that each of the
Taking Place                                services had efforts planned or underway to reduce fuel demand at
                                            forward-deployed locations, but lacked a systematic approach to share
                                            this information among the services. In addition, officials also reported
                                            that forward-deployed locations often pursued different initiatives, and the
                                            department, other services, or other forward-deployed locations were
                                            often unaware of these different initiatives. To address these concerns,
                                            we recommended that the services assign senior energy officials to
                                            identify and promote sharing of fuel reduction best practices and solutions
                                            to identified challenges and communicate those practices and solutions to



                                            Page 27                                             GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
the DOD Director of Operational Energy Plans and Programs (since
renamed to be the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy
Plans and Programs) for potential use across the department. 39

Since 2009 DOD has taken several steps to promote and facilitate
coordination and collaboration in order to improve information sharing
among various DOD organizations involved in fuel demand management
efforts at forward-deployed locations such as those in Afghanistan. Some
of these steps include the following activities:

•    DOD published DOD Directive 5134.15 specifying OEP&P’s
     responsibilities which include: coordinating and overseeing the
     operational energy planning and program activities of DOD and the
     services related to implementation of the operational energy strategy;
     coordinating R&D investments related to operational energy demand
     and supply technologies, and monitoring and reviewing all operational
     energy initiatives in DOD.
•    DOD established some organizations such as the Defense
     Operational Energy Board cochaired by the Assistant Secretary of
     Defense (OEP&P) and the Joint Staff Director for Logistics to serve as
     a collaborative organization to promote operational energy security,
     oversee implementation of the operational energy strategy, and
     measure the department’s success. This board will provide a forum
     for DOD components to share information and provide
     recommendations on fuel demand management initiatives.
•    OEP&P in collaboration with Central Command and other DOD
     stakeholders sponsored an operational energy conference in May
     2011 to identify operational energy problem areas and solutions.
     OEP&P and the Pacific Command repeated this effort in March 2012
     and held an Operational Energy Summit targeting energy efficiency
     applications in the Pacific.
•    U.S. Forces-Afghanistan established an Operational Energy Division
     within U.S. Forces- Afghanistan. The Operational Energy Division will
     assist commanders located in Afghanistan to improve operational
     capabilities by reducing the military’s reliance on petroleum fuels.
     According to its charter, the Operational Energy Division will work with




39
  GAO, Defense Management: DOD Needs to Increase Attention on Fuel Demand
Management at Forward-Deployed Locations, GAO-09-300 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 20,
2009).




Page 28                                      GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
    commanders develop, coordinate, and implement materiel and
    nonmateriel energy solutions.
•   Central Command established a formal coordination body for
    operational energy in its area of responsibility. This organization will
    focus on maintaining mission effectiveness while reducing energy
    demand, expanding and securing energy supply, and changing the
    culture through energy awareness. Membership and supporting
    agencies include a wide range of leaders throughout DOD and the
    service components assigned to Central Command’s area of
    responsibility.
In addition, the services continue to use several collaborative
organizations that predate the establishment of OEP&P to coordinate and
collaborate on their fuel demand reduction efforts including those that are
applicable to forward-deployed locations. For example:

•   Program Manager for Mobile Electric Power. This program,
    established in 1967, was created to consolidate research and
    development efforts, establish common military operational
    requirements, and prevent duplication in the development of
    equipment such as generators that are used to supply power at
    forward-deployed locations. This effort has resulted in the
    development of a new energy-efficient family of generators called
    Advanced Medium Mobile Power Source (AMMPS) to be used by
    both Army and Marine Corps units. AMMPS includes Army and
    Marine Corps specifications and according to DOD officials, is a good
    example of how coordination and collaboration can help DOD
    accomplish its goals in a more cost-effective manner while still
    meeting the unique needs of each service.
•   The Joint Committee on Tactical Shelters. This committee was
    created in 1975 to prevent the duplication of tactical shelter research
    and development efforts. According to DOD, since its establishment,
    this committee has reduced the number of shelter types from 100 to
    21 easing the logistics burden among the four services. Collaboration
    through this committee has allowed DOD to limit the number of shelter
    systems developed to decrease fuel consumption at forward-deployed
    locations.
•   Other collaborative forums. The USMC-SOCOM board, Army-Marine
    Corps board, and the Power Source Technical Working Group, all
    provide a means to coordinate and communicate on initiatives such
    as fuel demand management efforts. According to DOD officials,
    these collaborative forums take place at least twice a year and help
    the services discuss and share information related to issues such as
    fuel demand management and other programs of mutual interest.



Page 29                                    GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
DOD Lacks Information            DOD has established multiple organizations and forums to facilitate
Sharing Mechanisms for           coordination and collaboration, but does not have a mechanism to
Systematically Identifying and   systematically identify and track information on the numerous fuel
Tracking Fuel Demand             demand management initiatives that have been fielded, or are in the
Management Initiatives           research and development phase throughout DOD. For instance, in an
                                 attempt to identify a list of fuel demand management initiatives, we sent a
                                 request to OEP&P asking for a comprehensive list of initiatives that had
                                 been fielded or were expected to be fielded to forward-deployed locations
                                 in Afghanistan within the next 12 months. 40 OEP&P officials could not
                                 provide us with a comprehensive list of initiatives at the time of our
                                 request, and told us they did not have a mechanism in place to track or
                                 catalog all ongoing fuel demand management initiatives. In order for us to
                                 obtain a comprehensive list of initiatives an OEP&P official told us they
                                 would have to query all of the services and agencies involved to obtain
                                 this type of information.

                                 Both DOD’s experience and our prior work have shown the benefits of
                                 enhanced information sharing for increasing coordination and
                                 collaboration, especially when multiple entities are involved in similar
                                 efforts. 41 For example, our prior work has shown that identifying and
                                 tracking specific detailed program information can enhance visibility and
                                 oversight efforts, and provide decision makers with timely and
                                 comprehensive information needed to determine management priorities.
                                 Moreover, OEP&P’s directive outlining its roles and responsibilities states
                                 that OEP&P will recommend appropriate funding levels for operational
                                 energy programs relating to the operational energy strategy.

                                 The Joint Committee on Tactical Shelters and the Program Manager for
                                 Mobile Electric Power demonstrate how increased collaboration on fuel
                                 demand management initiatives can improve interoperability among
                                 systems, consolidate research and development efforts, save life-cycle
                                 costs, all while meeting the unique needs of each service. In addition, our
                                 prior work on other DOD management issues found that establishing a
                                 database to identify and track information could enhance DOD’s ability to


                                 40
                                   Information requested from OEP&P was asked for in November 2011;12 months from
                                 the time of the request would be November 2012.
                                 41
                                   GAO, Warfighter Support: Actions Needed to Improve Visibility and Coordination of
                                 DOD’s Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Efforts, GAO-10-95 (Washington, D.C.: Oct.
                                 29, 2009); and Defense Acquisitions: Opportunities Exists to Improve DOD’s Oversight of
                                 Power Source Investments, GAO-11-113 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 30, 2010).




                                 Page 30                                         GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
improve program management, visibility, and avoid investing in
duplicative efforts. According to an OEP&P official, the number of
initiatives and organizations involved in DOD’s efforts to reduce its
reliance on fuel has increased, and oversight and continued efforts to
coordinate and collaborate across DOD are necessary. During our visit to
forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan, Army officials also reiterated
that frequently the various DOD organizations involved in developing fuel
demand management solutions are unaware of ongoing efforts and
establishing a mechanism to increase DOD’s visibility to identify all
ongoing fuel demand management efforts would be useful.

Since OEP&P did not have a mechanism in place to catalog fuel demand
management initiatives underway within DOD, we queried the services
and various DOD organizations to collect data on the initiatives being
pursued within DOD. 42 Based on the information they provided, we
identified over 30 initiatives being developed by the services and other
DOD organizations to reduce DOD’s fuel demand at forward-deployed
locations. (See app. III for the list of initiatives). Additionally, during our
visit to the U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center in Natick, Massachusetts, 43
officials told us that although our review was limited to fuel demand
management initiatives for base camps at forward-deployed locations in
Afghanistan, DOD had numerous projects aimed at reducing fuel demand
at forward-deployed locations around the world, but at the time of our visit
no office or organization was tracking all of these initiatives. 44 An official
with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and
Engineering ASD(R&E) involved in identifying operational energy
investments and initiatives confirmed that ASD(R&E) was not tracking




42
  These operational energy initiatives include those being developed to reduce fuel
consumption in expeditionary environments, including at forward-deployed locations in
Afghanistan.
43
  The U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center, located in Natick, Massachusetts researches,
develops, fields, and manages food, clothing, shelters, airdrop systems, and soldier
support items.
44
  Initiatives mentioned by Natick officials, include efforts such as developing alternative
fuel types, redesigning aircraft to achieve greater fuel efficiency, and developing electric
powered tanks and trucks.




Page 31                                             GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
such initiatives and relied upon the services to coordinate and manage
these issues. 45

According to DOD officials, at the time of our request, OEP&P did not
have a mechanism in place to systematically track initiatives because its
responsibilities are to develop and influence policy and provide guidance,
oversight, and coordination of DOD’s operational energy efforts and they
are not involved in the services’ decisions about how to equip the forces
with specific energy efficiency technologies. As such, officials told us that
they had not developed a systematic approach for identifying and tracking
fuel demand management initiatives. Since our request, officials told us
that OEP&P has started working with DOD’s Office of Cost Assessment
and Program Evaluation to develop an automated budget exhibit that
captures detailed program and funding data on operational energy
initiatives included in DOD and the component’s budgets. OEP&P is in
the process of refining this exhibit to capture improvements suggested by
the components. This budget exhibit with consolidated information on
operational energy initiatives funded in the fiscal year 2013 President’s
Budget submission will help the office in its oversight and coordination
role, but OEP&P officials acknowledge that its effort has a knowledge
gap. For example, it does not include information on initiatives that are
the subject of rapid fielding efforts or are locally procured. OEP&P
officials stated that the Operational Energy Division in Afghanistan has
started to collect information on ongoing operational energy activities in
theater. However, these efforts have just begun and it is unclear to what
extent they will provide a comprehensive list of all operational energy
initiatives underway within DOD. As mentioned earlier, over the next 5
years, the services plan to spend approximately $4 billion dollars on
operational energy initiatives, and without an established mechanism to
identify and track fuel demand management initiatives, DOD may miss
opportunities to improve its return on investment, reduce life-cycle costs,
consolidate efforts, and increase interoperability among fuel demand
management technologies.




45
  Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering ASD(R&E)
has been tasked in the implementation plan with assessing current science and
technology investments and initiatives across the department, operational energy needs
and requirements, and new technical opportunities, including from outside DOD.




Page 32                                         GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                               DOD has measured the results of some of the fuel demand management
DOD Has Measured               initiatives used in Afghanistan, but only recently has focused on collecting
the Results of Some            and assessing the data needed to develop a comprehensive baseline
                               measure of its current fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations.
Fuel Demand                    Recognizing the need for information to manage fuel demand effectively,
Management                     DOD has tasked the services with establishing baselines for operational
Initiatives, and Is            energy consumption in all activities (air, sea, land) in its March 2012
                               implementation plan and provided funding for this purpose. Once
Developing Baseline            collected, this baseline data will provide information across DOD’s
Data to Assess                 operational activities, including those conducted in Afghanistan, and help
                               the department better understand how specific assets consume fuel in an
Progress Toward                operational environment.
Achieving Operational
Energy Goals
Service Efforts to Measure     As noted above, DOD has developed fuel demand management
the Results of Some Fuel       initiatives, and has begun, in some cases to measure their results.
Demand Management              However, the services are still in the process of collecting and analyzing
                               comprehensive baseline data for all activities—to include fuel
Initiatives Are in the Early   consumption at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan—and have
Stages and Face Some           encountered some implementation challenges. In 2011, DOD issued
Challenges                     guidance that emphasizes the importance of collecting data to assess
                               progress and program effectiveness. Both DOD’s strategic management
                               plan and its operational energy strategy highlight the importance of
                               collecting and analyzing data for use in assessing and managing
                               performance of its initiatives. Specifically, DOD’s strategic management
                               plan states that one of its business goals is to increase operational
                               energy efficiency in order to lower risks to warfighters, reduce costs, and
                               improve energy security. To help achieve this goal, the plan calls for
                               establishing an operational energy baseline for the department that is
                               based on credible, verifiable fuel usage data. Furthermore, the
                               operational energy strategy states that a greater understanding of how
                               energy is used will allow DOD to target investments to improve energy
                               efficiency in places such as Afghanistan. Recognizing the lack of
                               sufficient data to manage fuel demand effectively, the Army and Marine
                               Corps, which have the largest presence at forward-deployed locations in
                               Afghanistan, have begun to collect fuel use and behavior data to




                               Page 33                                   GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                understand how equipment is being used in combat to inform decision
                                making on how to best employ equipment in the future. 46

The Army Has Begun Efforts to   At the time of our report, the Army had begun collecting and analyzing
Measure Fuel Consumption        data on particular fuel demand management initiatives and on its current
                                fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. However,
                                its data collection efforts face some continuing challenges. Among its
                                ongoing fuel demand management initiatives, the Army has collected
                                preliminary fuel consumption data on its new Advanced Medium Mobile
                                Power Source (AMMPS) generators (see fig. 6). According to Army
                                officials, replacing 273 Tactical Quiet Generators in Afghanistan with
                                AMMPS generators is estimated to save about 1,100 gallons of fuel per
                                day. 47 Furthermore, in August 2011, the Army installed a 1-megawatt
                                microgrid at Bagram Airfield that replaced 13 60-kilowatt Tactical Quiet
                                Generators (see fig. 7). The Army collected data from the microgrid to
                                analyze its fuel consumption and identified a savings of 7,344 gallons of
                                fuel (17 percent), over the test period. 48 The Army’s February 2012 report
                                of the microgrid concluded that producing energy can be done more
                                efficiently if the Army understands how the energy will be used. It stated
                                that without these types of data, the Army is currently running generators
                                inefficiently in the field, which places a burden on logistical operations.
                                According to the report, by using information such as forecasted
                                scenarios and energy demand, the department can weigh the trade-offs
                                and implement a system with optimum efficiency.




                                46
                                  Forward operating bases in Afghanistan are managed by the ground component, which
                                consists largely of Army and Marine Corps forces. Although outside the scope of our
                                review, the Air Force and Navy also have efforts underway to measure fuel consumption.
                                47
                                  Army officials provided these data based on preliminary testing of AMMPS generators
                                that were run on full-load conditions and assumes the generators were run 24 hours per
                                day.
                                48
                                  The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity office collected data from the
                                microgrid from August-November 2011 to independently analyze its fuel consumption and
                                compared it to the baseline data they collected on the 13 Tactical Quiet Generators that
                                the microgrid replaced.




                                Page 34                                         GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Figure 6: Advanced Medium Mobile Power Source (AMMPS)




Page 35                                  GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Figure 7: 1-megawatt Microgrid at Bagram Airfield




The Army has also begun measuring fuel consumption by testing
initiatives at its Base Camp Integration Laboratory at Fort Devens,
Massachusetts, an initiative mentioned earlier to test and evaluate fuel
demand management equipment (see fig. 8). The goal of the Base Camp
Integration Lab is also to assess fuel consumption of equipment
traditionally used at forward operating bases such as those in
Afghanistan, and fuel consumed by new technology concepts and
prototypes.




Page 36                                      GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                             Figure 8: Aerial shot of the Base Camp Integration Laboratory at Fort Devens, MA




                             As of October 2011, Army officials stated that the Base Camp Integration
                             Laboratory had completed baseline testing and had begun testing the
                             energy efficiency of various shelters, as well as a microgrid. Army officials
                             stated that future testing will be conducted on insulated tent liners, a
                             photovoltaic system incorporated in a microgrid, and a solar-powered
                             water heater.

The Marine Corps Has Begun   As discussed above, the Marine Corps has developed operational energy
Efforts to Measure Fuel      initiatives, including those to decrease fuel demand, and also has begun
Consumption                  measuring the results of some of these initiatives, primarily those that
                             serve battalion-sized units. As noted above, the Marine Corps established
                             the Experimental Forward Operating Base (ExFOB) in 2009 to bring
                             stakeholders together across the service’s requirements, acquisitions,
                             and technology communities to inform requirements and rapidly evaluate
                             new technologies for potential deployment. The four ExFOB
                             demonstrations conducted thus far have evaluated initiatives such as
                             renewable energy power generation, tent liners, hybrid solar systems,
                             more efficient air conditioners, and solar-powered refrigerators. After
                             evaluation, infantry battalions deployed to Afghanistan with selected




                             Page 37                                      GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                         equipment items to further assess their performance. A Marine Corps’
                         assessment 49 found that during deployment:

                         •   two platoon positions were able to run completely on renewable
                             energy for 1 month,
                         •   one patrol base was able to save 175 gallons of fuel in a 1-month
                             period by utilizing the ExFOB initiatives,
                         •   the Green Renewable Expeditionary Energy Network System
                             (GREENS) provided full power for a platoon guard station, and
                         •   Marines were able to reduce the number of batteries they had to carry
                             by using the Solar Portable Alternatives Communications Energy
                             System (SPACES) to recharge tactical batteries.
Challenges Remain in     The Army and Marine Corps face challenges in collecting information on
Measuring Current Fuel   current fuel consumption at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan.
Consumption              Until recently, information related to fuel demand in-theater has been
                         available only in the form of sales receipts and fuel delivery summaries,
                         since DOD only tracks the movement and delivery of fuel up to the point
                         that a forward-deployed location receives it, and as indicated above,
                         efforts to collect current fuel consumption data face challenges. As a
                         result, DOD lacks comprehensive data on how much fuel specific assets
                         such as generators and air conditioning units consume in an operational
                         environment. The Army and Marine Corps have begun collecting
                         information on fuel consumption at their forward-deployed locations in
                         Afghanistan. For this effort Army and Marine Corps officials told us that
                         both services are using the Tactical Fuels Manager Defense system
                         technology (see fig. 9). To date, the Tactical Fuels Manager Defense
                         system has been deployed to 36 locations in Afghanistan. Army officials
                         stated that the information gathered by this system can assist a base
                         commander in making decisions regarding energy use on the base, but
                         they indicated that this technology is not yet being used at all forward-
                         deployed locations and cited several difficulties they face.




                         49
                           The Marine Corps Operational Test and Evaluation Activity Forward Operations
                         Afghanistan team deployed to Afghanistan to assess the use of various initiatives by a
                         battalion in-theater after being evaluated at the ExFOB. This assessment of the initiatives
                         used in theater did not include an evaluation of transport vehicles such as trucks, tanks,
                         and humvees used for military operations in Afghanistan.




                         Page 38                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Figure 9: Tactical Fuels Manager Defense System




For instance, additional funding will be required to extend the Tactical
Fuels Manager Defense system to the majority of locations in
Afghanistan. In addition, during our site visit to forward-deployed locations
in Afghanistan, officials reported that they had experienced difficulty in
connecting to the system’s website, which resulted in an inability to load
fuel data points, receipts, and stock levels into the system. In addition to
these technical challenges, the program manager stated that additional
training and oversight procedures were needed to ensure soldiers and
Marines use this system and are held accountable for importing data. For
example, the program manager told us that some bases are not entering
fuel consumption data into the system and from September 2011 to
March 2012, the data captured had declined by 50 percent making it
more difficult for DOD to meet its goal in obtaining baseline fuel data. In
response, the International Security Assistance Force Joint Command



Page 39                                     GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                            issued a fragmentary order in April 2012 specifically to ensure all bases
                            follow existing accountability and reporting procedures, including using
                            the Tactical Fuels Manager Defense system to capture fuel data. While
                            the system is providing improved data on fuel consumption at forward-
                            deployed locations, Army officials also recognize that continued
                            evaluation and improvements will be needed before deciding whether this
                            should be an Army-wide system.


DOD Has Begun Collecting    While the services have efforts underway to obtain a better understanding
Baseline Data to Assess     of how specific assets consume fuel in-theater, DOD has limited ability to
Effectiveness of Its Fuel   assess the effectiveness of its fuel demand management initiatives
                            because it has only recently begun efforts to collect comprehensive
Demand Management           baseline data across the services. DOD recognizes the need for baseline
Efforts                     data on fuel consumption in an operational environment and has taken
                            several steps to address this issue. Specifically, OEP&P’s implementation
                            plan tasks the services with establishing operational energy consumption
                            baselines and projecting consumption for fiscal years 2012—2017 50 by
                            the second quarter of fiscal year 2012. DOD’s implementation plan states
                            that these projections will inform required reports to Congress on current
                            and future energy needs. In addition, the implementation plan calls for the
                            services to report to the Defense Operational Energy Board by the third
                            quarter of fiscal year 2012 on any actions taken or needed to improve
                            these baselines. The plan states that this effort may not necessarily entail
                            the real-time measurement of energy consumption by individual pieces of
                            equipment. Instead, the military departments and defense agencies may
                            evaluate a range of options—including new systems, improvements to
                            current and related systems, and/or application of sampling and
                            extrapolation to existing data—to improve the department’s
                            understanding of the location, purpose, and end use of operational
                            energy consumption. This implementation plan is an important step
                            towards improving the department’s management of its energy
                            consumption at forward-deployed locations such as those in Afghanistan;
                            however, the focus on establishing a baseline of fuel consumption is
                            relatively recent.



                            50
                              According to the implementation plan, the data collected for fiscal year 2011 will account
                            for consumption by military forces as well as consumption by contractors. The estimated
                            consumption for fiscal years 2012-2017 will use assumptions about inventory, equipment,
                            and operations tempo using agreed-upon scenarios.




                            Page 40                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
              In addition, U.S. Forces-Afghanistan is in the process of improving their
              visibility and accountability over fuel consumption at forward-deployed
              locations. To help with this task, OSD officials informed us that DLA-
              Energy sent an analyst to Afghanistan in March 2012 to work with the
              U.S. Forces-Afghanistan’s Operational Energy Division to capture a better
              picture of fuel consumption. 51 Officials stated that with improved visibility,
              they expect that the Operational Energy Division will be able to articulate
              to combatant commanders or service officials the costs associated with
              certain operational decisions and leverage this improved picture of fuel
              consumption to target areas for improvement.

              Further, to support fuel demand management efforts at forward-deployed
              locations, OEP&P provided additional funding for a demonstration effort
              to evaluate the operational benefits of fuel demand management.
              Specifically, DOD provided $1.4 million to fund the Operation Enduring
              Freedom Energy Initiative Proving Ground to evaluate initiatives including
              heat and air conditioning units, tent liners, solar tent shades, and hybrid-
              solar electrical power technology, and analyze the effect these initiatives
              have on fuel consumption and identify opportunities to deploy them in
              Afghanistan to achieve the greatest impact and return on investment. The
              group in charge of this effort has already begun to take inventory of the
              power and energy used at some forward-deployed locations and to
              monitor areas where there are opportunities for potential energy efficiency
              improvements.


              In its extended war in Afghanistan, DOD reports that its heavy reliance on
Conclusions   petroleum-based fuel at forward-deployed locations continues to create
              risk for the warfighters, pose difficult logistical challenges for military
              planners, and increase the department’s operating costs. With consistent
              and heightened visibility from Congress and OSD, DOD has made
              progress in its efforts to develop an approach for managing its fuel
              demand at forward-deployed locations since the time of our 2009 report
              on this issue. The creation of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for
              Operational Energy Plans and Programs and the services’ operational
              energy offices, OEP&P’s publication of its operational energy strategy
              and implementation plan, the services’ strategies, and the ongoing fuel


              51
                DLA-Energy is the integrated materiel manager for class III bulk fuels and shares
              responsibility over Afghanistan with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s Joint Forces
              Command.




              Page 41                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                     demand management initiatives the services have deployed or are
                     developing all represent positive steps toward reducing the department’s
                     reliance on petroleum-based fuel at forward-deployed locations such as
                     those in Afghanistan. DOD’s efforts to develop specific guidance on how
                     military forces should factor operational energy considerations into its
                     operational, planning, and training decisions are important steps toward
                     minimizing key problems identified by DOD—risk to warfighters, logistical-
                     related disruptions, and high operating costs—associated with heavy
                     reliance on petroleum-based fuel. However, without a mechanism for
                     systematically collecting and sharing information across the services on
                     the fuel demand management initiatives that have been fielded, or are in
                     the research and development phase, DOD may forgo an opportunity to
                     improve interoperability of new technologies, consolidate research and
                     development efforts, and save costs. Lastly, DOD’s recent efforts to begin
                     collecting accurate baseline data on fuel demand at the individual asset
                     level at forward-deployed locations should enhance its planning,
                     programming, and operational decisions, and help measure the impact of
                     its fuel demand management efforts as well as progress toward meeting
                     its overall operational energy goals. At a time when the federal
                     government faces increasing fiscal challenges and competition across the
                     government for discretionary funds, these efforts by DOD could help
                     maximize the benefits of its energy efficiency investments for forward-
                     deployed locations and better position the department for future missions.


                     To further enhance DOD’s approach for managing fuel demand, including
Recommendation for   at forward deployed locations such as those in Afghanistan, we
Executive Action     recommend that the Secretary of Defense direct the Assistant Secretary
                     of Defense for Operational Energy Plans and Programs, in consultation
                     with the Joint Staff, combatant commanders, and military service
                     components, to finalize and implement a systematic approach that
                     includes establishing a mechanism to identify and track fuel demand
                     management initiatives that have been fielded, or are in the research and
                     development phase to ensure information concerning these efforts is
                     effectively shared across the services.


                     We provided a draft of this report to DOD for comment. In its written
Agency Comments      comments, reproduced in appendix IV, DOD partially concurred with our
and Our Evaluation   recommendation to finalize and implement a systematic approach that
                     includes establishing a mechanism to identify and track fuel demand
                     management initiatives that have been fielded, or are in the research and
                     development phase to ensure information concerning these efforts is


                     Page 42                                 GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
effectively shared across the services. DOD also provided technical
comments that were incorporated, as appropriate.

DOD stated that it signed the DOD Operational Energy Strategy
Implementation Plan in March 2012 and established the Defense
Operational Energy Board with the purpose of providing a mechanism for
reviewing, synchronizing, and supporting departmentwide operational
energy policies, plans, and programs. DOD also stated that the Defense
Operational Energy Board’s membership ensures departmentwide
coordination. Furthermore, DOD stated that the Operational Energy
Implementation Plan addresses energy improvements in current
operations, and the Board will oversee the tracking and sharing of
information on fuel demand improvements. Lastly, DOD stated that the
department conducts an annual review of the components’ budgets and
activities to determine their adequacy for implementing the Operational
Energy Strategy, and this review also encompasses fuel demand
management initiatives that are being developed, fielded, or supported by
the budget. As such, DOD stated that while our recommendation has
merit, further action by the Secretary of Defense is unnecessary.

We acknowledge the intended actions described in DOD’s Operational
Energy Strategy Implementation Plan, the function and scope of the
Defense Operational Energy Board, and DOD’s annual review process,
which may eventually provide DOD with an approach and mechanism for
identifying and tracking fuel demand management initiatives that have
been fielded, or are in the research and development phase. However,
until these initiatives are fully implemented, we are unable to assess the
extent to which they will address our recommendation. During the course
of our review, DOD officials explained that many of the initiatives included
in its Operational Energy Strategy Implementation Plan, such as
identifying investment gaps in the department’s science and technology
portfolio necessary to reduce fuel demand, would be completed at the
end of fiscal year 2012 or beyond. DOD officials also told us they were in
the process of finalizing the department’s annual review of the
components’ budgets and activities to include fuel demand management
initiatives that were being developed or fielded. However, at the
conclusion of our review, this budget review process had not been
finalized and the department acknowledges that its annual budget review
efforts do not include initiatives that are part of rapid fielding or are locally
procured. We continue to believe that a comprehensive mechanism for
sharing information on all initiatives underway within the department,
including those that are part of rapid fielding or are locally procured,
would further enhance DOD’s approach for managing fuel demand at


Page 43                                     GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
forward-deployed locations such as those in Afghanistan, and help
ensure information concerning these efforts is effectively shared across
the services.


We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional
committees. We are also sending copies to the Secretary of Defense. In
addition, the report is available at no charge on the GAO website at
http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff have questions about this report, please contact me at
merrittz@gao.gov or (202) 512-5257. Contact points for our Offices of
Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page
of this report. GAO staff who made key contributions to this report are
listed in appendix V.




Zina D. Merritt
Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 44                                  GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




             Our objectives were to assess the extent to which DOD has (1)
             established an approach to provide visibility and accountability for fuel
             demand management at forward-deployed locations, (2) initiatives
             underway to promote fuel efficiency across the services in Afghanistan
             and has facilitated coordination and collaboration among the services on
             the development and fielding of these initiatives, and (3) measured the
             results of its fuel demand management initiatives at forward-deployed
             locations. To gather information for these objectives, we reviewed
             documentation and interviewed officials from:

             Office of the Secretary of Defense

             •   Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Operational Energy
                 Plans and Programs
             •   Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and
                 Engineering
             Joint Staff

             •   J-4 Logistics Directorate, Engineering Division
             U.S. Army

             •   Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army (Energy and Sustainability
                 Office)
             •   Army G-4
             •   Army Corps of Engineers
             •   249th Prime Power Battalion
             •   Army Rapid Equipping Force
             •   Army Petroleum Center
             •   Program Manager Mobile Electric Power
             •   Green Warrior Initiative; Contingency Basing & Operational Energy
             •   Natick Solider Research, Development, Engineering Command
             •   Logistics Civil Augmentation Program
             U.S. Navy

             •   Deputy Assistant of Secretary of the Navy, Energy Office
             •   Navy Energy Coordination Office
             U.S. Air Force

             •   Air Force Office of the Assistant Secretary, Installation, Environment,
                 and Logistics
             •   Air Mobility Command Fuel Efficiency Office



             Page 45                                   GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




U.S. Marine Corps

•   Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Office
•   Marine Corps Systems Command
•   Marine Corps Training and Education Command
U.S. Central Command

•   U.S. Forces Afghanistan-Operational Energy Division
•   New Kabul Compound
•   Camp Phoenix
•   Camp Sabalu-Harrison
•   Joint Combat Outpost Pul-A-Sayed
•   Camp Leatherneck,
•   Patrol Base Boldak,
•   Bagram Airfield.
Defense Agencies

•   Defense Logistics Agency – Energy
We concentrated our review on the steps the Army and Marine Corps
have taken to reduce fuel demand because these two services have the
responsibility for managing forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan.
Our review focused on fuel demand management initiatives planned for
or underway at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. For the
purposes of our review, we defined fuel demand management initiatives
to include nonmateriel and materiel solutions to assist DOD in reducing its
reliance on fuel consumed at forward-deployed locations. We did not
examine energy efficiency initiatives for naval vessels, aircraft, or combat
vehicles. We asked officials to identify key initiatives planned or under
way to reduce fuel demand. After consultation with U.S. Central
Command and U.S. Forces Afghanistan officials, we selected and visited
forward-deployed locations because they were using energy-efficient
technologies that were included in our review and/or are illustrative of
DOD’s fuel demand management initiatives and challenges. The
locations chosen are illustrative case studies in our report and information
obtained from these locations is not generalizable to all forward-deployed
locations. We also reviewed DOD guidance related to energy reduction
for the department’s permanent or U.S. facilities.




Page 46                                  GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




To address the first objective, we identified DOD’s approach for fuel
demand management from our prior work examining DOD’s fuel demand
management efforts at forward-deployed locations. 1 These elements
include: (1) establishing visibility and accountability for achieving fuel
reduction by assigning roles and responsibilities, establishing metrics,
and monitoring performance; (2) issuing guidance and policies that
address fuel demand at forward-deployed locations; and (3) establishing
incentives and a viable funding mechanism to support the implementation
of fuel demand reduction projects. We reviewed DOD and Service
guidance, operational energy strategies and plans, OEP&P’s budget
certification report, project status reports, and briefings to identify DOD’s
approach for fuel demand management. We also interviewed OSD, Joint
Staff, service, and U.S. Central Command officials at the headquarters
and operational level to discuss DOD’s fuel demand management
approach, and to determine the extent to which DOD has implemented
the initiatives contained in its operational energy strategy. We also met
with officials responsible for administering the Logistics Civil
Augmentation Program contracts to discuss how energy efficiency
guidance and requirements were being incorporated into contracts to
incentivize fuel demand management efforts. Furthermore, we met with
OEP&P, Joint Staff, and service officials to discuss the processes and
steps needed to ensure an effective approach was established to provide
oversight and accountability for fuel demand management and the
anticipated time frames for accomplishing fuel demand management
goals.

To determine the extent to which DOD has initiatives underway to
manage fuel demand across the services in Afghanistan and has
facilitated coordination and collaboration, we queried OEP&P, the
services, and various DOD organizations involved in operational energy
research and development to collect data on the initiatives to reduce fuel
demand at forward-deployed locations. These initiatives included ones
that had been fielded or were expected to be fielded within 12 months of
our data request. 2 Based on the information provided and the scope of



1
 GAO, Defense Management: DOD Needs to Increase Attention on Fuel Demand
Management at Forward-Deployed Locations, GAO-09-300 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 20,
2009).
2
 Information was requested in November 2011; 12 months from the time of the request
would have been November 2012.




Page 47                                        GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




our review, we identified over 30 fuel demand management initiatives
already fielded or being developed by the services and other DOD
organizations to reduce DOD’s fuel demand at forward-deployed
locations. We also reviewed data on the current status of initiatives that
were identified in our 2009 report. 3 In addition, we met with Army and
Marine Corps officials located at the headquarters level and at forward-
deployed locations to discuss the purpose and function of these
initiatives, as well as any opportunities for greater coordination and
collaboration. To determine the extent to which the department has efforts
underway to facilitate coordination and collaboration among the services,
we conducted an analysis of DOD energy strategies and plans, reviewed
DOD energy conference summary reports, attended DOD energy
symposia, and interviewed DOD and service officials. Additionally, we
reviewed relevant DOD, Joint, and service policies and guidance, and
assessed the extent to which the policies and guidance were consistent
with leading practices for coordination and collaboration identified in our
prior work. 4 We also met with DOD and research and development
officials to discuss the challenges, if any, that they faced to coordinate
and collaborate on fuel demand management initiatives.

To determine the extent to which DOD has efforts in place to accurately
capture the results of its fuel demand management initiatives in forward-
deployed locations, we assessed DOD and the services’ strategies that
detail their goals and methods for measuring the results of their fuel
demand management initiatives, and determined whether these plans
addressed key elements from leading practices for measuring results
(e.g. goals, milestones, quantifiable metrics, evaluation of benefits, etc.). 5
In addition, we interviewed DOD and service officials regarding the extent
to which fuel demand management initiatives are being measured at
forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan. The Army and Marine Corps
have the largest presence at forward-deployed locations in Afghanistan,
and therefore have been testing most of the initiatives. As such, we relied



3
 GAO, Defense Management: DOD Needs to Increase Attention on Fuel Demand
Management at Forward-Deployed Locations, GAO-09-300 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 20,
2009).
4
 GAO, Results-Oriented Government: Practices That Can Help Enhance and Sustain
Collaboration among Federal Agencies, GAO-06-15 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 21, 2005).
5
 Executive Order 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic
Performance” (Oct. 5, 2009).




Page 48                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




on documents provided to us by DOD and the services regarding the
initiatives and the results from testing their performance. We reviewed
select DOD studies that assessed various initiatives being used in
Afghanistan with the goal of reducing fuel use at forward-deployed
locations. We concluded that the studies clearly describe the
methodology and assumptions behind the study results, and they do not
attempt to generalize the results beyond the context of the studies.
Although the results of these studies cannot be generalized to all fuel
demand management initiatives, they provide examples of how DOD is
assessing the results of these initiatives. We also conducted interviews
with DOD and service officials to obtain information regarding DOD’s
progress in collecting fuel data on fuel demand management initiatives
and establishing a baseline on fuel demand at forward-deployed locations
in Afghanistan.

We conducted this performance audit from April 2011 through June 2012
in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
conclusions based on our audit objectives.




Page 49                                GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix II: Key Tasks and Milestones
                                           Appendix II: Key Tasks and Milestones
                                           Included in DOD’s Operational Energy Strategy
                                           Implementation Plan


Included in DOD’s Operational Energy
Strategy Implementation Plan

Milestone            Task                                        Description
2nd Quarter fiscal   Develop a Charter that Outlines the         ASD(OEPP), in consultation with relevant offices within OSD, the
year 2012            Organization, Governance, Membership,       Military Departments,
                     Functions, and Responsibilities of the      Defense agencies, and the Joint Staff, will present the charter at
                     Defense Operational Energy Board            the meeting of the Board.


2nd Quarter fiscal   Establish Operational Energy Consumption The Military Departments and Defense agencies will report to the
year 2012            Baselines                                Defense Operational Energy Board an operational energy baseline,
                                                              using all available data on actual energy consumption in support of
                                                              military operations in fiscal year 2011 and projected consumption in
                                                              fiscal year 2012 – 2017.


3rd Quarter fiscal   Support Current Operations with Energy      Combatant Commands will report to the Defense Operational
year 2012            Improvements                                Energy Board on how they guide their forces to improve energy
                                                                 performance and efficiency in operations and the effectiveness of
                                                                 this guidance.


3rd Quarter fiscal   Improve the Operational Energy Efficiency   The Military Departments will report to the Defense Operational
year 2012            of the Military Departments                 Energy Board progress against their own current or updated
                                                                 energy performance goals and metrics and demonstrate how such
                                                                 progress supports the Operational Energy Strategy priority to
                                                                 reduce the demand for fuel and increase capability in military
                                                                 operations.


3rd Quarter fiscal   Include Operational Energy in the           In accordance with forthcoming Joint Staff policy, the Joint Staff,
year 2012            Requirements Process                        U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), and the Military
                                                                 Departments will meet the congressional intent of an energy
                                                                 performance attribute in the requirements development process.
                                                                 Through the Joint Requirements Oversight Council, the Vice
                                                                 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VCJCS) will oversee
                                                                 implementation of this effort in individual programs. The Joint Staff,
                                                                 USSOCOM, and the Military Departments will report overall
                                                                 progress in implementing an energy performance attribute to the
                                                                 Defense Operational Energy Board.


3rd Quarter fiscal   Apply Operational Energy Analyses to        In accordance with forthcoming policy from the Under Secretary of
year 2012            Defense Acquisitions                        Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (USD(AT&L)),
                                                                 the Military Departments will develop and apply Fully Burdened
                                                                 Cost of Energy (FBCE) analyses throughout the acquisition
                                                                 process. The Military Departments will report overall progress on
                                                                 implementing FBCE to the Defense Operational Energy Board.




                                           Page 50                                           GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                           Appendix II: Key Tasks and Milestones
                                           Included in DOD’s Operational Energy Strategy
                                           Implementation Plan




Milestone            Task                                                Description
3rd Quarter fiscal   Identify Operational Energy Security Risks          The Military Departments and other asset owners will brief the
year 2012 &          at Fixed Installations                              Defense Operational Energy Board on energy-related risks to fixed
recurring                                                                installations that directly support military operations, to include
                                                                         those identified through Assistant Secretary of Defense for
                                                                         Homeland Defense and America’s Security Affairs’
                                                                         (ASD(HD&ASA)) Defense Critical Infrastructure Program (DCIP).


4th Quarter fiscal   Assess Departmental Energy Science and              The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering
year 2012            Technology Gaps and Recommend                       (ASD(R&E)) will identify investment gaps in the Department’s
                     Options                                             science and technology portfolio necessary to reduce demand,
                                                                         improve system efficiency, and expand supply alternatives, as
                                                                         articulated in the Operational Energy Strategy. ASD(R&E) will
                                                                         provide the final report to the Defense Operational Energy Board
                                                                         and include recommendations on possible options for filling the
                                                                         gaps.


4th Quarter fiscal   Adapt and Adopt Policy, Doctrine, and               The Joint Staff and Military Departments will report to the Defense
year 2012            Professional Military Education for                 Operational Energy Board on how policy, doctrine, and
                     Operational Energy                                  professional military education (PME) will support reduced energy
                                                                         demand, expanded energy supply, and future force development.


4th Quarter fiscal   Incorporate Operational Energy into                 As appropriate and consistent with annual classified guidance to
year 2012            Combatant Command Activities                        the Combatant Commands, the Joint Staff and Combatant
                                                                         Commands will report to the Defense Operational Energy Board on
                                                                         command measures to incorporate Operational Energy Strategy
                                                                         goals into theater campaign plans, security cooperation initiatives,
                                                                         joint and combined exercises, and other activities designed to
                                                                         achieve theater and country objectives.


                                           Source: DOD Operational Energy Strategy Implementation Plan




                                           Page 51                                                       GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix III: Fuel Demand Management
                                           Appendix III: Fuel Demand Management
                                           Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
                                           Identified by DOD


Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
Identified by DOD
                                           The list of fuel demand management initiatives included below provides
                                           an overview of the materiel initiatives identified by DOD organizations
                                           during the course of our review. This list does not include the nonmateriel
                                           initiatives underway such as those to change policies and procedures, or
                                           modify staffing to perform fuel demand management functions. The list
                                           also provides a status update on the initiatives discussed in our 2009
                                           report on fuel demand management. The first nine initiatives listed below
                                           were identified in our 2009 report.


                                           Description/Status update
Initiatives identified in GAO’s 2009
report
1.   Eskimo Spray Foam Insulation          An application of foam insulation on tent structures to decrease fuel demand. According to
                                           Army officials, spray foam reduces power use for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: The effort to insulate tents with spray polyurethane foam has been
                                           suspended. Even though the tent insulation effort was demonstrated in-theater with
                                           successful results, the Army is no longer moving forward with a large- scale effort to install
                                           foam insulation in all tents and portable structures while it examines the environmental
                                           implications of disposal of the solidified tent foam when the life span of the tent is
                                           complete.
2.   Advanced Medium Mobile Electric       The AMMPS, a replacement for the Tactical Quiet Generators (TQGs). It takes advantage
     Power (AMMPS)                         of current technology to provide power generation capabilities that are more fuel efficient
                                           and reduce overall costs.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: The Army is currently procuring AMMPS generators and will field
                                           them throughout the service. Some Army units will take the AMMPS with them when they
                                           deploy to Afghanistan in the future. Also, Program Manager-Mobile Electric Power is
                                           fielding approximately 200 AMMPS to Afghanistan starting in 2012 to replace legacy
                                           tactical quiet generators (TQGs). Once in place, the DOD expects AMMPS can save as
                                           much as 300,000 gallons of fuel per month over the TQGs they are replacing.
3.   Improved-Environmental Control Unit   The I-ECU is a replacement of military standard environmental control units. It is designed
     (I-ECU)                               for military environments, with reduced power consumption and weight, and increased
                                           reliability over current environmental control units.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: Program Manager for Mobile Electric Power (PM-MEP) begins low-
                                           rate initial production of the I-ECU in fiscal year 2012.
4.   Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery   An experimental device that converts trash (paper, plastic, cardboard, and food waste)
     (TGER)                                into energy for forward-deployed locations, reducing the need for convoys to deliver fuel
                                           and haul away trash.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: TGER has been successfully tested and full system integration is
                                           underway. The Army is now targeting a field demonstration starting in mid-June for 90
                                           days. The original destination was Bagram, but now more likely will be Camp Virginia,
                                           Kuwait.
5.   Scrap Tire Recycling Process          The scrap tire recycling process produces diesel, gas, carbon char, and steel—byproducts
                                           that can either be used to power generators, boilers, and other items or recycled into
                                           products such as asphalt and paint.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: This effort no longer has research investment, and is not a product
                                           being further developed.




                                           Page 52                                             GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                           Appendix III: Fuel Demand Management
                                           Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
                                           Identified by DOD




                                           Description/Status update
6.   Hybrid Electric Power Station         A hybrid generator system that uses wind and solar energy to supplement diesel
                                           generators.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: Due to issues regarding usability the system was dismantled and
                                           disposed of in early fiscal year 2011.
7.   Transportable Hybrid Electric Power   The THEPS are mobile generators with solar panels, wind turbine, diesel generator, and
     Stations (THEPS)                      storage batteries.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: The Transportable Hybrid Electric Power Station was not successful
                                           but spurred the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency to allocate $30 million to
                                           the Army to develop the Hybrid Intelligent Power (HIPower) system, a micro grid system.
8.   Monolithic Dome                       This is a concrete, dome-shaped structure that is designed to be energy efficient with
                                           energy supplied by a combination of solar panels and windmills.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: Although successful, using domes in-theater would require some
                                           changes in current operations, as domes would be considered permanent structures and
                                           thus subject to MILCON constraints.
9.   Renewable Tent City                   A collection of various deployable shelters powered by solar and fuel cell generators.
                                           CURRENT STATUS: There have been no Renewable Energy Tent Cities fielded in
                                           Afghanistan by the Air Force, but Air Force Central has fielded a number of sets
                                           elsewhere in-theater. The Air Force purchased and shipped a total of 920 units (flys and
                                           inserts) for the CENTCOM AOR, for Air Force training sites, and for storage at Holloman
                                           Air Force Base. Air Force Central received a total of 575 units and the majority are in use
                                           at Manas and Ali Al Salem. Units were also sent to Air Force sites for training.
Initiatives identified after 2009
10. Deployable Renewable Energy            This module is intended to be towed by a vehicle and is designed to be used at combat
    Alternative Module                     posts in forward-deployed locations to power equipment via solar, wind turbine, battery,
                                           and generator technologies.
11. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE)          SAGE is an integrated effort to develop design specifications for base camp infrastructure
                                           that when employed will reduce the quantity of petroleum fuel required for electrical power
                                           generation for expeditionary camps by employing smart Micro-grid technologies and
                                           energy efficient modular structures.
12. Rucksack-Enhanced Portable Power       The REPPS is a lightweight, portable power system capable of recharging batteries
    System (REPPS)                         and/or acting as a continuous power source.
13. Afghanistan Microgrid Project (AMP)    The AMP initiative involves the operation of load sensing monitors and fuel consumption
                                           logs, which are being captured by the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity team and
                                           will be analyzed to quantify the impact of the microgrid on fuel consumption against the
                                           baseline of 13 TQGs that the system is replacing.
14. Solar Portable Alternative             SPACES is a lightweight man-portable lightweight device with tailorable adaptors that can
    Communication Energy System            energize equipment such as radios, laptop computers, and rechargeable batteries.
    (SPACES)
15. Ground Renewable Expeditionary         GREENS is a man-transportable device with renewable energy collection and storage that
    Energy Network System (GREENS)         can energize communications equipment, sensors, and radios.
16. Energy at Remote Locations             EARLCON is hybrid power system, using solar, traditional generators, and battery
    (EARLCON)                              storage, with an energy management system. It is designed to improve efficiency and
                                           reduce demand for fuel.
17. SunDanzer Direct Current powered       The SunDanzer direct current powered air cooler is an air conditioning system that
    Air-Conditioners (DCAC)                features a variable speed compressor. This design allows for low energy consumption and
                                           the ability to connect directly to a photovoltaic array without the need for batteries.




                                           Page 53                                            GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                             Appendix III: Fuel Demand Management
                                             Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
                                             Identified by DOD




                                             Description/Status update
18. Integrated Trailer Environmental         The Integrated Trailer-ECU-Generator II is a self-contained, highly mobile power
    Control Units (ECU) Generator            generation and environmental control system. It is a second generation system of the
                                             current Integrated Trailer ECU Generator.
19. Solar Stik Hybrid Energy System-         Energy to the Edge focuses on meeting energy and water requirements at locations that
    Energy to the Edge                       are hard to support logistically, while simultaneously reducing dependence on ground and
                                             aerial resupply operations. This is a 30-kilowatt hybrid energy system designed to
                                             integrate renewable energy with the Army’s currently fielded Tactical Quiet Generators.
20. Tent, Extendable, Modular, Personnel The TEMPER air-supported tent photovoltaic fly provides supplemental power generation
    (TEMPER) Photovoltaic Fly            without increasing the operational footprint of the base camp.
21. Solar Shade Tent Fly with Integral       This solar shade tent fly has integrated photovoltaic power and can reduce solar load up
    Photovoltaic Power                       to 80-90 percent.
22. ZeroBase H-Series ReGenerator            The ZeroBase H-Series ReGenerator is a hybrid system that has solar generation, battery
                                             storage, and a 5-kilowatt generator. The system maximizes generator efficiency by
                                             operating the generator at peak efficiencies by capturing excess power through the
                                             battery bank.
23. Mobile Max Pure System                   Mobile Max Pure System is a commercial, off-the-shelf system that provides over 3
                                             kilowatts of photovoltaic power but also integrates water pumping and purification systems
                                             as options.
24. Reusing Existing Natural Energy Wind The RENEWS system consists of wind turbines, flexible solar panels, a battery module,
    and Solar (RENEWS)                   and output adapter plugs/connectors.
25. Insulating Liners                        The Insulating Liner is a lightweight, radiant, reflective insulating liner. It is installed behind
                                             the existing liner to enhance the radiant and insulating capability, which reduces both
                                             heating and cooling requirements / needs. The Insulating liner has zippered doors and
                                             sealable openings for ducts and electrical cords to enter the shelter. These liners fit
                                             different shelter systems and provide varying levels of insulation.
26. SunDanzer Refrigerators                  SunDanzer refrigerators and freezers have exceptionally low energy consumption and
                                             require smaller, less expensive power systems and low operating expense. This
                                             technology allows refrigeration in remote locations where it was previously unavailable or
                                             prohibitively expensive.
27. Battlefield Renewable Integrated         BRITES is an Air Force power system that stores energy and serves as a power
    Tactical Energy System (BRITES)          management distribution system.
28. Alaska Small Shelter System              The Alaska Small Shelter System is the official Air Force shelter system and the only
                                             shelter successfully tested to meet all the requirements, such as wind and snow load, of
                                             the U.S. Air Force’s 1999 Operational Requirements Document.
29. Utilis Thermal Fly                       The Utilis Thermal Fly is an external solar shade used to reduce the severe radiant heat
                                             transfer from the outside environment to the inside of the shelter.
30. Atomic Force Photovoltaic Microscopy Flexible Solar Cells Technique works by scanning a nanoscale stylus across an array of
    (Flexible Solar Cells Technique)     microscopic solar cells which causes them to illuminate with simulated light so that they
                                         function. These flexible solar cells are plastic-based, and work via photovoltaic properties
                                         of the plastic, which convert a portion of the light that hits the solar cells into electricity.
31. Alternative Energy Fuel Cell             This generator is in development and will be designed to be a portable, integrated, and
    Generator                                ruggedized, polymer electrolyte membrane-based fuel cell, power generator, capable of
                                             operating on certain raw fuel. This generator will produce 10 kilowatts peak power output
                                             that is suitable for deployment to forward operating locations.
32. Solar Integrated Power Shelter           This shelter system uses lightweight, flexible solar panels to cool a tent shelter. It is
    System                                   currently undergoing field testing and will be deployed initially in Kuwait in fiscal year
                                             2013.




                                             Page 54                                               GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
                                           Appendix III: Fuel Demand Management
                                           Initiatives for Forward-Deployed Locations
                                           Identified by DOD




                                           Description/Status update
33. Rigid Wall Energy Efficient Shelters   These are lightweight, deployable, rigid-wall, and thermally insulated shelters that can be
                                           used as part of various fielding options.
34. L’Garde Cell Insulation                This cellular insulation project leverages NASA’s multilayer film insulation concept
                                           resulting in flat panels that when mechanically deployed provide energy.
35. Balance of Systems                     Balance of Systems is designed for multiple applications, including Quadrant, Temper Fly,
                                           and PowerShade. This system consists of a charge controller, power monitor, AC inverter,
                                           and two storage batteries. The power is generated by the photovoltaics flows to the
                                           charge controller, which then uses that power to charge the batteries if they are depleted.
36. Shower Water Reuse System              This shower system is designed to improve the energy, water, and waste efficiency and
                                           reduce environmental risks of life support areas.
37. Skycam power (alternative power for    This initiative is an extended solar-power solution to operate a wireless surveillance
    senor)                                 system for combat outpost force protection.
38. Pinwheel (generator and solar PV)      This is an energy and power initiative that includes a generator and solar photovoltaics.
39. Hunter Defense Technologies (HDT)      The HDT Heat Shield Radiant Blanket is a 114-pound liner designed to help thermally
    Heat Shield Radiant Blanket            insulate a Base-X tent. The HDT liner fits inside of the tent by attaching the liner to the
                                           walls and ceiling.
                                           Source: GAO analysis of DOD data.




                                           Page 55                                             GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix IV: Comments from the
             Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
             of Defense



Department of Defense




             Page 56                                     GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
of Defense




Page 57                                     GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Appendix V: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix V: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Zina D. Merritt, (202) 512- 5257 or merrittz@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the contact named above, Suzanne Wren (Assistant
Staff             Director), Virginia Chanley, Carole Coffey, Mark Dowling, Jason Jackson,
Acknowledgments   Tamiya Lunsford, Christopher Mulkins, Charles Perdue, Amie Steele, Erik
                  Wilkins-McKee, and Delia P. Zee made major contributions to this report.




                  Page 58                                 GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
Related GAO Products
             Related GAO Products




             Defense Acquisitions: Opportunities Exist to Improve DOD’s Oversight of
             Power Source Investments. GAO-11-113. Washington, D.C.: December
             30, 2010.

             Defense Management: Increased Attention on Fuel Demand
             Management at DOD’s Forward-Deployed Locations Could Reduce
             Operational Risks and Costs. GAO-09-388T. Washington, D.C.: March 3,
             2009.

             Defense Management: DOD Needs to Increase Attention on Fuel
             Demand Management at Forward-Deployed Location. GAO-09-300.
             Washington, D.C.: February 20, 2009.

             Defense Management: Overarching Organizational Framework Needed
             to Guide and Oversee Energy Reduction Efforts for Military Operations.
             GAO-08-426. Washington, D.C: March 13, 2008.




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             Page 59                                GAO-12-619 Defense Energy Management
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