oversight

2020 Census: Additional Steps Are Needed to Build on Early Planning

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-05-17.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




May 2012
             2020 CENSUS

             Additional Steps Are
             Needed to Build on
             Early Planning




GAO-12-626
                                              May 2012

                                              2020 CENSUS
                                              Additional Steps Are Needed to Build on Early
                                              Planning
Highlights of GAO-12-626, a report to
congressional requesters




Why GAO Did This Study                        What GAO Found
GAO’s prior work has shown that it will       The Census Bureau’s (Bureau) early planning and preparation efforts for the
be important for the Bureau to                2020 Census are consistent with most leading practices in each of the three
reexamine its management and culture          management areas GAO reviewed. For example, with respect to its effort to
as well as the fundamental design of          transform its decennial organization, top Bureau leadership has been driving the
the census in order to ensure a cost-         transformation, and the agency has focused on a key set of principles as it
effective census. The Bureau                  begins to roll-out the strategy to staff. Furthermore, the Bureau has created a
recognizes this and has taken steps in        timeline to build momentum and show progress. At the same time, however, the
at least three management areas               amount of change-related activity the Bureau is considering as part of its
toward achieving these goals. As
                                              reorganization of its decennial directorate may not be aligned with the resources
requested, this report addresses the
                                              the Bureau has allocated to plan, coordinate, and carry it out, and, as a result,
extent to which the Bureau is taking
steps in accordance with selected
                                              the planned transformation efforts may not be sustainable or successful.
leading practices that GAO identified         Similarly, the Bureau is taking steps consistent with many of the leading practices
for (1) organizational transformation,        for long-term project planning, such as by, among other activities, issuing its
(2) long-term project planning, and (3)       series of 2020 planning memorandums in 2009 and 2010 that laid out a high-
strategic workforce planning in               level framework documenting goals, assumptions, and timing of the remaining
preparing for the 2020 Census. To             four phases of the 2020 Census. The Bureau also created a high-level schedule
meet these objectives, GAO identified         of program management activities for the remaining phases, documented key
leading practices in these areas that
                                              elements such as the Bureau’s decennial mission, vision, and guiding principles,
are relevant to the Bureau’s 2020
                                              and produced a business plan to support budget requests, which is being
Census planning, reviewed Bureau
documents, and interviewed officials.         updated annually. Still, the Bureau’s schedule does not include milestones or
                                              deadlines for key decisions needed to support transition between the planning
What GAO Recommends                           phases, which could result in later downstream planning activity not being based
                                              on evidence from such sources as early research and testing. Furthermore, there
GAO recommends that the Census
                                              has been little effective outreach to the Bureau’s congressional stakeholders
Director take a number of actions to
                                              about its reexamination of census processes and design, which could result in a
make 2020 Census planning more
                                              lack of support on potentially complex or sensitive topics that can be crucial for
consistent with key practices in the
three management areas, such as               creating a stable environment in which to prepare for a census.
examining planned transformation              In the area of strategic workforce planning, the Bureau is taking steps consistent
activity to ensure its alignment with         with leading practices such as by identifying current and future critical
resources, developing a more-detailed         occupations with a pilot assessment of the skills and competencies of selected
long-term schedule to smooth                  information technology 2020 Census positions. However, the Bureau has done
transition to later planning phases,          little yet either to identify the goals that should guide workforce planning or to
implementing effective congressional
                                              determine how to monitor, report, and evaluate its progress toward achieving
outreach to ensure a stable planning
                                              them, which could help the Bureau identify and avoid possible barriers to
environment, and setting workforce
planning goals and monitor them to            implementing its workforce plans.
ensure their attainment.                      The steps the Bureau has taken and has planned are positioning it well during
The Department of Commerce                    this early phase of planning for the 2020 Census. Since much of the Bureau’s
concurred with GAO’s findings and             early progress is tied to additional planning and other activity needed over the
recommendations and provided minor            coming months, equally important will be the need to execute these activities in a
clarifications, which were included in        timely manner to maintain the Bureau’s early momentum toward a cost-effective
the final report.                             2020 Census.


View GAO-12-626. For more information,
contact Robert Goldenkoff at (202) 512-2757
or goldenkoffr@gao.gov.

                                                                                      United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                      1
                Background                                                                  3
                The Bureau Is Beginning an Organizational Transformation Using
                  Key Practices, but Further Planning Is Needed                             5
                A More Detailed Schedule Could Improve the Bureau’s Existing
                  Project Planning Framework                                              10
                Bureau Is Incorporating Most Key Strategic Workforce Planning
                  Practices but Does Not Yet Monitor Progress toward Workforce
                  Goals                                                                   16
                Conclusions                                                               20
                Recommendations for Executive Action                                      21
                Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                        23

Appendix I:     Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                        25



Appendix II:    Bureau Is Using Selected Key Practices to Carry Out Organizational
                Transformation for 2020 Census Directorate
                (Text for Interactive Fig. 2)                                             28



Appendix III:   Bureau Has Developed a High-Level Framework Generally Using Key
                Leading Practices for Planning Long-Term Complex Projects (Text for
                Interactive Fig. 3)                                                 30



Appendix IV:    Bureau Generally Relied on Key Leading Practices to Carry Out
                Workforce Planning for 2020 Census (Text for Interactive Fig. 4)          32



Appendix V:     List of the U.S. Census Bureau’s Program Management Planning
                Documents                                                                 34



Appendix VI:    Comments from the Department of Commerce                                  36




                Page i                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix VII:          GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                                     38




Related GAO Products                                                                                             39



Table
                       Table 1: Bureau’s Program Management Planning Documents                                   34


Figures
                       Figure 1: The Life Cycle of the 2020 Census Has Five Phases                                5
                       Figure 2: Bureau Is Using Selected Key Practices to Carry Out
                                Organizational Transformation for 2020 Census
                                Directorate                                                                       8
                       Figure 3: Bureau Has Developed a High-Level Framework
                                Generally Using Key Leading Practices for Planning Long-
                                Term Complex Projects                                                            12
                       Figure 4: Bureau Generally Relied on Key Leading Practices to
                                Carry Out Workforce Planning for 2020 Census                                     18




                       Abbreviations

                       Bureau            U.S. Census Bureau
                       HCAAF             Human Capital Assessment and Accountability Framework
                       IT                Information Technology
                       OIG               Office of Inspector General



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                       Page ii                                            GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   May 17, 2012

                                   Congressional Requesters

                                   The characteristics of the census—long-term, large-scale, complex, high-
                                   risk, and politically sensitive—together make a cost-effective enumeration
                                   of the nation’s population and housing a monumental project-planning
                                   and management challenge. In preparing for the 2020 Census, the U.S.
                                   Census Bureau (Bureau) faces the daunting task of successfully counting
                                   a population that is growing steadily larger, more diverse, and
                                   increasingly difficult to enumerate in an environment of rapidly changing
                                   technology. Challenges in managing and planning the 2000 and 2010
                                   Censuses led to acquisition problems, cost overruns, and other issues,
                                   and, as a result, we placed both enumerations on our High-Risk List. 1
                                   Furthermore, the 2010 Census was, at about $13 billion, the costliest U.S.
                                   Census in history.

                                   Our work on prior censuses has shown that it will be important for the
                                   Bureau to reexamine both the fundamental design of the enumeration, as
                                   well as its management and culture to ensure that the Bureau’s business
                                   practices and systems enable the Bureau to reach its goal of a cost-
                                   effective census. 2 And our work has shown that, as a part of robust early
                                   planning for the decennial, applying leading practices for planning long-
                                   term complex projects from the very beginning can help reduce cost and
                                   risk. 3 Consistent with this, the Bureau has stated that to contain costs and
                                   maintain quality, bold innovations in both planning and design of the 2020
                                   Census will be required. For example, in fiscal year 2011, the Bureau
                                   completed the initial stage of a transformation effort intended, in part, to
                                   fundamentally overhaul the Bureau’s approach to planning the decennial



                                   1GAO, High-Risk Series: Quick Reference Guide, GAO/HR-97-2 (Washington, D.C.:
                                   February 1997) and 2010 Census: Automation Problems and Uncertain Costs and Plans
                                   May Jeopardize the Success of the Decennial and Warrant Immediate Attention,
                                   GAO-08-550T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 5, 2008).
                                   2
                                    GAO, 2010 Census: Data Collection Operations Were Generally Completed as Planned,
                                   but Long-standing Challenges Suggest Need for Fundamental Reforms, GAO-11-193
                                   (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 14, 2010).
                                   3
                                    GAO, Decennial Census: Additional Actions Could Improve the Census Bureau’s Ability
                                   to Control Costs for the 2020 Census, GAO-12-80 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 24, 2012).




                                   Page 1                                          GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
census. The Bureau created a new 2020 Census Directorate and a 2020
Research and Planning Office to take the lead for 2020 preparations.
Furthermore, during the past year the Bureau began a process of
identifying the skills gap in its workforce in order to have the skills and
competencies it needs for developing a more cost-effective 2020 Census.
As the Bureau continues planning the 2020 Census, it will be important
that it implement leading management practices in each of these areas. 4

Instilling leading management practices will also be important for
sustaining the Bureau’s transformation efforts and bringing about lasting
reforms, especially given the turnover that has been occurring at the head
of the agency over the last 40 years. As we noted in our April 2011
testimony, leadership continuity is critical to sustain efforts that foster
change, produce results, mitigate risks, and control costs over the long
term. 5 However, since 1969 only one Census Director has served longer
than 5 years, and the rest—including the current director who recently
announced plans to resign from the Bureau in August 2012—served an
average term of about 3 years.

In this context, we were asked to assess the extent to which the Bureau’s
2020 Census Directorate and its 2020 Research and Planning Office are
taking steps consistent with leading practices for (1) organizational
transformation, (2) long-term project planning, and (3) strategic workforce
planning for the 2020 Census.

To meet these objectives, we reviewed existing leading practices for
organizational transformation, long-term project planning, and workforce
planning that we and other organizations have previously developed, and
identified those that are most relevant to the Bureau’s early planning for
the 2020 Census. We also reviewed Bureau documents and interviewed
Bureau officials involved in the early planning for the 2020 Census. Using
these sources, we assessed the extent to which the Bureau was
implementing the leading practices. More information on our scope and
methodology can be found in app. I.



4
 Another management area where the Bureau will need to focus its planning efforts is the
area of information technology. We have ongoing work in this area and plan to issue a
report on this issue later this year.
5
 GAO, 2010 Census: Preliminary Lessons Learned Highlight the Need for Fundamental
Reforms, GAO-11-496T (Washington, D.C., Apr. 6, 2011).




Page 2                                            GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
             We conducted this performance audit from August 2011 through May
             2012 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing
             standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits
             to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis
             for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective. We believe
             that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings
             and conclusions based on our audit objective.


             The Bureau’s experience with the 2010 and prior enumerations has
Background   shown that lack of proper planning and not following leading practices in
             key management areas can increase the costs and risks of later
             downstream operations. Leading up to the 2010 Census, we reported on
             internal organizational, planning, funding, and human capital challenges
             that jeopardized the Bureau’s overall readiness. For example, we
             reported that additional costs and risks associated with the data capture
             technologies used in the 2010 Census were related to a failure to
             adequately link specifications for key information technology (IT) systems
             to requirements. 6 And the lack of skilled cost estimators for the 2010
             Census led to unreliable life-cycle cost estimates. Some of the
             operational problems that occurred during the 2010 and prior censuses
             are symptomatic of deeper organizational issues. For example, a Bureau
             self-assessment carried out in October 2008 found that its organizational
             structure made overseeing a large program difficult and hampered
             accountability, succession planning, and staff development.

             We and other organizations, including the Bureau itself, have stated that
             fundamental changes to the design, implementation, and management of
             the census must be made in order to address these and other problems. 7
             In addition, the Bureau Director has testified that various parts of the
             Bureau could collaborate more effectively. In response, the Bureau has
             started numerous change initiatives, some directed at transforming the
             Bureau’s organization itself in addition to reexamining its fundamental
             approach to how it will conduct the 2020 Census.




             6
              GAO, Information Technology: Census Bureau Needs to Improve Its Risk Management
             of Decennial Systems, GAO-08-79 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 5, 2007).
             7
              GAO, 2010 Census: Preliminary Lessons Learned Highlight the Need for Fundamental
             Reforms, GAO-11-496T (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 6, 2011).




             Page 3                                         GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
The Bureau’s organizational transformation took a significant step forward
in July 2011 when it created a 2020 Census Directorate, with decennial
planning being led by its 2020 Research and Planning Office. The Bureau
is targeting to complete further reorganization of its decennial units by the
end of fiscal year 2013. In order to obtain necessary approval from the
Department of Commerce, the Bureau has set a target of February 2013
for submitting a proposal to the department. To support the organizational
transformation effort, the Bureau has designated an “organizational
change manager,” responsible for planning and managing the day-to-day
organizational change activities. Relatedly, the Bureau is attempting to
develop Bureau-wide, or “enterprise,” standards, guidance, or tools, in
areas such as risk management, project management, systems
engineering, and IT investment management in order to reduce
duplicative efforts across the Bureau.

The Bureau is also reexamining how it fundamentally conducts the
decennial census, committing to identify and implement innovation and
improvements as necessary to conduct the 2020 Census at a lower cost
per housing unit than the approximately $100 per housing unit cost of the
2010 Census (in constant 2010 dollars) while still maintaining high quality.
To do so, the Bureau has divided the 14-year life cycle of the 2020
Census into five phases, beginning in fiscal year 2009 with Options
Analysis. The figure below illustrates the sequencing of the five 2020
Census phases. The current, second, phase, Early Research and
Testing, comprises 35 research projects that are intended to explore how
design areas could be modified to control costs or improve quality, such
as by using the Internet, social media, and administrative records. 8




8
 We are separately reviewing specific design elements the Bureau is researching, and
expect to issue a report later in the year.




Page 4                                           GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                       Figure 1: The Life Cycle of the 2020 Census Has Five Phases




                       As the Bureau reexamines how it will plan the 2020 Census, it is also
                       reviewing the employee skills and competencies needed to make that
                       happen, in part by a formal analysis comparing its needs to its in-house
                       capabilities being carried out by its Human Resources Division in
                       collaboration with the 2020 Census Directorate. One of the Bureau’s
                       objectives listed within its early planning documents is to have a highly
                       competent workforce that is matched with the demands of the 2020
                       Census. The Bureau’s 2008 internal assessment found that some
                       activities involving the management of large programs and projects, cost
                       estimation, and IT lacked staff with core skills and experience. The
                       Bureau has said that it needs to develop a clear understanding of how
                       existing skill sets align with emerging needs, determine the best use of
                       resources to close competency gaps, and provide information to
                       employees and managers to guide continuing workforce development.


                       The Bureau is undertaking an organizational transformation of its entire
The Bureau Is          decennial directorate in order to improve collaboration and
Beginning an           communication across its divisions, improve operational efficiencies, and
                       instill a culture that, according to the Bureau, encourages risk-taking and
Organizational         innovation without fear of reprisal. The Bureau believes such change is
Transformation Using   necessary so that it can more-effectively control costs and enumerate the
Key Practices, but     population for 2020. In 2010, the Bureau generally completed its peak
                       census data-collection activities consistent with its operational plans and
Further Planning Is    released the state population counts used to apportion Congress on
Needed                 December 21, 2010, several days ahead of the legally mandated end-of-
                       year deadline, but did so at a cost that was higher than originally
                       estimated. The Bureau is incorporating several leading organizational
                       transformation practices, which we have previously reported can help



                       Page 5                                        GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
individuals affected by the organizational change adapt to the new
organization, while simultaneously managing the risk of reduced
productivity and effectiveness that often occurs as a result of change. Our
prior work has identified key practices in effective organizational
transformation, six of which are 9

•   ensure top leadership drives the transformation,
•   focus on a key set of principles and priorities at the outset of the
    transformation,
•   set implementation goals and a timeline to build momentum and show
    progress,
•   dedicate an implementation team to manage the transformation
    process,
•   involve employees to obtain their ideas and gain ownership for the
    transformation, and
•   establish a communication strategy to create shared expectations and
    report related progress.

The Bureau is at an early stage of planning for its transformation, and has
a difficult road ahead to finish the planning and begin implementing it. As
shown in figure 2, the Bureau has taken numerous steps consistent with
the key practices. For example, the Bureau Director has led the drive for
the reorganization, speaking in public and to Bureau staff a number of
times about the need for the Bureau to change if it is to remain cost-
effective and relevant in the 21st century. Following the announcement of
the Director’s upcoming August 2012 departure, several Bureau
executives said that they remained committed to the initiatives and vision
shared by the Director, including the organizational transformation. In
addition, the Bureau has focused on a key set of principles and
priorities at the outset of the transformation, by including in its
change-strategy documents not only explicit reliance on the guiding
principles for the 2020 Census, but specific principles to guide the
transformation itself, such as “make data-driven decisions,” “be
responsive and transparent to decennial staff and stakeholders,” and
“focus on an efficient and resilient organization.” The Bureau has also
created a high-level transformation timeline to build momentum and



9
 GAO, Results-Oriented Cultures: Implementation Steps to Assist Mergers and
Organizational Transformations, GAO-03-669 (Washington, D.C.: July 2, 2003). We
previously identified nine leading practices, but selected six as most appropriate for the
Bureau at this time.




Page 6                                              GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
show progress that includes milestones such as staff workshops and
deliverables such as multiyear roadmaps.




Page 7                                 GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                           Figure 2: Bureau Is Using Selected Key Practices to Carry Out Organizational Transformation for
 Interactive graphic
                           2020 Census Directorate


                           Directions:
                                Roll over each       Extent consistent       bar to see more information regarding illustrative steps taken
                                and illustrative steps remaining that contributed to the rating given.




     E   nsure top leadership drives the
     transformation
                                                       F  ocus on a key set of principles
                                                       and priorities at the outset of the
                                                                                                 S   et implementation goals and
                                                                                                 a timeline to build momentum and
                                                       transformation                            show progress



     • Define and articulate a compelling 		            Embed core values in every aspect of     • Make public implementation goals 		
     	 reason for change.                               the organization to reinforce the new    	 and timeline.
     • Document rationale, expected                     culture.                                 • Monitor employee attitudes and take 	
     	 benefits, and definition of success.                                                      	 appropriate action.


           Generally consistent                                Generally consistent                    Generally consistent




     D  edicate an implementation
     team to manage the transformation
                                                       Iideas
                                                          nvolve employees to obtain their
                                                              and gain their ownership for the
                                                                                                 E   stablish a communication strategy
                                                                                                 to create shared expectations and
     process                                           transformation                            report related progress


     • Establish networks to support 	       	         • Use employee teams.                     • Communicate early and often.
     	 implementation team.                            • Incorporate employee feedback.          • Ensure message consistency.
     • Select high-performing team                     • Delegate authority to appropriate 		    • Encourage two-way communication.
     	 members.                                        	 organizational levels.                  • Provide information to meet
                                                                                                 	 employee needs.

            Partially consistent                              Generally consistent                    Generally consistent


                                      Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
Notes:
Illustrative steps taken to date: GAO assessments based on Bureau steps taken as of April 10, 2012.
Extent consistent: We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with respective
practices.


     Print instructions    To print text version of this graphic, go to appendix II.


                                      Page 8                                                       GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Figure 2 also shows that the Bureau plans to take further steps over the
next year. For example, the Bureau is planning to roll out much of its
transformation planning to its staff in June 2012. In July, the Bureau plans
to more directly engage decennial staff by beginning a series of data-
collection activities, intended for staff to identify which decennial planning
processes work well and which need improving, and is considering
reliance on focus groups, online staff surveys, or workshops. Eventually,
and subject to sustained progress of the transformation process, the
Bureau plans by February 2013 to propose specific changes to its
decennial organization and finalize a timeline for carrying out the
transition to a new organization, subject to approval of the changes by the
department and the Office of Management and Budget.

Although the Bureau is taking and planning many positive steps toward
carrying out its organizational transformation, it may be falling short in its
use of an implementation team. Specifically, the amount of change-
related activity being planned may not be aligned with the resources the
Bureau has allocated to plan, coordinate, and carry them out. While
Bureau organizational transformation documents were largely in draft and
subject to change at the time we completed our review, the multiple
workshops being planned, the preparation of multiple plan and strategy
documents referenced as deliverables, as well as the collation and
analysis of data to be collected from staff, seem to be substantial work for
the sole staff member dedicated at this time to the transformation. That
person, the current organizational change manager, has time divided
among transformation planning and implementation, support of the
executive council advising on the transformation, leading a working group
on decennial strategic workforce planning, and leading a working group
on 2020 Census organizational change management communication as
well. We have previously observed that a strong and stable
implementation team responsible for the transformation’s day-to-day
management is important to ensuring that transformation receives the
focused attention needed to be sustained and successful. If activity
planned for the transformation is not aligned with the resources dedicated
to it, various change initiatives may not be sequenced or implemented in
a coherent and integrated way, collected data may not be properly
analyzed and used, and risks to implementation may not be identified or
properly mitigated.

In written comments on our draft report, the Department of Commerce
responded that after receiving the draft the Bureau assigned additional
staff and a contractor to support the Bureau’s organizational
transformation activity. This action appears responsive to our finding, and,


Page 9                                      GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                       as follow-up to this report, we will assess any action the Bureau may take
                       to examine the alignment between the levels of activity planned for the
                       transformation and the resources dedicated to their implementation.


                       The Bureau is incorporating several long-term project-planning practices
A More Detailed        that—if continued and built upon throughout the decade—should help the
Schedule Could         Bureau avoid many of the management problems it has experienced in
                       prior censuses. For example, the Bureau experienced cost overruns for
Improve the Bureau’s   the 2010 Census in large part because it had to abandon expensive plans
Existing Project       for increased use of automation in its field operations late in the planning
Planning Framework     cycle. Furthermore, preparing a rigorous long-term project plan will help
                       the Bureau demonstrate to Congress and other stakeholders that it can
                       effectively design and manage operations as well as control costs. Our
                       prior work has identified key practices for effective long-term project
                       planning, five of which are 10

                       •    develop a project plan,
                       •    involve stakeholders,
                       •    incorporate lessons learned,
                       •    analyze and mitigate risks, and
                       •    monitor progress.

                       As shown in figure 3, the Bureau is taking steps to plan the 2020 Census
                       generally consistent with two of the five key practices we identified and
                       partially consistent with the other three. For example, early on, from June
                       2009 to November 2010, the Bureau began the practice to develop a
                       project plan by issuing a series of eight 2020 planning memorandums 11
                       that laid out a framework documenting goals, assumptions, and timing of
                       the remaining four phases of 2020 Census. The Bureau also created a
                       high-level schedule of program management activities for the remaining
                       four phases, documented key elements such as the Bureau’s decennial
                       mission, vision, and six guiding principles, and produced a business plan
                       to support budget requests, which is being updated annually. Also,


                       10
                         GAO, 2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon, GAO-04-37
                       (Washington, D.C.: Jan, 15, 2004). We separate “involve stakeholders” and “incorporate
                       lessons learned” here, and exclude “evaluate human resource implications” since we
                       address human capital practices more extensively elsewhere in the report.
                       11
                         U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 Census Information Memoranda Series, Memorandum No.
                       1-8 (June 22, 2009–Nov. 16, 2010).




                       Page 10                                          GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
consistent with this practice, the Bureau has identified 19 specific
management-process areas from management literature and other
sources, for which it is developing strategies and plans, such as for
knowledge management and performance management (a complete list
is included in app. V).

The Bureau also took steps to involve stakeholders internally in its early
planning when it officially kicked off the 2020 Census on October 3, 2008,
with a summit of decennial-census managers discussing challenges,
strengths, and weaknesses that would inform the 2020 Census strategic
decision-making process. The Bureau began briefing external
stakeholders in 2009, describing its approach and high-level plans for the
2020 Census at professional-association meetings, at meetings at the
National Academies of Sciences, and to oversight groups such as the
Department of Commerce Office of Inspector General (OIG) and us. To
help implement the practice to incorporate lessons learned, in 2011 the
Bureau created a recommendation follow-up process, built around a
database it created containing recommendations made in recent GAO
and OIG reports on the 2010 Census, and the Bureau has begun
including recommendations from its own 2010 Census evaluation reports
as well. Not having a formal process for recommendation follow-up for
prior censuses made it difficult to ensure that recommendations were
systematically considered by those at the Bureau best able to act on
them. In concert with a knowledge-management strategy, the Bureau has
provided these recommendations to relevant Bureau research and testing
teams for their consideration.




Page 11                                  GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                           Figure 3: Bureau Has Developed a High-Level Framework Generally Using Key Leading Practices for
 Interactive graphic
                           Planning Long-Term Complex Projects


                           Directions:
                                Roll over each       Extent consistent       bar to see more information regarding illustrative steps taken
                                and illustrative steps remaining that contributed to the rating given.




     Develop a project plan                              Involve stakeholders                                  Incorporate lessons learned
     Consider all phases of the project                  • Involve internal and external 		                    • Evaluate past performance and
     and have clear and measurable                       	 stakeholders in the decision-making 		              	 capitalize on lessons learned to 		
     goals; clearly state all assumptions,               	 process.                                            	 improve performance.
     schedules, and deadlines; and identify              • Focus on the highest-priority                       •	Include the processes required to 		
     needed skills and resources.                        	 stakeholder needs and mission 		                    	 use project information to improve 		
                                                         	 goals.                                              	 future efforts.


             Partially consistent                                  Partially consistent                                Partially consistent




                            Analyze and mitigate risks                                  Monitor progress
                            • Identify, analyze, prioritize, and                        Identify measurable performance
                            	 document risks. Ideally, assess                           goals that describe and guide
                            	 more than one alternative. 			                            successful planning. Collect
                            • Plan risk management—the process 	                        performance data and report it to
                            	 of defining how to conduct risk                           determine how well the goals are
                            	 management activities for a project.                      being achieved.



                                     Generally consistent                                       Generally consistent


                                      Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
Notes:
Illustrative steps taken to date: GAO assessments based on Bureau steps taken as of April 10, 2012.
Extent consistent: We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with respective
practices.


     Print instructions    To print text version of this graphic, go to appendix III.


                                      Page 12                                                                    GAO-12-626 2020 Early Census Planning
Figure 3 also shows that the Bureau plans to take further steps over the
next several months. For example, the Bureau is planning in August 2012
to finalize both the detailed schedule of all program management,
systems engineering, and training activities for the current research and
testing phase of the 2020 Census, as well as all of the individual project
plans for the research and testing projects that it began during fiscal year
2012. According to Bureau officials, these processes will evolve and
mature as the Bureau learns from the initial implementation and progress
from one phase to the next. And in September, it will issue its initial plan
for managing communications on 2020 Census planning, progress, and
design with established 2020 Census external advisory boards as well as
its own staff.

While the Bureau is taking steps generally consistent with two of the five
leading practices we identified in this area, additional steps are needed to
better implement three practices presented in figure 3. For example, to
better develop a project plan for long-term projects having multiple
phases, the Bureau can take steps to address three weaknesses with its
current scheduling. First, it will be important for the Bureau to include
milestones marking deadlines and decisions that affect later phases. The
Bureau’s business plan for the 2020 Census notes one lesson it is trying
to leverage from prior censuses is to ensure that evidence from such
sources as research and testing is used to inform later planning. But,
current Bureau plans provide inadequate detail on when key decisions
will need to be made to support transition between the planning phases.
For example, while the Bureau has research and testing activity
continuing until 2018, it is not clear what specific activity must be
completed to inform design decisions that need to be made before the
next phase—operational development and systems testing—begins. With
the next phase scheduled to begin as early as 2015, if the needed
activities are not completed on time, the Bureau is at risk of not starting
downstream operations on schedule.

Second, Bureau planning documents do not yet specify when milestones
for management activity will—or needs to—transition from the earlier
research and testing phase to later phases of 2020 Census planning.
Documentation of Bureau management planning focuses naturally and
primarily on the current research and testing phase, and much of it states
explicitly that the scope of consideration is limited to the research and
testing phase. Bureau officials explained that they expect to update most
if not all management plans for later phases according to experience
gained with them during early research and testing as well as the special
needs of later phases. Yet without a schedule for concerted planning to


Page 13                                    GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
create, revise, or update management plans to address the needs and
circumstances of later phases beyond research and testing, the Bureau
may find itself in transition without the management plans ready. This
runs the risk of the Bureau having to develop and manage parallel
processes if new ones need to be created before it has taken steps to
decide how pre-existing ones should be revised to support later phases.
A more-visible reflection of projected deadlines, or milestones, for
decisions related to later phases can help ensure that all necessary
efforts leading up to those milestones are prioritized and completed on
schedule.

Third, the Bureau is still unsure when some initiatives to implement
Bureau-wide, or “enterprise,” solutions in a variety of management areas
will be completed. The enterprise solutions the Bureau is implementing
show promise to reduce duplication of effort and improve consistency by
introducing common standards, processes, tools, and systems in areas
such as risk management, project management, systems engineering,
and IT investment management. 12 Yet robust planning relies on
integrated scheduling to ensure that related and dependent activities are
coordinated and sequenced properly. Uncertainty over when enterprise
solutions that 2020 Census is expected to rely on will be ready could lead
to unnecessary duplication of effort or difficulty in mitigating risks of their
delayed completion. Indeed, the 2020 Census staff is already planning
and carrying out activities in these areas. Although it is consulting with
those responsible for the enterprise solutions, the Bureau’s additionally
producing a schedule for each of the enterprise solutions—including
expected dates of delivery for tools, processes, and systems, such as
2020 Census is expected to use—would help minimize risks of
developing decennial processes and tools incompatible with, or requiring
time- or cost-intensive adjustment to harmonize with the forthcoming
enterprise solutions.

Regarding the involvement of stakeholders in 2020 Census planning,
according to senior Bureau officials, there has been little effective
outreach by the Bureau to inform congressional staff about the scope of
topics the Bureau has planned as part of its approach to fundamentally
reexamine how it conducts a census. Bureau officials explained that their



12
  We are reviewing the Bureau’s IT investment management processes and plan to issue
a report later this year.




Page 14                                        GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
congressional outreach thus far has been on budgetary and non-
decennial issues. We have previously reported on the importance of
congressional outreach on the decennial to secure early agreement
between the Bureau and Congress on the Bureau’s fundamental
approach for its next decennial. 13 Congressional support—regardless of
the approach ultimately selected—is crucial for creating a stable
environment in which to prepare for the census. Some of the Bureau’s
planned research, such as partial reliance on the Internet for data
collection, has not been used by the Bureau on a large scale before, and
the Director has also raised the possibility of a need for public debate on
the trade-offs between census cost and census quality. Engaging in
strategic bicameral and bipartisan communication can help build support
for the Bureau’s approach to fundamentally reexamine how it plans for
and conducts a decennial census, and helps ensure an informed public
debate on any potentially complex or sensitive topics.

The Bureau is piloting a process to incorporate lessons learned from
recent oversight reporting and 2010 Census evaluations, and will need to
take additional steps in order to rely on it as a mature tool to follow up on
prior recommendations. We have previously reported that it will be vitally
important for the Bureau to identify lessons learned from the 2010
Census to improve census-taking activities and address long-standing
challenges. 14 The Bureau’s process captures recommendations from
recent 2010 Census evaluations and issues and assigns accountability
for follow-up to staff working on research and testing, and the Bureau has
plans to at least initially report on the status of recommendation follow-up.
However, the Bureau lacks a formal process for periodically assessing
the status of follow-up, and thus may lack consistent data to report and a
basis for knowing when to hold staff accountable for that follow-up. The
Bureau does not have in place a mechanism for systematic periodic
reporting on the status of follow-up—such as on its intranet or Internet
pages. Nor does it have performance measures defined for measuring
the extent of recommendation follow-up, such as the percentage
implemented or the percent not followed up on within 12 months, which
would both allow the Bureau to more-easily track and report progress in
incorporating improvements and begin to systematically incentivize team


13
  GAO, 2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to be Addressed Soon, GAO-04-37
(Washington, D.C.: Jan. 15, 2004).
14
 GAO-11-193.




Page 15                                      GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                     or individual performance that incorporates lessons learned in order to
                     help build a more results-oriented culture. Research and testing project
                     teams reported out on which recommendations they would be addressing
                     within their projects, as required by Bureau timelines, and described their
                     plans for future action on recommendations. Taking these further steps
                     will help sustain progress in ensuring the Bureau takes advantage of
                     lessons from prior experiences and insights.


                     The Bureau is incorporating several key strategic workforce planning
Bureau Is            practices that address its objective of matching its managers, technical
Incorporating Most   experts, and workforce to the demands of the 2020 Census. Strategic
                     workforce planning encourages agency managers and stakeholders to
Key Strategic        systematically consider what is to be done, when and how it will be done,
Workforce Planning   what skills will be needed, and how to gauge progress and results,
Practices but Does   helping to avoid staffing problems the Bureau has experienced in the
                     past. For example, a Bureau assessment of its experience with 2010
Not Yet Monitor      Census observed that areas such as the management of large programs
Progress toward      and projects, cost estimation, and sophisticated IT lacked staff with core
                     skills and experience. Our prior work in human capital management has
Workforce Goals      identified key practices in effective strategic workforce planning, five of
                     which are: 15

                     •    identify current and future critical occupations, skills, and
                          competencies and analyze workforce gaps,
                     •    develop current and future strategies tailored to address gaps and
                          human capital conditions in critical skills and competencies that need
                          attention,
                     •    involve top management, employees, and stakeholders in developing,
                          communicating, and implementing the strategic workforce plan,
                     •    align workforce planning with strategic planning and budget
                          formulation, and
                     •    monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving workforce planning
                          and strategic goals.



                     15
                       GAO, Human Capital: Key Principles for Effective Strategic Workforce Planning,
                     GAO-04-39 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 11, 2003) and Workforce Planning: Interior, EPA,
                     and the Forest Service Should Strengthen Linkages to Their Strategic Plans and Improve
                     Evaluation, GAO-10-413 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 31, 2010). We combined a sixth leading
                     practice, “build capacity to support workforce strategies,” into these, to simplify
                     presentation.




                     Page 16                                         GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
As figure 4 indicates, the Bureau is taking steps generally consistent with
three of the five key strategic workforce planning leading practices for its
planning of the 2020 Census, although the steps thus far are largely
limited in scope to workforce planning for the second of the five 2020
Census phases—early research and testing. For example, the Bureau
has begun to identify current and future critical occupations by
piloting a skills and competency assessment of selected IT 2020 Census
positions, including those for 2020 Census research and testing. In
support of developing current and future strategies tailored to
address workforce gaps that need attention, the Bureau has reviewed
its available strategic hiring, retention, and other workforce flexibilities. In
addition, top management has been actively engaged in
communicating the strategic workforce plan, with the Bureau Director
preparing staff for needed changes by speaking about it in town hall
meetings and postings on his intranet blog.




Page 17                                      GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                             Figure 4: Bureau Generally Relied on Key Leading Practices to Carry Out Workforce Planning for
 Interactive graphic
                             2020 Census


                             Directions:
                                  Roll over each       Extent consistent       bar to see more information regarding illustrative steps taken
                                  and illustrative steps remaining that contributed to the rating given.




     Ioccupations,                                       D
                                                                                                               M
                                                             evelop current and future
       dentify current and future critical               strategies tailored to address gaps                       onitor and evaluate progress
                   skills, and                           and human capital conditions in                       toward achieving workforce planning
     competencies and analyze                            critical skills and competencies that                 and strategic goals
     workforce gaps                                      need attention


     Identify mission-critical occupations               Develop reasonable human capital                      Assess progress to determine
     and competencies, which form the                    strategies and tools and align these                  whether workforce planning goals are
     basis for much of workforce planning.               to eliminate gaps and improve the                     being met and identify the reasons for
                                                         contribution of critical skills and                   any shortfalls.
                                                         competencies.

            Generally consistent                                 Generally consistent                                     Not consistent




                              Iemployees,
                                nvolve top management,
                                          and other stakeholders                     A    lign workforce planning with
                              in developing, communicating, and                      strategic planning and budget
                              implementing the strategic                             formulation
                              workforce plan


                              Involve top management, employees                          Align workforce and strategic plans
                              and stakeholders in unique roles to                        with budget.
                              design strategic workforce plans.


                                      Partially consistent                                     Generally consistent


                                        Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
Notes:
Illustrative steps taken to date: GAO assessments based on Bureau steps taken as of April 10, 2012.
Extent consistent: We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with respective
practices.


     Print instructions      To print text version of this graphic, go to appendix IV.


                                        Page 18                                                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Figure 4 also shows that the Bureau plans to take a number of steps over
the next few months that are generally consistent with the key strategic
workforce planning leading practices. For example, in support of the
practice to analyze workforce gaps the Bureau plans to finalize in May
its project plan detailing the steps, resources, and timeline for conducting
its Bureau-wide skills gap and competency assessment that it will
undertake later in 2012. To help develop current and future strategies,
in June, the Bureau plans to identify which of its existing training courses
can potentially help address gaps it expects it may identify, while in
August, it plans to document how its skills gap and competency analyses
will be updated and used during later census phases with target time-
windows for later activity, including how it will align with budget
formulation. The Bureau planned some of these steps in response to our
discussions with its workforce planning officials.

The Bureau’s early effort to analyze competencies has the potential to
help it identify critical occupations and skills that will help it adjust to
changes in technology, budget constraints, and other factors that alter the
environment in which it operates. Top management is actively engaged
in developing the workforce plan and is setting the overall direction for
planning efforts. The Bureau’s plan to document when skills gap and
competency analyses will be conducted for future 2020 Census phases
will help the Bureau manage other supporting activity to ensure that this
important workforce planning activity happens soon.

Still, the Bureau could do more to implement its strategic workforce
planning consistent with key leading practices. The Bureau has not yet
determined its workforce goals from its skills gap and competency
analyses or laid out how it will monitor, report, and evaluate progress in
achieving them. According to the Bureau, it hopes to enable program
managers to flexibly, and on-demand, obtain reports on the status and
strategies targeted to their own goals and workforce needs. Identifying
agency goals for this initiative and a vital few performance measures can
help agency officials think through the scope, timing, and possible
barriers to evaluating and implementing the resulting workforce plans,
and the monitoring and evaluation itself can provide information for
effective oversight by identifying performance shortfalls and appropriate
corrective actions.

Finally, the Bureau has traditionally obtained input on decennial technical,
operational, and policy issues from a diverse group of stakeholders, but,
according to Bureau officials, has not yet considered the role of external
stakeholders in developing, communicating, and implementing its


Page 19                                    GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
              workforce planning. External stakeholders with appropriate expertise and
              experience can play a useful role in supporting an agency with its
              workforce planning such as by serving as a sounding board for agency
              workforce initiatives. For example, academic institutions and their
              accreditation organizations are positioned to discuss both the direction
              the respective academic programs are headed and whether agency
              needs can be expected to be met by them. A panel of academics from
              universities with relevant expertise might provide a two-way forum for how
              to align future skills and competency needs for the agency workforce with
              the hiring pool that the academic institutions are helping to develop.
              Expanding discussions with traditional census advisory groups, such as
              those organized to tap professional organizations and diversity
              perspectives, may also provide insights and advice on recruiting,
              retaining, and developing staff. Identifying those external stakeholders
              who can provide insights to Bureau workforce planning challenges and
              reaching out to them could help the Bureau develop strategies to help
              meet its objective of having a workforce matched with the demands of the
              2020 Census.


              The Bureau faces many challenges—internally and externally—in
Conclusions   preparing for a cost-effective 2020 Census, including transforming the
              Bureau’s internal organization; rethinking the way the Bureau plans for
              and executes decennial censuses; and assessing the skills and
              competencies of the Bureau’s workforce. Applying leading management
              practices in each of these areas of the Bureau’s preparation for the 2020
              Census can help ensure that the Bureau addresses these challenges and
              delivers high-quality and timely results. Other areas of planning, such as
              IT investment management, that are outside the scope of our review will
              also require sustained attention. However, sustaining these efforts going
              forward, especially given the Director’s pending August 2012 departure
              and the Bureau’s historic issue of leadership continuity, will be a
              challenge.

              The Bureau is generally or partially following most leading practices in the
              management areas of organizational transformation, long-term project
              planning, and strategic workforce planning—positioning itself well during
              this early phase of planning for the 2020 Census. Much of the Bureau’s
              early progress is visible in its plans for additional activity over the coming
              months; equally important will be the need to finalize these plans and
              execute these activities in a timely manner to maintain the Bureau’s early
              momentum toward a cost-effective 2020 Census.



              Page 20                                     GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                      It will be important for the Bureau to take additional steps to further
                      implement leading practices in each of the three management areas we
                      reviewed. Reexamining its planned transformation activities in terms of
                      resources allocated to them will help ensure that its organizational
                      transformation team can prioritize and implement those activities,
                      properly use supporting data to enhance those activities, or identify and
                      mitigate risks to their implementation. The Bureau’s long-term planning
                      will be aided by improvements in scheduling that will help to ensure the
                      coordination, management, and resource allocation to activities as
                      needed, and by a congressional outreach strategy that helps ensure
                      stakeholders are informed of new census design elements and possible
                      cost-quality trade-offs. In addition, improvements in the assessment and
                      reporting on the Bureau’s recommendation follow-up system will help the
                      Bureau get the best return on that investment. Finally, for strategic
                      workforce planning, it will be important that the Bureau set agency
                      workforce goals so that it can determine how to monitor, report, and
                      evaluate its progress toward achieving those goals. Moving forward,
                      identifying external stakeholders with expertise and experience in
                      workforce planning challenges such as recruitment and soliciting
                      feedback from them will help the Bureau develop strategies to meet its
                      objective of having a workforce matched with the demands of the 2020
                      Census. Implementing these remaining leading practices can help the
                      Bureau stay on track for a well-planned, well-executed 2020 Census.


                      We recommend that the Secretary of Commerce require the Under
Recommendations for   Secretary for Economic Affairs who oversees the Economics and
Executive Action      Statistics Administration, as well as the Director of the U.S. Census
                      Bureau, to take the following six actions to improve the Bureau’s process
                      of organizational transformation, long-term planning, and strategic
                      workforce planning for the 2020 Census, and thus better position the
                      Bureau to carry out a cost-effective decennial census:

                      Organizational Transformation

                      1. In order to ensure the Bureau’s decennial organizational
                         transformation is sustained and successful, examine the alignment
                         between the levels of activity planned for the transformation and the
                         resources dedicated to their implementation, and adjust the activity
                         and resources as appropriate.




                      Page 21                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Long-term Planning

2. In order to ensure prioritization and timely completion of all necessary
   research and testing efforts, as well as timely transition to later 2020
   Census phases, develop and implement a long-term planning
   schedule that includes key milestones and deadlines, including
   •   deadlines for decisions that directly affect activity in later 2020
       Census phases;
   •   a schedule for creating, revising, or updating governance,
       program management, and system engineering and architecture
       plans to be used in later 2020 Census phases beyond research
       and testing; and
   •   expected times of delivery for Bureau-wide enterprise tools,
       processes, and standards that 2020 Census planning would be
       expected to use.
3. In order to inform congressional decision-making related to the 2020
   Census, develop and implement an effective congressional outreach
   strategy, particularly on new design elements the Bureau is
   researching and considering as well as on cost-quality trade-offs of
   potential design decisions.
4. In order to improve the Bureau’s process for following up on Bureau
   and oversight agencies’ recommendations to improve the 2020
   Census,
   •   assess the status of recommendation follow-up at regular
       intervals, such as every 12 months; and
   •   periodically report on the status of recommendation follow-up—
       such as on the Bureau’s intranet or Internet pages
Strategic Workforce Planning

5. In order to help the Bureau identify performance shortfalls and
   appropriate corrective actions in achieving its strategic workforce
   planning goals, set agency workforce planning goals, and determine
   how the Bureau will monitor, report, and evaluate its progress toward
   achieving those goals.

6. In order to help the Bureau develop strategies to meet its objective of
   having a workforce matched with the demands of the 2020 Census,
   identify external stakeholders whose expertise and experience can
   provide insights to Bureau workforce planning challenges, such as
   recruitment, and reach out to them and incorporate their input as
   appropriate.




Page 22                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                     We provided a draft of this report to the Secretary of Commerce on April
Agency Comments      26, 2012 and received the department’s written comments on May 11,
and Our Evaluation   2012. The comments are reprinted in appendix VI. The Department of
                     Commerce concurred with our findings and recommendations.

                     In its comments, the department provided additional context on the role
                     that the Bureau’s Human Resources Division plays handling strategic
                     workforce planning for the 2020 Census. We have included this additional
                     information in the background section of the report where we first discuss
                     the assessment and analysis initiative.

                     Also, the department noted that after it had received our draft report, the
                     Bureau had added additional staff and contractor support to its
                     organizational transformation activities. We have included this additional
                     information in the report where we discuss the organizational
                     transformation leading practices. The Bureau’s action appears responsive
                     to our recommendation, and we will further assess this as part of our
                     routine recommendation follow-up process.


                     We are sending copies of this report to the Secretary of Commerce, the
                     Director of the U.S. Census Bureau, and interested congressional
                     committees. The report also is available at no charge on GAO’s website
                     at http://www.gao.gov.

                     If you have any questions about this report please contact me at (202)
                     512-2757 or goldenkoffr@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of
                     Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page
                     of this report. The GAO staff that made key contributions to this report is
                     listed in appendix VII.




                     Robert Goldenkoff
                     Director
                     Strategic Issues




                     Page 23                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
List of Requesters

The Honorable Thomas R. Carper
Chairman
The Honorable Scott Brown
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government
 Information, Federal Services, and International Security
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
United States Senate

The Honorable Danny K. Davis
Ranking Member
Subcommittee on Health Care, District of Columbia, Census,
 and the National Archives
Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
House of Representatives




Page 24                                GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
              Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
              Methodology



Methodology

              The objectives of our review were to assess the extent to which the U.S.
              Census Bureau’s (Bureau) 2020 Directorate and its Research and
              Planning Office are taking steps consistent with leading practices for
              organizational transformation, long-term project planning, and strategic
              workforce planning. For each of these three management areas, we
              conducted a literature review to develop the appropriate leading practices
              that should be considered in our review.

              We identified leading practices from the following sources:

              •   Organizational Transformation: Our prior report for federal agencies to
                  consider as they seek to transform their culture in response to
                  governance challenges. 1
              •   Long-term project planning: Our evaluation of the Bureau’s early
                  project-planning efforts of the 2010 Census 2 and information from the
                  Software Engineering Institute. 3
              •   Strategic workforce planning: Our two prior reports 4 that developed
                  the practices, and on selected material from the GAO Management
                  Diagnostic Tool, 5 the Project Management Institute, 6 and the Office of


              1
               GAO, Results-Oriented Cultures: Implementation Steps to Assist Mergers and
              Organizational Transformations (GAO-03-669) (Washington, D.C.: July 2, 2003). Not all of
              the leading practices from this report were used because some were not germane to the
              Bureau.
              2
               GAO, 2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon, GAO-04-37
              (Washington, D.C.: Jan, 15, 2004).
              3
               Carnegie Mellon University’s Software Engineering Institute (SEI), recognized for its
              expertise in software processes, has developed models and methods that define and
              determine organizations’ software process maturity and has been used by GAO in the
              past to develop leading practices.
              4
               GAO, Human Capital: Key Principles for Effective Strategic Workforce Planning,
              GAO-04-39 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 11, 2003) and Workforce Planning: Interior, EPA,
              and the Forest Service Should Strengthen Linkages to Their Strategic Plans and Improve
              Evaluation, GAO-10-413 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 31, 2010).
              5
               GAO developed the Management Diagnostic Survey as a tool that could be used by
              executive agencies and GAO to identify management function areas in which an agency is
              performing well or may have opportunity to better implement leading management
              practices. The result can assist GAO to determine areas for additional follow-up work and
              can help agency leaders identify management improvement opportunities. From this tool,
              we used information pertaining to human capital.
              6
               The Project Management Institute purpose is to advance the project-management
              profession through standards and certifications, collaborative communities, research, and
              professional-development opportunities.




              Page 25                                            GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




    Personnel Management’s Human Capital Assessment and
    Accountability Framework (HCAAF). 7
To assess the extent to which the Bureau implemented the practices, we
reviewed numerous Bureau documents pertaining to the early planning of
the 2020 Census. These generally consisted of high-level strategic
framework documents, strategies and plans pertaining to specific
elements of the 2020 Census, planning memorandums, charters for key
steering groups, and timelines for execution. Many of these documents
were considered draft, but Bureau officials said were sufficiently
developed for purposes of our review. We accessed the Bureau’s intranet
to see what information it provides employees about the topics of our
research objectives. We also obtained performance contracts of Senior
Executive Service officials to evaluate the extent to which performance
expectations include 2020 Census planning goals.

We interviewed Bureau officials responsible for the early planning of the
2020 Census, including: the Bureau Director; the 2020 Directorate’s
Research and Planning Office; the Associate Director for
Communications; and senior officials in the Human Resource Division.
We also met with members of the 2020 Census Directorate’s
Organizational Change Management Council, which is charged with
effectively managing the delivery of the new organization design and
providing executive guidance, support, and resolution of the
transformation.

From our review of documents and interviews with all agency officials, we
determined the extent to which each leading practice has been
implemented using a scale of “generally consistent,” “partially consistent,”
and “not consistent.” A practice was considered “generally consistent”
when the evidence demonstrated the Bureau generally fulfilled more than
half the description of the practice. A practice was considered “partially
consistent” when the evidence demonstrated some meaningful actions
had been taken, but less than half the description of the practice was
fulfilled. A practice was considered “not consistent” when the evidence
indicated the practice was not addressed because either no action was
yet taken or the actions that were taken were minimal or not effective.



7
 The Office of Personnel Management’s HCAAF, developed in conjunction with the Office
of Management and Budget and GAO, defines standards for success for the federal
government and can serve as a road map for human capital transformation.




Page 26                                         GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




We reached our assessments by having the primary team members
determine their collective opinion and then sought validation by having
another GAO subject-matter specialist with sufficient familiarity with the
material use professional judgment and develop an independent
assessment. In all circumstances, the coders collaborated to discuss any
differences, which resulted in developing a consensus assessment.




Page 27                                   GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix II: Bureau Is Using Selected Key    Appendix II: Bureau Is Using Selected Key
                                             Practices to Carry Out Organizational
                                             Transformation for 2020 Census Directorate

Practices to Carry Out Organizational        (Text for Interactive Fig. 2)



Transformation for 2020 Census Directorate
(Text for Interactive Fig. 2)
                                                                                                                   Extent steps are
                                                       Illustrative steps taken to Illustrative steps planned      consistent with
                                                            a                                                              b
Key practice                Description                date                         (expected date)                practice
Ensure top leadership       •  Define and articulate   •    Issued strategic plan   •   Identify indicators of     Generally
drives the                     a compelling reason          for 2020 Census with        success (May 2012).        consistent
transformation.                for change.                  annual updates of a
                            •  Document rationale,          business plan.
                               expected benefits,      •    Included rationale,
                               and definition of            benefits, and
                               success.                     description of factors
                                                            that will contribute to
                                                            success in strategy
                                                            documents.
                                                       •    Chartered an
                                                            organizational change
                                                            management council
                                                            comprising Bureau-
                                                            wide executives and
                                                            senior managers.
Focus on a key set of       •   Embed core values in   •   Created change            •    Incorporate key          Generally
principles and priorities       every aspect of the        management strategy            principles for the       consistent
at the outset of the            organization to            documents explicitly           transformation in
transformation.                 reinforce the new          referring to 2020              planned activity for
                                culture.                   Census goals and               interacting with staff
                                                           guiding principles.            (July 2012).
                                                       •   Established eight
                                                           guiding principles for
                                                           the transformation.
Set implementation          •   Make public            •   Created high-level        •    Identify measures for   Generally
goals and a timeline to         implementation goals       transformation timeline        monitoring progress of  consistent
build momentum and              and timeline.              that includes                  transformation (May
show progress.              •   Monitor employee           milestones for                 2012).
                                attitudes and take         governance,               •    Begin public
                                appropriate action.        communication and              dissemination of goals
                                                           education, and                 and timelines (July
                                                           transition activities.         2012).
                                                       •   Created draft strategy    •    Finalize comprehensive
                                                           documents that include         plan for engaging staff
                                                           targets for achieving          and stakeholders in
                                                           “quick wins,” periodic         determining what the
                                                           reporting, and outreach        new organization should
                                                           events to build                be (June 2012).
                                                           momentum.
                                                                                     •    Finalize transition
                                                                                          timeline subject to
                                                                                          approval of proposed
                                                                                          changes (February
                                                                                          2013).




                                             Page 28                                              GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                                             Appendix II: Bureau Is Using Selected Key
                                             Practices to Carry Out Organizational
                                             Transformation for 2020 Census Directorate
                                             (Text for Interactive Fig. 2)




                                                                                                                                    Extent steps are
                                                          Illustrative steps taken to Illustrative steps planned                    consistent with
                                                               a                                                                            b
Key practice               Description                    date                        (expected date)                               practice
Dedicate an                •   Establish networks to      •      Designated an                         •   Include expectations     Partially consistent
implementation team to         support                           “organizational change                    within performance       Additional Step
manage the                     implementation team.              manager” responsible                      plans of senior          Needed
transformation process.    •   Select high-                      for day-to-day                            managers below
                                                                 organizational change                     executive level to       Examine sufficiency
                               performing team                                                                                      of resources of
                               members.                          activities.                               support transformation
                                                                                                           (October 2012).          implementation
                                                                                                                                    team.
Involve employees to       •   Use employee teams.        •      Created a                             •   Convene and enlist       Generally
obtain their ideas and     •   Incorporate employee              transformation plan                       support of a group of    consistent
gain their ownership for       feedback.                         that specifies a series                   managers across every
the transformation.                                              of workshops, focus                       affected division and
                           •   Delegate authority to             groups, and other                         branch (May 2012).
                               appropriate                       employee-centered
                               organizational levels.                                                  •   Convene town hall
                                                                 processes.                                meetings to roll out
                                                                                                           strategy to employees
                                                                                                           (June 2012).
                                                                                                       •   Implement a vehicle to
                                                                                                           obtain anonymous
                                                                                                           employee ideas and
                                                                                                           feedback on proposals
                                                                                                           (June 2012).
                                                                                                       •   Begin series of
                                                                                                           workshops and focus
                                                                                                           groups (July 2012).
                                                                                                       •   Make details available
                                                                                                           to staff on specific
                                                                                                           changes to be made
                                                                                                           (February 2013).
Establish a                •   Communicate early          •      Discussed vision for                  •   Develop comprehensive Generally
communication strategy         and often.                        transformation at unit                    communication strategy consistent
to create shared           •   Ensure message                    staff meetings, fielding                  (May 2012).
expectations and report        consistency.                      questions and                         •   Create and maintain an
related progress.                                                comments.                                 intranet site to provide
                           •   Encourage two-way
                               communication.             •      Created                                   an official clearing
                                                                 communication team to                     house of information,
                           •   Provide information to            support organizational                    answers to frequently
                               meet employee                     change management.                        asked questions, and
                               needs.                                                                      points of contact for all
                                                                                                           staff (June 2012).
                                                                                                       •   Communicate details
                                                                                                           about specific future
                                                                                                           changes being planned
                                                                                                           (February 2013).
                                             Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
                                             a
                                             As of April 10, 2012.
                                             b
                                              We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with
                                             respective practices.




                                             Page 29                                                              GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix III: Bureau Has Developed a High-     Appendix III: Bureau Has Developed a High-
                                               Level Framework Generally Using Key Leading
                                               Practices for Planning Long-Term Complex

Level Framework Generally Using Key Leading    Projects (Text for Interactive Fig. 3)



Practices for Planning Long-Term Complex
Projects (Text for Interactive Fig. 3)
                                                                               Illustrative steps
                                                   Illustrative steps taken to planned (expected              Extent steps are
                                                        a                                                                              b
Key practice            Description                date                        date)                          consistent with practice
Develop a project       Consider all phases of     •    In a series of eight   •    Finalize detailed         Partially consistent
plan.                   the project and have            memos, laid out a           schedule of all           Additional steps needed
                        clear and measurable            framework                   program
                        goals; clearly state all        documenting goals,          management,               •    Document deadlines
                        assumptions,                    assumptions, and            systems                        and decisions affecting
                        schedules, and                  timing of five broad        engineering,                   later phases of 2020
                        deadlines; and identify         phases for 2020             requirements, and              Census.
                        needed skills and               Census with cost            training activities       •    Document schedule for
                        resources.                      estimate milestones         (August 2012).                 updating or replacing
                                                        tied to annual budget  •    Finalize project               current management
                                                        request submissions.        plans for all                  documents for later
                                                   •    Maintained high-level       research and testing           phases of 2020 Census.
                                                        schedule of activities      projects begun in         •    Document timeline for
                                                        for remaining four          fiscal year 2012               delivering Bureau-wide
                                                        phases.                     (August 2012).                 enterprise solutions.
                                                   •    Documented initial     •    Update program
                                                        work requirements and       management and
                                                        interdependencies for       systems engineering
                                                        all fiscal year 2012        training materials to
                                                        research and testing        reflect finalized
                                                        projects.                   processes
                                                                                    (September 2012).
Involve stakeholders.   •   Involve internal       •     Conducted 14 planning      •   Finalize              Partially consistent
                            and external                 workshops with internal        communications        Additional step needed
                            stakeholders in the          and external                   plan for informing
                            decision-making              stakeholders to identify       and soliciting        •    Develop a plan for
                            process.                     design options to              feedback from staff        effective outreach to
                                                         explore.                       and stakeholders           congress, specifically on
                        •   Focus on the                                                                           sensitive research and
                            highest priority       •     Presented high-level           (September 2012).
                                                                                                                   design issues such as
                            stakeholder needs            description of research                                   privacy and cost-quality
                            and mission goals.           plans for selected                                        trade-offs.
                                                         technical areas to
                                                         scientific and data user
                                                         advisory groups.
                                                   •     Rechartered race and
                                                         ethnicity advisory
                                                         committees.




                                               Page 30                                              GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                                                Appendix III: Bureau Has Developed a High-
                                                Level Framework Generally Using Key Leading
                                                Practices for Planning Long-Term Complex
                                                Projects (Text for Interactive Fig. 3)




                                                                                               Illustrative steps
                                                     Illustrative steps taken to               planned (expected            Extent steps are
                                                          a                                                                                          b
Key practice           Description                   date                                      date)                        consistent with practice
Incorporate lessons    •   Evaluate past             •     Sought to avoid prior               •     Complete 2010          Partially consistent
learned.                   performance and                 census planning                           evaluations critical   Additional step needed
                           capitalize on                   problems, such as                         for early research
                           lessons learned to              unreliable cost                           and testing            •    Recommendation
                           improve                         estimates, fragmented                     (September 2012).           follow-up process
                           performance.                    and late planning, and                                                requires additional steps
                                                           not relying on evidence                                               to ensure follow-up on
                       •   Includes the                                                                                          prior recommendations.
                           processes required              from such sources as
                           to use project                  research and testing.
                           information to            •     Involved former Bureau
                           improve future                  executives in planning
                           efforts.                        workshops.
                                                     •     Implemented a
                                                           database for tracking
                                                           action plans and status
                                                           of prior
                                                           recommendations.
Analyze and mitigate   •   Identify, analyze,        •     Featured analyses of                •     Adjust 2020 Census Generally consistent
risks.                     prioritize, and                 risks prominently in                      risk management
                           document risks.                 early planning activity.                  processes to align
                           Ideally, assess           •     Created 2020 Census                       with separate
                           more than one                   research and testing                      Bureau-wide
                           alternative.                    risk register, and                        processes being
                                                           included risk in regular                  developed (August
                       •   Plan risk                       executive discussions.                    2012).
                           management— the           •     Risk management
                           process of defining             documents were
                           how to conduct risk             among the first to be
                           management                      finalized.
                           activities for a
                           project.
Monitor progress.      •   Identify                  •     Ensured that individual             •     Begin issuing          Generally consistent
                           measurable                      research projects                         monthly status
                           performance goals               describe their own                        reports at the
                           that describe and               performance                               program level (May
                           guide successful                measures.                                 2012).
                           planning. Collect
                           performance data
                           and report it to
                           determine how well
                           the goals are being
                           achieved.
                                                Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
                                                a
                                                As of April 10, 2012.
                                                b
                                                 We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with
                                                respective practices.




                                                Page 31                                                           GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix IV: Bureau Generally Relied on Key     Appendix IV: Bureau Generally Relied on Key
                                                Leading Practices to Carry Out Workforce
                                                Planning for 2020 Census (Text for Interactive

Leading Practices to Carry Out Workforce        Fig. 4)



Planning for 2020 Census (Text for Interactive
Fig. 4)
                                                                                                                         Extent steps are
                                                            Illustrative steps taken       Illustrative steps planned consistent with
                                                                    a                                                            b
Key practice                     Description                to date                        (expected date)               practice
Identify current and future      •  Identify mission-       •    Piloted skills and        •    Finalize project plan    Generally consistent
critical occupations, skills,       critical occupations         competency                     detailing the steps,
and competencies and                and competencies,            assessment of                  resources, and timeline
analyze workforce gaps.             which form the               selected IT positions          for conducting Bureau-
                                    basis for much of            including those for            wide skills gap
                                    workforce planning.          the second of five             assessment (May
                                                                 2020 Census                    2012).
                                                                 phases.                   •    Validate competency
                                                                                                dictionary with subject-
                                                                                                matter experts
                                                                                                throughout Bureau
                                                                                                (May 2012).
                                                                                           •    Begin Bureau-wide
                                                                                                skills gap and
                                                                                                competency
                                                                                                assessment
                                                                                                (September 2012).
                                                                                           •    Research and testing
                                                                                                project teams finalize
                                                                                                list of needed skills
                                                                                                (August 2012).
Develop current and future       •   Develop reasonable     •   Inventoried available      •   Finalize project plan   Generally consistent
strategies tailored to               human capital              strategic flexibilities.       detailing the steps,
address gaps and human               strategies and tools                                      resources, and timeline
capital conditions in critical       and align these to                                        for conducting Bureau-
skills and competencies              eliminate gaps and                                        wide skills gap
that need attention.                 improve the                                               assessment (May
                                     contribution of                                           2012).
                                     critical skills and                                   •   Identify existing
                                     competencies.                                             training courses within
                                                                                               Bureau to potentially
                                                                                               address gaps (June
                                                                                               2012).




                                                Page 32                                                GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
                                             Appendix IV: Bureau Generally Relied on Key
                                             Leading Practices to Carry Out Workforce
                                             Planning for 2020 Census (Text for Interactive
                                             Fig. 4)




                                                                                                                             Extent steps are
                                                           Illustrative steps taken               Illustrative steps planned consistent with
                                                                   a                                                                 b
Key practice                  Description                  to date                                (expected date)            practice
Monitor and evaluate          •   Assess progress to                                                                           Not consistent
progress toward achieving         determine whether                                                                            Missing steps
workforce planning and            workforce planning                                                                           needed
strategic goals.                  goals are being met
                                  and identify the                                                                             •   Develop process
                                  reasons for any                                                                                  and specific
                                  shortfalls.                                                                                      goals for
                                                                                                                                   monitoring,
                                                                                                                                   reporting, and
                                                                                                                                   evaluating
                                                                                                                                   Bureau’s
                                                                                                                                   progress toward
                                                                                                                                   workforce goals.
                                                                                                                               •   Begin reporting
                                                                                                                                   on Bureau’s
                                                                                                                                   progress toward
                                                                                                                                   workforce goals.
Involve top management,       •   Involve top              •     Director spoke                   •    Rely on employee        Partially consistent
employees, and other              management,                    internally and                        focus groups to         Missing step needed
stakeholders in                   employees and                  externally about need                 validate competencies
developing,                       stakeholders in                for workforce                         (May 2012).             •    Identify external
communicating, and                unique active roles            analyses to align with                                             stakeholders and
                                                                                                  •    Begin communicating          begin outreach
implementing the strategic        to design strategic            future strategies.                    to entire staff about
workforce plan.                   workforce plans.                                                                                  on workforce
                                                           •     Bureau meets                          skills gap analyses.         planning efforts.
                                                                 monthly with                          (June 2012).
                                                                 departmental officials
                                                                 on human capital
                                                                 initiatives.
                                                           •     Bureau offered
                                                                 specific professional
                                                                 development courses
                                                                 on the basis of
                                                                 recommendation of
                                                                 human capital team.
Align workforce planning      •   Align workforce and      •     Human capital                    •    Document how skills     Generally consistent
with strategic planning and       strategic plans with           management plan                       gap and competency
budget formulation.               budget.                        requires inputs from                  analyses will be
                                                                 budget and alignment                  updated and how it will
                                                                 with strategic plans.                 be used during later
                                                                                                       phases, including
                                                                                                       target time windows for
                                                                                                       later activity (August
                                                                                                       2012).
                                             Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau information.
                                             a
                                              As of April 10, 2012.
                                             b
                                              We determined that steps taken or planned were either “generally,” “partially,” or “not” consistent with
                                             respective practices.




                                             Page 33                                                           GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix V: List of the U.S. Census Bureau’s
               Appendix V: List of the U.S. Census Bureau’s
               Program Management Planning Documents



Program Management Planning Documents

               Consistent with the leading practices of developing a project plan, and to
               help operationalize its high-level plan, the U.S. Census Bureau (Bureau)
               has identified 19 specific management process areas from management
               literature for executing and controlling its research and testing projects for
               2020 Census (see table 1). For many of these areas the Bureau has
               developed a management-strategy paper that typically includes
               standardized sections addressing links to strategic goals, performance
               measures, objectives, and strategies; standards and guidelines; roles and
               responsibilities; and key assumptions and risks. The Bureau is following
               up on each of these strategies with a more-detailed management-
               planning document that identifies specific methods and techniques the
               Bureau will use to implement the strategy as well as how the actions will
               link to the Bureau’s other broader strategic documents. In some areas,
               the Bureau is bypassing the strategy paper and has either produced or is
               planning to produce a finalized—or what the Bureau refers to as a
               “baselined”—plan.

               Table 1: Bureau’s Program Management Planning Documents

                                                                                    Plan formalized
                                                                                a                       a
               Program management area                        Strategy issued       (or estimated date)
               Risk Management                                May 2011              August 2011
                                                              b
               Strategic Plan                                                       September 2010
               Acquisition and Sourcing                       June 2011             Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Budget Management Process                      May 2011              Fiscal year2012 Q4
               Communication and Stakeholder                  November 2011         Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Engagement
                                                              c
               Document Management                                                  Fiscal year 2012 Q3
                                                              d                     d
               Earned Value Management
               Implementation
               Governance                                     October 2011          Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Human Capital Management                       November 2011         Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Integrated Program Control &                   June 2011             Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Performance Measurement
               Issue Management                               May 2011              Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Knowledge Management                           May 2011              Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Performance Management                         June 2011             Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Process Quality Assurance Management           Fiscal year 2012 Q3   Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Program Change Control Management              May 2011              Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Requirements Engineering                       September 2011        Fiscal year 2012 Q4
               Research and Testing                           November 2011         Fiscal year 2012 Q4




               Page 34                                             GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix V: List of the U.S. Census Bureau’s
Program Management Planning Documents




                                                                            Plan formalized
                                                                     a                          a
    Program management area                        Strategy issued          (or estimated date)
    Schedule Management                            May 2011                 Fiscal year 2012 Q4
                                                   c
    Training (2012-2014)                                                    Fiscal year 2012 Q4
Source: GAO analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data.
a
    Status as of April 10, 2012
b
    No separate strategy document was developed for the 2020 Census Strategic Plan.
c
 The Bureau is skipping the production of some strategies and simply issuing plans.
d
 2020 Census staff awaits resolution of Bureau-wide strategy and guidance before attempting to
develop decennial-specific plans for using earned value management.




Page 35                                                  GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix VI: Comments from the
                             Appendix VI: Comments from the Department
                             of Commerce



Department of Commerce


Note: Page and
paragraph numbers in the
draft report may differ
from those in this report.




                             Page 36                                     GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix VI: Comments from the Department
of Commerce




Page 37                                     GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Appendix VII: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix VII: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Robert Goldenkoff, (202) 512-2757 or goldenkoffr@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the contact named above, Ty Mitchell, Assistant Director;
Staff             James Cook; Elizabeth Curda; Jeff Demarco; Vijay D’Souza; Ron Fecso;
Acknowledgments   Geoff King; Andrea Levine; Steven Lozano; Signora May; Donna Miller;
                  Janice Morrison; Melanie Papasian; Lisa Pearson; Cynthia Saunders; and
                  Sarah Veale made key contributions to this report.




                  Page 38                                 GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
Related GAO Products
             Related GAO Products




             Decennial Census: Additional Actions Could Improve the Census
             Bureau’s Ability to Control Costs for the 2020 Census. GAO-12-80.
             Washington, D.C.: January 24, 2012.

             2010 Census: Preliminary Lessons Learned Highlight the Need for
             Fundamental Reforms. GAO-11-496T. Washington, D.C., April 6, 2011.

             2010 Census: Data Collection Operations Were Generally Completed as
             Planned, but Long-standing Challenges Suggest Need for Fundamental
             Reforms. GAO-11-193. Washington, D.C.: December 14, 2010.

             Workforce Planning: Interior, EPA, and the Forest Service Should
             Strengthen Linkages to Their Strategic Plans and Improve Evaluation.
             GAO-10-413. Washington, D.C.: March 31, 2010.

             Information Technology: Significant Problems of Critical Automation
             Program Contribute to Risks Facing 2010 Census. GAO-08-550T.
             Washington, D.C.: March 5, 2008.

             2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon.
             GAO-04-37. Washington, D.C.: January 15, 2004.

             Human Capital: Key Principles for Effective Strategic Workforce Planning.
             GAO-04-39. Washington, D.C.: December 11, 2003.

             Results-Oriented Cultures: Implementation Steps to Assist Mergers and
             Organizational Transformations. GAO-03-669. Washington, D.C.: July 2,
             2003.

             High-Risk Series: Quick Reference Guide. GAO/HR-97-2. Washington,
             D.C.: February 1997.




(450931)
             Page 39                                  GAO-12-626 2020 Census Early Planning
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