oversight

Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal Coordination Efforts Could Be Further Strengthened

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-06-20.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to the Committee on Banking,
             Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate



June 2012
             TRANSPORTATION-
             DISADVANTAGED
             POPULATIONS
             Federal Coordination
             Efforts Could Be
             Further
             Strengthened




GAO-12-647
                                              June 2012

                                              TRANSPORTATION-DISADVANTAGED
                                              POPULATIONS
                                              Federal Coordination Efforts Could Be Further
Highlights of GAO-12-647, a report to the
                                              Strengthened
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban
Affairs, U.S. Senate




Why GAO Did This Study                        What GAO Found
Millions of Americans are unable to           Eighty federal programs are authorized to fund transportation services for the
provide their own transportation or           transportation disadvantaged, but transportation is not the primary mission of
have difficulty accessing public              most of the programs GAO identified. Of these, the Department of Transportation
transportation. Such transportation-          administers 7 programs that support public transportation. The remaining 73
disadvantaged individuals may include         programs are administered by 7 other federal agencies and provide a variety of
those who are elderly, have disabilities,     human services, such as job training, education, or medical care, which
or have low incomes. The Departments          incorporate transportation as an eligible expense in support of program goals.
of Education, Health and Human                Total federal spending on transportation services for the transportation
Services (HHS), Labor (DOL),
                                              disadvantaged remains unknown because, in many cases, federal departments
Transportation (DOT), Veterans Affairs
                                              do not separately track spending for these services. However, total funding for
(VA), and other federal agencies may
provide funds to state and local entities
                                              the 28 programs that do track or estimate transportation spending, including
to help these individuals access human        obligations and expenditures, was at least $11.8 billion in fiscal year 2010.
service programs. As requested, GAO           The interagency Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility, which the
examined (1) federal programs that            Secretary of Transportation chairs, has led governmentwide transportation
may fund transportation services for          coordination efforts since 2003. The Coordinating Council has undertaken a
the transportation disadvantaged; (2)         number of activities through its “United We Ride” initiative aimed at improving
federal coordination efforts undertaken       coordination at the federal level and providing assistance for state and local
since 2003; and (3) coordination at the
                                              coordination. For example, its 2005 Report to the President on Human Service
state and local levels. GAO analyzed
                                              Transportation Coordination outlined collective and individual department actions
information from the Catalog of Federal
Domestic Assistance; interviewed              and recommendations to decrease duplication, enhance efficiencies, and simplify
federal officials; and interviewed state      access for consumers. Key challenges to federal interagency coordination efforts
and local officials in five states, chosen    include a lack of activity at the leadership level of the Coordinating Council in
based on a variety of characteristics,        recent years—the Coordinating Council leadership has not met since 2008—and
including geographic diversity.               the absence of key guidance documents for furthering agency coordination
                                              efforts. For example, the Coordinating Council lacks a strategic plan that contains
                                              agency roles and responsibilities, measurable outcomes, or required follow-up.
What GAO Recommends                           GAO has previously reported that defining and articulating a common outcome
                                              and reinforcing agency accountability through agency plans and reports are
To promote and enhance federal,               important elements for agencies to enhance and sustain collaborative efforts.
state, and local coordination activities,
the Secretary of Transportation and the       State and local officials GAO interviewed use a variety of planning and service
Coordinating Council should meet to           coordination efforts to serve the transportation disadvantaged. Efforts include
(1) complete and publish a strategic          state coordinating councils, regional and local planning, one-call centers, mobility
plan; and (2) report on progress of           managers, and vehicle sharing. For example, state coordinating councils provide
recommendations made by the Council           a forum for federal, state, and local agencies to discuss and resolve problems
in its 2005 Report to the President and       related to the provision of transportation services to the transportation
develop a plan to address outstanding         disadvantaged. In other examples, one-call centers can provide clients with
recommendations. Education and VA             transportation program information and referrals for appropriate service providers
agreed with GAO’s recommendations.            and mobility managers may serve many functions—as policy coordinators,
HHS, DOL, DOT, and other federal              operations service brokers, and customer travel navigators. However, state and
agencies neither agreed nor disagreed         local governments face several challenges in coordinating these services—
with the report. Technical comments           including insufficient federal leadership, changes to state legislation and policies
were incorporated as appropriate.             that may hamper coordination efforts, and limited financial resources in the face
                                              of growing disadvantaged populations.
View GAO-12-647. For more information,
contact David J. Wise at (202) 512-2834 or
wised@gao.gov.

                                                                                       United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                      1
               Background                                                                   3
               Eighty Federal Programs Fund Transportation Services for the
                 Transportation Disadvantaged and Total Spending Is Unknown                 6
               Federal Coordination Efforts Are Led by an Interagency Council,
                 but Key Challenges Remain                                                12
               State and Local Efforts Include Transportation Planning and
                 Service Coordination, but Challenges Continue                            21
               Conclusions                                                                28
               Recommendations for Executive Action                                       29
               Agency Comments                                                            30

Appendix I     Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                         31



Appendix II    Inventory of Federal Programs Providing Transportation Services
               to the Transportation Disadvantaged                                        35



Appendix III   Comments from the Department of Education                                  49



Appendix IV    GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                      51



Tables
               Table 1: Available Financial Program Information for Fiscal Year
                        2010                                                               9
               Table 2: Examples of Coordinating Council Actions                          14
               Table 3: Types of State and Local Transportation Coordination
                        Efforts                                                           22
               Table 4: State and Local Interviews                                        32


Figure
               Figure 1: Number of Federal Programs GAO Identified Authorized
                        to Provide Transportation Services to the Transportation
                        Disadvantaged in Fiscal Year 2010, by Agency                        7


               Page i                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Abbreviations

ACCT                       Washington’s Agency Council on Coordinated
                           Transportation
CMS                        Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
DOL                        U.S. Department of Labor
DOT                        U.S. Department of Transportation
FTA                        Federal Transit Administration
GPRA                       Government Performance and Results Act
HHS                        U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HUD                        U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
                           Development
ICTC                       Wisconsin’s Interagency Council on Transportation
                           Coordination
IDEA                       Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
NRC                        National Resource Center for Human Service
                           Transportation Coordination
SAFETEA-LU                 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient
                           Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users
USDA                       U.S. Department of Agriculture
VA                         U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs




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Page ii                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   June 20, 2012

                                   The Honorable Tim Johnson
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable Richard C. Shelby
                                   Ranking Member
                                   Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
                                   United States Senate

                                   Access to transportation services is essential for millions of Americans to
                                   participate fully in society and be able to access human services,
                                   including health, education, and job training programs. However, many
                                   individuals are unable to provide their own transportation or have difficulty
                                   accessing public transportation due to their age, disability, or income
                                   constraints. We have previously identified a myriad of federal programs
                                   that are authorized to use federal funds for transportation services to
                                   assist these “transportation-disadvantaged” individuals in accessing
                                   human service programs.

                                   Federal agencies, including the Departments of Agriculture (USDA),
                                   Education, Health and Human Services (HHS), Housing and Urban
                                   Development (HUD), Interior, Labor (DOL), Transportation (DOT), and
                                   Veterans Affairs (VA), provide funds to state and local agencies that can
                                   be used for transportation to help individuals access federal programs,
                                   including education, employment, medical care, or other human
                                   services. 1 In March 2011, we reported that improved coordination of
                                   these programs and the transportation services they provide has the
                                   potential to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of these services,
                                   while also reducing duplication, overlap, and fragmentation of services. 2
                                   Coordination of transportation services can take many forms, including
                                   information sharing among programs, pooling resources, and



                                   1
                                    Some federal programs, such as those administered by VA, may provide direct
                                   transportation services to beneficiaries, as opposed to funds to state and local agencies to
                                   provide these services.
                                   2
                                    See GAO, Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Government Programs, Save
                                   Tax Dollars, and Enhance Revenue, GAO-11-318SP (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 1, 2011)
                                   and List of Selected Federal Programs That Have Similar or Overlapping Objectives,
                                   Provide Similar Services, or Are Fragmented Across Government Missions,
                                   GAO-11-474R (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 18, 2011).




                                   Page 1                                             GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
consolidating trips provided by various agencies. In our 2011 report, we
found that additional action by federal departments was necessary to
better coordinate their programs and eliminate the potential for duplication
and fragmentation. 3

Given these concerns, you asked us to review (1) which federal programs
provide funding for transportation services for the transportation
disadvantaged; (2) what federal coordination efforts have been
undertaken since 2003 and what challenges remain; and (3) what types
of coordination have occurred at the state and local levels.

To identify the universe of federal programs that provide funding for
transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged, we
examined our prior work on the topic, conducted a search of the Catalog
of Federal Domestic Assistance, reviewed program information provided
by federal officials, and reviewed relevant federal laws governing the use
of federal funds for transportation services. To determine what federal
coordination efforts have taken place since 2003 and what challenges
remain, we conducted interviews with officials from eight federal
agencies—USDA, Education, HHS, HUD, Interior, DOL, DOT, and VA—
and reviewed relevant documentation provided by agency officials. We
chose these agencies because they administered programs that were
authorized to provide funding for transportation services for the
transportation disadvantaged in fiscal year 2010 and were identified by
executive order 4 to participate in coordination. We also interviewed
transportation researchers and officials from relevant industry and
advocacy groups. To identify the types of coordination that have occurred
at the state and local level, we conducted interviews with state and local
officials from five states—Florida, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and
Wisconsin. We chose these states based on a variety of characteristics,
including target populations who use these services, existence of a state
coordinating body, and geographic diversity. As part of our site visit
interviews, we spoke with officials from state and local human service and
transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations,
transportation providers, and interest and advocacy groups. Appendix I
contains a more detailed discussion of our objectives, scope, and
methodology.


3
GAO-11-318SP.
4
Human Service Transportation Coordination, Exec. Order No. 13330 (Feb. 24, 2004).




Page 2                                         GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
             We conducted this performance audit from June 2011 to June 2012 in
             accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
             Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
             sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
             findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
             the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
             conclusions based on our audit objectives.


             Transportation-disadvantaged populations, including those that cannot
Background   provide their own transportation due to age, disability, or income
             constraints, may face challenges in accessing transportation, such as
             lack of access to public transportation or a private vehicle. For example,
             according to a 2011 report by the National Council on Disability, people
             with disabilities are more likely than people without disabilities to report
             that they have inadequate transportation (34 percent versus 16 percent,
             respectively). 5 We have previously reported that people in need of
             transportation often benefit from greater and higher quality services when
             transportation providers coordinate their operations. 6 In addition, we have
             reported that coordination has the potential to reduce federal
             transportation program costs by clustering passengers; using fewer one-
             way trips; and sharing the use of personnel, equipment, and facilities.

             Federal agencies, including USDA, Education, HHS, HUD, Interior, DOL,
             DOT, and VA, play an important role in helping transportation-
             disadvantaged populations access federal programs by providing funds to
             state and local grantees. Federal programs that provide funding for
             transportation cover a variety of services, including education, job
             training, employment, nutrition, health, medical care, or other human
             services. As we have previously reported, many federally funded
             programs purchase transportation services from existing private or public
             providers. 7 This includes contracting for services with private



             5
              National Council on Disability, National Disability Policy: A Progress Report (Washington,
             D.C.: October 2011).
             6
              GAO, Transportation Coordination: Benefits and Barriers Exist, and Planning Efforts
             Progress Slowly, GAO/RCED-00-1 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 22, 1999).
             7
              GAO, Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among
             Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist, GAO-03-697
             (Washington, D.C.: June 30, 2003).




             Page 3                                             GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
transportation providers or providing transit passes, taxi vouchers, or
mileage reimbursement to program participants, or some combination of
these methods. Some programs may use federal funds to purchase and
operate their own vehicles.

DOT and HHS formed the Coordinating Council on Human Services
Transportation (Coordinating Council) 8 in 1986 to improve the efficiency
and effectiveness of human service transportation 9 by coordinating
related programs at the federal level and promoting the maximum feasible
coordination at the state and local levels. 10 In 2003, we reported that
coordination efforts at the federal, state, and local levels varied greatly,
and while some coordination efforts showed promising results, obstacles
continued to impede coordination. 11 As a result, we recommended that,
among other things, the Coordinating Council be expanded to include
additional federal agencies. The Coordinating Council was expanded to
11 federal agencies in 2004 by Executive Order 13330 and renamed the
Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council on Access and
Mobility. 12 The expanded Coordinating Council was charged with, among
other things, promoting interagency cooperation and establishing


8
 The Coordinating Council underwent several name changes, notably in 1998 and 2004,
but for the purposes of this report, we will refer to it as the Coordinating Council
throughout its existence.
9
 According to the Federal Transit Administration, human service transportation is
transportation services provided by or on behalf of a human services agency to provide
access to agency services and to meet the basic, day-to-day mobility needs of
transportation-disadvantaged populations, especially individuals with disabilities, older
adults, and people with low incomes.
10
  In a 1999 report on transportation coordination, we found that coordination efforts of
DOT and HHS, as members of the Coordinating Council, were ongoing but needed
strengthening. See GAO/RCED-00-1.
11
  In 2003, we also reported that state and local agencies that provide transportation
services under a myriad of federally funded programs run the risk of duplication of effort
and inefficiencies in providing transportation when those agencies do not coordinate. See
GAO-03-697. In 2004, we issued a report on agencies’ progress in implementing our 2003
recommendations. See GAO, Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal
Agencies Are Taking Steps to Assist States and Local Agencies in Coordinating
Transportation Services, GAO-04-420R (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 24, 2004).
12
  Membership of the Coordinating Council was expanded to include the Secretaries of
Transportation, Health and Human Services, Education, Labor, Veterans Affairs,
Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior, the Attorney General, the
Commissioner of Social Security, and an eleventh member designated by the Chairman of
the Coordinating Council, the Chairman of the National Council on Disability.




Page 4                                             GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
appropriate mechanisms to minimize duplication and overlap of federal
programs and services so that transportation-disadvantaged persons
have access to improved transportation services.

More recently, in 2011, we reported that reducing or eliminating
duplication, overlap, and fragmentation among government programs and
activities could save tax dollars and help agencies to provide more
efficient and effective services. 13 With regard to transportation services for
the transportation disadvantaged, we found that, while some federal
agencies were developing guidance and technical assistance for
transportation coordination, federal departments still had more work to do
in identifying and assessing their transportation programs, working with
other departments to identify opportunities for additional coordination, and
developing and disseminating policies and grantee guidance for
coordinating transportation services. 14 As we have previously reported,
many federal efforts transcend more than one agency, yet agencies face
a range of challenges and barriers when they attempt to work
collaboratively. 15 Both Congress and the executive branch have
recognized this, and in January 2011, the GPRA Modernization Act of
2010 was enacted, updating the almost two-decades-old Government
Performance and Results Act (GPRA). 16 This act establishes a new
framework aimed at taking a more crosscutting and integrated approach
to focusing on results and improving government performance. As we
reported in February 2012, effective implementation of this act could play
an important role in clarifying desired outcomes; addressing program
performance spanning multiple organizations; and facilitating future
actions to reduce unnecessary duplication, overlap, and fragmentation. 17



13
 See GAO-11-318SP and GAO-11-474R.
14
  In February 2012, we reported that federal departments had not yet fully addressed
these actions. See GAO, Follow-up on 2011 Report: Status of Actions Taken to Reduce
Duplication, Overlap, and Fragmentation, Save Tax Dollars, and Enhance Revenue,
GAO-12-453SP (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 28, 2012).
15
  See GAO, 2012 Annual Report: Opportunities to Reduce Duplication, Overlap and
Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue, GAO-12-342SP (Washington,
D.C.: Feb. 28, 2012).
16
 Pub. L. No. 111-352, 124 Stat. 3866 (2011), amending 5 U.S.C. §§ 301 and 306 and 31
U.S.C. §§ 1115, 1116, and adding 31 U.S.C. §§ 1120-1125 (GPRA).
17
 GAO-12-342SP.




Page 5                                          GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                    In recent years, Congress has supported increased transportation
                    coordination, as reflected in the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient
                    Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). 18 Enacted
                    in 2005, SAFETEA-LU amended several human services transportation
                    coordination provisions 19 sharpening the focus on transportation services
                    for persons with disabilities, older adults, and individuals with lower
                    incomes. Currently, the law requires the establishment of a locally
                    developed, coordinated, public transit-human services transportation plan
                    for all of DOT’s human service transportation programs administered by
                    the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Further, it requires the plan to
                    be developed by a process that includes representatives of public,
                    private, and nonprofit transportation and human services communities,
                    including the public. Federal law also has promoted coordinated funding
                    for non-DOT programs to be used as matching funds for specific
                    transportation programs. More recently, FTA’s fiscal year 2013 budget
                    request proposed consolidating some existing programs to give
                    communities more flexibility in designing and coordinating FTA-sponsored
                    human service programs.



Eighty Federal
Programs Fund
Transportation
Services for the
Transportation
Disadvantaged and
Total Spending Is
Unknown
Federal Programs    We identified 80 federal programs that fund a variety of transportation
                    services for transportation-disadvantaged populations (see fig. 1). Thirty-
                    one of these programs are administered by HHS. The Departments of
                    Education and HUD each administer 12 programs; DOT administers 7


                    18
                     Pub. L. No. 109-59, 119 Stat. 1144 (2005).
                    19
                     49 U.S.C. ch. 53; SAFETEA-LU, § 3046 (49 U.S.C. § 5338 Note).




                    Page 6                                        GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                        programs; and DOL, VA, Interior, and USDA administer 18 programs
                                        combined. Out of the 80 federal programs identified, 4 programs focus
                                        expressly on supporting transportation services for transportation-
                                        disadvantaged populations, including DOT’s Capital Assistance Program
                                        for Elderly Persons and Persons with Disabilities, Job Access and
                                        Reverse Commute Program, Capital and Training Assistance Program for
                                        Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility, and the New Freedom Program. A full
                                        list of programs is in appendix II.

Figure 1: Number of Federal Programs GAO Identified Authorized to Provide Transportation Services to the Transportation
Disadvantaged in Fiscal Year 2010, by Agency




                                        Page 7                                        GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                   Transportation is not the primary mission for the vast majority of the
                   programs we identified. Except for the 7 DOT programs, where all funds
                   are used to support public transportation, the remaining 73 programs we
                   identified primarily provide a variety of human services, such as job
                   training, employment, education, medical care, or other services, which
                   incorporate transportation as an eligible program expense to ensure
                   participants can access a service. In addition, the types of transportation
                   services provided to the transportation-disadvantaged population through
                   these federal programs vary, and may include capital investments (e.g.,
                   purchasing vehicles), reimbursement of transportation costs (e.g., transit
                   fares, gas, bus passes), or direct provision of transportation service to
                   program clients (e.g., operating vehicles). Examples of transportation
                   services authorized for funding include the following:

                   •    HHS’s Medicaid program reimburses states that provide Medicaid
                        beneficiaries with bus passes to access eligible medical services,
                        among other transportation options.

                   •    DOL’s Workforce Investment Act-funded programs can provide
                        funding for transportation services so that recipients can access
                        employment and participate in required work activities. Types of
                        transportation services include bus passes and cab fare.

                   •    DOT’s Job Access and Reverse Commute Program allows for grantee
                        agencies to purchase vehicles such as vans to improve access to
                        transportation for employment-related services.

                   •    VA’s Beneficiary Travel Program, as part of Veterans Medical Care
                        Benefits, can provide mileage reimbursement to low-income or
                        disabled veterans for travel to receive medical services at their VA
                        hospital. 20


Federal Spending   Total spending on transportation services for the transportation
                   disadvantaged remains unknown because, in many cases, federal
                   departments do not separately track spending for these services. Of the


                   20
                     According to VA officials, VA’s Beneficiary Travel Program, as part of Veterans Medical
                   Care Benefits, provides mileage reimbursement, common carrier transportation (e.g.,
                   plane, boat, taxi, bus), and, when medically indicated, special mode transport (ambulance,
                   wheelchair van, etc.) to low-income or disabled veterans for travel to receive treatment,
                   care, or services at VA or VA-authorized medical facilities.




                   Page 8                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                           80 programs we identified, roughly two-thirds of the programs were
                                           unable to provide spending information for eligible transportation services.
                                           However, total expenditures and obligations for the 28 programs that do
                                           track or estimate transportation spending were at least $11.8 billion in
                                           fiscal year 2010 (see table 1). 21 DOT’s 7 programs accounted for about
                                           $9.5 billion of this total amount. Of the non-DOT programs, HHS’s
                                           Medicaid program and VA’s Veterans Medical Care Benefits program
                                           each reported spending over $700 million in fiscal year 2010.

Table 1: Available Financial Program Information for Fiscal Year 2010

Dollars in thousands
                                                                                         Fiscal year 2010 federal spending for
                                                                                                                   a
Program name                                        Agency                                          transportation
Urbanized Area Formula Program                      Transportation                                    $4,849,411    (obligated)
Capital Investment Grants                           Transportation                                    $3,566,690    (obligated)
                                                                                                                            b
Medicaid                                            Health and Human Services                           $786,967    (partial)
Veterans Medical Care Benefits                      Veterans Affairs                                    $745,315    (obligated)
Nonurbanized Area Formula Program                   Transportation                                      $624,837    (obligated)
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families             Health and Human Services                           $445,119    (expended)
Capital Assistance Program for Elderly Persons      Transportation                                      $176,237    (obligated)
and Persons with Disabilities
Job Access and Reverse Commute                      Transportation                                      $163,977    (obligated)
New Freedom Program                                 Transportation                                       $90,141    (obligated)
State Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program    Education                                            $81,000    (estimate)
Special Programs for the Aging, Title III, Part B, Health and Human Services                             $73,586    (expended)
Grants for Supportive Services and Senior Centers
Indian Schools - Student Transportation             Interior                                             $52,638    (obligated)
Health Centers                                      Health and Human Services                            $26,300    (expended)
Job Corps                                           Labor                                                $24,100    (estimate)
Social Services Block Grants                        Health and Human Services                            $22,864    (estimate)
HIV Emergency Relief Project Grants                 Health and Human Services                            $10,750    (estimate)
HIV Care Formula Grants                             Health and Human Services                             $5,598    (estimate)




                                           21
                                             Spending was reported by program officials, and we did not verify the information.
                                           Amounts obligated or expended on transportation are given, depending upon the
                                           information available. When actual information was not available, agency officials provided
                                           estimates.




                                           Page 9                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                  Fiscal year 2010 federal spending for
                                                                                                                                            a
Program name                                            Agency                                                               transportation
Community Development Block Grants/Entitlement Housing and Urban                                                                 $4,218    (expenditure)
Grants                                         Development
                                                                                                                                                   b
Children’s Health Insurance Program                     Health and Human Services                                                $3,682    (partial)
Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS             Housing and Urban                                                        $1,530    (expended)
                                                        Development
VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem                Veterans Affairs                                                           $720    (obligated)
Program
Capital and Training Assistance Program for Over-       Transportation                                                             $544    (obligated)
the-Road Bus Accessibility
Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes           Health and Human Services                                                  $419    (estimate)
Prevention and Treatment Projects
Indian Child and Family Education                       Interior                                                                   $373    (estimate)
Community Development Block Grants/State’s              Housing and Urban                                                           $19    (expended)
Program and Non-Entitlement Grants in Hawaii            Development
Urban Indian Health Services                            Health and Human Services                                                    $7    (estimate)
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services-             Health and Human Services                                                    $4    (estimate)
Access to Recovery
                                                                                                                                                         c
Community Development Block Grants/Special              Housing and Urban                                                            $0    (expended)
Purpose Grants/Insular Areas                            Development
                                                                                                                                       d
Total                                                                                                                      $11,757,046
                                           Source: GAO analysis of spending data reported by program officials.

                                           a
                                            We did not verify the information provided. Obligated refers to a definite commitment by the federal
                                           government to make payments. Partial refers to spending reported by some states, but not all states.
                                           Expended refers to spending that has been paid.
                                           b
                                            Due to differences in the way states report their Medicaid and Children’s Health Insurance Program
                                           expenses, transportation spending information for these programs does not include all states, so it is
                                           a partial accounting of total spending on transportation.
                                           c
                                            This program did not expend funds on transportation in fiscal year 2010.
                                           d
                                               Figures do not add to total due to rounding.




                                           Page 10                                                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Most of the programs we identified do not separately track transportation
spending. 22 According to federal officials, transportation spending may not
be tracked for several reasons, including the following:

•    Some programs allow for transportation spending as an optional
     service, but it is not required so they do not ask grantees to provide
     spending information. For example, HHS’s Head Start program, which
     provides comprehensive child development services to low-income
     children and their families, reported that many of its grantees may
     provide transportation, but the agency does not collect specific data
     on transportation spending.

•    Some federal programs give states and localities broad flexibility to
     administer program funds, and the program structure may not lend
     itself to tracking transportation expenses. For example, Education
     provides grants to states under the Individuals with Disabilities
     Education Act (IDEA) for special education and related services to
     children with disabilities. 23 State education agencies allocate most of
     these grant funds to local education agencies, usually school
     systems, to provide these services. 24 Education does not collect data
     on the amount of funds expended by local education agencies for
     specific services, including transportation services.

•    Some agencies may consider transportation services to be an
     administrative expense, and may include transportation spending with
     other eligible administrative expenses. As a result, transportation-
     specific spending is not fully known. For example, HHS’s Medicaid



22
  In March 2011, we identified actions that federal departments on the Coordinating
Council should undertake, including identifying and assessing their transportation
programs and related expenditures, in order to promote federal coordination and reduce
the potential for fragmentation, overlap, and duplication. See GAO-11-318SP. In February
2012, we reported that federal departments had not yet fully addressed these actions and
that most federal departments on the Coordinating Council do not have an inventory of
existing programs or related expenditure information for transportation services. See
GAO-12-453SP.
23
 Including Special Education Grants to States, Special Education Preschool Grants, and
Special Education-Grants for Infants and Toddlers.
24
  In order for a local education agency to use IDEA funds to purchase vehicles, the local
education agency would need to obtain approval from the state educational agency and
demonstrate that the vehicle purchase was necessary for proper administration of the
IDEA program.




Page 11                                           GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                             program has two allowable methods for states to report the costs of
                             transportation services to the program—as expenditures for
                             nonemergency medical transportation benefits or as an administrative
                             expense, which is combined with other nontransportation expenses. 25
                             As a result, HHS does not fully capture the total transportation costs
                             provided under its Medicaid program.

                        •    Resources necessary to track this information in some federal
                             departments may outweigh the potential benefits, according to HUD
                             officials who told us that for some HUD programs, requiring grantees
                             to report transportation expenses would require a new reporting effort
                             and that the resulting information may not be analyzed due to
                             resource constraints. 26



Federal Coordination
Efforts Are Led by an
Interagency Council,
but Key Challenges
Remain
Coordinating Council    The interagency Coordinating Council, chaired by DOT, has been
                        charged with leading governmentwide transportation coordination efforts
                        since 2003. 27 The Coordinating Council launched the “United We Ride”
                        initiative in fall 2003, designed to establish an interagency forum for
                        communication and help states and communities overcome obstacles to
                        coordination. The Coordinating Council undertook a number of activities
                        through its United We Ride initiative, largely between 2003 and 2007.


                        25
                          Each state has an individual agreement with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services,
                        called a state plan.
                        26
                           Some other HUD programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant
                        programs, track federal transportation spending, as shown in table 1.
                        27
                          In 2003, the Coordinating Council, consisting of HHS and DOT, invited DOL and
                        Education to join, as they had been actively working under the council. The Coordinating
                        Council was expanded by executive order in February 2004 to include 10 federal
                        agencies—one more agency was added by the chair to bring its membership to 11 federal
                        entities.




                        Page 12                                          GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Coordinating Council actions included issuing publications such as policy
statements and progress reports on efforts taken, providing funding
through FTA to help states and localities promote coordinated services
and planning, and supporting technical assistance efforts (see table 2).
For example, the Coordinating Council’s 2005 Report to the President
outlined the council’s action plan for implementing the 2004 executive
order, reported on the council’s accomplishments, and made specific
recommendations to improve human services transportation coordination.
The Coordinating Council is structured in several levels, including the
Secretary-level members, an Executive Council consisting of senior-level
appointees from each member agency, and interagency working groups
(seven in fiscal year 2011) that cut across issue areas at the
programmatic level. 28 The Coordinating Council is staffed by officials from
FTA. The Secretary-level members of the Coordinating Council last met
in 2008. 29 However, according to DOT officials, more recent Coordinating
Council efforts have taken place at the working group level.




28
  Working groups cover such areas as coordination infrastructure, emergency
preparedness, and current administration priorities such as veterans’ transportation.
29
  According to DOT, the Secretary-level members of the Coordinating Council, or their
designees, met annually in 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2008. The Executive Council met from
2004 through 2007—quarterly in 2004 and biannually from 2005 through 2007.




Page 13                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Table 2: Examples of Coordinating Council Actions

Actions                         Description
Reports and policy statements   •   2003 Framework for Action: The 2003 planning and assessment tool provides a step-by-step
                                    guide for states and communities to assess their transportation delivery systems and develop
                                    a plan for a fully coordinated human services transportation system.
                                •   2005 Report to the President on Human Service Transportation Coordination: The 2005
                                    report outlined collective and individual department actions and recommendations to
                                    decrease duplication, enhance efficiencies, and simplify access for consumers, as required by
                                    Executive Order 13330. Recommendations included: (1) Coordinated Transportation
                                    Planning: seek mechanisms to require human service transportation programs to participate
                                    in coordinated planning; (2) Vehicle Sharing: promote vehicle sharing between federal
                                    programs; and (3) Cost Sharing: develop standard transportation cost allocation principles for
                                                                                         a
                                    federal human service and transportation agencies.
                                •   2006 Policy Statement on Coordinated Human Service Transportation Planning: The 2006
                                    policy statement encouraged member agencies to ensure that grantees participate in local
                                    coordinated planning. Each agency took a pledge to implement the coordination plan within 6
                                    months of Coordinating Council adoption.
                                •   2006 Policy Statement on Vehicle Sharing: The 2006 policy statement clarified that federal
                                    grantees are allowed to share the use of their own vehicles so long as costs are also shared.
                                •   2007 Progress Report on Implementation of Executive Order 13330: The 2007 Progress
                                    Report described actions taken since the 2005 Report to the President, including
                                    recommendation follow-up. Actions taken on 2005 recommendations included: (1)
                                    Coordinated Transportation Planning: the Coordinating Council adopted the 2006 policy
                                    statement; (2) Vehicle Sharing: the Coordinating Council adopted the 2006 policy statement;
                                    and (3) Cost Sharing: the Coordinating Council reported it was working on cost-sharing
                                                                                                                            b
                                    principles that would be adopted by the Council and implemented by member agencies.
Funding opportunities           •   United We Ride State Grants: FTA awarded three cycles of state grants in 2004, 2006, and
                                    2009. These grants are intended to (1) support the development of state-level coordinated
                                    plans, (2) implement target elements of state action plans, and (3) help develop mobility
                                    management efforts, respectively.
                                •   Veterans Transportation and Community Living Initiative Grant Program: This federal initiative
                                    supports one-call transportation resource centers, developed and supported by the
                                    Coordinating Council’s veterans’ affairs working group in partnership with the Departments of
                                    Defense, Health and Human Services, Labor, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. Over $34
                                    million in federal funding was awarded in 2011 for the first round and $30 million in federal
                                                                       c
                                    funding is to be awarded in 2012.
Technical assistance            •   National Resource Center for Human Service Transportation Coordination (NRC): Through a
                                    cooperative agreement with FTA, the NRC was formed in 2007 to provide states and
                                    communities with the support they need to better integrate public transportation services with
                                    the services and demands of their human services networks. The NRC also provides
                                    technical assistance to the Coordinating Council and its member agencies.
                                •   United We Ride Regional Ambassadors: NRC employs transportation professionals, called
                                    regional ambassadors, who provide technical assistance to state and local agencies on
                                    coordination efforts, including assisting states in developing and implementing coordinated
                                    human services transportation plans.
                                •   National Partnerships: NRC convenes several partnerships including a national Partnership
                                    for Mobility Management, largely funded by FTA, consisting of seven national organizations,
                                    formed to promote and support mobility management in states and localities by providing
                                                                                                                                  d
                                    technical assistance, training, and a national communication network for mobility managers.




                                        Page 14                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Source: GAO analysis of information from the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility and the National
Resource Center for Human Service Transportation Coordination.

a
 Other Coordinating Council recommendations included: (4) Reporting and Evaluation: develop
methods to analyze coordination effectiveness; and (5) Consolidated Access Transportation
Demonstration Program: seek statutory authority for a pilot project to consolidate federal funding for a
single transportation system to meet the mobility needs of transportation-disadvantaged populations.
b
 Additional recommendation follow-up included: (4) Reporting and Evaluation: the Coordinating
Council developed a logic model to measure progress towards goals; and (5) Consolidated Access
Transportation Demonstration Program: DOT launched eight demonstration projects in 2007.
c
 Largely funded by FTA. VA and DOL are also contributing funds to help support this initiative.
According to DOT officials, $3 million in VA funds have been allocated for hiring and training mobility
managers and $400,000 in DOL funds have been allocated to purchase open government
technologies for grantees. DOT officials stated that the Veterans Transportation and Community
Living Initiative Grant Program will provide valuable lessons on which to model subsequent program
collaborations among members of the Coordinating Council.
d
 According to FTA, mobility management consists of short-range planning and management activities
and projects for improving coordination among public transportation and other transportation service
providers.

FTA also funds a variety of technical assistance efforts for states and
localities to help foster state leadership in human services transportation
coordination. In addition to funding the NRC and its efforts, FTA supports
Easter Seals Project ACTION, 30 the National Center on Senior
Transportation, 31 the National Rural Transit Assistance Program, 32 and
the Joblinks Program 33 (in cooperation with DOL), among other efforts, to


30
  Easter Seals Project ACTION’s mission is to promote universal access to transportation
for people with disabilities under federal law and beyond by partnering with transportation
providers, the disability community, and others through the provision of training, technical
assistance, applied research, outreach, and communication. Project ACTION is funded
through a cooperative agreement with FTA. According to FTA, Easter Seals Project
ACTION is instrumental in fostering mobility management techniques.
31
  The National Center on Senior Transportation’s mission is to increase transportation
options for older adults and enhance their ability to live more independently within their
communities throughout the United States. The center is funded through a cooperative
agreement with FTA.
32
  The National Rural Transit Assistance Program’s mission is to address the needs of
rural, small urban, and tribal transit operators across the nation. The program is funded
through a cooperative agreement with FTA.
33
  Joblinks focuses on the mobility needs of low-wage job seekers and earners, as well as
workers with disabilities, youth, veterans, and older workers and works to connect
workforce development agencies, transportation providers, and other stakeholders with
transportation-to-work solutions that are affordable, reliable, and accessible. Joblinks
activities are funded by FTA and DOL. According to FTA, the Joblinks Employment
Resource Center developed a One Call-One Click toolkit with resources for communities
and states interested in developing a One Call-One Click Transportation Center, which
has helped to support coordinated transportation for transit-dependent populations.




Page 15                                                                  GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
support coordinated transportation and mobility management at the state
and local levels. FTA and DOL also provided funding to the National
Council of State Legislatures to study and report on state transportation
coordination strategies. 34

Some agency programs we reviewed require or encourage their grantees
to coordinate transportation services through regulations, guidance, or
agency initiatives. For example, DOT’s Job Access and Reverse
Commute, New Freedom, and Elderly Individuals and Individuals with
Disabilities programs require grantees to coordinate their transportation
services and establish locally developed, coordinated public transit-
human services transportation plans. 35 Similarly, HHS’s Head Start
program issued regulations in 2001 requiring its grantees to participate in
coordinated planning processes, when possible. 36 In addition, some
programs have provided guidance to their grantees to encourage
transportation coordination. For example, in 2012, DOL’s Employment
and Training Administration developed and disseminated a Training and
Employment Notice encouraging state workforce agencies and One-Stop
Career Centers to participate in local human services transportation
coordination planning. 37 In addition, the Veterans Health Administration
has a new initiative under way, the Veterans Transportation Service, to
help veterans access transportation resources to obtain care by


34
 National Conference of State Legislatures, State Human Service Transportation
Coordinating Councils: An Overview and State Profiles (Denver, Colo., April 2010).
35
  DOT issued guidance requiring the establishment of a locally developed, coordinated
public transit-human services transportation plan for all FTA human service transportation
program grants, effective in 2007. See Job Access and Reverse Commute Program: FTA
C 9050.1, New Freedom Program: FTA C 9045.1, Elderly Individuals and Individuals with
Disabilities Program: FTA C 9070.1. FTA verifies the existence of a coordinated plan but
does not evaluate the plans. In addition, DOT issued guidance that defined and made
mobility management activities eligible as a capital expense under all FTA formula
programs, while permitting other non-DOT federal funds to be used as matches for FTA
human service transportation grant programs. FTA’s planning programs (5305(e) and (f))
can also be used to support the coordinated planning effort. According to FTA, this adds
significant resources for data collection, forecasting, and transit market analysis of the
mobility needs of transportation-disadvantaged individuals. Planning is an eligible activity
under Section 5307.
36
 66 Fed. Reg. 5296 (Jan. 18, 2001).
37
  Training and Employment Notice No. 21-11 (Jan. 3, 2012). DOL also developed and
disseminated a Training and Employment Notice to the public workforce system on human
services transportation coordination in 2007. See Training and Employment Notice No.
36-06 (June 21, 2007).




Page 16                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                       improving resource coordination with other community transportation
                       service providers. 38


Key Challenges in      Although some agencies have coordination efforts under way, there are
Coordination Efforts   still several challenges to federal interagency coordination efforts
                       including a recent lack of activity at the leadership level of the
                       Coordinating Council and the absence of key guidance documents for
                       furthering agency coordination efforts. The Secretary-level leaders of the
                       11 Coordinating Council members have not met since 2008, and the
                       Executive Council designees have not met since 2007. According to
                       some agency officials, this lack of direction and visible activity on
                       coordination from agency leaders contributes to a lack of buy-in from
                       federal program officials, which may affect how program coordination is
                       treated at the state and local levels. For example, some agency officials
                       told us that direction and formal buy-in at the executive level is needed for
                       improvements in coordination to occur. While presidential executive
                       orders remain in effect from one administration to the next unless they are
                       revised or rescinded, some agency officials said it was unclear whether
                       the 2004 executive order outlining federal coordination efforts effectively
                       translated from one administration to the next. Some officials attributed
                       this uncertainty to explain why the Coordinating Council’s activity level
                       has decreased since 2008.

                       Key guidance documents, including those discussed below, for furthering
                       agency coordination are absent or incomplete, hindering federal
                       coordination efforts. 39




                       38
                         The Veterans Health Administration also issued an information letter in 2007 to VA
                       medical centers to coordinate transportation services with their local community and other
                       federal agencies, including allowing excess capacity VA transportation services to be used
                       by other federal agencies provided there are agreements in place for reimbursement. See
                       IL 10-2007-006 (Mar. 2, 2007).
                       39
                         In March 2011, we identified several actions that federal departments on the
                       Coordinating Council should undertake to promote federal coordination and reduce the
                       potential for fragmentation, overlap, and duplication, which include developing and
                       disseminating additional policies and grantee guidance for coordinating transportation
                       services, such as a cost-sharing policy. See GAO-11-318SP. In February 2012, we
                       reported that most of the federal departments on the Coordinating Council that we
                       reviewed had not yet addressed these actions. See GAO-12-453SP.




                       Page 17                                           GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
•    Strategic plan: The Coordinating Council lacks a strategic plan that
     identifies agency roles and responsibilities, measurable outcomes, or
     required follow-up. According to agency officials, the Coordinating
     Council is drafting a strategic plan, but officials were unable to provide
     an estimate for when the plan might be finalized. 40 As previously
     discussed, the executive order contained reporting and
     recommendation requirements, resulting in the 2005 Report to the
     President and the 2007 Progress Report. However, since those
     reports, no other guidance document has been created, or is required,
     to report on actions taken or to plan additional actions. We have
     previously reported that defining and articulating a common outcome,
     agreeing on agency roles and responsibilities, and reinforcing agency
     accountability through agency plans and reports are important
     elements for agencies to enhance and sustain collaborative efforts. 41
     Further, we have reported that federal agencies engaged in
     collaborative efforts need to create the means to monitor, evaluate,
     and report on their efforts to enable them to identify areas for
     improvement. There are several practices involved in strategic
     planning that could be useful to help the Council determine and
     communicate its long-term goals and objectives. 42 However, without
     a plan to help reinforce agency goals and responsibilities, the
     Coordinating Council may be hampered in articulating a strategy to
     help strengthen interagency collaboration and lack the elements
     needed to remain a viable interagency effort.

•    Cost-sharing policy: A joint cost-sharing policy has not been endorsed
     by all Coordinating Council members, even though development of a
     cost allocation policy was one of the recommendations of the




40
  The 2010 United We Ride National Dialogue was held to help shape future policy
direction and provide input into the strategic plan. See National Academy of Public
Administration, A Report by a Panel of the National Academy of Public Administration for
the Federal Interagency Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility: The United We
Ride National Dialogue (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 2010).
41
  See GAO, Results-Oriented Government: Practices That Can Help Enhance and
Sustain Collaboration among Federal Agencies, GAO-06-15 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 21,
2005).
42
 See GAO, Agencies’ Strategic Plans Under GPRA: Key Questions to Facilitate
Congressional Review, GAO/GGD-10.1.16 (Washington, D.C.: 1997) and GAO, Executive
Guide: Effectively Implementing the Government Performance and Results Act,
GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: 1996).




Page 18                                           GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
      Coordinating Council in its 2005 Report to the President. 43 According
      to the 2005 report, a major obstacle to sharing transportation
      resources has been the difficulty of reaching agreements at the local
      level about the appropriate allocation of costs to each agency.
      Federal, state, and local agency officials that we spoke with noted that
      this continues to be a significant impediment. Further, as part of a
      discussion hosted by the National Academy of Public Administration
      in 2009, which brought together key stakeholders to discuss ways to
      improve access to reliable transportation for the transportation
      disadvantaged, explicit and clear guidance for cost sharing was said
      to be needed in order to address significant federal policy barriers to
      coordination. 44

•     Coordinated transportation planning: Coordinating Council members
      pledged to take actions to accomplish federal program grantee
      participation in locally developed, coordinated planning processes as
      part of their 2006 Coordinated Human Service Transportation
      Planning Policy Statement, but it is unclear if the Coordinating
      Council’s members have consistently followed through on their 2006
      pledge. According to the Coordinating Council’s 2006 policy
      statement, federal grantees’ participation in their local human services
      transportation planning process is necessary to reduce duplication of
      services, increase service efficiency, and expand access for
      transportation-disadvantaged populations. However, the discussion
      hosted by the National Academy of Public Administration in 2009
      indicated that the process for creating coordinated transportation
      plans continues to need improvement and recommended that
      Coordinating Council members with grant programs create incentives
      for their grantees to participate in coordinated planning at the state
      and local levels. 45 According to participants, while the Coordinating
      Council has issued a joint policy on coordinated planning, challenges
      remain to fully engage agencies that are not funded by DOT in the



43
  According to FTA, while a final federal cost-sharing policy has not been issued, FTA
funded a Transit Cooperative Research Program study which aims to provide guidance for
state and local agencies to begin sharing costs with partners. However, this report has not
been endorsed by all member agencies of the Coordinating Council. See Transportation
Research Board, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Sharing the Costs of Human
Services Transportation (Washington, D.C.: 2011).
44
    National Academy of Public Administration, The United We Ride National Dialogue.
45
    National Academy of Public Administration, The United We Ride National Dialogue.




Page 19                                           GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
     planning process at the local levels. DOT’s FTA is the only agency
     that has adopted a coordinated human services transportation
     planning requirement, which has resulted in broadened participation in
     the transportation planning processes.

Coordination of services is also challenging due to differences in federal
program requirements and perceived regulatory or statutory barriers,
according to officials. For example, coordinated planning is generally only
a requirement for FTA-funded human service transportation programs,
and while a handful of programs may encourage coordination, other
federal program rules are unclear about coordination of transportation
services between programs. Also, programs may have perceived or
actual statutory or regulatory barriers related to sharing costs, or have
differences in service requirements and eligibility. For example, HHS’s
Medicaid program is the largest source of federal funds for
nonemergency medical transportation for qualified low-income
beneficiaries; 46 however, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
(CMS) officials expressed concern about coordinating transportation
services due to concerns about commingling federal program funds 47 and
the potential for fraud. 48 CMS has issued rules that allow states to
contract with one or more transportation brokers to manage their
Medicaid transportation to, among other things, reduce costs. 49 However,
these rules could result in fragmented transportation services at the state



46
  Under 42 C.F.R. § 431.53, states are required in their state plans to ensure necessary
transportation of Medicaid beneficiaries to and from medical providers. Expenditures for
transportation may be claimed as administrative costs, or a state may elect to include
transportation as a medical benefit under its state Medicaid plan.
47
  CMS officials trace their concern to restrictions against the use of Medicaid funds for
purposes other than to deliver medical services to eligible Medicaid beneficiaries, which
they argue is implemented by CMS’s regulations and policy. Further, according to CMS
officials, federal Medicaid funding must be matched by nonfederal funding unless there is
express authority under federal law for other federal funds to be used for purposes of the
nonfederal Medicaid matching share.
48
  The Medicaid program is on GAO’s High-Risk List, in part because of improper
payments submitted by providers for ineligible claims. See GAO, High-Risk Series, an
Update, GAO-11-278 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 2011).
49
  HHS issued regulations (42 C.F.R. § 440.170(a)(4)) that permit states to establish,
under the state plan, a nonemergency medical transportation brokerage program. Under
such a program, the state contracts with one or more brokers to manage the provision of
nonemergency medical transportation services for beneficiaries who need transportation
to or from medical providers.




Page 20                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                       and local levels because some brokers transport only Medicaid-eligible
                       beneficiaries, and may not coordinate their transportation services with
                       other programs. In another example, VA officials explained that VA only
                       has the authority to provide transportation at the agency’s expense to
                       certain qualifying veterans and nonveterans in relation to VA health care,
                       but has no legal authority to transport nonbeneficiaries.



State and Local
Efforts Include
Transportation
Planning and Service
Coordination, but
Challenges Continue

State and Local        State and local officials in the five states we selected used a variety of
Transportation         coordinated planning and service efforts to serve the transportation
Coordination Efforts   disadvantaged. One way that states facilitate coordination efforts is
                       through statewide coordinating bodies—some created by legislative
                       actions and others by executive order or initiative—to oversee the
                       implementation of coordinated transportation for transportation-
                       disadvantaged populations in their states. State coordinating bodies can
                       help to facilitate collaboration between federal, state, and local agencies
                       by providing a venue for agencies to discuss and resolve transportation
                       issues to better coordinate transportation activities related to the provision
                       of human services and enhance services for transportation-
                       disadvantaged populations. Three of the five states we selected had state
                       coordinating bodies in 2010. 50 In addition to state coordinating councils,



                       50
                         In 2010, the National Conference of State Legislatures reported that about half of the
                       states in the United States have created state coordinating councils. We did not verify the
                       accuracy of this number but verified that three of our five selected states—Florida,
                       Washington, and Wisconsin— did have a coordinating council in 2010; Texas and Virginia
                       did not. See National Conference of State Legislatures, State Human Service
                       Transportation Coordinating Councils: An Overview and State Profiles (Denver, Colo.:
                       Apr. 2010). According to this report, many state coordinating councils were created as a
                       result of the United We Ride initiative to improve coordination of human services
                       transportation activities.




                       Page 21                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                            efforts include regional and local planning, one-call centers, mobility
                                            managers, and vehicle sharing (see table 3).

Table 3: Types of State and Local Transportation Coordination Efforts

Coordination activity         Description
State coordinating council    Several states have created statewide coordinating bodies to oversee the implementation of
                              coordinated transportation for the transportation disadvantaged in their states. For example, Florida has
                              created a Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged that partners with a number of state, local,
                              and private transportation and human services entities to coordinate transportation services for the
                              state’s transportation disadvantaged. According to a 2008 Florida State University study, each dollar
                              invested in transportation-disadvantaged program trips throughout the state in 2007 generated benefits
                                        a
                              of $8.35. Based on these figures, the study concluded that the estimated benefits of providing
                              coordinated trips for transportation-disadvantaged programs outweighed their costs.
Regional and local planning   With regional and local planning, some combination of human service and transportation agencies and
                              providers work together to plan transportation services for their clients. For example, Texas encourages
                              its 24 regions, each with a lead agency, to develop regional plans for transportation coordination, in an
                              effort to ensure that the state’s public transportation resources benefits are maximized. Representation
                              on the regional planning councils includes regional transportation planners, public transportation and
                              health and human services agencies, transportation providers, and local government officials.
One-call center               One-call centers support human service and other specialized transportation services by providing
                              program information such as service characteristics, eligibility criteria, and referrals for appropriate
                              service providers. For example, a regional planning commission in Virginia operates a one-call center
                              that provides clients with information on the public, private, and volunteer transportation options
                              available in the region. According to officials, in addition to providing information on transportation
                              options, the one-call center also provides referral services for transportation-disadvantaged
                              populations.
Mobility manager              Mobility managers can serve as policy coordinators, operations service brokers, and customer travel
                                          b
                              navigators. For example, Wisconsin currently has about 52 mobility managers serving its counties and
                              tribes. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation developed a mobility manager training program
                              and pilot using United We Ride/New Freedom grant funding. While funding for this effort has been
                              discontinued, mobility managers in Wisconsin have formed a Wisconsin Association of Mobility
                              Managers, which now holds monthly meetings to discuss their work. According to officials, mobility
                              managers in Wisconsin have made a positive impact on transportation coordination in the state.
Vehicle sharing               With vehicle sharing, one agency may provide transportation for clients of multiple programs, or each
                              program may own its own vehicles but allow them to be used by other programs. For example, in
                              Washington, Mason County Transit and the Superintendent of Schools coordinated so that school
                              buses could be used as transit buses after school hours. According to an official with whom we spoke,
                              this coordination began with a transportation need—and the transit agency and education system
                              worked together to address that need.
Other                         Other coordination activities include outreach efforts and continued improvement in communications.
                              For example, in Washington, local outreach efforts serve pockets of unmet transportation needs among
                              minority and Native American populations and also help different programs work together. In rural
                              communities in particular, special outreach is used to help make people aware of the program services
                              for which they qualify. Similarly, communities and service providers are invited to discussions about
                              available services, eligibility, and how to apply for services.
                                            Source: GAO analysis of interviews with officials from selected states.

                                            a
                                            The Marketing Institute, Florida State University College of Business, Florida Transportation
                                            Disadvantaged Programs: Return on Investment Study (Mar. 2008).




                                            Page 22                                                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                  b
                                   As policy coordinators, mobility managers may help communities develop coordination plans,
                                  programs, and policies, and build local partnerships. As brokers, they coordinate transportation
                                  services among all customer groups, service providers, and funding agencies. As travel navigators,
                                  mobility managers work with human services agencies and workforce centers that coordinate clients’
                                  travel and trip planning needs.

                                  Several state and local agency officials said that federal requirements for
                                  the establishment of locally developed, coordinated public transit-human
                                  services transportation plans for FTA’s human service transportation
                                  programs have had a positive impact on transportation coordination in
                                  their state. According to officials, these planning efforts help to bring
                                  relevant stakeholders to the table to discuss needs for the transportation
                                  disadvantaged and to resolve problems. For example, in Virginia, the
                                  Department of Rail and Public Transportation has taken the lead in
                                  implementing this requirement, assisting 21 planning district commissions
                                  to formulate human services transportation coordination plans for their
                                  districts, and formulating a statewide plan which draws from these local
                                  plans. According to officials of a regional planning commission in Virginia,
                                  transportation coordination in the state would not be at the same point it is
                                  currently without these requirements. These officials said that the federal
                                  requirements created one place for people to come together to learn what
                                  programs are available, raise awareness, and avoid duplication. Also, a
                                  Virginia Regional Transit official told us that the increased communication
                                  among agencies due to coordinated planning efforts made it possible for
                                  providers to transport more people, including those who were not
                                  currently being served, thus opening access to larger and broader groups
                                  of people.


Challenges to State and           State and local entities’ efforts to coordinate services for the
Local Efforts                     transportation disadvantaged are not without challenges. According to
                                  officials, challenges include insufficient federal leadership, changes to
                                  state legislation and policies, and limited financial resources in the face of
                                  growing unmet needs.

Insufficient federal leadership   Several state and local officials told us that there is not sufficient federal
                                  leadership and guidance on how to coordinate transportation services for
                                  the transportation disadvantaged and that varying federal program
                                  requirements may hinder coordination of transportation services. State
                                  and local officials in four out of the five states we selected said that with
                                  the exception of DOT, other federal agencies were not actively
                                  encouraging transportation coordination. For example, Texas Department
                                  of Transportation officials told us there is a disconnect between human
                                  services and transportation agencies and that the general perception is



                                  Page 23                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
that other human services programs, such as some of those funded by
HHS, are exempt from coordination. These officials also said that federal
leadership is needed to promote buy-in for transportation coordination
among human services agencies and transportation agencies at the state
level.

Officials in each of the five states that we selected said that the federal
government could provide state and local entities with improved guidance
on transportation coordination—especially as it relates to instructions on
how to share costs across programs (i.e., determining what portion of a
trip should be paid by whom). State and local officials in Virginia, Texas,
and Washington identified a fear of losing federal funding if they
improperly shared funding with other federal programs. These officials
said that federal cost-sharing guidance would help facilitate transportation
coordination between programs. Further, state Medicaid officials said that
their main priority is to make sure they are following Medicaid
requirements, and some officials expressed concerns about their ability to
ensure Medicaid funds are being appropriately spent and properly
accounted for if they coordinated with other programs. For example,
Medicaid officials in one state said that they would need to obtain
approval from CMS before adopting any cost-sharing strategies with other
programs to ensure the appropriateness of their state program’s
expenditures. When we spoke with CMS officials, they told us that CMS is
not opposed to coordinating transportation services; however, the agency
does have concerns that coordination would result in Medicaid funds
being improperly commingled with other federal program funds.

Several state and local officials said that varying federal government
program requirements may hinder the provision of transportation services
and act as barriers to coordination. A regional planning official in
Washington told us that varying program requirements may discourage
transportation coordination as one program’s requirements may not be
suitable for another program’s clients. For example, if two different
program clients were to share school vehicles for special needs
populations, each program might have a separate set of rules and
requirements. Determining whether drivers meet drug and alcohol testing
requirements for both programs could be a challenge, according to this




Page 24                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                   official. 51 Similarly, an official from the Florida Department of
                                   Transportation told us that the federal government could do more to
                                   identify standards and requirements that act as barriers to coordination. In
                                   Wisconsin, a Department of Transportation study found that key
                                   challenges to coordinating transportation services in the state include
                                   program regulations or requirements that impede coordination, including
                                   different guidance and restrictions on how federal funding could be
                                   spent. 52

Changes to state legislation and   Officials we interviewed in four states identified recent changes in state
policies                           legislation or state policies as potential challenges to coordinating
                                   services for the transportation disadvantaged in their states. According to
                                   these officials, such changes have caused some uncertainty in their
                                   efforts to coordinate human services transportation in the future. For
                                   example, some state coordinating bodies’ authority has not been renewed
                                   or is about to expire:

                                   •    Executive order not renewed: In Wisconsin, the governor charged a
                                        group of individuals from a number of state agencies to form a state
                                        coordinating council in 2005—the Interagency Council on
                                        Transportation Coordination (ICTC). 53 In addition to sponsoring a
                                        statewide coordination conference in 2007, ICTC contracted with a
                                        national consultant to develop a Wisconsin Model of Coordination with
                                        implementation strategies. Intended outcomes of this model included
                                        increasing the quantity and quality of existing transportation
                                        resources, supporting and encouraging local coordination efforts, and
                                        improving transportation service for users. However, due to a
                                        downturn in the economy and a change in the state’s administration
                                        after the model’s completion, its findings were not implemented.


                                   51
                                     A 2011 report prepared for the Washington state legislature found that some of the most
                                   significant barriers to coordinating or sharing trips between programs providing
                                   transportation stem from differences in federal regulations, especially as they relate to
                                   sharing costs between programs. See Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation,
                                   Final Report of the Federal Opportunities Workgroup (Olympia, Wash.: 2011).
                                   52
                                     Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Wisconsin Human Service Transportation
                                   Coordination Model (July 2008).
                                   53
                                     ICTC’s membership consists of the Wisconsin Departments of Transportation, Health
                                   Services, Veterans Affairs, Workforce Development, and the Office of the Commissioner
                                   of Insurance. In addition, ICTC has a multimember Stakeholder Advisory Committee
                                   (SAC) which consists of transportation consumers, advocates, providers, and partners
                                   who advise ICTC on statewide transportation needs and coordination opportunities.




                                   Page 25                                          GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
     Because the new administration did not renew the executive order
     establishing ICTC’s authority, ICTC has been inactive since January
     2011.

•    Enabling legislation to expire: In Washington, the state legislature
     created the Agency Council on Coordinated Transportation (ACCT) in
     1998 to coordinate with state and local agencies and organizations to
     provide affordable and accessible transportation choices for the
     transportation disadvantaged. 54 Over the years, ACCT has facilitated
     coordination by helping to form transportation coalitions that include
     human services representatives, transit services, and community
     transportation providers. These coalitions plan regional public
     transportation, evaluate and prioritize project proposals, and
     implement local coordination strategies. However, enabling legislation
     for ACCT expires in June 2012 and officials do not expect the
     legislation to be renewed.

In some states, officials were uncertain about how recent developments
may affect their state Medicaid program’s participation in state and local
efforts to coordinate transportation services for the transportation
disadvantaged. For example, in an effort to control program costs, state
legislation was signed into law in Florida in June 2011 that moves the
responsibility for Medicaid nonemergency medical transportation from the
coordinated transportation system run by the Florida Commission for the
Transportation Disadvantaged to a private managed care system. An
official with the Florida Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged
said that it is not known whether the managed care system will choose to
operate within the state’s coordinated transportation system or contract
with private transportation brokers outside of the coordinated system,



54
  ACCT’s membership consists of 14 voting members and four nonvoting members.
Voting members include representatives from four state agencies—including the
Departments of Public Instruction, Transportation, Veterans Affairs, and the Washington
Health Care Authority. Ten governor-appointed members serve 2-year terms and include
a representative from the Office of the Governor, a representative appointed by the
Governor’s Committee on Disability Issues and Employment, a representative appointed
by the Developmental Disabilities Council, an at-large consumer of special needs
transportation, and representatives from the Washington Association of Pupil
Transportation, the Washington State Transit Association, the Community Transportation
Association of the Northwest or the Community Action Council Association, regional
transportation planning organizations/metropolitan planning organizations, nonemergency
medical transportation brokers, and the Washington State Association of Counties. The
ACCT Council also consists of four nonvoting legislative members.




Page 26                                          GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                  which could result in duplication of transportation services. Similarly,
                                  officials in Texas and Wisconsin told us that, in an effort to control costs,
                                  their state Medicaid program is moving to a transportation brokerage
                                  system. 55 According to some state and local officials, these brokers
                                  typically only transport Medicaid-eligible clients and do not often
                                  coordinate their transportation services with other federally funded
                                  programs. CMS maintains that their brokerage rule does not preclude
                                  state Medicaid agencies from coordinating transportation services, as
                                  long as they comply with all applicable Medicaid policies and rules and
                                  ensure that Medicaid funds are only used for Medicaid services provided
                                  to eligible beneficiaries.

Limited financial resources and   A number of state and local officials in our five selected states told us that
growing unmet needs               limited financial resources and growing unmet needs were challenges for
                                  them. In Texas, state and local officials told us that although it is believed
                                  that coordination will save costs in the mid- to long-term, state budgets
                                  are being reduced in transit and social services agencies, as well as in
                                  municipal programs and nonprofit organizations. According to these
                                  officials, some agencies and their potential partners find it difficult to come
                                  up with funding, even when it is a modest local match for grants.
                                  Similarly, state and local officials in Virginia told us that state and local
                                  match requirements may preclude some entities from applying for federal
                                  funds. State and local officials also mentioned that limited financial
                                  resources often promote turf battles—or a mistrust and unwillingness to
                                  share resources for fear of losing control of them. Conversely, some
                                  officials told us that limited resources were an incentive to coordinate
                                  because coordination made the best use of limited resources.

                                  In the face of limited financial resources, state and local officials are also
                                  concerned about growing disadvantaged populations and unmet needs—
                                  both now and in the future. As part of the discussion hosted by the
                                  National Academy of Public Administration in 2009, participants identified
                                  continuing transportation gaps in programs across the federal
                                  government. 56 Several state and local officials that we spoke with also



                                  55
                                    As previously mentioned, CMS has provided states with the authority to establish
                                  nonemergency medical transportation brokerage programs in which the state contracts
                                  with one or more brokers to manage the provision of transportation services for eligible
                                  beneficiaries.
                                  56
                                   National Academy of Public Administration, United We Ride National Dialogue.




                                  Page 27                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
              expressed concern about their ability to adequately address expected
              growth in elderly, disabled, low-income, and rural populations. A local
              transit agency official in Virginia, for example, told us that there is a great
              need for transportation services for the elderly and disabled and that the
              need is increasing. This agency official questioned whether transportation
              providers will have adequate funding and resources to meet this growing
              demand. In a presentation before the state Senate in 2011, Florida’s
              Commission for the Transportation Disadvantaged reported that,
              statewide, 3.75 million trips had been denied to passengers in the
              coordinated transportation system during the past 5 years due to a lack of
              funding or for other reasons. Nevertheless, the commission expects the
              state’s transportation-disadvantaged population to undergo steady growth
              over the next decade. In addition, a number of state and local entities
              were concerned about populations in rural areas—primarily because
              public transportation availability was limited in these areas.


              The Coordinating Council was created to, among other things, promote
Conclusions   interagency cooperation and minimize duplication and overlap of federal
              programs providing transportation services to transportation-
              disadvantaged populations. While some member agencies, including
              DOT, have remained active in pursuing these goals, sustained
              interagency activity through the Coordinating Council has lost momentum
              in recent years. The 11 Coordinating Council members have not met
              since 2008 and the Executive Council designees have not met since
              2007. According to some federal officials, this lack of leadership at the
              Coordinating Council poses challenges to federal-, state-, and local-level
              coordination efforts.

              Further, the Coordinating Council has been operating without a strategic
              plan to help determine and communicate its long-term goals and
              objectives. While Executive Order 13330 spurred Coordinating Council
              activity beginning in 2004, sustained agency commitment has proved
              challenging. We have previously reported that articulating a common
              outcome, agreeing on agency roles and responsibilities, and reinforcing
              agency accountability through agency plans and reports are important
              elements for agencies to sustain and improve collaborative efforts. A
              collaborative interagency strategic planning effort could help to provide
              the direction and momentum the Coordinating Council needs at this time.

              Finally, we have previously reported that federal agencies engaged in
              collaborative efforts need to create the means to monitor, evaluate, and
              report on their efforts to enable them to identify areas for improvement. It


              Page 28                                     GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                      is difficult to fully assess activities of the Coordinating Council, in part,
                      because the council has not reported on its activities or reported on
                      progress implementing its own recommendations since 2007. At that
                      time, the Coordinating Council reported that it was working to establish
                      cost-sharing principles for transportation coordination that federal human
                      service and transportation agencies could endorse; however, we found
                      that the council had not accomplished this goal as of June 2012. Also in
                      2007, the council reported it had issued a policy statement encouraging
                      federally assisted grantees involved in human services transportation to
                      participate in local coordination planning processes. As part of that policy
                      statement, members of the Coordinating Council agreed to take action to
                      implement the policy within 6 months of council adoption; however, it is
                      unclear what implementation actions agencies have taken to date.
                      Despite recent actions that some agencies have taken to encourage
                      coordination and provide technical assistance, without any means to
                      monitor, evaluate, or report on interagency efforts, the Coordinating
                      Council may face barriers to identifying areas for improvement and
                      pursuing its goal of improving transportation services for transportation-
                      disadvantaged populations.

                      To promote and enhance federal, state, and local coordination activities,
Recommendations for   we recommend that the Secretary of Transportation, as the chair of the
Executive Action      Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility, and the Secretaries of the
                      Departments of Agriculture, Education, Health and Human Services,
                      Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, and Veterans Affairs,
                      as member agencies of the Coordinating Council, should meet and take
                      the following actions:

                      •   Complete and publish a strategic plan for the Coordinating Council,
                          which should, among other things, clearly outline agency roles and
                          responsibilities and articulate a strategy to help strengthen
                          interagency collaboration and communication.

                      •   Report on the progress of Coordinating Council recommendations
                          made as part of its 2005 Report to the President on Implementation of
                          Executive Order 13330 and develop a plan to address any
                          outstanding recommendations, including the development of a cost-
                          sharing policy endorsed by the Coordinating Council and the actions
                          taken by member agencies to increase federal program grantee
                          participation in locally developed, coordinated planning processes.




                      Page 29                                    GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                  We provided USDA, Education, HHS, HUD, Interior, DOL, DOT, and VA
Agency Comments   with a draft of this report for their review and comment. In commenting on
                  a draft of this report, Education and VA generally agreed with our
                  conclusions and recommendations. Education also provided technical
                  and written comments, which appear in appendix III. HHS, HUD, and
                  DOT neither agreed nor disagreed with the report and provided technical
                  comments. In their technical comments, DOT officials stated that, as chair
                  of the Coordinating Council, they have been working with the council to
                  refocus its efforts away from policy discussions to the coordination of on-
                  the-ground services, such as through the Veterans Transportation and
                  Community Living Initiative Grant Program, which is discussed in this
                  report. USDA, Interior, and DOL did not comment on our report. We
                  incorporated the technical and clarifying comments that we received from
                  the agencies, as appropriate.


                  We are sending copies of this report to interested congressional
                  committees and the Secretaries of Agriculture, Education, Health and
                  Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor,
                  Transportation, and Veterans Affairs. We also will make copies available
                  to others upon request. In addition, this report will be available at no
                  charge on GAO’s website at http://www.gao.gov.

                  If you or your staff have any questions about this report, please contact
                  David Wise at 202-512-2834 or WiseD@gao.gov. Contact points for our
                  Offices of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on
                  the last page of this report. GAO staff who made major contributions to
                  this report are listed in appendix IV.




                  David J. Wise
                  Director, Physical Infrastructure




                  Page 30                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
              Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
              Methodology



Methodology

              To identify federal programs that provide funding for transportation
              services for the transportation disadvantaged, we examined prior GAO
              work on the topic, conducted an online search of the Catalog of Federal
              Domestic Assistance, and requested program information from federal
              agency officials for the programs identified. We included only federal
              programs that provide nonemergency, nonmilitary, surface transportation
              services of any kind, targeted to transportation-disadvantaged
              populations. We then asked program administrators to review and verify
              the programs identified and the program information collected, including
              the general target population, types of transportation services and trips
              typically provided, and program spending on transportation services in
              fiscal year 2010. We supplemented and modified the inventory based on
              this information. In addition, we reviewed the relevant federal laws
              governing these programs including their popular title or original source of
              program legislation and U.S. Code or other provision cited as authorizing
              transportation.

              To determine what federal coordination efforts have taken place since we
              last fully reported on this issue in 2003 1 and what challenges remain, we
              conducted interviews with program officials from eight federal agencies—
              the Departments of Agriculture, Education, Health and Human Services,
              Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, Transportation, and
              Veterans Affairs—and reviewed relevant documentation provided by
              agency officials. We chose these agencies because they administered
              programs that were authorized to provide funding for transportation
              services for the transportation disadvantaged in fiscal year 2010 and were
              identified by executive order 2 to participate in coordination. We also
              interviewed officials from the National Resource Center for Human
              Service Transportation Coordination and interviewed or corresponded
              with transportation researchers and representatives from relevant industry
              and advocacy groups, including the following:




              1
               See GAO, Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Some Coordination Efforts Among
              Programs Providing Transportation Services, but Obstacles Persist, GAO-03-697
              (Washington, D.C.: June 30, 2003).
              2
               Human Service Transportation Coordination, Exec. Order No. 13330 (February 24,
              2004).




              Page 31                                        GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




•   American Public Transportation Association

•   Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations

•   Easter Seals Project ACTION

•   National Conference of State Legislatures

•   Westat

To identify the types of coordination that have occurred at the state and
local levels, we conducted interviews with state and local officials from
five states—Florida, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. We
based our selection of these states on a variety of characteristics,
including size of target populations per state, geographic diversity,
existence of a state coordinating body, and states deemed notable for
their transportation coordination efforts. As part of our state and local
interviews, we spoke with officials from state and local human services
and transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations,
transportation providers, interest and advocacy groups, and others and
reviewed relevant documentation. Because we used a nongeneralizable
sample of states, our findings cannot be used to make inferences about
other states. However, we determined that the selection of these states
was appropriate for our design and objectives and that the selection
would generate valid and reliable evidence to support our work. Table 4
provides more detailed information about the state and local entities we
interviewed.

Table 4: State and Local Interviews

State          Organization                             Description
Florida        Capital Region Transportation            Metropolitan planning
               Planning Agency                          organization
               Commission for the Transportation        State coordinating council
               Disadvantaged
               Florida Agency for Health Care           State human services agency
               Administration
               Florida Agency for Persons with          State human services agency
               Disabilities
               Florida Department of Children and       State human services agency
               Families
               Florida Department of Economic           State human services agency
               Opportunity




Page 32                                            GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




State          Organization                                Description
               Florida Department of Elder Affairs         State human services agency
               Florida Department of Transportation        State transportation agency
               StarMetro                                   Transportation provider
Texas          Capital Area Metropolitan Planning          Metropolitan planning
               Organization                                organization
               Dallas Area Rapid Transit                   Transportation provider
               North Central Texas Council of              Metropolitan planning
               Governments                                 organization
               Texas Department of Aging and               State human services agency
               Disability Services
               Texas Department of Assistive and           State human services agency
               Rehabilitative Services
               Texas Health and Human Services             State human services agency
               Commission
               Texas Department of Transportation          State transportation agency
               Texas Veterans Commission                   State human services agency
Virginia       Virginia Regional Transit                   Transportation provider
               Virginia Department of Medical              State human services agency
               Assistance Services
               Virginia Department of Rail and Public      State transportation agency
               Transportation
               Rappahannock-Rapidan Regional               Regional planning organization
               Commission
Washington     Agency Council on Coordinated               State coordinating council
               Transportation, Washington
               Department of Transportation
               Alliance of People with Disabilities        Advocates for the needs of
                                                           clients
               Hopelink                                    Transportation provider
               Thurston Regional Planning Council          Regional planning organization
               Washington Department of Veterans           State human services agency
               Affairs
               Washington Health Care Authority            State human services agency
Wisconsin      Dane County, Department of Human            Local human services agency
               Services
               Greater Wisconsin Agency on Aging           Advocates for the needs of its
               Resources                                   clients
               Madison Area Transportation Planning Metropolitan planning
               Board                                organization
               Wisconsin Association of Mobility           Advocates for the needs of its
               Managers                                    members




Page 33                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix I: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




 State         Organization                          Description
               Wisconsin Department of Health        State human services agency
               Services, Medicaid
               Wisconsin Department of Health        State human services agency
               Services, Office on Aging
               Wisconsin Department of               State transportation agency
               Transportation
               Wisconsin Department of Workforce     State human services agency
               Development
               Wisconsin Urban and Rural Transit     Advocates for the needs of its
               Association                           members
Source: GAO.



We also interviewed the appropriate United We Ride Regional
Ambassadors for each state. In addition, we reviewed relevant literature
and prior GAO and Congressional Research Service reports, as
appropriate.

We conducted this performance audit from June 2011 to June 2012 in
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
conclusions based on our audit objectives.




Page 34                                         GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                             Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                             Providing Transportation Services to the
                                             Transportation Disadvantaged


Providing Transportation Services to the
Transportation Disadvantaged

                                                                      Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or         transportation      Purpose of       Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision      funds as            trips as         population as        Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as              reported by         reported by      defined by           2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing          program             program          program              spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation       officials           officials        officials            transportationa
Department of Agriculture
10.551       Supplemental     Food Stamp Act 7 U.S.C.                 Reimbursement       To access        Low-income           No actual data
             Nutrition        of 1977        § 2015(d)(4)(I)(i) (I)   or advanced         education- and   persons between      or estimate
             Assistance                                               payment for         employment-      the ages of 16       available from
             Program,                                                 gasoline            related          and 59               the federal
             Employment and                                           expenses or         services                              agency
             Training Program                                         bus fare
10.766       Community          Consolidated     7 U.S.C. § 1926      Purchase of         Routine          People who are       No actual data
             Facilities Loans   Farm and Rural                        vehicles            medical          disabled, senior     or estimate
             and Grants         Development                                               appointments,    citizens, and low-   available from
                                Act of 1972                                               shopping,        income persons       the federal
                                                                                          entertainment,                        agency
                                                                                          etc.
Department of Education
84.027       Special          Individuals with   20 U.S.C.            School district     To access        Children with        No actual data
             Education Grants Disabilities       §§ 1411(a)(1) and    bus                 school and       disabilities         or estimate
             to States        Education Act      1401(26)             expenditures        special                               available from
                                                                      and other           education and                         the federal
                                                                      modes of            related                               agency
                                                                      transportation,     services
                                                                      including
                                                                      wheelchair-
                                                                      accessible vans
84.126       State Vocational   Rehabilitation   29 U.S.C.            Transit             To access        People with          $81,000,000b
             Rehabilitation     Act of 1973      § 723(a)(8)          subsidies for       vocational       disabilities         (estimate)
             Services                                                 public and          rehabilitation
             Program                                                  private             services
                                                                      transportation,
                                                                      training in the
                                                                      use of public
                                                                      transportation
84.132       Centers for        Rehabilitation   29 U.S.C.           Transit              To access        Individuals with     No actual data
             Independent        Act of 1973      §§ 796f-4(b)(2) and subsidies for        program          significant          or estimate
             Living                              705(18)(xi)         public and           services         disabilities         available from
                                                                     private                                                    the federal
                                                                     transportation,                                            agency
                                                                     training in the
                                                                     use of public
                                                                     transportation




                                             Page 35                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                             Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                             Providing Transportation Services to the
                                             Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                     Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or        transportation       Purpose of      Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision     funds as             trips as        population as        Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as             reported by          reported by     defined by           2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing         program              program         program              spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation      officials            officials       officials            transportationa
84.169       Independent        Rehabilitation   29 U.S.C.           Transit              To access       Individuals with     No actual data
             Living State       Act of 1973      §§ 796e-2(1) and    subsidies for        program         significant          or estimate
             Grants                              705(18)(xi)         public and           services        disabilities         available from
                                                                     private                                                   the federal
                                                                     transportation,                                           agency
                                                                     training in the
                                                                     use of public
                                                                     transportation
84.173       Special          Individuals with   20 U.S.C.           School district      To access       Children with        No actual data
             Education        Disabilities       §§1419(a) and       bus                  programs and    disabilities ages    or estimate
             Preschool Grants Education Act      1401(26)            expenditures         special         3-5                  available from
                                                                     and other            education                            the federal
                                                                     modes of             services                             agency
                                                                     transportation,
                                                                     including
                                                                     wheelchair
                                                                     accessible vans
84.177       Independent        Rehabilitation   29 U.S.C.           Transit              To access       Individuals who   No actual data
             Living Services    Act of 1973      § 796k(e)(5)        subsidies for        program         are blind and age or estimate
             for Older                                               public and           services        55 or older       available from
             Individuals Who                                         private                                                the federal
             Are Blind                                               transportation,                                        agency
                                                                     training in the
                                                                     use of public
                                                                     transportation
84.181       Special          Individuals with   20 U.S.C. §§1433 Various modes           To access       Infants and          No actual data
             Education-Grants Disabilities       and 1432(4)(E)(xiv) of                   program         toddlers with        or estimate
             for Infants and  Education Act                          transportation,      services such   disabilities or at   available from
             Toddlers                                                including            as screening    risk, in need of     the federal
                                                                     wheelchair           and early       early intervention   agency
                                                                     accessible vans      intervention    services
                                                                                          services
84.187       Supported          Rehabilitation   29 U.S.C.           Transit              To access       People with the      No actual data
             Employment         Act of 1973      §§ 795g and         subsidies for        work, training, most significant     or estimate
             Services for                        705(36)             public and           and vocational disabilities          available from
             Individuals with                                        private              rehabilitation                       the federal
             Most Significant                                        transportation,      services                             agency
             Disabilities                                            training in the
                                                                     use of public
                                                                     transportation
84.196       Education for      McKinney-Vento 42 U.S.C.             Student           To access          Homeless             No actual data
             Homeless           Homeless       § 11433(d)(5)         transportation to educational        students             or estimate
             Children and       Assistance Act                       school of origin services and                             available from
             Youth                                                                     programs                                the federal
                                                                                                                               agency




                                             Page 36                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                                Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                                Providing Transportation Services to the
                                                Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                        Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or           transportation       Purpose of       Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision        funds as             trips as         population as       Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as                reported by          reported by      defined by          2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing            program              program          program             spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation         officials            officials        officials           transportationa
84.250       Rehabilitation    Rehabilitation       29 U.S.C.           Vouchers for         To access        American Indians    No actual data
             Services          Act of 1973          §§ 741(a) and       transportation       vocational       with disabilities   or estimate
             American Indians                       (b)(1)(B) and       services (e.g.       rehabilitation   who live on or      available from
             with Disabilities                      723(a)(8)           fuel and taxi        services         near reservations   the federal
                                                                        vouchers) and                         served by the       agency
                                                                        training in the                       projects
                                                                        use of
                                                                        transportation
84.287       21st-Century     Elementary and 20 U.S.C.                  Student              To access        Students in         No actual data
             Community        Secondary        § 7173(a)(10)            transportation       educational      underserved         or estimate
             Learning Centers Education Act of                                               services and     communities         available from
                              1965                                                           programs                             the federal
                                                                                                                                  agency
84.361       Voluntary Public   Elementary and 20 U.S.C.                Lease and            To access        Students from       No actual data
             School Choice      Secondary        § 7225a(a)             operate              educational      underperforming     or estimate
                                Education Act of                        vehicles, hire       services and     schools             available from
                                1965                                    bus drivers, and     programs                             the federal
                                                                        reimburse                                                 agency
                                                                        partnering
                                                                        school districts
                                                                        for
                                                                        transportation
Department of Health and Human Services
93.044       Special            Older               42 U.S.C.           Contract for         To access        Adults age 60       $73,585,717c
             Programs for the Americans Act         § 3030d(a)(2)       services             supportive       and older           (expended)
             Aging, Title III,  of 1965                                                      services, such
             Part B, Grants for                                                              as nutrition
             Supportive                                                                      services and
             Services and                                                                    aging services
             Senior Centers
93.047       Special           Older                42 U.S.C.           Purchase and         To access        American Indian,    No actual data
             Programs for the Americans Act         §§ 3057,            operate              supportive       Alaskan Native,     or estimate
             Aging, Title VI,  of 1965              3030d(a)(2)         vehicles             services,        and Native          available from
             Part A, Grants to                                                               including        Hawaiian elders     the federal
             Indian Tribes,                                                                  nutrition                            agency
             Part B, Grants to                                                               services
             Native Hawaiians
93.104       Comprehensive      Public Health       42 U.S.C.           Any                  To access        Children and        No actual data
             Community          Service Act         § 290ff-1           transportation-      program          families with       or estimate
             Mental Health                                              related use          services         serious             available from
             Services for                                                                                     emotional           the federal
             Children with                                                                                    disturbance         agency
             Serious
             Emotional
             Disturbances




                                                Page 37                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                                Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                                Providing Transportation Services to the
                                                Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                          Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or             transportation        Purpose of      Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision          funds as              trips as        population as    Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as                  reported by           reported by     defined by       2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing              program               program         program          spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation           officials             officials       officials        transportationa
93.193       Urban Indian       Snyder Act:         Act of Nov. 2,        Public          Transportation American                $7,318
             Health Services    Indian Health       1921, ch, 115, 42     transportation, costs for        Indian/Alaska         (estimate)
                                Care                Stat. 208, as         mileage         clients/patients Natives
                                Improvement         amended, and          reimbursement,
                                Act                 Pub. L. No. 94-437,   GSA lease, etc.
                                                    as amended
93.224       Health Centers     Public Health       42 U.S.C.             Bus tokens,           To access       Medically        $26,300,000d
                                Service Act         § 254b                vouchers,             health care     underserved      (expended)
                                                                          transportation        services        populations
                                                                          coordinators,
                                                                          and drivers
93.237       Special Diabetes   Indian Health       42 U.S.C. § 254c-3 Public                   To access      American          $419,247
             Program for        Care                                   transportation,          diabetes       Indian/Alaska     (estimate)
             Indians Diabetes   Improvement                            mileage                  prevention and Natives
             Prevention and     Act: Balanced                          reimbursement,           cardiovascular
             Treatment          Budget Act of                          etc.                     disease
             Projects           1997                                                            services
93.275       Substance          Public Health       42 U.S.C §§           Bus tokens, cab       To access       Persons with     $3,800
             Abuse and          Service Act         290aa(d)(5),          fare, or van          substance       substance use or (estimate)
             Mental Health                          290bb-2               purchase by           abuse           mental disorders
             Services-Access                                              provider              treatment or
             to Recovery                                                                        recovery
                                                                                                support
                                                                                                services
93.550       Transitional       Runaway and    42 U.S.C. §§ 5701, Information not               Education,      16 to 21 year    No actual data
             Living for         Homeless Youth 5712               collected                     employment,     olds             or estimate
             Homeless Youth     Act of 1974                                                     training, and                    available from
                                                                                                health care                      the federal
                                                                                                                                 agency
93.558       Temporary          Personal            42 U.S.C.             States have           To access       Low-income       $445,118,725
             Assistance for     Responsibility      § 604(a), (k)         wide flexibility in   work,           families         (expended)
             Needy Families     and Work                                  what they may         employment
                                Opportunity                               fund                  training, and
                                Reconciliation                                                  child care
                                Act of 1996                                                     providers
93.566       Refugee and       Refugee Act of       8 U.S.C. §§           Bus or transit        To access       Refugees and     No actual data
             Entrant           1980                 1522(b)(7)(D),        passes                employment      asylees          or estimate
             Assistance -                           1522(c)                                     services                         available from
             State                                                                                                               the federal
             Administered                                                                                                        agency
             Programs
             (Transitional and
             Medical Services
             and Social
             Services Formula
             Grants Only)




                                                Page 38                                                   GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                             Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                             Providing Transportation Services to the
                                             Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                     Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or        transportation       Purpose of       Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision     funds as             trips as         population as   Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as             reported by          reported by      defined by      2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing         program              program          program         spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation      officials            officials        officials       transportationa
93.567       Refugee and      Refugee Act of      8 U.S.C. §§        Bus or transit       Employment       Refugees and    No actual data
             Entrant          1980                1522(b)(7)(D),     passes, vehicle      and training     asylees         or estimate
             Assistance -                         1522(c)            donations, van       purposes                         available from
             Voluntary                                               pools, or                                             the federal
             Agency                                                  volunteer rides                                       agency
             Programs
             (Matching Grants
             Only)
93.569       Community          Community         42 U.S.C.          Access to            To receive       Low-income      No actual data
             Services Block     Opportunities,    § 9904             reliable             community        populations     or estimate
             Grant              Accountability,                      transportation       services,                        available from
                                Training, and                        or a driver’s        including                        the federal
                                Educational                          license, public      program                          agency
                                Services Act of                      transportation       services,
                                1998                                 routes, rides,       educational
                                                                     carpool              opportunities,
                                                                     arrangements,        and jobs
                                                                     car purchase
                                                                     and
                                                                     maintenance
93.570       Community          Community       42 U.S.C.            Grantees have Information not Low-income              No actual data
             Services Block     Opportunities,  § 9921               wide flexibility in collected populations             or estimate
             Grant              Accountability,                      what they may                                         available from
             Discretionary      and Training                         fund                                                  the federal
             Awards             and Educational                                                                            agency
                                Services Act of
                                1998
93.576       Refugee and        Refugee Act of    8 U.S.C. §§        Bus or transit       To access        Refugees and    No actual data
             Entrant            1980              1522(b)(7)(D),     passes               employment       asylees         or estimate
             Assistance -                         1522(c)                                 services                         available from
             Discretionary                                                                                                 the federal
             Grants                                                                                                        agency
             (Preventive
             Health, Targeted
             Assistance and
             Social Services
             Discretionary
             Grants Only)
93.584       Refugee and        Refugee Act of    8 U.S.C. §§        Bus or transit       To access        Refugees and    No actual data
             Entrant            1980              1522(b)(7)(D),     passes               employment       asylees         or estimate
             Assistance -                         1522(c)                                 services                         available from
             Targeted                                                                                                      the federal
             Assistance                                                                                                    agency
             (Formula Grants
             Only)




                                             Page 39                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                             Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                             Providing Transportation Services to the
                                             Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                     Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or        transportation       Purpose of         Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision     funds as             trips as           population as         Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as             reported by          reported by        defined by            2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing         program              program            program               spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation      officials            officials          officials             transportationa
93.594       Native             Social Security   42 U.S.C. § 612    Grantees have        To access          Members of            No actual data
             Employment         Act                                  broad flexibility    program and        federally             or estimate
             Works                                                   in what they         employment         recognized            available from
                                                                     may fund             activities         Indian tribes         the federal
                                                                                                                                   agency
93.600       Head Start         Head Start Act    42 USCA            Information not      Transporting   Low-income                No actual data
                                                  § 9835(a)(5)(B)    provided             children to    children                  or estimate
                                                                                          Head Start and                           available from
                                                                                          Early Head                               the federal
                                                                                          Start centers                            agency
93.612       Native American    Native American 42 U.S.C.            Bus passenger        Community          Native American       No actual data
             Programs           Programs Act of §§ 2991-2991c                             meetings and       communities           or estimate
                                1974                                                      activities                               available from
                                                                                                                                   the federal
                                                                                                                                   agency
93.630       State Councils     Developmental 42 U.S.C.              General travel       Limited travel     People with           No actual data
             on                 Disabilities       §§ 15002, 15082   expenses             expenses to        intellectual and      or estimate
             Developmental      Assistance and                                            participate in     developmental         available from
             Disabilities and   Bill of Rights Act                                        grant activities   disabilities, their   the federal
             Protection and     of 2000                                                                      families, and         agency
             Advocacy                                                                                        other grant
             Systems                                                                                         participants
93.631       Developmental      Developmental 42 U.S.C.              General travel       Limited travel     People with           No actual data
             Disabilities       Disabilities       §§ 15002, 15082   expenses             expenses to        intellectual and      or estimate
             Projects of        Assistance and                                            participate in     developmental         available from
             National           Bill of Rights Act                                        grant activities   disabilities, their   the federal
             Significance       of 2000                                                                      families, and         agency
                                                                                                             other grant
                                                                                                             participants
93.667       Social Services    Social Security   42 U.S.C.          Provide or           Access         Adults and                $22,863,512e
             Block Grants       Act               § 1397a(a)(2)(A)   arrange for          services, or   children                  (estimate)
                                                                     travel, such as      obtain medical
                                                                     accessible vans      care or
                                                                                          employment
93.674       Chafee Foster      Foster Care       42 U.S.C. § 677    Information not      Information not Foster youths            No actual data
             Care               Independence                         provided             provided        who are                  or estimate
             Independence       Act of 1999                                                               transitioning to         available from
             Program                                                                                      independence             the federal
                                                                                                                                   agency
93.767       Children’s Health Social Security    42 U.S.C.          Information not      Information not Eligible children        $3,681,903f
             Insurance         Act                § 1397jj(a)(26),   collected            collected                                (partial)
             Program                              (27)




                                             Page 40                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                              Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                              Providing Transportation Services to the
                                              Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                      Typical use of
Catalog of                                     U.S. Code or           transportation       Purpose of       Target
Federal                       Popular title or other provision        funds as             trips as         population as      Fiscal year
Domestic                      original source cited as                reported by          reported by      defined by         2010 federal
Assistance                    of program       authorizing            program              program          program            spending on
no.          Program name     legislation      transportation         officials            officials        officials          transportationa
93.778       Medicaid         Social Security     42 U.S.C.           Fixed route          To access        Medicaid- eligible $786,966,682g
                              Act                 §§ 1396a,           transportation,      covered          beneficiaries who (partial)
                                                  1396n(e)(1)(A)      demand               medical          do not have any
                                                                      response             services         other means of
                                                                      transportation,                       transportation
                                                                      mileage
                                                                      reimbursement,
                                                                      air transport
                                                                      and
                                                                      nonemergency
                                                                      medical
                                                                      transportation
                                                                      brokerage
93.912       Rural Health     Health Centers      42 U.S.C. § 254c    Volunteer            To access        Elderly, migrant   No actual data
             Care Services    Consolidation                           drivers, private     health care      workers, and       or estimate
             Outreach, Rural Act of 1996                              vehicles,            services, oral   general            available from
             Health Network                                           vouchers,            health care,     population         the federal
             Development,                                             vanpools             elder day care                      agency
             and Small Health                                                              services
             Care Provider
             Quality
             Improvement
             Program
93.914       HIV Emergency    Ryan White     42 U.S.C.                Bus passes,          To access        Persons with HIV $10,750,025h
             Relief Project   Comprehensive §§ 300ff-11 –             tokens, taxis,       health care      or AIDS          (estimate)
             Grants           AIDS Resources 300ff-20                 vanpools,            services
                              Emergency Act                           vehicle
                              of 1990                                 purchase/lease
                                                                      by providers,
                                                                      and mileage
                                                                      reimbursement
93.917       HIV Care         Ryan White     42 U.S.C.                Bus passes,          To access        Persons with HIV $5,598,234h
             Formula Grants   Comprehensive §§ 300ff-21, 300ff-       tokens, taxis,       health care      or AIDS          (estimate)
                              AIDS Resources 23(a)(2)(B)              vanpools,            services
                              Emergency Act                           vehicle
                              of 1990                                 purchase/lease
                                                                      by providers,
                                                                      and mileage
                                                                      reimbursement
93.926       Healthy Start    Public Health       42 U.S.C.           Bus tokens, taxi To access            Residents of       No actual data
             Initiative       Service Act         § 254c-8            vouchers,        health care          areas with         or estimate
                                                                      reimbursement services                significant        available from
                                                                      for use of own                        perinatal health   the federal
                                                                      vehicle                               disparities        agency




                                              Page 41                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                              Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                              Providing Transportation Services to the
                                              Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                      Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or         transportation       Purpose of         Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision      funds as             trips as           population as       Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as              reported by          reported by        defined by          2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing          program              program            program             spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation       officials            officials          officials           transportationa
93.958       Community          ADAMHA            42 U.S.C.           Any                  To access          Adults with         No actual data
             Mental Health      Reorganization    § 300x-1(b)(1)      transportation-      program            mental illness      or estimate
             Services Block     Act of 1992                           related use          services           and children with   available from
             Grant                                                                                            emotional           the federal
                                                                                                              disturbance         agency
93.959       Substance          ADAMHA            42 U.S.C.           Any                  To access          Persons with a      No actual data
             Abuse              Reorganization    § 300x-21           transportation-      program            substance-          or estimate
             Prevention and     Act of 1992                           related use          services           related disorder    available from
             Treatment Block                                                                                                      the federal
             Grant                                                                                                                agency
93.994       Maternal and       Social Security   42 U.S.C.           States have          To access          Maternal and        No actual data
             Child Health       Act               § 701(a)            broad discretion     prenatal care      child health        or estimate
             Services Block                                           in implementing      visits, medical    population          available from
             Grant to the                                             program              appointments,                          the federal
             States                                                                        and other                              agency
                                                                                           health care
                                                                                           services
Department of Housing and Urban Development
14.157       Supportive         Housing Act of    12 U.S.C.           Information not      To access          Very low- income No actual data
             Housing for the    1959              1701g(g)(1)         known                supportive         persons aged 62 or estimate
             Elderly                                                                       services, such     and older        available from
                                                                                           as medical                          the federal
                                                                                           treatment,                          agency
                                                                                           employment,
                                                                                           or job training,
                                                                                           etc.
14.170       Congregate       Congregate          42 USCA § 8004      Accessible           To access          Elderly and         No actual data
             Housing Services Housing                                 taxis, local         medical            people with         or estimate
             Program          Services Act of                         transportation       appointments,      disabilities        available from
                              1978                                    programs,            work,                                  the federal
                                                                      buses, etc.          shopping, and                          agency
                                                                                           other services
14.218       Community          Housing and       42 U.S.C.           Transit services To access              Low- and          $4,218,209i
             Development        Community         § 5305(a)(8)                         social                 moderate-income (expended)
             Block              Development                                            services,              persons,
             Grants/Entitleme   Act of 1974                                            medical                mobility-impaired
             nt Grants                                                                 services, jobs,        persons, and
                                                                                       etc.                   jobseekers
14.225       Community          Housing and       42 U.S.C.           Transit services To access              Low- and          $0
             Development        Community         § 5305(a)(8)                         social                 moderate-income (expended)
             Block              Development                                            services,              persons,
             Grants/Special     Act of 1974                                            medical                mobility-impaired
             Purpose                                                                   services, jobs,        persons, and
             Grants/Insular                                                            etc.                   jobseekers
             Areas




                                              Page 42                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                               Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                               Providing Transportation Services to the
                                               Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                       Typical use of
Catalog of                                        U.S. Code or         transportation       Purpose of        Target
Federal                          Popular title or other provision      funds as             trips as          population as       Fiscal year
Domestic                         original source cited as              reported by          reported by       defined by          2010 federal
Assistance                       of program       authorizing          program              program           program             spending on
no.          Program name        legislation      transportation       officials            officials         officials           transportationa
14.228       Community           Housing and       42 U.S.C.           Transit services To access             Low- and          $19,211
             Development         Community         § 5305(a)(8)                         social                moderate-income (expended)
             Block               Development                                            services,             persons,
             Grants/State’s      Act of 1974                                            medical               mobility-impaired
             program and                                                                services, jobs,       persons, and
             Non-Entitlement                                                            etc.                  jobseekers
             Grants in Hawaii
14.231       Emergency           McKinney-Vento 42 U.S.C. § 11374      Bus or transit       To access         Homeless            No actual data
             Shelter Grants      Homeless                              tokens, taxi         training                              or estimate
             Program             Assistance Act                        fares, and any       programs and                          available from
                                                                       related              other services                        the federal
                                                                       organizational       to enhance                            agency
                                                                       transportation       independence
                                                                       expenses
14.235       Supportive      Housing and           42 U.S.C.           Bus or transit       To access         Homeless            No actual data
             Housing Program Community             § 11385             tokens, taxi         training                              or estimate
                             Development                               fares, and any       programs and                          available from
                             Act of 1992                               related              other services                        the federal
                                                                       organizational       to enhance                            agency
                                                                       transportation       independence
                                                                       expenses
14.241       Housing             AIDS Housing      42 U.S.C.           Bus tokens, taxi     To access         Low to extremely $1,530,187
             Opportunities for   Opportunity Act   § 12907(a)(3)       fares, and any       supportive        low- income      (expended)
             Persons with                                              related              services, such    persons living
             AIDS                                                      organizational       as medical        with HIV/AIDS
                                                                       transportation       treatment,
                                                                       expenses             employment,
                                                                                            job training,
                                                                                            etc.
14.862       Indian              Housing and       42 U.S.C. §         Information not      To access         Indian and          No actual data
             Community           Community         5305(a)(8), 17      collected            public            Alaska Native       or estimate
             Development         Development                                                services,         communities,        available from
             Block Grant         Act of 1974                                                which are         primarily for       the federal
                                                                                            directed          persons with low-   agency
                                                                                            toward            and moderate-
                                                                                            improving the     incomes
                                                                                            community’s
                                                                                            public services
                                                                                            and facilities
14.866       HOPE VI             Housing Act of    42 U.S.C. §         Transportation       To access      Public housing         No actual data
             Revitalization      1937              1437v(d)(1)(L),     services             employment,    residents              or estimate
                                                   (i)(3)                                   education, and                        available from
                                                                                            other                                 the federal
                                                                                            supportive                            agency
                                                                                            services




                                               Page 43                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                                Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                                Providing Transportation Services to the
                                                Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                         Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or            transportation      Purpose of        Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision         funds as            trips as          population as       Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as                 reported by         reported by       defined by          2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing             program             program           program             spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation          officials           officials         officials           transportationa
14.867       Indian Housing     Native American 25 U.S.C.                Information not     To access self- Low- income           No actual data
             Block Grant        Housing         § 4132(3)                collected           sufficiency     Native                or estimate
                                Assistance and                                               services        Americans             available from
                                Self                                                                                               the federal
                                Determination                                                                                      agency
                                Act of 1996
14.889       Choice             Housing Act of      42 U.S.C. §          Transportation      To access         Public housing      No actual data
             Neighborhoods      1937                1437v(d)(1)(L),      services            employment,       residents and       or estimate
             Implementation                         (i)(3)                                   education, and    HUD-assisted        available from
             Grants                                                                          other             multifamily         the federal
                                                                                             supportive        housing             agency
                                                                                             services          residents
Department of the Interior
15.043       Indian Child and No Child Left         25 U.S.C.            School bus, off- To access            Preschool           $373,368
             Family Education Behind Act of         § 2001(b)(8)(C)(v)   road, and other school and            through adult       (estimate)
                              2001                                       vehicle leases   educational          students
                                                                                          activities
15.044       Indian Schools -   No Child Left       25 U.S.C.            School bus, off-    To access         Day and             $52,637,635
             Student            Behind Act of       § 2001(b)(8)(C)(v)   road, and other     school,           residential         (obligated)
             Transportation     2001                                     vehicle leases;     educational       students
                                                                         use of              activities, and
                                                                         commercial          for use in
                                                                         vehicles            emergency
                                                                                             situations
15.130       Indian Education   Johnson-            25 U.S.C.            Transporting        Trips could be Eligible students      No actual data
             Assistance to      O’Malley Act of     ch. 14, subchapter   students            to and from the are aged 3            or estimate
             Schools            April 16, 1934      II                                       project site or through grade 12      available from
                                                                                             an educational                        the federal
                                                                                             field trip                            agency
Department of Labor
17.211       Job Corps          Workforce           29 U.S.C. §          Travel for          Enrollment and    At-risk youth,      $24,100,000
                                Investment Act      2864(d)(2)           program             separation        ages 16-24, who     (estimate)
                                of 1998                                  enrollees           from the          meet low-
                                                                         between the         program           income criteria
                                                                         center and their
                                                                         home of record
                                                                         by bus, train, or
                                                                         plane
17.235       Senior             Older               42 U.S.C.            Information not     To access         Unemployed          No actual data
             Community          Americans Act       § 3056(c)(6)(A) (iv) known               program           Americans 55        or estimate
             Service            of 1965                                                      services and      years of age or     available from
             Employment                                                                      jobs              older, earning no   the federal
             Program                                                                                           more than 125%      agency
                                                                                                               of the poverty
                                                                                                               level




                                                Page 44                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                               Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                               Providing Transportation Services to the
                                               Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                         Typical use of
Catalog of                                       U.S. Code or            transportation     Purpose of      Target
Federal                         Popular title or other provision         funds as           trips as        population as       Fiscal year
Domestic                        original source cited as                 reported by        reported by     defined by          2010 federal
Assistance                      of program       authorizing             program            program         program             spending on
no.          Program name       legislation      transportation          officials          officials       officials           transportationa
17.245       Trade              Trade Act of       19 U.S.C.             Information not    To access job   Program             No actual data
             Adjustment         1974               § 2296(b)             known              training        participants and    or estimate
             Assistance -                                                                   programs, job   workers who         available from
             Workers                                                                        searches        seek                the federal
                                                                                            outside the     employment          agency
                                                                                            normal          outside the
                                                                                            commuting       normal
                                                                                            area, and       commuting area
                                                                                            relocation
                                                                                            expenses
17.258       Workforce          Workforce          29 U.S.C.             Information not    Supportive      Adults, with        No actual data
             Investment Act     Investment Act     § 2864(d)(2)          known              services to     priority to         or estimate
             Adult Services     of 1998                                                     enable          veterans and        available from
             Program                                                                        program         covered             the federal
                                                                                            participation   spouses, and        agency
                                                                                                            individuals
                                                                                                            receiving public
                                                                                                            assistance
17.259       Workforce          Workforce          29 U.S.C.             Information not    To access job   Low income          No actual data
             Investment Act     Investment Act     § 2854(a)(4)          known              training and    youth, ages 14-     or estimate
             Youth Activities   of 1998                                                     related         21 years old with   available from
                                                                                            activities      barriers to         the federal
                                                                                                            employment          agency
17.264       National        Workforce             29 U.S.C. § 774       Information not    To access       Disadvantaged       No actual data
             Farmworker Jobs Investment Act        (3)(A), 29 U.S.C. §   known              supportive      migrant and         or estimate
             Program         of 1998               2912 (d)                                 services        seasonal farm       available from
                                                                                                            workers             the federal
                                                                                                                                agency
17.265       Native American Workforce             29 U.S.C.             Bus passes,      To access         Indian tribes,      No actual data
             Employment and Investment Act         § 2911(d)(2)          vehicle mileage, employment        Alaska Natives,     or estimate
             Training        of 1998                                     gas for program activities         and Native          available from
                                                                         vehicles, and                      Hawaiians           the federal
                                                                         reasonable car                                         agency
                                                                         repairs
17.274       Youthbuild         Workforce          29 U.S.C. §§          Information not    To access       Youth, including    No actual data
                                Investment Act     2801(46)              known              program         those from low-     or estimate
                                of 1998                                                     services        income families     available from
                                                                                                            or those with a     the federal
                                                                                                            disability          agency
17.802       Veterans’          Workforce          29 U.S.C.             Transit tickets, To access         Veterans            No actual data
             Employment         Investment Act     § 2913                bus fare, or cab employment                            or estimate
             Program            of 1998                                  fare             activities                            available from
                                                                                                                                the federal
                                                                                                                                agency




                                               Page 45                                                GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                            Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                            Providing Transportation Services to the
                                            Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                    Typical use of
Catalog of                                      U.S. Code or        transportation       Purpose of       Target
Federal                        Popular title or other provision     funds as             trips as         population as     Fiscal year
Domestic                       original source cited as             reported by          reported by      defined by        2010 federal
Assistance                     of program       authorizing         program              program          program           spending on
no.          Program name      legislation      transportation      officials            officials        officials         transportationa
17.805       Homeless          Homeless         38 USCA             Transit tickets, To access            Homeless          No actual data
             Veterans’         Veterans         §§ 2011, 2021       bus fare, or cab employment           veterans          or estimate
             Reintegration     Comprehensive                        fare             activities                             available from
             Project           Assistance Act                                                                               the federal
                               of 2001                                                                                      agency
Department of Transportation
20.500       Capital           Mass             49 U.S.C.           Funding for bus General               General public    $3,566,689,946j
             Investment        Transportation   § 5309              and bus         transportation                          (obligated)
             Grants            Act of 1964                          facilities, new
                                                                    fixed guideway
                                                                    and
                                                                    modernization,
                                                                    and other
                                                                    capital
                                                                    expenses
20.507       Urbanized Area  Mass               49 U.S.C.           Funding for          Support transit General public in $4,849,410,834
             Formula Program Transportation     § 5307              transportation       service in      urbanized areas (obligated)
                             Act of 1964                            service for          cities over
                                                                    transportation       50,000
                                                                    projects in cities   population
20.509       Nonurbanized      Federal Public   49 U.S.C.           Funding for          To increase      General public    $624,837,418k
             Area Formula      Transportation   § 5311              transportation       and enhance      and federally     (obligated)
             Program           Act of 1978                          service for          public           recognized tribes
                                                                    public transit       transportation
                                                                    and intercity        service in
                                                                    bus                  nonurbanized
                                                                    transportation       areas and for
                                                                    projects in          tribes
                                                                    nonurbanized
                                                                    areas
20.513       Capital          Urban Mass        49 U.S.C.           Purchase of          General          Elderly           $176,237,261
             Assistance       Transportation    § 5310              capital              transportation   individuals and   (obligated)
             Program for      Act of 1970                           expenses to          services         persons with
             Elderly Persons                                        support                               disabilities
             and Persons with                                       transportation
             Disabilities                                           services
20.516       Job Access and    Safe,            49 U.S.C.           Purchase of     To access             Low-income        $163,976,876
             Reverse           Accountable,     § 5316              small buses and employment            individuals and   (obligated)
             Commute           Flexible,                            vans            and related           reverse
                               Efficient                                            services              commuters
                               Transportation
                               Equity Act: A
                               Legacy for
                               Users




                                            Page 46                                               GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
                                               Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
                                               Providing Transportation Services to the
                                               Transportation Disadvantaged




                                                                                  Typical use of
Catalog of                                         U.S. Code or                   transportation           Purpose of            Target
Federal                           Popular title or other provision                funds as                 trips as              population as              Fiscal year
Domestic                          original source cited as                        reported by              reported by           defined by                 2010 federal
Assistance                        of program       authorizing                    program                  program               program                    spending on
no.          Program name         legislation      transportation                 officials                officials             officials                  transportationa
20.518       Capital and          Urban Mass         49 U.S.C.                    Purchase of              Intercity fixed- General public                  $544,261
             Training             Transportation     § 5310                       capital                  route, charter, and individuals                  (obligated)
             Assistance           Act of 1970                                     expenses that            commuter, and with disabilities
             Program for                                                          will result in           tour bus
             Over-the-Road                                                        vehicles being           transportation
             Bus Accessibility                                                    accessible
20.521       New Freedom          Safe,              49 U.S.C § 5317              Provide                  To enhance            Individuals with           $90,140,813
             Program              Accountable,                                    expanded                 transportation        disabilities               (obligated)
                                  Flexible,                                       service in both          systems and
                                  Efficient                                       geographic               access to
                                  Transportation                                  coverage and             those systems
                                  Equity Act: A                                   hours or days of
                                  Legacy for                                      service
                                  Users
Department of Veterans Affairsl
64.009       Veterans Medical Veterans               38 U.S.C. § 111              Mileage                  To access VA          Low-income and             $745,315,000m
             Care Benefits    Benefits Act of                                     reimbursement;           or VA-                special-group              (obligated)
                              1957                                                special mode             authorized            veterans
                                                                                  (ambulance,              non-VA health
                                                                                  wheelchair               care
                                                                                  van); common
                                                                                  carrier (air, bus,
                                                                                  train, boat, taxi)
64.024       VA Homeless          Homeless        38 U.S.C. §§                    Purchase vans            Outreach to           Homeless                   $720,167n
             Providers Grant      Veterans        2011(b)(1)(B),                                           and                   veterans                   (obligated)
             and Per Diem         Comprehensive 7721 Note                                                  transportation
             Program              Service                                                                  of homeless
                                  Programs Act of                                                          veterans by
                                  1992                                                                     community-
                                                                                                           based
                                                                                                           providers
64.026       Veterans State   Veterans        38 U.S.C.                           Any expenses             Adult day             Veterans                   No actual data
             Adult Day Health Millennium      § 1720; 38 U.S.C.                   for                      health care                                      or estimate
             Care             Health Care and § 111                               transportation                                                            available from
                              Benefits Act                                                                                                                  the federal
                                                                                                                                                            agency
                                               Source: GAO analysis of information from the Departments of Agriculture, Education, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban
                                               Development, Interior, Labor, Transportation, and Veterans Affairs; the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, the U.S. Code; and
                                               the Code of Federal Regulations.

                                               a
                                                Spending was reported by program officials, and we did not verify the information. Amounts
                                               obligated or expended on transportation are given, depending upon the information available. When
                                               actual information was not available, agency officials provided estimates.
                                               b
                                                According to program officials, figure is expenditure data reported by state vocational rehabilitation
                                               agencies to the Department of Education on the Annual Vocational Rehabilitation Program Cost
                                               Report (RSA-2) form.




                                               Page 47                                                                  GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix II: Inventory of Federal Programs
Providing Transportation Services to the
Transportation Disadvantaged




c
 According to program officials, figure includes $69,133,539 for transportation and $4,452,178 for
assisted transportation (assistance and transportation for a person who has difficulties using regular
transportation).
d
 Health center grantees reported spending $26.3 million on transportation services in calendar year
2010, according to program officials.
e
 Fiscal year 2010 data was not yet available, and fiscal year 2009 spending ($22,863,512) can be
used as an estimate, according to program officials.
f
 According to program officials, $3,681,903 is the federal share for states that recorded transportation
expenses under Line 23 - Medical Transportation on the CMS 21. There is no dedicated line item for
Administrative Transportation expenses. If there are any Transportation Administration expenditures,
they may be reported in the Other line item category, however there is no separation to break it out.
g
 According to program officials, $786,966,682 is the federal share for states that recorded
transportation expenses under Line 29 - Nonemergency Transportation Services on the CMS 64. This
information does not include expenditures for nonemergency medical transportation claimed as an
Administrative Transportation expense, as there is no dedicated line item for such expenses.
h
 According to program officials, 2010 Part A and Part B expenditures for transportation are not
available. As an estimate, officials used 2009 Part A - $10,750,025 and Part B expenditures -
$5,598,234 from the Ryan White 2009 Part B Expenditure Report.
i
In fiscal year 2009, $4.0 million was expended nationally among all CDBG grantees for transportation
services, according to program officials.
j
According to program officials, figure includes: 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities $516,224,661; 5309
Fixed Guideway Modernization $1,383,358,415; and 5309 New Starts $1,667,106,870.
k
    Figure does not include Tribal Transit, according to program officials.
l
According to program officials, Pub. L. No. 111-163, § 307, 124 Stat. 1154 (38 U.S.C. § 1710 Note)
will provide grants for transportation of veterans in highly rural areas, however the program has not
yet become operational and funds had not been spent as of January 2012.
m
 Figure includes Special Mode/Common Carrier ($313,797,000) and Mileage ($431,518,000),
according to program officials.
n
 Figure was amount obligated in fiscal year 2010 for 32 van grants, and grantees have 5 years to
spend these funds, according to program officials.




Page 48                                                       GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix III: Comments from the
              Appendix III: Comments from the Department
              of Education



Department of Education




              Page 49                                      GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix III: Comments from the Department
of Education




Page 50                                      GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  David J. Wise, (202) 512-2834, wised@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the individual named above, other key contributors to this
Staff             report were Heather MacLeod, Assistant Director; Rebekah Boone; Brian
Acknowledgments   Chung; Jennifer Clayborne; Jean Cook; Bert Japikse; Delwen Jones; and
                  Sara Ann Moessbauer.




(542187)
                  Page 51                                  GAO-12-647 Transportation Coordination
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