oversight

Intelligence Community Personnel: Strategic Approach and Training Requirements Needed to Guide Joint Duty Program

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-06-20.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




June 2012
             INTELLIGENCE
             COMMUNITY
             PERSONNEL
             Strategic Approach
             and Training
             Requirements Needed
             to Guide Joint Duty
             Program




GAO-12-679
                                               June 2012

                                               INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY PERSONNEL
                                               Strategic Approach and Training Requirements
                                               Needed to Guide Joint Duty Program
Highlights of GAO-12-679, a report to
congressional requesters




Why GAO Did This Study                         What GAO Found
In the years following the terrorist           All of the Intelligence Community (IC) elements except for one are participating in
attacks on September 11, 2001,                 the Joint Duty Program and the IC elements generally view the program as
Congress enacted the Intelligence              beneficial. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), the Defense
Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act            Security Service, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence,
of 2004, which gives the Director of           and 15 other IC components have identified an office or individual responsible for
National Intelligence the responsibility       facilitating the program. However, the U.S. Coast Guard (Coast Guard), which
to establish a personnel rotational            ordinarily operates under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), does not
program (the Joint Duty Program)               participate in the program, even though the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism
across the IC. The intended purpose is
                                               Prevention Act of 2004 and IC guidance stipulate that the Joint Duty Program
to facilitate IC personnel’s
                                               applies to the defined IC, which includes the Coast Guard’s civilian personnel in
understanding of the wide range of
intelligence requirements, methods,
                                               its National Intelligence Element. Coast Guard officials stated it delayed its
users, and capabilities. GAO evaluated         participation in the program because it first plans to conduct a workforce study
the extent to which (1) IC elements are        that will determine how the Coast Guard will participate, but it has not identified a
participating in the Joint Duty Program,       timeframe for the study’s completion, and the position assigned to conduct the
(2) the ODNI has developed a strategic         study is currently vacant. As a result, personnel in other IC elements may not
framework to help ensure the effective         fully understand the Coast Guard’s intelligence mission and Coast Guard
implementation of the Joint Duty               employees may have limited opportunities to collaborate with other IC elements.
Program, and (3) ODNI has
                                               ODNI has not established a strategic framework to guide the implementation of
established training and education
                                               the Joint Duty Program across the IC. GAO has noted in prior work the
programs to support the Joint Duty
Program. GAO reviewed the Joint Duty           importance of having a strategic framework to guide program implementation.
Program’s legislative requirements and         However, ODNI has not clearly defined the program’s mission, established
guidance, analyzed data on program             performance goals, and measured progress toward achieving those goals.
participants, and interviewed program          Further, program officials told GAO that they collected IC element data on joint
officials from the entire IC.                  duty rotations, but GAO found that they had not used these data to evaluate
                                               progress toward achieving program goals. In addition, although the Director of
What GAO Recommends                            National Intelligence has emphasized the importance of the program, GAO found
GAO recommends that DHS take                   that the ODNI Joint Duty Program Office Chief position has experienced
steps to have the Coast Guard                  repeated turnover since the program’s inception. Specifically, five different
participate in the Joint Duty Program.         people have served in the Joint Duty Program Chief position in the past 3 years.
GAO also recommends that ODNI                  Further, ODNI officials stated that the Joint Duty Chief position had recently been
develop a strategic framework to               downgraded from a Senior National Intelligence Service position to a General
implement the program across the IC            Schedule 15 position. Absent a comprehensive strategic framework that
and that ODNI establish and document           transcends turnovers in program leadership, program efforts are disjointed, and
the program’s training requirements            decision makers within ODNI lack the information they need to successfully
and develop a plan and timeline for            manage the program.
implementing them. DHS and the
Coast Guard agreed with GAO’s                  ODNI also has not formally established professional training and education
recommendation to the Coast Guard.             programs to support the Joint Duty Program, as directed in 2007 ODNI guidance.
ODNI generally agreed with GAO’s               ODNI has identified three IC-related courses intended for personnel participating
recommendations, but raised concerns           in the Joint Duty Program but has waived the requirement to complete these
about the findings on performance              courses. Officials from nine IC elements expressed various concerns about the
goals and the strategic framework.             content and rigor of the three courses, such as that the courses could be
GAO continues to believe in the                duplicative of existing agency-specific training courses. Further, ODNI has not
findings as stated in the report.              yet determined or documented the program’s training requirements in guidance
                                               and has not yet developed a plan and timeline for implementing the training. As a
View GAO-12-679. For more information,
contact Brenda S. Farrell, (202) 512-3604 or   result, ODNI is not positioned to use the Joint Duty Program to foster the widest
farrellb@gao.gov.                              possible understanding of intelligence requirements, methods, users, and
                                               capabilities.
                                                                                        United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                       1
               Background                                                                    5
               All IC Elements Except for One Are Participating in the Joint Duty
                  Program                                                                    9
               ODNI Has Not Established a Strategic Framework to Guide
                  Implementation                                                           12
               ODNI Has Not Formally Established Professional Training and
                  Education Programs to Support the Joint Duty Program                     19
               Conclusions                                                                 21
               Recommendations for Executive Action                                        22
               Agency Comments and Our Evaluation                                          23

Appendix I     Scope and Methodology                                                       29



Appendix II    Noninteractive Graphic and Text for Figure 1                                34



Appendix III   Overview of the Joint Duty Program                                          36



Appendix IV    Comments from the Department of Homeland Security                           39



Appendix V     Comments from the Office of the Director of National Intelligence           41



Appendix VI    GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                       45



Figures
               Figure 1: Organization of the Intelligence Community (IC)                     6
               Figure 2: Timeline of Key IC Joint Duty Related Events                        8
               Figure 3: Process Employees Use to Apply for and Rotate to a Joint
                        Duty Assignment                                                      9




               Page i                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Abbreviations

DOD               Department of Defense
GS                General Schedule
IC                Intelligence Community
IRTPA             Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004
ODNI              Office of the Director of National Intelligence




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Page ii                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   June 20, 2012

                                   The Honorable Daniel Akaka
                                   Chairman
                                   Subcommittee on Oversight of Management, the Federal Workforce, and
                                    the District of Columbia
                                   Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
                                   United States Senate

                                   The Honorable Jason Chaffetz
                                   Chairman
                                   The Honorable John Tierney
                                   Ranking Member
                                   Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense, and Foreign
                                    Operations
                                   Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
                                   House of Representatives

                                   The Honorable Jeff Flake
                                   House of Representatives

                                   In the years following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the
                                   President and Congress commissioned reviews that identified significant
                                   institutional, cultural, and organizational factors that had prevented the
                                   components of the U.S. Intelligence Community 1 (IC) from operating in an
                                   effective and collaborative manner. 2 In one report to the President, a


                                   1
                                    The U.S. Intelligence Community comprises 17 components. The Office of the Director of
                                   National Intelligence oversees the Intelligence Community, and is counted as one of the
                                   17 components. The other 16 components are: the National Security Agency, National
                                   Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, Defense Intelligence
                                   Agency, Army Intelligence, Navy Intelligence, Marine Corps Intelligence, Air Force
                                   Intelligence (Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance), Central
                                   Intelligence Agency, Department of Homeland Security (Office of Intelligence and
                                   Analysis), Department of State (Bureau of Intelligence and Research), Department of
                                   Treasury (Office of Intelligence and Analysis), Federal Bureau of Investigation (National
                                   Security Branch), Drug Enforcement Administration (Office of National Security
                                   Intelligence), U.S. Coast Guard (Intelligence and Criminal Investigations), and Department
                                   of Energy (Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence).
                                   2
                                    Office of the Director of National Intelligence, United States Intelligence Community
                                   Report on IC Pay Modernization: Response to Section 308 of H.R. 2082, the Intelligence
                                   Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (Apr. 22, 2008).




                                   Page 1                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
commission concluded that the IC had failed to encourage joint personnel
assignments that could break down cultural barriers and foster
collaboration among intelligence components. 3 In enacting the
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA),
Congress included a provision requiring the Director of National
Intelligence to prescribe mechanisms to facilitate the rotation of IC
personnel to other IC elements 4 during their careers, in order to obtain the
widest possible understanding of the range of intelligence requirements,
methods, users, and capabilities through the IC. 5 Specifically, according
to IRTPA, the Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with IC
element heads, is to prescribe personnel policies and programs to:

•   Encourage and facilitate assignments and details of personnel to
    national intelligence centers, and between elements of the IC;
•   Set standards for education, training, and career development of
    personnel within the IC; and
•   Make service in more than one element of the IC a condition of
    promotion to such positions within the IC as the Director of National
    Intelligence specifies.
The Director of National Intelligence issued a directive 6 and policy
guidance 7 for the Intelligence Community Civilian Joint Duty Program
(Joint Duty Program) in 2006 and 2007, respectively, that prescribe




3
 The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding
Weapons of Mass Destruction, Report to the President of the United States (Mar. 31,
2005).
4
 For purposes of this report, references to the IC elements include the Office of the Under
Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, the Defense Security Service, and the 17 IC
components noted above because they are all subject to the Joint Duty Program
requirement. Although the Defense Security Service is technically not part of the IC, it is
also included in our scope because Defense Security Service civilian personnel fall under
the Under Secretary for Defense for Intelligence and are subject to the Joint Duty Program
requirement.
5
 Pub. L. No. 108-458, § 1011 (2004) (amending § 102A of the National Security Act of
1947, as codified at 50 U.S.C. § 403-1).
6
 Intelligence Community Directive 601, Human Capital: Joint Intelligence Community Duty
Assignments (May 16, 2006) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).
7
 Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1, Intelligence Community Civilian Joint
Duty Program Implementing Instructions (June 25, 2007) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).




Page 2                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
requirements for obtaining joint duty credit. 8 According to the directive, IC
joint duty positions are typically limited to those classified at General
Schedule (GS) 13 and above (or similar categories). A joint duty
assignment means a temporary detail of employees away from their
home elements to rotational assignments in an appropriate joint duty
position with another IC element for at least 12 months. 9 Further, the
policy guidance establishes an expectation that ODNI will, in consultation
with the heads of the IC elements, develop a Joint Leadership
Development Program to provide professional training and education to
personnel who are on, or have completed, one or more joint duty
assignments. Subject to the provisions of the policy guidance, promotion
to Senior Executive/Senior Professional positions is contingent on earning
joint duty credit. 10

In 2009, the Chairman and then-Ranking Member of the Senate
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs,
Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal
Workforce, and the District of Columbia, asked us to review the Joint Duty
Program. Subsequently, the then-Chairman and then-Ranking Member of
the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform,
Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, asked to be
added as requestors. 11 In response to this request, we examined the



8
 Subject to the conditions described in the policy guidance, joint duty credit can generally
be earned by working for at least 12 months in another IC element, in an organization
outside the IC, within an employee’s home element in a position that has been specifically
designated as providing joint duty credit, and in certain liaison and equivalent positions or
on internal assignments (e.g., serving on joint task forces). Furthermore, any individual
deployed to a designated combat zone for 179 days or more will satisfy the 12-month
minimum requirement for joint duty credit.
9
 Under the directive, a joint duty assignment may also be a permanent assignment of an
employee from a position in one IC element to a position in another IC element.
10
 Under this directive, Senior Executives/Senior Professionals include IC civilian
employees in Senior National Intelligence Service, Defense Intelligence Senior Executive
Service, Senior Intelligence Service, Senior Executive Service, Senior Level, senior
Scientific and Technical, and/or equivalent positions that are classified above GS-15, or
employees with comparable rank.
11
  When the 112th Congress organized, the name of the House subcommittee was
changed to the Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense, and Foreign
Operations. In addition, former Ranking Member Flake was no longer a member of the
subcommittee but asked to remain a requester for this engagement, and the new
subcommittee Chairman, Representative Chaffetz, asked to be added to the request.




Page 3                                        GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
extent to which (1) IC elements are participating in the Joint Duty
Program, (2) the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) has
developed a strategic framework to help ensure the effective
implementation of the Joint Duty Program across the IC, and (3) ODNI
has established training and education programs to support the Joint Duty
Program.

To evaluate the extent to which the IC elements are participating in the
Joint Duty Program, we interviewed cognizant agency officials and
reviewed program documentation and guidance from ODNI, the Office of
the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, the Defense Security
Service, and the Joint Duty Program offices (or equivalent entity) from
each of the remaining 16 IC components. To evaluate the extent to which
ODNI has developed a strategic framework to help ensure the effective
implementation of the Joint Duty Program across the IC, we reviewed
legislative requirements set out in IRTPA and governmentwide best
practices for program implementation; 12 collected, reviewed, and
analyzed key guidance issued by ODNI; and interviewed cognizant
agency officials within ODNI, the Office of the Under Secretary of
Defense for Intelligence, the Defense Security Service, and the joint duty
program offices (or similar entity) of each of the remaining 16 IC
components. We also requested, reviewed, and analyzed data from the
IC elements to describe personnel participation in the IC Joint Duty
Program. These data included the job series of individuals on rotations to
IC elements and the method by which joint duty credit was earned. We
found the data were sufficiently reliable to ascertain the characteristics of
IC personnel participating in the Joint Duty Program in fiscal years 2010
and 2011. To evaluate the extent to which ODNI has established training
and education programs to support the Joint Duty Program, we reviewed
requirements related to training and education programs set out in
IRTPA, Intelligence Community Directive 601 and Intelligence Community
Policy Guidance 601.1—which prescribe the Joint Duty Program—and
analyzed ODNI documents related to those programs. We also
interviewed officials from each of the IC elements to gain their
perspectives on the actions ODNI had taken to establish training and
education requirements for the Joint Duty Program. Additionally, we



12
  GAO, Government Performance: GPRA Modernization Act Provides Opportunities to
Help Address Fiscal, Performance, and Management Challenges, GAO-11-466T
(Washington, D.C.: Mar. 16, 2011).




Page 4                                  GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                         interviewed officials from the National Intelligence University to ascertain
                         the extent to which they support the Joint Duty Program.

                         We conducted this performance audit from January 2010 13 through June
                         2012 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing
                         standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to
                         obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for
                         our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe
                         that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings
                         and conclusions based on our audit objectives. A more thorough
                         description of our scope and methodology is provided in appendix I.



Background
Organization of the IC   Established by IRTPA, the Director of National Intelligence serves as
                         head of the IC, acts as the principal advisor to the President and National
                         Security Council on intelligence matters, and oversees and directs the
                         implementation of the National Intelligence Program. The IC comprises
                         17 different organizations across the federal government. The Office of
                         the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence oversees all DOD
                         intelligence policies and activities. As shown in figure 1, the IC elements
                         that are subject to ODNI’s Joint Duty Program requirements consist of the
                         Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the Office of the Under
                         Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, the Defense Security Service, and
                         16 IC components.




                         13
                           We initially began this engagement in January 2010, and notified ODNI of our intention
                         to schedule an entrance conference in early February. At the end of March 2010, ODNI
                         provided us with a copy of the ODNI Office of the Inspector General, The Intelligence
                         Community Civilian Joint Duty Program: Implementation Status Report, CAS-2008-0003
                         (Washington, D.C.: October 2009). We initially agreed with ODNI to postpone the
                         entrance conference pending our review of their report. Subsequently, section 348 of the
                         Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-259 (2010), directed
                         ODNI, in consultation with the Comptroller General, to develop a written directive
                         governing GAO’s access to information from elements of the IC. Pending issuance of this
                         guidance, we suspended this engagement temporarily. The ODNI issued guidance in April
                         2011, accompanied by comments from the Comptroller General, and work on this
                         engagement resumed in August 2011. See Intelligence Community Directive 114:
                         Comptroller General Access to Intelligence Community Information (effective June 30,
                         2011).




                         Page 5                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Figure 1: Organization of the Intelligence Community (IC)

              Interactivity instructions:                                       Click on the office to view more information.             See appendix II for the non-interactive, printer-friendly version.


                                                                                                           Office of the
                                                                                                           Director of National
                                                                                                           Intelligence




   Defense              E
                            SEC
                                     UR I T
                                              Y
                                                  S            Office of the Under
                NS




   Security                                                    Secretary of
                                                  ER
               DE FE




                                                      V I CE




   Servicea                                                    Defense for
                                                      A
                UN




                                                  IC




                       ED


                                                               Intelligence
                  IT




                                                  R




                                                  E
                            ST                M
                                 AT E S O F A




   Department of Defense


        Army                                                                    Defense                                              Central                                      National
        Military                                                                Intelligence                                         Intelligence                                 Security
        Intelligence                                                            Agency                                               Agency                                       Branch

        Department of Defense                                                   Department of Defense                                Independent                                  Department of Justice (FBI)


        Naval                                                                   National                                             Office of                                    Office of National
        Intelligence                                                            Geospatial-                                          Intelligence and                             Security
                                                                                Intelligence Agency                                  Counterintelligence                          Intelligence

        Department of Defense                                                   Department of Defense                                Department of Energy                         Department of Justice (DEA)


        Marine Corps                                                            National                                             Office of                                    Bureau of
        Intelligence                                                            Reconnaissance                                       Intelligence                                 Intelligence
                                                                                Office                                               and Analysis                                 and Research

        Department of Defense                                                   Department of Defense                                Department of Homeland Security              Department of State


        Air Force                                                               National                                             Coast Guard                                  Office of
        Intelligence,                                                           Security                                             Intelligence and                             Intelligence and
        Surveillance and                                                        Agency                                               Criminal                                     Analysis
        Reconnaissance                                                                                                               Investigations
        Department of Defense                                                   Department of Defense                                Department of Homeland Security              Department of the Treasury



                                                                                         Source: GAO analysis of ODNI information.
                                                                                         a
                                                                                             The DSS is not a component of the IC, but falls under the USDI and, under DOD policy, is a participant in the Joint Duty Program.




                                                                                       Page 6                                                                GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Establishment of the Joint   IRTPA provides statutory authority to the Director of National Intelligence
Duty Program                 to create the Joint Duty Program. Specifically, IRTPA provides that ODNI
                             shall prescribe mechanisms to facilitate the rotation of IC personnel
                             through various elements of the IC in the course of their careers in order
                             to facilitate the widest possible understanding by these personnel of the
                             variety of intelligence requirements, methods, users, and capabilities.
                             Such mechanisms may include establishing requirements for education,
                             training, and evaluation for service involving more than one element of
                             the IC.

                             Congress noted in IRTPA that the mechanisms prescribed for the Joint
                             Duty Program should, to the extent practical, try to duplicate the joint
                             officer management policies established by the Goldwater-Nichols
                             Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. 14 At the time
                             Goldwater-Nichols was enacted, cultural change was needed to move
                             DOD away from its service parochialisms toward interservice cooperation
                             and coordination so that DOD could better prepare its military leaders to
                             plan, support, and conduct joint, or multiservice, operations. Goldwater-
                             Nichols required DOD to develop officers in joint matters through
                             education, to assign officers who meet specified criteria to joint positions,
                             and to factor this joint education and experience into its officer promotion
                             decisions.

                             To help facilitate the transformation to a more integrated and collaborative
                             Intelligence Community, in October 2007 ODNI released a 500 Day Plan
                             that identified six key focus areas which contained core and enabling
                             initiatives that ODNI planned to execute to deepen integration of the IC’s
                             people, processes, and technologies. 15 The first key focus area in the 500
                             Day Plan was creating a culture of collaboration, and a core initiative in
                             the plan to address this area was implementing the civilian IC Joint Duty
                             Program, which also included the design, development, and execution of
                             the Joint Leadership Development Program. The Joint Leadership
                             Development Program was intended to provide professional training and



                             14
                              Pub. Law No. 99-433 (1986).
                             15
                               United States Intelligence Community, 500 Day Plan: Integration and Collaboration (Oct.
                             10, 2007). This document was a key source of strategic direction when the Joint Duty
                             Program was initially implemented, and it emphasized the importance of training and
                             education as part of the program. However, in June 2012 ODNI told us that this plan is
                             now outdated and no longer provides strategic direction for ODNI.




                             Page 7                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                                         education for employees who are participating in or who have completed
                                         a joint duty assignment.

                                         Figure 2 provides a timeline of the key events surrounding the
                                         implementation of the Joint Duty Program.

Figure 2: Timeline of Key IC Joint Duty Related Events




                                         Page 8                              GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Process Employees Use to                While individuals apply for joint duty assignments using the internal
Apply for and Rotate to a               policies and procedures established by their home element, the basic
Joint Duty Assignment                   procedures that employees must follow to apply for and rotate to a joint
                                        duty assignment are uniform, as established by ODNI guidance. Figure 3
                                        provides an overview of these fundamental processes.

Figure 3: Process Employees Use to Apply for and Rotate to a Joint Duty Assignment




                                        For a more complete overview of the Joint Duty Program, see appendix
                                        III.


                                        To date, all of the IC elements are participating in the Joint Duty Program
All IC Elements                         except for the U.S. Coast Guard, 16 and each of the participating IC
Except for One Are                      elements has identified an agency-specific office or individual responsible
Participating in the                    for facilitating the Joint Duty Program at that level. Responsibilities of the
                                        office or individual responsible for facilitating the program include
Joint Duty Program                      managing the rotations of personnel to other IC elements—for example,
                                        negotiating memorandums of understanding for assignments and
                                        adjudicating joint duty credit. 17 In addition, each IC element has some
                                        flexibility with respect to how its internal process for participating in the


                                        16
                                             The U.S. Coast Guard is a component agency of the Department of Homeland Security.
                                        17
                                          The ODNI has developed a standard memorandum of understanding that includes
                                        provisions governing rotational assignments and is used by all of the IC elements, who
                                        then tailor the provisions to govern each individual rotational assignment.




                                        Page 9                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Joint Duty Program is implemented. As a result of this flexibility, several
IC elements have established unique measures that facilitate the Joint
Duty Program at their element. For example, the National Geospatial-
Intelligence Agency preapproves individuals to participate in joint duty
assignments prior to the application process to ensure that employees
meet Joint Duty Program standard requirements, strategically places
employees in appropriate rotational assignments, and plans for
employees’ return after their rotations. The U.S. Marine Corps has
initiated a similar process. In addition, the Federal Bureau of Investigation
is starting a mandatory “out-briefing” class for all personnel temporarily
assigned to another organization, including Joint Duty Program
participants. This class will cover issues that personnel commonly face
while they are away from their home element, such as the way time and
attendance should be handled and how the reintegration process will
work. Furthermore, at the Department of State, returning joint duty
participants complete presentations and brief co-workers through “Trade
Craft” presentations, which serve as a forum to share knowledge gained
during joint duty rotations.

IC officials cited enhanced collaboration, increased networking, and a
better understanding of the community as a whole as positive aspects of
the Joint Duty Program. Further, around half of the IC element officials we
interviewed stated that senior-level agency leaders supported the
program. Several officials noted that ODNI’s monthly community of
practice meetings for Joint Duty Program managers were a good way to
share information about the program—for example, best practices
regarding different IC elements’ program implementation measures.
Other IC element officials noted that the Joint Duty Program provides a
benefit to their elements because personnel returning from joint duty
assignments are able to leverage their new skills or knowledge to benefit
the home element. Finally, officials from the IC elements identified one
other benefit of the program—individuals rotating to other IC elements
have a new opportunity to develop professionally.

The U.S. Coast Guard, however, has not participated in the Joint Duty
Program. U.S. Coast Guard officials stated that its participation has been
delayed because they plan to conduct a workforce study on
developmental needs for their civilian personnel, which will include
determining how the U.S. Coast Guard will participate in the Joint Duty
Program. However, the U.S. Coast Guard has not identified a time frame
for the completion of the workforce study and noted that the position
assigned the responsibility for conducting the study is vacant because the
U.S. Coast Guard is currently under a hiring freeze due to budgetary


Page 10                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
constraints. U.S. Coast Guard officials did note they have begun sending
a representative to the ODNI Community of Practice meetings so that the
U.S. Coast Guard can learn about joint duty best practices and
challenges that other IC elements have faced. Nevertheless, IRTPA,
Intelligence Community Directive 601, and DOD Instruction 1400.36 18
stipulate that the Joint Duty Program applies to the defined IC, which
includes the U.S. Coast Guard’s civilian intelligence personnel in its
National Intelligence Element. Because the ODNI Joint Duty Program
guidance states that joint duty credit is a mandatory qualification
requirement in order for personnel to be eligible for promotion to any
civilian position classified above the GS-15 level (such as Senior
Executive Service positions), nonparticipation means that the U.S. Coast
Guard may be unable to promote any of its civilian intelligence personnel
to fill vacancies in intelligence positions at the senior executive level.
Although Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1 allows the
requirement of joint duty certification for promotion to senior executive
positions to be waived, ODNI officials stated they do not anticipate
granting waivers in the future. 19 Although the U.S. Coast Guard’s civilian
intelligence workforce is smaller than those of most of the other IC
elements, without the U.S. Coast Guard’s participation in the Joint Duty
Program, personnel in the other IC elements may not fully understand the
U.S. Coast Guard’s intelligence requirements, methods, users, and
capabilities to secure the nation’s ports and coastal waters. Further, the
U.S. Coast Guard’s IC employees may be missing an opportunity to
better understand other IC elements’ missions, cultures, and capabilities,
apply that knowledge to achieving the U.S. Coast Guard’s mission, and
improve collaboration with other IC elements.




18
  Department of Defense Instruction 1400.36, DOD Implementation of the Joint
Intelligence Community Duty Assignment (JDA) Program (June 2, 2008).
19
  The authority to grant joint duty waivers and exemptions may be exercised at the
discretion of the Director of National Intelligence, and for Department of Defense IC
agencies and elements, at the discretion of the Under Secretary of Defense for
Intelligence, when designated as the Director of Defense Intelligence (DDI).




Page 11                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
ODNI Has Not
Established a
Strategic Framework
to Guide
Implementation

ODNI Lacks a Strategic   ODNI does not have a strategic framework to effectively guide the
Framework                implementation of the Joint Duty Program. Our previous work has shown
                         the importance of establishing a comprehensive and integrated strategic
                         framework to help ensure successful organizational transformation. 20
                         Further, our prior work has demonstrated that having an effective plan for
                         implementing programs and measuring progress can help decision
                         makers determine whether initiatives are achieving desired results. 21
                         Specifically, we have reported that an effective plan for implementing a
                         results-oriented strategic framework requires agencies to (1) clearly
                         define a program’s mission, (2) establish performance goals for which
                         they will be held accountable and have quantifiable measures to gauge
                         progress toward those goals, (3) determine strategies and resources to
                         effectively accomplish those goals, (4) use performance information to
                         make programmatic decisions necessary to make improvements, and
                         (5) formally communicate results in performance reports. 22

                         Accordingly, we reviewed and analyzed a variety of ODNI documents
                         such as joint duty guidance, the Joint Duty Program’s “IC Joint Duty
                         Communications Strategy,” and the Joint Duty Program’s “Joint Duty


                         20
                          GAO, Defense Business Transformation: Achieving Success Requires a Chief
                         Management Officer to Provide Focus and Sustained Leadership, GAO-07-1072
                         (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 5, 2007).
                         21
                          See for example, GAO, Preventing Sexual Harassment: DOD Needs Greater
                         Leadership Commitment and an Oversight Framework, GAO-11-809 (Washington, D.C.:
                         Sept. 21, 2011); Government Performance: GPRA Modernization Act Provides
                         Opportunities to Help Address Fiscal, Performance, and Management Challenges,
                         GAO-11-466T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 16, 2011); Military Personnel: DOD Needs an
                         Oversight Framework and Standards to Improve Management of Its Casualty Assistance
                         Programs, GAO-06-1010 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 22, 2006); Results-Oriented
                         Government: GPRA Has Established a Solid Foundation for Achieving Greater Results,
                         GAO-04-38 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 10, 2004).
                         22
                          GAO-11-809.




                         Page 12                                  GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Vision, Mission, & Strategy” to determine if the components of a strategic
framework existed either independently or as a single comprehensive
framework. At the time of our review, ODNI’s “Joint Duty Vision, Mission,
& Strategy,” for example, stated that the program’s mission was to “create
cross-agency expertise” and that the program’s strategy was to “provide
the workforce with opportunities for cross-agency collaboration and
interdisciplinary experience.” However, this document did not include the
key components of a strategic framework, and neither does ODNI’s joint
duty directive or policy guidance. We found that although ODNI has taken
some steps related to some of the components, such as collecting data
on Joint Duty Program participation from the IC elements, opportunities
for improvement exist in all components of a results-oriented strategic
framework, as discussed below. Additionally, in May 2012, ODNI officials
told us that their current “Joint Duty Vision, Mission, & Strategy” as well
as its “IC Joint Duty Communications Strategy” were outdated,
incomplete, and did not reflect the views of the current leadership. 23 ODNI
officials also stated that these documents would be rewritten in their
entirety; however, at the time of our review, officials indicated that no
timeline for completion had been set.

Define the mission. Prior to ODNI’s decision to rewrite its “Joint Duty
Vision, Mission, & Strategy” noted above, some of the IC officials we
interviewed stated that the Joint Duty Program mission is not clearly
defined. As a result, IC elements interpret Joint Duty Program policy and
guidance inconsistently. For some, the primary mission of joint duty
assignments is to increase interagency collaboration, while for others, the
mission is to enhance career development opportunities for individual
participants. Additionally, ODNI guidance is unclear about whether joint
duty assignments are intended for mission-critical employees or for those
in support positions. In analyzing the IC elements’ response to our data
request for listings of the occupational series of program participants, we
found that some elements afford opportunities for employees in support
positions, such as human capital and administrative positions, to be
regular participants in the program. At other elements, most program
participants have mission-critical positions, such as intelligence analyst
positions.



23
  The position of Assistant Director of National Intelligence for Human Capital and
Intelligence Community Chief Human Capital Officer was last filled in November 2011.
The position of Joint Duty Program Chief was last filled in March 2012.




Page 13                                    GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
In addition, although IRTPA requires the Director of National Intelligence
to establish mechanisms to facilitate the rotation of IC personnel
throughout the IC, ODNI guidance allows personnel participating in the
Joint Duty Program to rotate outside of the IC or within their home
element, which further exacerbates the lack of clarity in the program’s
mission. Of the 12 IC elements that responded to our data request with
information about where their employees were completing the rotation, 10
IC elements reported that at least one person was currently rotating
outside of the IC. We asked ODNI officials about these disparities and
officials told us that the key expectations of a joint duty rotation are that
the participant will complete work that is IC related, is at another element,
and that the work can be justified as beneficial to the individual, the
element, and the IC. The officials explained that a business case must be
built for a person to receive joint duty credit outside of these key
expectations.

Establish performance goals and measure progress toward those
goals. Similarly, ODNI has not established specific performance goals or
quantifiable metrics for measuring progress of the Joint Duty Program.
We have previously reported that for planning and performance
measurement to be effective, managers need to use performance
information to identify performance problems and look for solutions,
develop approaches that improve results, and make other important
management decisions. 24 Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1
established a requirement that all civilian IC personnel must have joint
duty credit prior to being promoted to positions above the GS-15 level, a
point that the Director of National Intelligence further articulated in a 2010
memorandum to the workforce. Since 2007, ODNI’s Joint Duty Program
Office has collected data about joint duty rotations from each IC element.
While this information has been used to illustrate the promotion rates of
joint duty participants and the number of personnel with joint duty credit,
ODNI does not use these data in combination with defined goals to
measure outcomes or program success. ODNI officials stated it
aggregates the data collected and uses them to brief the Director of
National Intelligence. Officials at several of the IC elements we met stated
that the data fields identified and the frequency with which data are
collected by the ODNI Joint Duty Program Office changed regularly with



24
 GAO, Managing for Results: Enhancing Agency Use of Performance Information for
Management Decision Making, GAO-05-927 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 9, 2005).




Page 14                                  GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
the turnover in the Joint Duty Program Office Chief position, making it
difficult to identify trends and outcomes. Finally, officials at one element
stated they have requested but not received feedback on the data they
provide to ODNI. These officials noted, therefore, that they are unsure
about whether they are providing the best possible data.

Identify resources. In addition, ODNI has not comprehensively identified
resources needed to accomplish the mission of the Joint Duty Program.
Financial resources dedicated to the Joint Duty Program vary significantly
among the IC elements. For example, some IC elements have the
financial resources to fill the positions left vacant when an employee
leaves for a joint duty rotation and other IC elements struggle to absorb
vacancies. An element’s ability to plan financially is further complicated
because joint duty positions vary with respect to whether they are
“reimbursable” (the element receiving the new employee pays that
employee’s salary) or “non-reimbursable” (the element sending its
employee to another element pays that employee’s salary). In fact, one IC
element stated it was instituting a formal policy that its employees cannot
participate in joint duty rotations that are non-reimbursable, which may
limit rotation opportunities for that element’s employees. Other IC
elements do not have a preference as to whether an employee accepts a
reimbursable or non-reimbursable joint duty assignment.

ODNI has taken steps to address this issue by funding some positions left
vacant during rotations. ODNI officials told us that these funds are
disbursed on a first-come, first-served basis, and that IC elements making
the request have to present a business case for their funding needs. To
date, the officials said that the Drug Enforcement Administration, the U.S.
Air Force, and the U.S. Navy have used the funds more often than other
eligible IC elements. According to Intelligence Community Policy
Guidance 601.1, six IC elements 25 cannot apply for these ODNI funds. At
the time of our review, ODNI had identified resources to fund fewer than
50 non-reimbursable positions, but ODNI officials stated that they are
able to meet the current demand with those funds.

Use performance information to make decisions for improvement.
ODNI also has not consistently used performance information to make


25
  These six elements are the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence
Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,
the National Reconnaissance Office, and the National Security Agency.




Page 15                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
decisions for improvement. While ODNI has used performance
information and responded to recommendations from an ODNI Inspector
General’s 2009 report, this effort does not ensure an institutionalized
method for monitoring improvement. In October 2009, the ODNI Office of
the Inspector General issued a report reviewing the implementation of the
Joint Duty Program, 26 which resulted in 20 recommendations that were
intended to address the impediments affecting implementation of the
program and to improve program participation. According to ODNI
Inspector General officials, all of the recommendations have been closed
and implemented. However, during the course of our review, we found
that a number of challenges noted in the 2009 ODNI Inspector General
report still existed. For example, the report found that the IC senior
leaders and employees were confused about the purpose of the Joint
Duty Program. In response to this finding, the report recommended that
the ODNI Associate Director of National Intelligence/Chief Human Capital
Office clarify the purpose of the Joint Duty Program to include both
leadership development and broader collaboration throughout the IC.
According to ODNI officials, the recommendation was closed and
implemented. However, as we note in this report, the mission of the
program remains unclear.

In addition to the 2009 Inspector General report, ODNI has developed an
optional survey instrument for those individuals who have completed a
joint duty rotation. However, because the survey is optional, at the time of
our review ODNI had not collected enough responses for the results to be
statistically significant. As a result, IC element officials we met stated they
had not seen any of the results from these surveys and it is unclear how
the results of these surveys are being used. Further, the ODNI Joint Duty
Program Chief began a review of the Joint Duty Program in September
2011 with an estimated completion date of October 2011. ODNI officials
stated that the preliminary results of the review were briefed to the
Director of National Intelligence in December 2011. As of June 2012, this
review was in draft and ODNI officials had not determined when a final
report would be issued.



26
  Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Office of the Inspector General, The
Intelligence Community Civilian Joint Duty Program: Implementation Status Report, CAS-
2008-0003 (Washington, D.C.: October 2009). The investigation that led to this report was
conducted at the request of the ODNI Chief Human Capital Officer, as a result of several
impediments to the program that had been identified in a prior inspector general report on
the status of integration and collaboration in the IC.




Page 16                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                         Communicate results. Finally, ODNI officials provided us with a
                         document entitled “IC Joint Duty Communications Strategy”, which is
                         focused on increasing outreach and awareness of the program among
                         the IC elements. While the ODNI officials stated, as noted above, that this
                         document is being rewritten, we found that the document did not contain
                         specific completion dates for the goals and activities identified. Moreover,
                         it was not a plan for communicating results of a programmatic evaluation
                         to the IC elements. The IC elements do not benefit from ODNI data calls
                         or performance information collected from the voluntary surveys of joint
                         duty participants because ODNI does not communicate their results to the
                         IC elements. Although various demographic data are collected from each
                         of the IC elements on a quarterly basis, this information is not made
                         available or shared with the IC elements. ODNI officials we interviewed
                         stated that they were unable to share results of the voluntary surveys with
                         each of the IC elements because they did not have a representative
                         sample of participants.


Joint Duty Program Has   Previous GAO reports have noted the significance of strong leadership
Experienced Repeated     support—both at the senior leadership and immediate supervisor level—
Leadership Turnover      as key to the successful implementation and oversight of programs,
                         including interagency rotation programs. 27 Further, our work has shown
                         that focused and sustained leadership is at the center of successful
                         organizational transformation. 28 Our work has also shown that turnover in
                         leadership can lead to critical gaps in institutional knowledge. 29




                         27
                          See for example, GAO, Interagency Collaboration: State and Army Personnel Rotation
                         Programs Can Build on Positive Results with Additional Preparation and Evaluation,
                         GAO-12-386 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 9, 2012); High-Risk Series: An Update,
                         GAO-11-278 (Washington, D.C.: February 2011); and Defense Acquisitions: Strong
                         Leadership Is Key to Planning and Executing Stable Weapons Programs, GAO-10-522
                         (Washington, D.C.: May 6, 2010).
                         28
                          See for example, GAO-07-1072 and GAO, Defense Business Transformation: A
                         Comprehensive Plan, Integrated Efforts, and Sustained Leadership Are Needed to Assure
                         Success, GAO-07-229T (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 16, 2006).
                         29
                           See for example, GAO, DHS Human Capital: Senior Leadership Vacancy Rate
                         Generally Declined, but Components’ Rates Varied, GAO-12-264 (Washington, D.C.: Feb.
                         10, 2012); and Older Workers: Federal Agencies Face Challenges but Have Opportunities
                         to Hire and Retain Experienced Employees, GAO-08-630T (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 30,
                         2008).




                         Page 17                                   GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
While the current Director of National Intelligence has emphasized the
importance of the Joint Duty Program in creating a culture of collaboration
in the IC, the Joint Duty Program Office Chief position—the individual
responsible for implementing the program across the IC—has
experienced repeated turnover since the program’s inception.
Specifically, since 2007, six different people have served in the Joint Duty
Program Chief position, and five of these people have served in the Chief
position over the last 3 years. Data provided by ODNI shows that terms of
service for the last five incumbents in the Chief position have ranged from
4 months to 10 months. IC element officials noted that institutional
knowledge within the ODNI Joint Duty Program office has not been
transferred between Chiefs and that the different Chiefs have interpreted
the program’s mission and implementation differently, which in turn has
led to confusion among the IC elements. For example, officials at one IC
element stated that turnover of leadership at ODNI has made program
implementation more difficult and has led to inconsistencies both in
leadership styles and in program terminology.

Further, ODNI officials told us that, while all six Chiefs were senior
executives, the Joint Duty Chief position had recently been downgraded
from a Senior National Intelligence Service position to a General
Schedule 15 position. The downgrade was made as part of a larger effort
within ODNI to reduce the number of senior executive positions.
Moreover, officials stated that in spring 2012, when the program Chief
position was last filled, it was advertised as both a permanent and a joint
duty assignment position.

Without an established comprehensive strategic framework that includes
the key components to guide effective implementation, program efforts
have been disjointed, and decision makers within ODNI have not had the
information they need to successfully manage the Joint Duty Program.
Such a strategic framework could transcend the turnovers in program
leadership that the Joint Duty Program has repeatedly experienced.




Page 18                              GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                        While ODNI has taken limited steps to establish the training and
ODNI Has Not            education component of the Joint Duty Program, to date ODNI has not
Formally Established    formally established or implemented the training and education programs
                        envisioned by IRTPA. IRTPA requires the Director of National Intelligence
Professional Training   to prescribe, in consultation with the heads of the IC elements, personnel
and Education           policies and programs that “set standards for education, training, and
Programs to Support     career development of personnel of the intelligence community.” In 2007,
                        the Director of National Intelligence issued Intelligence Community Policy
the Joint Duty          Guidance 601.1, which indicates that the Director of National Intelligence
Program                 intends to establish a Joint Leadership Development Program to provide
                        professional training and education for employees who are participating in
                        or who have completed a joint duty assignment. The guidance provides
                        that completion of the Joint Leadership Development Program or an
                        equivalent course of study will be required for personnel to be certified as
                        having completed the Joint Duty Program, but waives this requirement
                        until such time as the Director of National Intelligence establishes and
                        implements the Joint Leadership Development Program. ODNI also
                        identified the design, development, and execution of the Joint Leadership
                        Development Program as part of a core initiative for its 500 day plan
                        issued in 2007. 30 Approximately 5 years after ODNI’s issuance of
                        Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1, however, ODNI has not
                        formally established the Joint Leadership Development Program. In June
                        2012, ODNI told us that this program has been terminated.

                        Instead, ODNI has recently taken some steps to develop what ODNI
                        officials call the “learning component” to the Joint Duty Program. In
                        October 2011, ODNI officials identified the following three training
                        courses that they had developed specifically for the Joint Duty Program to
                        promote a culture of collaboration and integration across the IC:
                        (1) Understanding the Intelligence Community, for employees new to the
                        IC; (2) Integrating the Intelligence Community, for General Schedule-13
                        through General Schedule-15 IC personnel with management
                        responsibilities; and (3) Leading the Intelligence Community, for Senior
                        Executives. ODNI officials explained that Joint Duty Program participants
                        would be expected to complete only one of the three courses. Further, on



                        30
                          United States Intelligence Community, 500 Day Plan: Integration and Collaboration (Oct.
                        10, 2007). This document was a key source of strategic direction for ODNI when the Joint
                        Duty Program was initially implemented, and it emphasized the importance of training and
                        education as part of the program. However, in June 2012 ODNI told us that this plan is
                        now outdated and no longer provides strategic direction for ODNI.




                        Page 19                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
October 4, 2011, the Director of National Intelligence issued a memo
stating that the joint duty training requirement can be met by completing
an existing degree or certificate program at the National Intelligence
University. 31 ODNI officials also said that, in the future, ODNI may allow
personnel to take other courses to receive joint duty training credit, but
ODNI had not yet made a determination at the time of our audit work.

Currently, however, IC personnel are not required to take any of these
three courses when participating in the Joint Duty Program because
ODNI has not determined or documented in guidance what courses will
make up the training component of the program. ODNI officials stated that
they intend to revise Intelligence Community Directive 601 and
Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1 to provide a more detailed
description of the training component than is provided currently in those
documents. However, the officials did not have a time frame for when
they expected the revisions to be completed and did not elaborate on how
the guidance might be revised.

Accordingly, the extent to which Joint Duty Program participants who
have completed joint duty rotations have taken any of the three courses
developed for the Joint Duty Program is unclear. None of the IC elements
whose officials responded to our request for attendance data indicated
that any of their Joint Duty Program participants had received credit for
taking any of the courses. Specifically, officials from nine IC elements
reported that none of the personnel who have received joint duty credit
had taken any of the courses, and officials from four IC elements reported
that they did not track these data.

While ODNI noted that the three courses had received praise from some
class participants in course evaluations that are administered at the
conclusion of every course, during the course of our review officials from
nine IC elements expressed concerns about the content and rigor of the
three courses. Officials from three of the IC elements told us that the
courses did not appear to be tailored to support the Joint Duty Program or
correlate to the performance management standards for leadership.
ODNI officials explained that because each of the IC elements has its
own leadership development program, ODNI had opted for the courses to


31
  The National Intelligence University is a federal degree granting institution that educates
and prepares intelligence officers to meet current and future challenges to the national
security of the United States.




Page 20                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
              focus on developing a collaborative culture and an appreciation for other
              agencies’ challenges. Officials from three other IC elements expressed
              concern that the courses could potentially duplicate or overlap with
              existing IC agency training courses. ODNI officials told us that they had
              not reviewed the IC elements’ individual training courses since 2009.
              Finally, three other IC elements noted that the courses are not sufficiently
              rigorous, like academic year-long programs offered by U.S. military
              service war colleges or DOD’s National Defense University. ODNI officials
              explained that they wanted to keep the classes short enough so that Joint
              Duty Program participants would not be taken offline for a long period of
              time to complete the training. The officials stated that unlike the military
              and its joint duty program, there is no capacity in the civilian IC workforce
              to replace personnel who are away at training.

              Finally, at the time of our review, ODNI had not yet developed an
              implementation plan and timeline for the training component once the
              requirements are formally established. ODNI officials explained, for
              example, that they have not yet determined how to phase in the training
              across the IC, or whether personnel who have already completed joint
              duty rotations will be grandfathered, or exempted, from having to
              complete the training requirements. The officials stated that their key
              focus was on GS-15 personnel, as that was the population where
              personnel must have the joint duty credit in order to be promoted. The
              officials added that when ODNI moves forward with implementation of the
              training component of the Joint Duty Program, they will either grandfather
              personnel or set a date by which participants must have completed the
              required training. Until the training and education component of the Joint
              Duty Program is fully developed and a timeline established for
              implementation, the program may be unable to fully succeed in its goal of
              achieving the widest possible understanding of IC personnel of various
              intelligence requirements, methods, users, and capabilities, which could
              hinder IC efforts to work together and collaborate to prevent or counter
              terrorism.


              IRTPA empowers the Director of National Intelligence to create a Joint
Conclusions   Duty Program that could more fully integrate the IC by helping to remove
              or reduce the significant institutional, cultural, and organizational factors
              that impeded the IC from operating in an effective and collaborative
              manner. To date, however, the Joint Duty Program remains a disjointed
              effort. The IC elements—with the exception of the U.S. Coast Guard,
              which plans on first conducting a workforce study on developmental
              needs for their civilian personnel to help determine how they will


              Page 21                                GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                      participate in the Joint Duty Program—have responded by taking
                      element-specific steps to actively participate in the Joint Duty Program.
                      Nonetheless, repeated turnover in the Joint Duty Program Office’s Chief
                      position (five Chiefs in the past 3 years), has hindered development of a
                      strategic plan that could enhance the clarity of the Joint Duty Program’s
                      mission, measure progress towards goals, and instill accountability in
                      achieving those goals. The fact that ODNI has identified a need to modify
                      or rewrite the Joint Duty Program’s directive, policy guidance, “Joint Duty
                      Vision, Mission, & Strategy” and “IC Joint Duty Communications
                      Strategy”, further highlights the need to develop a strategic framework to
                      provide a clear road map to guide the Joint Duty Program. The absence
                      of a strategic framework coupled with turnover of personnel in the Chief
                      position has limited ODNI’s ability to foster the institutional knowledge that
                      transcends turnovers in program leadership and is necessary to sustain
                      the Joint Duty Program and more fully integrate the IC through joint
                      assignments. The same is true for the training component of the Joint
                      Duty Program. The fact that the training component remains unfocused
                      and unimplemented means the program is missing an essential element
                      to provide for cross-agency understanding and collaboration. Absent the
                      development of a comprehensive strategic framework to guide program
                      implementation and of formal training requirements with a plan to
                      implement them, the Joint Duty Program is not positioned to foster the
                      widest possible understanding of intelligence requirements, methods,
                      users, and capabilities.


                      To help ensure that personnel in all of the IC elements fully understand
Recommendations for   the U.S. Coast Guard’s intelligence mission to secure the nation’s ports
Executive Action      and coastal waters, that the U.S. Coast Guard’s civilian intelligence
                      employees do not miss an opportunity to develop collaborative
                      relationships with and to understand other IC elements, and that U.S.
                      Coast Guard civilians remain viable for promotion to senior positions
                      requiring joint duty credit, we recommend that the Secretary of Homeland
                      Security direct the Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard to take steps to
                      participate in the Joint Duty Program consistent with ODNI policy and
                      guidance.

                      To improve the effectiveness of the implementation of the Joint Duty
                      Program and to help ensure that institutional knowledge about the
                      program transcends the individual tenure of each serving Joint Duty
                      Program Chief, we recommend that the Director of National Intelligence
                      develop a comprehensive strategic framework for the Joint Duty Program.
                      This framework could include things such as


                      Page 22                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                     •   clearly defining its mission,
                     •   establishing performance goals,
                     •   developing quantifiable metrics for measuring progress toward
                         achieving performance goals,
                     •   determining the financial resources necessary to accomplish the
                         mission of the program,
                     •   using performance information and metrics to make decisions to
                         improve the program, and
                     •   communicating results effectively with each of the IC elements.
                     To implement those provisions of IRTPA that address joint training and
                     education and facilitate the widest possible understanding and
                     collaboration among the IC, we recommend that the Director of National
                     Intelligence take the following two actions:

                     •   Establish formal training and education requirements for the Joint
                         Duty Program, revise the existing policy guidance to clearly identify
                         and describe these requirements, and eliminate the waiver that is
                         currently in the guidance; and
                     •   Develop a formal plan and timeline to implement the training and
                         education component of the Joint Duty Program.

                     We provided a draft of this report to the Department of Homeland Security
Agency Comments      and ODNI for review and comment. In written comments, the Department
and Our Evaluation   of Homeland Security agreed with the recommendation regarding the
                     U.S. Coast Guard, and cited actions being taken to implement a joint duty
                     program at the U.S. Coast Guard. The Department of Homeland
                     Security’s comments are reprinted in their entirety in appendix IV. ODNI
                     generally agreed with our three recommendations addressed to it, and
                     provided two specific comments related to our findings. ODNI’s
                     comments are reprinted in their entirety in appendix V. ODNI also
                     provided a number of general and technical comments that we
                     considered and incorporated, as appropriate.

                     The Department of Homeland Security noted that they and the U.S. Coast
                     Guard agreed with our first recommendation that the U.S. Coast Guard
                     take steps to participate in the Joint Duty Program consistent with ODNI
                     policy and guidance. The Department of Homeland Security stated that
                     establishing a formal civilian Joint Duty Program was one of the U.S.
                     Coast Guard’s many human resource priorities, and that policy and
                     guidance was presently being developed for such a program. The
                     Department of Homeland Security also stated that it believes the U.S.
                     Coast Guard is operating within the spirit of the Joint Duty Program with



                     Page 23                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
regard to information sharing, collaboration, and professional
development due to its military intelligence positions that are assigned to
other agencies. They noted that the U.S. Coast Guard anticipates making
significant progress in developing its civilian Joint Duty Program in the
coming months, and noted specific actions that will be taken to do this.
ODNI did not comment on this recommendation and, instead, deferred to
the U.S. Coast Guard for a formal response.

ODNI agreed with our second recommendation to develop a
comprehensive strategic framework for the Joint Duty Program, which
could include things such as clearly defining its mission, establishing
performance goals, developing quantifiable metrics for measuring
progress toward achieving performance goals, determining the financial
resources necessary to accomplish the mission of the program, using
performance information and metrics to make decisions to improve the
program, and communicating results effectively with each of the IC
elements. ODNI stated that the Joint Duty Program would benefit from a
single comprehensive strategic document, and noted that the Director of
National Intelligence has requested that a program strategy be developed
to help guide the program. ODNI expressed appreciation for GAO’s
guidance. As we note in our report, a comprehensive and integrated
strategic framework can help ensure successful organizational
transformation and can help effectively guide implementation.

ODNI partially agreed with our third recommendation that ODNI establish
formal training and education requirements for the Joint Duty Program,
revise the existing policy guidance to clearly identify and describe these
requirements, and eliminate the waiver that is presently in the guidance.
ODNI also partially agreed with our fourth recommendation that ODNI
develop a formal plan and timeline to implement the training and
education component of the joint duty program. While ODNI’s comments
treated these two recommendations as one recommendation in its
response, we consider these to be two separate recommendations that
will require separate, independent actions from ODNI to implement. In its
response, ODNI explained that it agreed that ODNI needed to provide
formal guidance regarding the learning component to the Joint Duty
Program, and stated that it would develop this guidance in conjunction
with its revision of the Joint Duty Program policy. However, in responding
to these recommendations, ODNI also stated that it did not concur with
GAO’s assertion that the current program is not fully complying with the
requirements of the IRTPA, noting that section 102A(l)(3)(B) of IRTPA
states only that the program “may include . . . the establishment of
requirements for education, training, service, and evaluation for service


Page 24                              GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
involving more than one element of the intelligence community”
[emphasis added by ODNI]. Our recommendations are based on an
assessment of the steps ODNI has taken to implement the training,
education, and joint duty elements contained in IRTPA, and are intended
to enhance that implementation. We modified the language in the
recommendation to address ODNI’s concerns regarding compliance with
IRTPA. We continue to believe that ODNI should revise its existing policy
guidance to formally establish and clearly identify and describe the
training component of the Joint Duty Program. Further, as we discussed
in our report, ODNI first formalized its intention to establish a training
program as part of the Joint Duty Program in its policy guidance 5 years
ago, but ODNI has not made substantive progress in implementing this
program. Therefore, we continue to believe that the ODNI should develop
a formal plan and timeline to implement the training and education
component of the Joint Duty Program.

In addition to generally agreeing with our three recommendations directed
to the Director of National Intelligence, ODNI provided two specific
comments related to our findings:

•   Related to our statement in the report that ODNI has not established
    specific performance goals or quantifiable metrics for measuring
    progress of the Joint Duty Program, ODNI asserted that that the
    statement is inaccurate. ODNI noted that the Joint Duty Program’s
    key performance goal is that all IC officers earn joint duty credit prior
    to promotion above the GS-15 level. ODNI also stated that as of its
    last data call in the fall of 2011, all but one person had been promoted
    with joint duty credit. ODNI further stated that it collects additional
    data on the total number of civilian personnel in the IC with joint duty
    credit. While we agree that ODNI collects this information, we believe
    that these data do not go far enough to effectively measure the
    success of the Joint Duty Program. As we note in our report, for
    performance measures to be effective, information should be used to
    identify performance problems and corresponding solutions, develop
    approaches that improve results, and make other important
    management decisions. The data ODNI collects, however, do not
    provide information about whether joint duty participants are obtaining
    the widest possible understanding of the IC. We note in the report that
    IRTPA requires the Director of National Intelligence to facilitate the
    rotation of IC personnel to other IC elements in order to obtain the
    widest possible understanding of the range of intelligence
    requirements, methods, users, and capabilities. Furthermore, the
    promotion rate data that ODNI collects does not differentiate between



Page 25                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
     those personnel in the IC who earned joint duty credit through the
     Joint Duty Program and those personnel in the IC who were granted
     joint duty credit for experiences that predate the creation of the Joint
     Duty Program in 2006. According to ODNI policy guidance, joint duty
     credit is granted for joint duty experience completed as far back as
     September 11, 2001. We also note in our report that ODNI currently
     administers surveys to IC personnel upon completion of their joint
     duty assignment. These surveys could potentially provide a
     mechanism to measure the quality of the Joint Duty Program and
     determine if IC personnel are gaining an understanding of the range
     of intelligence requirements, methods, and capabilities of the IC.
     However, as we note in the report, these surveys are optional. In
     addition, ODNI has not collected a sufficient number of these surveys
     to make the results meaningful, and it has not shared the information
     collected with the IC components. We have previously reported that
     successful performance measurement provides useful information for
     decisionmaking. 32 Further, the Standards for Internal Control in the
     Federal Government note that management should track major
     achievements and compare actual performance to planned or
     expected results to analyze significant differences. 33

•    ODNI also disagreed with our statement that without an established
     comprehensive strategic framework that includes the key components
     to guide effective implementation, and that transcends program leader
     turnover, program efforts have been disjointed, and decisionmakers
     within ODNI have not had the information they need to successfully
     manage the Joint Duty Program. In its written comments, ODNI stated
     that the Joint Duty Program is a key tool to integrating the IC. ODNI
     further stated that the program has met the performance measures
     identified in Intelligence Community Directive 601. Finally, ODNI
     stated that, while it agrees that a comprehensive strategic plan could
     be beneficial to the Joint Duty Program, it disagrees that the program
     has been unsuccessful without such a document. We agree that the
     Joint Duty Program can be a key tool in integrating the IC. In our
     report, we note that IC officials we met stated that enhanced
     collaboration, increased networking, and a better understanding of the



32
 GAO, Tax Administration: IRS Needs to Further Refine Its Tax Filing Season
Performance Measures, GAO-03-143 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 22, 2002).
33
 GAO, Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, GAO-AIMD-00-21.3.1
(Washington, D.C.: November 1999).




Page 26                                   GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
    community as a whole were positive aspects of the Joint Duty
    Program. We disagree, however, with ODNI’s statement that
    Intelligence Community Directive 601 contains performance
    measures. We noted above that ODNI collects data on joint duty
    participants, but collection of these data elements is not included or
    outlined in the directive. We continue to believe that a results-oriented
    strategic framework is important for implementing programs because
    it helps agencies to define a program’s mission, establish
    performance goals and measures, identify needed resources, use
    performance information to inform decisions, and communicate
    results.
    As we state in the report, ODNI has taken steps related to some of the
    components of a strategic framework, such as by providing some
    funding for positions left vacant during rotations, responding to
    recommendations from the ODNI Inspector General’s 2009 report,
    and collecting data on Joint Duty Program participation. However,
    opportunities exist for improvement in all areas. For example, we
    reported that ODNI does not consistently use the data it collects to
    measure program success and does not communicate survey results
    or data collection results with the IC elements. It is even more critical
    for a comprehensive strategic framework to be in place in the absence
    of stability in key leadership positions such as the Joint Duty Program
    Chief. As we reported, the Joint Duty Program Chief has experienced
    repeated turnover (five Chiefs in the past 3 years), with tenure lasting
    between 4 months to 10 months, and IC element officials we met with
    expressed concern that institutional knowledge is not transferred
    between Chiefs. During the course of our own audit work, in fact,
    there was a 3 month gap between tenures of Joint Duty Program
    Chiefs. As such, we believe that our statement that the Joint Duty
    Program efforts have been disjointed is merited. We state in our
    report that sustained leadership is at the center of successful
    organizational transformation and that turnover in leadership can lead
    to critical gaps in institutional knowledge. In its comments, ODNI
    concurred with our recommendation to develop a strategic plan that
    transcends turnover at the Joint Duty Program Chief Position, which
    can help ensure successful organizational transformation and can
    help effectively guide implementation.




Page 27                               GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
We are sending copies of this report to interested congressional
committees, the Director of National Intelligence, the Commandant of the
U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Attorney General, the Director of the Central
Intelligence Agency, and the Secretaries of Defense, Energy, Homeland
Security, State, and Treasury. In addition, the report is available at no
charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff have any questions about this report, please contact
me at (202) 512-3604 or farrellb@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices
of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last
page of this report. GAO staff who made key contributions to this report
are listed in appendix VI.




Brenda S. Farrell
Director, Defense Capabilities
   and Management




Page 28                             GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology
             Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




             The scope of our review of the Intelligence Community (IC) Civilian Joint
             Duty Program (Joint Duty Program) included the Office of the Director of
             National Intelligence (ODNI), which is responsible for establishing policy
             and procedures for the Joint Duty Program across the IC; the 16
             remaining IC components; 1 the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense
             for Intelligence in its capacity as the oversight entity for the Department of
             Defense (DOD) IC elements; and the Defense Security Service, because
             its civilian personnel fall under the Office of the Under Secretary of
             Defense for Intelligence and are subject, under DOD policy, to the IC
             Joint Duty Program requirements.

             We obtained relevant documentation and interviewed key officials from
             the following offices within each IC element:

             •   Office of the Director of National Intelligence
                 •     Human Capital Office,
             •   Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
                 •     Defense Intelligence Agency
                       •   Directorate for Human Capital
                 •     National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
                       •   Career Development Division
                 •     National Security Agency
                       •   Joint Duty Program Office
                 •     National Reconnaissance Office
                       •   Office of Strategic Human Capital



             1
              The U.S. Intelligence Community comprises 17 components. The Office of the Director of
             National Intelligence oversees the Intelligence Community, and is counted as one of the
             17 components. The other 16 components are: the National Security Agency, National
             Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, Defense Intelligence
             Agency, Army Intelligence, Navy Intelligence, Marine Corps Intelligence, Air Force
             Intelligence (Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance), Central
             Intelligence Agency, Department of Homeland Security (Office of Intelligence and
             Analysis), Department of State (Bureau of Intelligence and Research), Department of
             Treasury (Office of Intelligence and Analysis), Federal Bureau of Investigation (National
             Security Branch), Drug Enforcement Administration (Office of National Security
             Intelligence), U.S. Coast Guard (Intelligence and Criminal Investigations), and Department
             of Energy (Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence).




             Page 29                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




    •     The intelligence elements within the military services
          •   U.S. Army
              •   Intelligence Personnel Management and Operations
          •   U.S. Navy
              •   Naval Intelligence, Human Capital Office
          •   U.S. Marine Corps
              •   Intelligence Department, Human Capital Office
          •   U.S. Air Force
              •   Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Force
                  Development
    •     Defense Security Service
          •   Office of Human Resources,
•   Central Intelligence Agency
    •     Corporate Human Resources Programs,
•   Department of Energy
    •     Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence,
•   Department of Homeland Security
    •     Office of Intelligence and Analysis
    •     Office of Human Capital
    •     U.S. Coast Guard
          •   Office of Intelligence Workforce Management,
•   Department of Justice
    •     Federal Bureau of Investigation
          •   Law Enforcement and Intelligence Community Liaison Office
    •     Drug Enforcement Administration
          •   Office of National Security Intelligence,
•   Department of State
    •     Bureau of Intelligence and Research, and
•   Department of the Treasury
    •     Office of Intelligence and Analysis.




Page 30                                  GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




Additionally, we interviewed officials from the National Intelligence
University to ascertain the extent to which they support the Joint Duty
Program.

To evaluate the extent to which IC elements are participating in the Joint
Duty Program, we interviewed cognizant agency officials and reviewed
available program documentation and guidance from ODNI, the Office of
the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, and the Joint Duty
Program offices (or similar entity) of each of the IC elements.

To evaluate the extent to which ODNI has developed a strategic
framework to help ensure the effective implementation of the Joint Duty
Program across the IC, we reviewed the sections of the Intelligence
Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 2 (IRTPA) related to the
establishment of the Joint Duty Program. We also reviewed
governmentwide accepted best practices for program implementation
along with previous GAO reports, 3 and compared these with the
implementation of the Joint Duty Program. We also obtained and
reviewed the ODNI Inspector General’s report on the Joint Duty Program 4
to further identify and describe challenges that existed in implementing
the Joint Duty Program as well as to ascertain if any lessons learned
were identified. In addition, we conducted structured interviews with
cognizant agency officials within each of the IC elements to determine the
approach each IC element is taking in implementing the Joint Duty
Program and to help identify challenges to the program’s implementation
as well as any lessons learned that can be derived from the IC elements’
perspectives. Finally, we requested data for fiscal years 2010 and 2011
on program participants from ODNI, the Office of the Under Secretary of


2
 Pub. L. No. 108-458, § 1011 (2004) (amending § 102A of the National Security Act of
1947, as codified at 50 U.S.C. § 403-1).
3
 GAO, Preventing Sexual Harassment: DOD Needs Greater Leadership Commitment and
an Oversight Framework, GAO-11-809 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 21, 2011); Government
Performance: GPRA Modernization Act Provides Opportunities to Help Address Fiscal,
Performance, and Management Challenges, GAO-11-466T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 16,
2011); Military Personnel: DOD Needs an Oversight Framework and Standards to
Improve Management of Its Casualty Assistance Programs, GAO-06-1010 (Washington,
D.C.: Sept. 22, 2006); Results-Oriented Government: GPRA Has Established a Solid
Foundation for Achieving Greater Results, GAO-04-38 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 10, 2004).
4
 Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Office of the Inspector General, The
Intelligence Community Civilian Joint Duty Program: Implementation Status Report, CAS-
2008-0003 (Washington, D.C.: October 2009).




Page 31                                    GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




Defense for Intelligence, the Defense Security Service, and the IC
components—including participant-specific data on: where joint duty
rotations took place, rotation start and end dates, pay-grade and job
series of the participant, how joint duty credit was earned (i.e., joint
assignment, combat deployment, task force), whether or not the
participant was granted a waiver, and whether or not the participant had
completed a Joint Duty Certified Intelligence Learning Network Course. 5
In response to our data request, 12 IC elements provided data on an
individual level, as we specifically requested. 6 Further, to assess the
reliability of the data, we discussed these data with knowledgeable
officials at the respective IC element to gain an understanding of the
processes and databases used to collect and record data and to
understand existing data quality control procedures and known limitations
of the data. We found the data were sufficiently reliable to ascertain the
characteristics of IC personnel participating in the Joint Duty Program in
fiscal years 2010 and 2011.

To evaluate the extent to which ODNI has established training and
education programs to support the Joint Duty Program, we reviewed
legislative language in IRTPA that establishes expectations for joint
training and education and compared actions ODNI is taking against the
legislative criteria. To determine the actions ODNI had taken to establish
training requirements, we reviewed ODNI guidance, including Intelligence
Community Directive 601 7 and Intelligence Community Policy Guidance
601.1, 8 descriptions of three training courses that ODNI officials explained


5
    We did not collect personally identifying information for any joint duty participants.
6
 Army Intelligence, Navy Intelligence, Marine Corps Intelligence, Air Force Intelligence,
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Department of Energy, Department of the
Treasury, Department of Homeland Security Office of Intelligence and Analysis, Defense
Security Service, Drug Enforcement Administration, the Office of the Under Secretary of
Defense for Intelligence, and Defense Intelligence Agency provided data on an individual
level and were included in our analysis. The Central Intelligence Agency, Department of
State, Director of National Intelligence, National Security Agency, and Federal Bureau of
Investigation provided data on an aggregate level and data were not included in our
analysis. The U.S. Coast Guard did not provide data because, as we note in this report, it
did not have a Joint Duty Program at the time of our review. Similarly, the National
Reconnaissance Office did not provide data because employees on a joint duty rotation
are accounted for by their home agency.
7
 Intelligence Community Directive 601, Human Capital: Joint Intelligence Community Duty
Assignments (May 16, 2006) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).
8
 Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1, Intelligence Community Civilian Joint
Duty Program Implementing Instructions (June 25, 2007) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).




Page 32                                           GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix I: Scope and Methodology




would be used to meet the training and education requirement in the
future, and other documents, such as the ODNI 500 day plan 9 and the
2009 ODNI Inspector General Report. In addition, we spoke with officials
from ODNI and the National Intelligence University regarding efforts that
had been undertaken to develop and implement the training and
education component of the Joint Duty Program, and any challenges
associated with implementation. We also met with officials from all of the
IC elements to gain their perspectives on the actions ODNI had taken to
establish training and education requirements for the Joint Duty Program.
Furthermore, we requested and analyzed data from all of the IC elements
to determine the extent that program participants had already completed
any of the training courses that potentially would be required as part of
the Joint Duty Program.

We conducted this performance audit from January 2010 10 through June
2012 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing
standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to
obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for
our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe
that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings
and conclusions based on our audit objectives.




9
 United States Intelligence Community, 500 Day Plan: Integration and Collaboration (Oct.
10, 2007).
10
  We initially began this engagement in January 2010, and notified the ODNI of our
intention to schedule an entrance conference in early February. At the end of March 2010,
ODNI provided us with a copy of the ODNI Office of the Inspector General, The
Intelligence Community Civilian Joint Duty Program: Implementation Status Report, CAS-
2008-0003 (Washington, D.C.: October 2009). We initially agreed with ODNI to postpone
the entrance conference pending our review of their report. Subsequently, section 348 of
the Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Pub. L. No. 111-259 (2010),
directed ODNI, in consultation with the Comptroller General, to develop a written directive
governing GAO’s access to information from elements of the IC. Pending issuance of this
guidance, we suspended this engagement temporarily. The ODNI issued guidance in April
2011, accompanied by comments from the Comptroller General, and work on this
engagement resumed in August 2011. See Intelligence Community Directive 114:
Comptroller General Access to Intelligence Community Information (effective June 30,
2011).




Page 33                                      GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix II: Noninteractive Graphic and Text
                                            Appendix II: Noninteractive Graphic and Text
                                            for Figure 1



for Figure 1

Organization of the Intelligence Community (IC)

Element                                Duties
Office of the Director of National     The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA) of 2004 established the
Intelligence (ODNI)                    position of Director of National Intelligence with the responsibilities of serving as head of the
                                       IC, acting as the principal adviser to the President and National Security Council on
                                       intelligence matters, and overseeing and directing the implementation of the National
                                       Intelligence Program.
Office of the Under Secretary of       OUSDI is the principal staff element of the Secretary of Defense for matters relating to
Defense for Intelligence (OUSDI)       intelligence. The Under Secretary also serves as the Director of Defense Intelligence, acting as
Department of Defense                  the primary military intelligence advisor to the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)      DIA is a major producer and manager of foreign military intelligence for the Department of
Department of Defense                  Defense. DIA provides timely, objective, all-source military intelligence to policy makers, to
                                       U.S. armed forces around the world, and to the DOD acquisition community and force planners
                                       to counter a variety of threats and challenges across the spectrum of conflict.
National Geospatial-Intelligence       NGA is a Department of Defense combat support agency and a member of the IC. NGA
Agency (NGA)                           develops imagery and map-based intelligence solutions for U.S. national defense, homeland
Department of Defense                  security, and safety of navigation.
National Reconnaissance Office         NRO is a joint organization under the Department of Defense engaged in research and
(NRO)                                  development, acquisition, launch, and operation of overhead reconnaissance systems
Department of Defense                  necessary to meet the needs of the IC and the Department of Defense. The NRO workforce
                                       includes personnel assigned to the NRO primarily from the Air Force, the CIA, and the Navy.
                                       However, the other uniformed services and other elements of the Department of Defense and
                                       the IC are also represented.
National Security Agency (NSA)         NSA is the United States’ cryptologic organization, with responsibility for protecting U.S.
Department of Defense                  national security information systems and collecting and disseminating foreign signals
                                       intelligence. Areas of expertise include cryptanalysis, cryptography, mathematics, computer
                                       science, and foreign language analysis. NSA is part of the Department of Defense, and is
                                       staffed by a combination of civilian and military personnel.
Army Military Intelligence             Army Military Intelligence formulates Army intelligence policy, plans, programs, and budgets
Department of the Army                 and oversees Army-level multidiscipline intelligence operations, intelligence support to
                                       Computer Network Operations, military intelligence personnel, training, readiness and
                                       equipping, security, foreign liaison and future threats.
Naval Intelligence                     The Office of Naval Intelligence is a major IC production center for maritime intelligence,
Department of the Navy                 analyzing and producing assessments of foreign naval capabilities, trends, operations and
                                       tactics, global civil maritime activity, and an extensive array of all-source analytical products.

Marine Corps Intelligence              Marine Corps Intelligence produces tactical and operational intelligence for tactical and
Department of the Navy                 operational commanders and their staffs, as well as for other customers. Its IC component is
                                       comprised of all intelligence professionals in the Marine Corps. Most Marine Corps intelligence
                                       professionals are integrated into operating forces at all echelons of command from
                                       battalion/squadron to Marine Expeditionary Force.
Air Force Intelligence, Surveillance   The Air Force Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Agency organizes, trains, equips,
and Reconnaissance (ISR)               and presents assigned forces and capabilities to conduct ISR for Combatant Commanders and
Department of the Air Force            the nation. It implements and oversees the execution of Air Force headquarters policy and
                                       guidance to expand Air Force ISR capabilities to meet current and future challenges.




                                            Page 34                                         GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
                                           Appendix II: Noninteractive Graphic and Text
                                           for Figure 1




Defense Security Service              Defense Security Service is a Department of Defense support agency that supports national
Department of Defense                 security and the warfighter. Defense Security Service clears industrial facilities, personnel, and
                                      associated information systems. Defense Security Service also secures the nation’s
                                      technological base and oversees the protection of classified information. Although the Defense
                                      Security Service is not part of the IC, Defense Security Service falls under the USDI and is
                                      subject to the Joint Duty Program requirement as a matter of DOD policy.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)     CIA is the largest producer of all-source national security intelligence to senior U.S. policy
                                      makers. The CIA’s intelligence analysis on overseas developments informs decisions by policy
                                      makers and other senior decision makers in the national security and defense arenas.
Office of Intelligence and            Department of Energy’s Office of Intelligence and Counterintelligence is the IC’s premier
Counterintelligence                   technical intelligence resource in four core areas: nuclear weapons and nonproliferation;
Department of Energy                  energy security; science and technology; and nuclear energy, safety, and waste.


Coast Guard Intelligence and          Coast Guard Intelligence and Criminal Investigations directs, coordinates, and oversees
Criminal Investigations               intelligence and investigative operations and activities that support all Coast Guard objectives
Department of Homeland Security       by providing actionable intelligence to strategic decision makers, as well as operational and
                                      tactical commanders.

Office of Intelligence and Analysis   DHS’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis is DHS’s headquarters intelligence element. It uses
Department of Homeland Security       information and intelligence from multiple sources to identify and assess current and future
(DHS)                                 threats to the United States. The Office of Intelligence and Analysis focuses on threats related
                                      to border security; chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear issues, to include explosives
                                      and infectious diseases; critical infrastructure protection; extremists within the homeland; and
                                      travelers entering the homeland.
Office of National Security           The Drug Enforcement Administration’s Office of National Security Intelligence leverages the
Intelligence                          global law enforcement drug intelligence assets of the Drug Enforcement Administration to
Department of Justice (Drug           report on matters relating to national security. Its goal is to enhance U.S. efforts to protect
Enforcement Administration)           national security and combat global terrorism, as well as facilitate IC support to the Drug
                                      Enforcement Administration’s law enforcement mission. Office of National Security Intelligence
                                      facilitates intelligence coordination and information sharing with other members of the IC and
                                      homeland security elements.
National Security Branch              The National Security Branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is a threat-based,
Department of Justice (Federal        intelligence driven, national security organization that protects the United States from critical
Bureau of Investigation)              threats while safeguarding civil liberties. As both a component of the Department of Justice
                                      and a full member of the U.S. IC, the Federal Bureau of Investigation serves as a vital link
                                      between intelligence and law enforcement agencies.
Bureau of Intelligence and Research   State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR) serves as the focal point within the
Department of State                   Department of State for all policy issues and activities involving the IC. INR analysts draw on
                                      all-source intelligence, diplomatic reporting, INR’s public opinion polling, and interaction with
                                      U.S. and foreign scholars, covering all countries and regional or transnational issues.
Office of Intelligence and Analysis   Treasury’s Office of Intelligence and Analysis receives, analyzes, collates, and disseminates
Department of the Treasury            foreign intelligence and foreign counterintelligence information related to the operation and
                                      responsibilities of the Department of the Treasury. OIA’s strategic priorities are terrorist
                                      financing, insurgency financing, and rogue regimes/proliferation financing.
                                           Source: GAO analysis of ODNI information.




                                           Page 35                                         GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix III: Overview of the Joint Duty
               Appendix III: Overview of the Joint Duty
               Program



Program

               The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) directive for the
               Joint Duty Program 1 requires that Intelligence Community (IC) personnel
               participating in the Joint Duty Program rotate from their employing or
               home element to a joint duty position in another IC element (the gaining
               element) for at least 12 months and for no more than 36 months, unless a
               written exception for a different time frame has been requested and
               approved. 2 Joint duty positions are normally classified at a pay grade of at
               least General Schedule grade 13 or equivalent. The ODNI policy
               guidance 3 for the Joint Duty Program further states that, by successfully
               completing an assignment to a gaining agency and the IC Joint
               Leadership Development Program (a training program designated for
               Joint Duty Program participants), individuals receive the “joint duty
               certification” they will need to apply for promotion to senior level (above
               General Schedule grade 15 or equivalent) positions. 4

               Under the policy guidance, participating individuals can receive joint duty
               credit for working

               •   in another IC element,
               •   in ODNI or one of its components, 5
               •   within a home agency in a position that has been specifically
                   designated as providing joint duty credit,




               1
                Intelligence Community Directive 601, Human Capital: Joint Intelligence Community Duty
               Assignments (May 16, 2006) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).
               2
                A joint duty assignment may also be a permanent assignment of an employee from a
               position in one IC element to a position in another IC element.
               3
                Intelligence Community Policy Guidance 601.1, Intelligence Community Civilian Joint
               Duty Program Implementing Instructions (June 25, 2007) (as amended Sept. 4, 2009).
               4
                Exemptions to the joint duty certification requirement can be granted if a senior position is
               unique and requires expertise that cannot be found elsewhere.
               5
                The ODNI components include organizations such as the National Counterterrorism
               Center, the National Counterproliferation Center, and the National Counterintelligence
               Executive.




               Page 36                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix III: Overview of the Joint Duty
Program




•   in certain liaison and equivalent positions or on internal assignments
    (e.g., serving on joint task forces), and
•   in an organization outside the IC. 6
In addition, individuals may request joint duty credit for certain
assignments that they previously completed inside or outside the IC.
Furthermore, any individual deployed to a designated combat zone for
179 days or more will satisfy the 12-month minimum requirement for joint
duty credit.

ODNI established the Joint Duty Program website where the IC elements
are to post opportunities (vacancy announcements) for joint duty positions
that the agencies wish to fill on a rotational basis. Each IC element is
responsible for posting all joint duty opportunities available on the ODNI
Joint Duty website. The corresponding vacancy announcements are to
include pertinent information about the position, such as qualification
requirements, duty location, time frame, and security clearance
requirements. ODNI officials explained that announcements may be
posted on a classified and unclassified version of the website. Each IC
element has designated a point of contact who is responsible for
coordinating the individual joint duty assignments of its program
participants. In addition, individuals apply for joint duty assignments using
the internal policies and procedures established by their home IC
element. A proposed joint duty assignment must be approved by the
employee’s first-level supervisor and second-level manager. Further,
ODNI has developed a standard memorandum of understanding that
includes provisions governing rotational assignments and is used by all of
the IC elements, who then tailor the provisions to govern each individual
rotational assignment.

While on a joint duty assignment, an individual generally remains a
permanent employee of his or her home agency. The person designated
as that individual’s immediate supervisor at the gaining agency evaluates
the individual’s performance during the joint duty assignment period. A
higher level management official at the gaining agency reviews the
evaluation and provides it to a designated official from the individual’s



6
 This could include organizations such as the National Security Council, the Homeland
Security Council, the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, and other comparable
interagency, intergovernmental, private sector, non-governmental, academic or
educational, foreign national, or international organizations.




Page 37                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix III: Overview of the Joint Duty
Program




home agency, who then comments on the evaluation in writing and
submits this for inclusion in the final performance evaluation provided to
the employee. The individual’s rating is determined using the home
agency’s performance management system and associated forms. The
gaining agency determines whether the individual receives a performance
bonus and funds any bonus awarded. After completion of a joint duty
assignment, the home agency is responsible for placing an individual in
his or her former (or an equivalent) position and duty location, unless
other provisions are agreed to by the employee. Claims for joint duty
credit must be filed by employees on a standard form that is available on
the ODNI Joint Duty Program website. Employees submit the claim forms
to their employing IC element in accordance with the internal policies and
processes of that agency, along with official documentation of the claimed
assignment.




Page 38                                    GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix IV: Comments from the
             Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
             of Homeland Security



Department of Homeland Security




             Page 39                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix IV: Comments from the Department
of Homeland Security




Page 40                                     GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix V: Comments from the Office of the
              Appendix V: Comments from the Office of the
              Director of National Intelligence



Director of National Intelligence




              Page 41                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix V: Comments from the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence




Page 42                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix V: Comments from the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence




Page 43                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix V: Comments from the Office of the
Director of National Intelligence




Page 44                                       GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
Appendix VI: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix VI: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Brenda S. Farrell, (202) 512-3604 or farrellb@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the contact named above, David Moser (Assistant Director),
Staff             Patrick Breiding, Renee Brown, Mae Jones, James Krustapentus,
Acknowledgments   Gregory Marchand, Steven Putansu, Jillena Roberts, Amie Steele, and
                  John Van Schaik made key contributions to this report.




(351466)
                  Page 45                              GAO-12-679 Intelligence Community Personnel
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