oversight

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Updated Costs and Savings Estimates from BRAC 2005

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-06-29.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548



       June 29, 2012

       The Honorable Carl Levin
       Chairman
       The Honorable John McCain
       Ranking Member
       Committee on Armed Services
       United States Senate

       The Honorable Daniel K. Inouye
       Chairman
       The Honorable Thad Cochran
       Ranking Member
       Subcommittee on Defense
       Committee on Appropriations
       United States Senate

       The Honorable Howard “Buck” McKeon
       Chairman
       The Honorable Adam Smith
       Ranking Member
       Committee on Armed Services
       House of Representatives

       The Honorable C. W. Bill Young
       Chairman
       The Honorable Norman D. Dicks
       Ranking Member
       Subcommittee on Defense
       Committee on Appropriations
       House of Representatives

       Subject: Military Base Realignments and Closures: Updated Costs and Savings Estimates from
       BRAC 2005

       The Department of Defense’s (DOD) cost estimates to implement recommendations from the
       most recent Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) round have increased and estimated
       savings resulting from the round have decreased compared to the estimates from the 2005
       BRAC Commission. BRAC 2005 was the fifth round of base closures and realignments
       undertaken by DOD since 1988, and it was the biggest, most complex BRAC round ever.




                                                 GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
To implement this round, DOD executed hundreds of BRAC actions involving over 800 defense
locations and the planned relocation of over 125,000 personnel. By law, BRAC 2005
recommendations were to be implemented by September 15, 2011. 1

At the outset of BRAC 2005, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) indicated that DOD
viewed BRAC 2005 as a unique opportunity to reshape its installations and realign its forces to
meet defense needs for the next 20 years. In accordance with the statute authorizing BRAC
2005, 2 DOD proposed the selection criteria to be used to develop and evaluate the candidate
recommendations, and Congress subsequently codified those criteria. 3

As in prior BRAC rounds, criteria relating to the goal of enhancing “military value” 4 were to be
given priority consideration, with other criteria to be considered including the extent and timing
of potential costs and savings, economic impact to local communities, and other considerations.
When applied in the context of the transformational goals set by the Secretary of Defense for
BRAC 2005, these criteria resulted in many of the BRAC 2005 recommendations involving
complex realignments, such as designating where military forces returning to the United States
from overseas bases would be located; establishing joint military medical centers; creating joint
bases; and reconfiguring the defense supply, storage, and distribution network.

Nevertheless, anticipated savings resulting from implementing the recommendations remained
an important consideration in justifying the need for another BRAC round. In a 2001 testimony
before Congress, the Secretary of Defense stated that another BRAC round would generate
recurring savings the department could use for other defense programs. However, as we have
previously reported, the 2005 round is unlike previous BRAC rounds because of OSD’s
emphasis on transformation and jointness, rather than just reducing excess infrastructure.
Before DOD could begin to realize savings from BRAC 2005, it needed to invest billions of
dollars in facility construction, renovation, and other up-front expenses. The BRAC Commission
estimated that these one-time implementation costs would total about $21 billion; in contrast,
DOD spent about $25 billion 5 to implement the four previous BRAC rounds combined. The

1
  The BRAC process is governed by the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990, originally
passed as Title XXIX of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, Pub. L. No. 101-510
(1990). It has subsequently been amended many times, including in 2001, when Congress authorized
BRAC 2005 as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-107
(2001).
2
 The statute authorizing BRAC 2005, Pub. L. No. 107-107, § 3002 (2001), amended the Defense Base
Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 by inserting a new section, § 2913, which established “military
value” as the primary consideration for BRAC recommendations and specified a number of
considerations for determining military value, along with other selection criteria.
3
 DOD spelled out its final criteria at 69 Fed. Reg. 6948 (2004). Congress codified the criteria as adopted
by DOD, with only minor modifications. Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
Year 2005, Pub. L. No. 108-375, § 2832 (2004).
4
 Military value relate to such considerations as an installation’s current and future mission capabilities,
condition, ability to accommodate future needs, and cost of operations. The criteria are spelled out at §
2913(b) of the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990 (as amended).
5
 This dollar amount is based on DOD’s fiscal year 2011 budget submission to Congress to pay for
continuing implementation of recommendations from prior BRAC rounds (BRAC 1988, 1991, 1993, and
1995). This amount does not include other costs associated with BRAC, such as costs to complete
environmental cleanup at BRAC bases in future years and costs incurred by other DOD and federal


Page 2                                          GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Commission also calculated that, taking into account the time value of money, over a 20-year
period ending in 2025, DOD would achieve a positive net present value 6 of about $36 billion,
and it estimated that the net annual recurring savings 7 that would accrue from implementing
BRAC 2005 recommendations would be around $4.2 billion.

In December 2007, we reported that DOD planned to spend more and save less than the BRAC
Commission expected, and DOD’s 20-year net present value would be less than half of the
Commission’s original estimate. 8 That report also found that DOD’s BRAC cost and savings
estimates were likely to continue to evolve due to uncertainties surrounding implementation
details and potential increases in military construction. In each of two subsequent GAO reports
and a recent testimony covering BRAC 2005 costs and savings, we found that DOD’s estimated
one-time BRAC implementation costs had further increased, net annual recurring savings
estimates had further decreased, and the 20-year net present value was diminishing. 9

The House Armed Services Committee report accompanying the National Defense
Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 directs us to monitor the implementation of
recommendations for the 2005 round of closures and realignments of military installations. 10
This report updates the costs and savings associated with BRAC 2005 through the end of the
implementation period. We will continue to analyze BRAC 2005 implementation and will issue a
lessons learned report to conclude our reporting in response to this congressional directive later
this year. A list of our prior work related to military base closures and realignments since the
Secretary of Defense submitted his proposed BRAC actions to the BRAC Commission for
review in May 2005 can be found at the end of this report. For this report, our objectives were to
evaluate (1) how DOD’s costs to implement BRAC 2005 recommendations compared to the
BRAC Commission’s estimates and the factors that contributed to cost increases, and (2) what
20-year net present value and net annual recurring savings DOD can expect by implementing


agencies to provide assistance to communities and individuals impacted by BRAC. DOD’s budget
submission is reported in current dollars (i.e., it includes projected inflation).
6
  Net present value is a financial calculation that accounts for the time value of money by determining the
present value of future savings minus up-front investment costs over a specific period of time.
Determining net present value is important because it illustrates both the up-front investment costs and
long-term savings in a single amount. In the context of BRAC implementation, net present value is
calculated for a 20-year period from 2006 through 2025.
7
 The net annual recurring savings is calculated by deducting DOD estimates of the annual recurring
costs from the annual recurring savings that are expected to accrue in 2012, the year after the BRAC
2005 recommendations have been completed and are expected to be in a steady state.
8
 GAO, Military Base Realignments and Closures: Cost Estimates Have Increased and Are Likely to
Continue to Evolve, GAO-08-159 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 11, 2007).
9
  GAO, Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Faces Challenges in Implementing
Recommendations on Time and Is Not Consistently Updating Savings Estimates, GAO-09-217
(Washington, D.C.: Jan. 30, 2009); Military Base Realignments and Closures: Estimated Costs Have
Increased While Savings Estimates Have Decreased Since Fiscal Year 2009, GAO-10-98R (Washington,
D.C.: Nov. 13, 2009); and Military Base Realignments and Closures. Key Factors Contributing to BRAC
2005 Results, GAO-12-513T (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 8, 2012).
10
     H.R. Rep. No. 110-146, at 514 (2007).



Page 3                                         GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
the 2005 BRAC recommendations and what factors have contributed to the overall decrease in
savings from this round.



Scope and Methodology
To assess DOD’s cost estimates of implementing BRAC 2005, we examined the initial cost
estimates in the BRAC Commission’s Report to the President and compared them to our
                                                                                           11
analyses of data in DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC 2005 budget submission to Congress. In
addition, we discussed with the military departments’ BRAC offices the reasons for cost
increases and reviewed OSD’s business plans for recommendations that had the largest
increases in costs to determine the reasons for the changes, and discussed them with OSD
officials, and officials in the military departments and defense agencies as appropriate. To
evaluate changes in DOD’s projected 20-year net present value estimates from the BRAC
Commission’s 2005 estimates, we examined the data in DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC 2005
budget submission to Congress. For consistency in making comparisons to the BRAC
Commission’s original estimates, we applied the same formulas and discount rate of 2.8 percent
that the BRAC Commission used to calculate the 20-year net present value estimates in 2005.
To evaluate changes in DOD’s projected net annual recurring savings from the BRAC
Commission’s 2005 estimates through fiscal year 2011, we used data OSD provided to us for
estimated savings in fiscal year 2012—the year after OSD expected all recommendations to be
completed. We determined that the data used were sufficiently reliable for the purposes of
addressing the objectives of this report. We performed this work from March 2012 to June 2012
in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require
that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a
reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe
that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based
on our audit objectives.

Summary
Our analysis of DOD’s fiscal year 2011 update relating to the BRAC 2005 budget submission to
Congress shows that one-time implementation costs grew from $21 billion originally estimated
                                                         12
by the BRAC Commission in 2005 to about $35.1 billion, an increase of about $14.1 billion, or
           13
67 percent, largely due to increased construction costs. We compared the BRAC
Commission’s 2005 estimates to DOD’s fiscal year 2011 budget submission and found that 14
      14
of 182 BRAC recommendations accounted for about 72 percent of the cost increase, or about
11
  We used fiscal year 2011 budget data because these data comprise DOD’s final request to fund the
BRAC 2005 account before the September 15, 2011, statutory deadline for completion of closures and
realignments for the 2005 round.
12
  The $35.1 billion includes $1.2 billion in program management and administration costs that are spread
across the BRAC 2005 implementation program.
13
  The $35.1 billion in one-time implementation cost DOD calculated using fiscal year 2011 dollars for its
budget requests, which includes inflation, while the BRAC Commission estimate of $21 billion is in
constant fiscal year 2005 dollars, which excludes inflation. In constant 2005 dollars, costs increased to
about $32.2 billion, an increase of 53 percent.
14
  The BRAC Commission forwarded 182 recommendations to the President who approved them in their
entirety. Our analysis shows DOD requested funds to implement 175 recommendations because seven
recommendations do not involve implementation costs for various reasons.


Page 4                                        GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
$10.2 billion. Our analysis of those 14 recommendations shows that increased construction
costs resulted primarily from additional building projects and additions to planned projects,
which DOD deemed necessary after implementation began. For example, one-time costs for
realigning the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency more than doubled from $1.1 billion to
$2.6 billion, with military construction accounting for nearly $726 million of that increase due to
additional supporting facilities the agency identified as essential to the mission. Overall, military
construction costs for the BRAC 2005 round increased 86 percent, from $13.2 billion estimated
by the BRAC Commission to $24.5 billion according to DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget,
while over the same time period, general inflation increased by 13.7 percent. In contrast, military
construction costs for the four prior BRAC rounds combined amounted to less than $7 billion.
Other reasons for implementation cost increases included increased operation and maintenance
costs, such as for furnishings to outfit new and renovated buildings and information technology
needed to equip additional facilities, and higher environmental restoration costs.

Due primarily to the large increase in one-time implementation costs, the 20-year net present
value DOD can expect by implementing the 2005 BRAC recommendations has decreased by
72 percent, and our analysis of net annual recurring savings shows a decrease of 9.5 percent
compared to the BRAC 2005 Commission’s estimates. The 20-year net present value—that is,
the present value of future savings minus the present value of up-front investment costs—of
$35.6 billion estimated by the Commission in 2005 for this BRAC round has decreased by
                                 15
72 percent to about $9.9 billion. We believe that the 20-year net present value of BRAC
recommendations is a good measure of the net result from up-front implementation costs and
the resulting savings because it takes into account the time value of money; that is, it considers
when a dollar amount, such as savings, is received during the 20-year period. In 2005, the
BRAC Commission approved 30 recommendations that were expected to produce a negative
20-year net present value (in other words, at the end of the 20-year period, those 30
recommendations would result in net costs). Based on our analysis, currently 75 out of the 182
Commission-approved recommendations, about 41 percent, are now expected to result in a
negative 20-year net present value. Nine recommendations have seen their net present value
decrease by over $1 billion each. Also, our analysis of DOD’s fiscal year 2011 update of the
BRAC 2005 budget submission to Congress shows that DOD’s net annual recurring savings
estimates have decreased by $400 million to about $3.8 billion, a 9.5 percent decrease from the
                                       16
Commission’s estimate of $4.2 billion.

We are not making recommendations in this report. We provided DOD with a draft copy of this
report for review and comment. DOD concurred with the findings of our report and these
comments are reprinted in enclosure VII.




15
  We calculated the 20-year net present value estimate in constant fiscal year 2005 dollars (i.e., it
excludes projected inflation) to be consistent with DOD and the BRAC Commission’s methodology and
reporting of this estimate.
16
  The net annual recurring savings is calculated by deducting DOD estimates of the annual recurring
costs from the annual recurring savings that are expected to accrue in 2012, the year after the BRAC
2005 recommendations have been completed and will be in a steady state.



Page 5                                       GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Estimated Implementation Costs Increased by Almost 68 Percent, Mostly Due to Funding
Military Construction Projects Not Included in Original Cost Estimates

Our analysis of DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget shows that estimated one-time costs to
implement 2005 BRAC recommendations increased by 67 percent, or about $14.1 billion, from
the $21 billion the BRAC Commission estimated in 2005, to a total of $35.1 billion. 17

Fourteen BRAC Recommendations Accounted for 72 Percent of the Cost Increase

Our analysis of the cost increase shows that 14 out of the 182 recommendations included in this
round, accounted for about 72 percent of the cost increase, or about $10.2 billion, as shown in
table 1.

Table 1: 14 BRAC Recommendations with the Largest Dollar Increases in One-Time Costs Compared to 2005
BRAC Commission Estimates
(Dollars in millions)
 BRAC recommendation                               2005 BRAC          Fiscal year       Dollar
 (Commission number)                              Commission           2011 DOD      increase
                                                       estimate           budget


      1. Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to                 $988.8       $2,720.4    $1,731.6
         Bethesda National Naval Medical Center, MD,
         and to Fort Belvoir, VA (# 169)

      2. Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency              1,117.3       2,553.3     1,436.0
         leased locations and realign others at Fort
         Belvoir, VA (# 168)

      3. Close Fort Monmouth, NJ (# 5)                               780.4        1,866.4     1,086.0
      4. Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center              1,040.9       1,993.9      953.0
         and realign enlisted medical training to Fort
         Sam Houston, TX (# 172)

      5. Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA               773.1        1,688.2      915.1
         (# 9)
      6. Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency,                601.8        1,428.3      826.6
         and field activity leased locations
         (#133)
      7. Realign to establish Combat Service Support                 754.0        1,419.9      665.9
         Center at Fort Lee, VA (#121)
      8. Close Fort McPherson, GA (# 3)                              214.5         804.8       590.2
      9. Consolidate Defense Information Systems                     220.0        $601.8       381.9
         Agency at Fort Meade, MD (# 140)
     10. Relocate Army headquarters and field operating              199.9         578.4       378.5
         activities (# 148)
     11. Realign supply, storage, and distribution                   192.7         539.5       346.8
         management (# 177)


17
  The BRAC Commission estimates are in constant (i.e., exclude projected inflation) 2005 dollars, while
DOD’s fiscal year 2011 estimates are in current (i.e., include projected inflation) dollars. When deflated to
constant 2005 dollars, the current one-time implementation cost becomes $32.2 billion, an increase of
about 53 percent from the BRAC Commission’s estimate.


Page 6                                                   GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
 BRAC recommendation                                          2005 BRAC     Fiscal year      Dollar
 (Commission number)                                         Commission      2011 DOD     increase
                                                                estimate        budget


     12. Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement             124.9         432.0       307.1
         management (# 176)
     13. Co-locate military department investigation               172.0         472.5       300.5
         agencies with DOD Counterintelligence and
         Security Agency at Marine Corps Base
         Quantico, VA (# 131)
     14. Close Brooks City-Base, TX (# 170)                        325.3         608.2       282.9
 Total                                                  $7,505.4          $17,707.7   $10,202.1
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum of each column due to rounding.

Upon closer examination of these 14 BRAC recommendations, we found that the cost increases
were mostly a result of increased military construction costs. Overall, military construction costs
for the BRAC 2005 round increased from $13.2 billion estimated by the BRAC Commission to
$24.5 billion, an 86 percent increase, while over the same time period, general inflation
increased by 13.7 percent. In contrast, military construction costs for the four prior BRAC rounds
combined amounted to less than $7 billion. Military construction costs increased because after
implementation began, DOD identified requirements for new construction projects as well as for
additions to planned construction projects, which were not accounted for in the original cost
estimates. Requirements changed because DOD’s information provided to the BRAC
Commission assumed that adequate capacity existed to fully accommodate the workload and
workforce relocating to an existing facility and that the physical condition of existing buildings
would be acceptable and suitable for the intended relocation and mission.
Other factors contributing to cost increases to implement the recommendations we examined
included inflation over the 6-year implementation period for construction materials and
transportation, underestimated requirements for outfitting or furnishing buildings, and
information technology requirements.

Details of the 14 BRAC recommendations we examined are as follows:
1. Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda National Naval Medical Center,
   Maryland, and to Fort Belvoir, Virginia ($1.7 billion increase). This recommendation
   expanded the National Naval Medical Center, which was renamed the Walter Reed National
   Military Medical Center, and included constructing a new community hospital and dental
   clinic at Fort Belvoir. One-time implementation costs increased by $1.7 billion (175 percent)
   mostly due to additional military construction requirements to address numerous issues
   unique to the medical center, such as concerns raised by a congressionally directed study
   group to examine the need to provide better medical care for wounded and ill warfighters. In
   2008, Congress established the expectation that the new Walter Reed National Military
   Medical Center and new military hospital at Fort Belvoir should be“world-class” medical
   facilities. 18 Thus, DOD took various actions to implement this recommendation that were not


18
  Pub. L. No. 110-417, § 2721; 122 Stat. 4716 (2008). The May 2009 report by the National Capital
Region Base Realignment and Closure Health Systems Advisory Subcommittee of the Defense Health
Board, prepared in response to this congressional direction, defined a “world-class medical facility” as
one that, among other things, routinely performs at the theoretical limit of what is possible.


Page 7                                                 GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
   anticipated in 2005 when the recommendation became binding, contributing to an about
   $1.3 billion increase in constructing new medical facilities.

2. Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased locations and realign others at
   Fort Belvoir, Virginia ($1.4 billion increase). This recommendation consolidated various
   leased locations by closing other locations of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,
   and it constructed a new facility at Fort Belvoir. One-time costs to implement this
   recommendation increased $1.4 billion (129 percent) from the initial BRAC Commission
   estimate of $1.1 billion. Military construction costs increased by about $726 million from the
   initial estimate of $950,000, due to new requirements not included in the initial estimate for
   additional supporting facilities the agency identified as essential to mission operability, such
   as the need for a technology center and a warehouse that resulted in a 200,000 square
   footage increase at the new facility. Also, costs for information technology equipment and
   software, internal communication cabling, and furnishings to outfit the new buildings were
   not included in initial estimates.

3. Close Fort Monmouth, New Jersey ($1.1 billion increase). This recommendation closed
   Fort Monmouth and realigned various functions such as information systems, sensors,
   electronic warfare, electronics research and development & acquisition functions, and
   various administrative functions to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and other
   installations such as Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and Fort Meade, Maryland. In addition, this
   recommendation relocated the U.S. Army Military Academy Preparatory School from Fort
   Monmouth to West Point, New York. One-time implementation costs increased $1.1 billion
   (139 percent) due in part to evolving requirements associated with the construction of the
   Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and
   Reconnaissance Center of Excellence for Communications and Electronics Laboratories at
   Aberdeen Proving Ground. Further analysis of mission requirements by the Army after
   implementation began resulted in an increase of approximately 750,000 square feet of
   additional construction for the Center. Also, the Army identified the need for additional
   infrastructure improvements at Aberdeen such as utilities, roads, and information technology
   upgrades. Further, the Military Academy Preparatory School experienced increases in costs
   largely due to an Army analysis that new construction was needed because existing facilities
   were not available. In addition, limited construction space at West Point where the Army
   wanted to locate the preparatory school required the relocation of an existing motor pool that
   also increased costs. As a result of these new requirements, military construction costs for
   relocating the Military Academy Preparatory School experienced about a $127 million (449
   percent) increase over initial Commission estimates.

4. Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and Realign Enlisted Medical Training
   to Fort Sam Houston, Texas ($953 million increase). This recommendation established
   the San Antonio Regional Medical Center at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, by relocating
   inpatient medical care from Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, and realigning DOD basic and
   specialty enlisted medical training from four other DOD installations to Fort Sam Houston.
   This was done to develop a joint training center to improve interoperability and joint
   deployability. One-time implementation costs increased $953 million (92 percent) for several
   reasons, such as the identification of additional requirements to move medical inpatient care
   functions from Wilford Hall Medical Center at Lackland Air Force Base to Fort Sam Houston.
   Additionally, according to DOD officials, requirements for instructional and laboratory space
   expanded to accommodate an over 40-percent increase in the number of students DOD
   expected to receive medical training at Fort Sam Houston compared to initial assumptions,
   resulting in more military construction than initially anticipated. Further, Army officials told us


Page 8                                      GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
     that some cost increases were due to renovation of historic buildings and that those
     additional costs were not anticipated in the initial cost estimate. Also, the standard dormitory
     construction assumptions used to initially cost out the needed construction did not,
     according to Army officials, include accommodation for the female student population that
     would be at Fort Sam Houston. Finally, the cost of various operation and maintenance
     activities, such as moving people and equipping the medical center, were higher than
     initially estimated.

5. Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, Georgia ($915 million increase). This
   recommendation combined training and doctrine development for ground forces by
   relocating the Armor Center and School from Fort Knox, Kentucky, to Fort Benning, Georgia,
   and establishing the Maneuver Center of Excellence. The recommendation also realigned
   Fort McCoy, Wisconsin, by relocating the 84th Army Reserve Regional Training Center into
   space at Fort Knox vacated by the Armor Center and School, and activated an Infantry
   Brigade Combat Team at Fort Knox by relocating engineer, military police, and combat
   service support units from Europe and Korea. One-time implementation costs increased
   $915 million (118 percent). About 92 percent of the cost increase—about $880 million—was
   due to additional facilities requirements for the Maneuver Center that were identified after
   the recommendation was approved. For example, the Army identified the need for medical
   facilities and other projects to support Maneuver Center training, which were not included in
   the BRAC Commission’s initial estimate. The additional facilities that were constructed also
   required nearly another $135 million in operation and maintenance costs for furnishings,
   equipment, transportation, and relocation costs for the Armor School, as well as moving and
   severance costs for civilian employees.

6. Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field activity leased locations
   ($827 million increase). This recommendation closed various leased locations, relocated
   about 6,400 personnel within the National Capital Region to Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and
   relocated the Defense Contract Management Agency to Fort Lee, Virginia. One-time
   implementation costs increased by about $827 million (137 percent). DOD experienced
   various delays in the process to construct a new permanent site for the facility. The Army's
   original plan for this recommendation was to construct a facility on the engineering proving
   grounds at Fort Belvoir but OSD BRAC officials told us that after experiencing local
   opposition to the density of population on the site, the Army competitively selected an
   alternative site that became part of Fort Belvoir. 19 The delays increased costs because the
   facility had to be built with a compressed timetable so DOD would meet the mandatory
   BRAC completion date of September 15, 2011. In addition, other infrastructure requirements
   that were not included in initial estimates, such as a parking structure at the facility,
   increased costs by almost $193 million. Also, actual costs for telecommunications and
   information technology were nearly $44 million higher than estimated.

7. Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee, Virginia ($666 million
   increase). This recommendation realigned various combat service support functions from
   four other installations to establish a combined Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee,

19
  Section 2708 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-181
(2008) specified a site selection process that required the Army to consider a General Services
Administration (GSA)-controlled site in Springfield, VA, and select a site "based on the best value to the
government" considering cost and schedule. The proposal process identified two private sites that the
Army compared against a GSA site and sites on Fort Belvoir. The Mark Center site was acquired after
being selected as the best value.


Page 9                                         GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
     Virginia. One-time implementation costs increased by $660 million (88 percent), driven
     primarily by facility construction costs. Requirements for establishing the Combat Service
     Support Center were more fully developed in the early stages of implementation, which not
     only increased the scope of planned construction, but also identified the need to build a new
     Warrior Training Facility at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia, as well as a health and dental clinic at
     Fort Lee. There were also smaller increases in the costs of environmental compliance, and
     transportation costs for moving equipment such as oversized tactical vehicles and weapon
     systems from Aberdeen Proving Ground to Fort Lee.

8. Close Fort McPherson, Georgia ($590 million increase). This recommendation closed
   Fort McPherson and relocated the Army’s Forces Command headquarters and the Army
   Reserve Command headquarters to Fort Bragg, North Carolina. 20 Also, this
   recommendation relocated the Third Army headquarters to Shaw Air Force Base, South
   Carolina. One-time implementation costs increased $590 million (275 percent). The
   identification of additional project requirements, such as additional headquarters facilities
   and housing at Fort Bragg, Shaw Air Force Base, and other locations, increased military
   construction costs. Also, the cost for the combined U.S. Army Forces Command and U.S.
   Army Reserve Command Headquarters at Fort Bragg and the Third Army headquarters
   facility at Shaw Air Force Base increased because of increased square footage
   requirements that were not originally identified. The costs for furnishings, collateral
   equipment, and other outfitting costs associated with these added military construction
   projects and expanded scope increased from about $92 million to about $232 million. Also,
   environmental costs increased from about $1 million to about $10 million because of the
   higher cost of complying with the National Environmental Policy Act as well as the shifting of
   environmental restoration requirements into the 6-year implementation period. Information
   technology costs increased from nearly $20 million to $139 million due to the corresponding
   information technology requirements for the added military construction projects and more
   refined costs for installation of communications, automation, and information systems
   equipment.

9. Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at Fort Meade, Maryland ($382
   million increase). This recommendation closed leased locations and realigned various
   other functions at a 1 million square foot facility at Fort Meade, Maryland. One-time
   implementation costs increased about $382 million (174 percent). The majority of this cost
   growth was caused by increased military construction and information technology
   requirements that were understated in the initial estimates. For example, the amount of
   square footage for a laboratory and a controlled humidity warehouse used by the agency in
   leased locations was understated in original estimates for the new facility. In addition, initial
   estimates did not include all costs to furnish the new facility. Information technology
   requirements, which were originally estimated at about $17 million dollars, increased to
   about $95 million when the agency identified the need to duplicate its existing information
   technology infrastructure in the new facility.

10. Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities ($379 million increase).
    DOD relocated several Army commands and regional offices to various locations such as
    Fort Sam Houston, Texas; Fort Knox, Kentucky; and Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, to create
    operating efficiencies. Several factors contributed to the increase in one-time
    implementation costs of $379 million (189 percent). For example, new construction projects

20
  The BRAC Commission, in another recommendation, directed the Air Force to transfer real property
accountability for Pope Air Force Base to the Army, making it part of Fort Bragg.


Page 10                                      GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
     added after the Commission estimate was computed increased military construction costs
     by over $65 million. These projects included the Installation Management Command
     Headquarters building, the renovation of a historic theater for the Family, Morale, Welfare
     and Recreation Command, and associated parking and road improvements. There was also
     an increase of almost $30 million to originally planned construction projects. An additional
     $33 million in increased costs were caused by adjusted requirements for civilian moves,
     civilian severance, collateral equipment, furnishings, restored leave, contract termination,
     and transportation. Further, information technology costs increased from an initial estimate
     of nearly $2 million to about $58 million because of information technology requirements
     associated with construction of the additional projects as well as information technology
     requirements for Army headquarters organizations. There were also added costs of over
     $41 million for personnel-related costs and transportation of equipment.

11. Realign supply, storage, and distribution management ($347 million increase). This
    recommendation was to achieve economies and efficiencies to enhance logistic support
    effectiveness by reconfiguring DOD’s wholesale supply, storage, and distribution network
    across the United States while also consolidating these functions at several military
    maintenance depots. Viewed as one of the more complicated recommendations put forth by
    DOD, one-time implementation costs increased $347 million (180 percent) primarily for
    information technology. Information technology efforts related to this recommendation
    involved complex business process reengineering efforts, including software development
    and synchronizing several existing and evolving information technology systems, in addition
    to equipment purchases. Further, military construction costs increased, mostly attributable to
    the following three factors. First, the defense distribution depot at Susquehanna,
    Pennsylvania, had excess capacity when DOD was developing the recommendation, but
    after the recommendation became binding the depot no longer had the capacity to store all
    the supplies that the BRAC recommendation originally envisioned, thus requiring new
    construction for extra storage space. Second, the cost increased because a facility that was
    designated to be a new Strategic Distribution Platform at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma,
    as part of this recommendation, was originally included in the estimates for another
    recommendation. However, we were told that when the BRAC Commission changed the
    other recommendation the military construction was not incorporated back into this
    recommendation. In addition, needed upgrades to the facility were not included in the
    original estimates. Third, Warner-Robins’ Strategic Distribution Platform, Georgia required
    more space than envisioned due to a data input error. The needed square footage was
    entered into the BRAC database as 20,000 square feet when it should have been 200,000
    square feet. Thus, additional construction was needed to build the required storage space.
    In addition, costs to integrate each of the services’ inventory management systems with the
    Defense Logistics Agency’s systems were higher than anticipated. Other cost increases
    included costs for re-warehousing stock at the strategic distribution platforms; 21
    consolidating storage at the forward distribution points, redistributing inventories among
    various distribution depots; and modifying existing contracts.

12. Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management ($307 million increase).
    This recommendation realigned procurement and related support functions at 13 locations
    by consolidating depot-level reparable procurement within the Defense Logistics Agency,

21
   A strategic distribution platform is a regional hub consisting of multiple spokes, known as forward
distribution points, which provide supplies to designated customers. Under this recommendation,
distribution depots no longer needed for regional supply were realigned as forward distribution points, and
all their supply and storage functions were consolidated.


Page 11                                       GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
   completing the transfer of remaining consumable item management to the Defense Logistics
   Agency, and relocating integrated material management functions to other locations,
   including Detroit Arsenal, Michigan. One-time implementation costs increased $307 million
   (246 percent) mainly as a result of changes in military construction and information
   technology requirements. Military construction costs increased primarily because of changes
   in the construction planned for the movement of personnel from Rock Island, Illinois, to
   Detroit Arsenal. These changes included a larger administrative building than originally
   planned because contractor personnel were not included in the original estimate, and the
   construction of a parking garage instead of a parking lot. Also, information technology costs
   increased because the initial estimates were based on incomplete data that did not reflect
   business processes and other information technology requirements.

13. Co-locate military department investigation agencies with DOD Counterintelligence
    and Security Agency at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia ($301 million increase).
    This recommendation closed various leased locations and realigned various
    counterintelligence and investigative functions to Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia.
    One-time implementation costs increased $301 million (175 percent) largely because the
    required square footage needed for the facility was underestimated. According to Navy
    officials, initial square footage estimates were underestimated because they did not include
    space for contractors or students that train at the facility. As a result, military construction
    increased $222 million over initial Commission estimates.

14. Close Brooks City Base, Texas ($283 million increase). This recommendation closed
    Brooks City-Base, realigned Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, and relocated several
    Air Force, Army, and Navy medical missions to Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air
    Force Base, Texas; Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio; and Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
    One-time implementation costs increased $283 million (87 percent). The primary drivers of
    cost growth were additional requirements identified after the initial estimate, which increased
    military construction costs. For example, at Fort Sam Houston, the initial cost estimate took
    into account only the Army’s facilities requirements and left out both Navy and Air Force
    requirements, which, according to Air Force officials, added $74 million in construction costs.
    At Lackland Air Force Base, the amount of square footage required increased by 56,000
    square feet because more personnel needed to be accommodated than initially estimated.
    Also at Lackland, the renovation of existing facilities required moving current occupants to
    other facilities, and those costs were not captured in the initial estimates. At Wright-
    Patterson and Randolph Air Force Bases, military construction costs increased from an
    estimated $208 million to $230 million because, among other things, DOD’s and the BRAC
    Commission’s original estimates did not take into account that the cost to renovate historic
    buildings is greater than the standard planning factors used to estimate renovation costs. In
    addition, projects to restore the property at Brooks City Base and Holloman Air Force Base
    to usable, suitable condition contributed to the cost increase. Environmental requirements
    such as environmental policy compliance and restoration activities were not included in the
    original cost estimates and added $21 million to implementation costs. Costs for operation
    and maintenance increased by $96 million because requirements for transporting equipment
    from Brooks to the new locations increased, the cost of moving the personnel from
    Holloman Air Force Base to Wright-Patterson increased, and the cost to purchase needed
    equipment to allow dual operations or contracted support for uninterrupted capabilities
    provided by the research laboratories and the School of Aerospace Medicine during the
    transition from Brooks City Base increased. Civilian personnel costs were also higher than
    estimated because about 40 percent of the civilian workforce actually transferred to the new
    locations, but only 20 percent were expected to do so.


Page 12                                     GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Implementation Costs for Five Recommendations Increased by over 1,000 Percent

In addition to the 14 recommendations that had the largest dollar increases in estimated costs,
we also identified five recommendations that experienced cost increases of over 1,000 percent
compared to the BRAC Commission’s estimates, as shown in table 2.

Table 2: BRAC Recommendations with over 1,000 Percent Increases in One-Time Costs
(Dollars in millions)
BRAC recommendation                        2005 BRAC    Fiscal year          Dollar       Percentage
(Commission number)                       Commission     2011 DOD         increase          increase
                                             estimate       budget
  1. Realign to establish Joint Center            $1.5       $29.1            $27.6              1,840
      for consolidated transportation
      management training at Fort Lee,
      VA (#122)
  2. Realign to establish Joint Center of          1.0         14.9            13.9              1,394
      Excellence for religious training
      and education at Fort Jackson, SC
      (#124)
  3. Realign Single Drill Sergeant                 1.8         27.2            25.4              1,411
      School to Fort Jackson, SC (#50)
  4. Realign to establish Joint Center of          5.4         73.1            67.7              1,254
      Excellence for culinary training at
      Fort Lee, VA (#123)
  5. Consolidate Army Test and                     7.1         93.0            85.9              1,210
      Evaluation command
      Headquarters at Aberdeen Proving
      Ground, MD (#136)
  Total                                          $16.8      $237.3          $ 220.5
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum of each column due to rounding.

Our analysis of the recommendations listed in table 2—as with the 14 recommendations that
demonstrated the largest dollar cost increases—showed these recommendations also had new
or unanticipated requirements for military construction that were not included in the initial cost
estimates. Factors that contributed to those cost increases are outlined below.

1. Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated transportation management
    training at Fort Lee, Virginia (1,840 percent increase). This recommendation established
    a Joint Center for Consolidated Transportation Management Training at Fort Lee to
    eliminate redundancy by relocating transportation management training at Lackland Air
    Force Base, Texas. Initially estimated to cost $1.5 million, this recommendation cost about
    $29 million to implement, a cost growth of 1,840 percent. The Commission’s cost estimates
    were based on DOD’s assumption that there would be space available at Fort Lee once
    another BRAC recommendation to establish the Combat Service Support Center, also at
    Fort Lee, was implemented. However, those facilities were not available, thus requiring new
    construction of a 53,000 square foot facility that included, among other things, a general
    instruction building. Further, additional requirements and the cost of construction materials
    contributed to about $18 million of the increase. Other factors behind cost increases




Page 13                                         GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
   included environmental costs, moving costs, information technology, and furnishings
   associated with the new construction.

2. Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for Religious Training and Education
   at Fort Jackson, South Carolina (1,394 percent increase). This recommendation
   consolidated similar religious educational activities for officers and enlisted personnel and
   merged common support functions to create the Joint Center of Excellence for Religious
   Training and Education by relocating religious training and educational from three other
   locations— Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama; Naval Air Station Meridian, Mississippi; and
   Naval Station Newport, Rhode Island—to Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Initially projected to
   cost $1 million, this recommendation cost over $14.9 million to implement, a cost increase of
   1,394 percent. According to DOD, the total requirement for all facilities for this
   recommendation was 118,000 square feet, but only 57,000 square feet were available for
   religious training use at Fort Jackson once implementation began. This caused military
   construction costs to increase from about a half-million dollars to over $10 million. The final
   cost of military construction for this recommendation was over $11.5 million because of an
   increase in scope resulting from additional joint requirements. In addition, costs for removal,
   packing, shipping, and reinstallation of video teletraining equipment and advanced
   classroom electronic equipment increased by $1.5 million.

3. Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, South Carolina (1,411, percent
   increase). By relocating existing drill sergeant schools from Fort Benning, Georgia, and Fort
   Leonard Wood, Missouri, this recommendation established a consolidated drill sergeant
   school at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. The Commission’s initial estimate, based on DOD’s
   information, was projected to cost $1.8 million; however, this recommendation cost $27.2
   million to implement, an increase of 1,411 percent. About $23 million of this cost growth
   resulted from the need for new military construction because existing facilities, initially
   thought to be suitable, were later deemed inadequate. After BRAC implementation began,
   the Army determined that it needed newly constructed space, primarily for classrooms,
   headquarters administration, and office space, and for a dining area to accommodate the
   projected 366 students per training cycle expected due to consolidating the three schools at
   one location. However, the existing training facilities at Fort Jackson were 40 years old and
   would support a training capacity of only 120 students, far short of the 366 students
   expected per training cycle. Further, the Army cited a severe shortage of bathing facilities
   and laundry appliances, and noted that there was inadequate dedicated space for outdoor
   assembly, drills, and physical training. The Army also determined there were no adequate
   alternate facilities either on or off the installation that could be used to satisfy the need for
   the instructional facilities to serve this training mission. Other costs that increased included
   actual costs to comply with environmental regulations, and additional furnishing, outfitting,
   and information technology requirements associated with the new construction.

4. Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for Culinary Training at Fort Lee,
   Virginia (1,254 percent increase). With this recommendation, DOD consolidated its
   culinary training at one location, creating the Joint Center of Excellence for Culinary Training
   by relocating the culinary training from Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, to Fort Lee. While
   the BRAC Commission approved the recommendation, it noted in its Report to the
   President, “. . . the ultimate cost of this recommendation is still unclear.” Initially estimated to
   cost $5.4 million to implement, this recommendation cost $73.1 million to implement, an
   increase of 1,254 percent. Military construction costs were the main reason for the increase.
   Construction estimates increased from $4.3 million to $69.5 million due to expanded



Page 14                                     GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
      instructional capacity requirements. Additionally, a dormitory and a dining facility were
      added to support the increased student load.

5. Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation command Headquarters at Aberdeen Proving
      Ground, Maryland (1,210 percent). This recommendation consolidated DOD’s Army Test
      and Evaluation Command at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The initial cost estimate
      to implement this recommendation was $7.1 million, whereas the final implementation cost
      was $93 million, an increase of about 1,210 percent. In 2006, the Army planned to place
      many Army Test and Evaluation Command personnel in existing facilities at Aberdeen
      Proving Ground but subsequently determined that this option was not feasible due to a lack
      of contiguous space and developed an alternative to construct a new 2-star headquarters
      facility at a cost of $55.5 million. Mission requirements for a top-secret information facility,
      and a secure network operations center, a secure conference center, and secure video
      teleconference center, not identified in initial cost estimates, also added to the total cost.
      Further, initial estimates did not adequately capture requirements to furnish and equip the
      facility or move the personnel and equipment, resulting in higher costs than expected.

See enclosure I for a list of DOD’s estimated costs to implement the recommendations from the
2005 BRAC round and enclosure II for the differences between the BRAC Commission
estimates and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 budget estimates for each recommendation.

Both 20-year Net Present Value and Net Annual Recurring Savings Estimates Have
Decreased, Due Largely to Increased Implementation Costs

Due primarily to the large $14.1 billion increase in one-time implementation costs, the 20-year
net present value of savings DOD can expect by implementing the 2005 BRAC
recommendations has decreased by 72 percent, and our analysis of net annual recurring
savings shows a decrease of 9.5 percent compared to the BRAC Commission’s estimates.

Twenty-Year Net Present Value Has Decreased by 72 Percent
Our analysis of DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC 2005 budget submission to Congress shows that
the 20-year net present value of savings 22 of $35.6 billion estimated by the Commission in 2005
for this BRAC round have decreased by 72 percent to about $9.9 billion. 23 We believe that the
20-year net present value of BRAC recommendations is a key indicator of the net result from
up-front implementation costs and the resulting savings because it takes into account the time
value of money; that is, it considers when a dollar amount, such as savings, is received during
the 20-year period. As a result, annual savings and other dollar amounts receive different
weights depending on when they occur, reflecting the fact that savings received further into the
future are less valuable than savings received sooner. For the 2005 BRAC round, both DOD
and the BRAC Commission calculated the net present value over a 20-year period ending in
2025 that we believe provides a comprehensive analysis of expected costs or savings.




22
  In the context of BRAC, net present value is the total one-time costs minus the total net savings that
DOD expects to incur from fiscal year 2006 through fiscal year 2025 to project 20-year savings at a 2.8
percent discount rate. We used data provided by DOD for fiscal year 2012 expected savings.
23
     Twenty-year net present value figures are expressed in constant fiscal year 2005 dollars.



Page 15                                          GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Our analysis of the change in net present value showed that nine recommendations had
decreases over $1 billion each, and that three of these nine recommendations experienced
decreases of over $2 billion each as shown in table 3.


Table 3: BRAC 2005 Recommendations with Greatest Decrease in 20-year Net Present Value
(Dollars in millions)
 BRAC recommendation                                    Dollar change Commission-           Dollar change in
 (Commission number)                                  estimated 20-year net present          one-time costs
                                                                              value
                                                                                            (fiscal year 2011
                                                          (constant fiscal year 2005    current year dollars)
                                                                             dollars)

 1.   Realign supply, storage, and distribution
      management (#177)                                                   ($2,764.1)                  $346.8
 2.   Close National Geospatial-Intelligence
      Agency leased locations and realign others
      at Fort Belvoir, VA (#168)                                            (2,098.1)                1,436.0
 3.   Establish joint bases at multiple locations
      (#146)                                                                (2,093.3)                    3.6
 4.   Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center
      to Bethesda National Naval Medical
      Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir, VA (#169)                            (1,425.7)                1,731.6
 5.   Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense
      agency, and field activity leased locations
      (#133)                                                                (1,342.0)                  826.6
 6.   Consolidate depot-level reparable
      procurement management (#176)                                         (1,154.0)                  307.1
 7.   Establish San Antonio Regional Medical
      Center and realign enlisted medical training
      to Fort Sam Houston, TX (#172)                                        (1,104.4)                  953.0
 8.   Realign Maneuver Training to Fort
      Benning, GA (#9)                                                      (1,072.4)                  915.1
 9. Close Fort Monmouth, NJ (#5)                                   ($1,051.2)             $1,086.0
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Eight of the nine recommendations experiencing the greatest decrease in 20-year net present
value have been discussed earlier in this report as they were in the group of recommendations
where costs increased the most. However, the recommendation to establish joint bases has not
been discussed in this report. 24 As depicted in table 3, the 20-year net present value for that
recommendation decreased by almost $2.1 billion. The BRAC Commission estimated in 2005
that joint basing would produce a positive 20-year net present value of $2.3 billion; however,
DOD is now estimating that joint basing efforts will only result in a 20-year net present value of



24
  The 2005 BRAC Commission recommended that DOD establish 12 joint bases by consolidating the
management and support of 26 separate Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps installations, which
shared a common boundary with or were in close proximity to at least one other base. OSD’s 2008
guidance on implementing joint basing provided for the creation of a set of joint base common standards
for installation support functions—such as for installation security, custodial services, and child care
programs—that defined the level of service each joint base is to provide. GAO expects to issue a
separate report on joint basing later this year.



Page 16                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
about $249 million. As we reported in 2009, 25 the joint basing initiative may be increasing rather
than cutting costs, at least in the short term, because, prior to joint basing, the military services
had not normally funded installation support in the amounts needed to meet their existing
standards, and DOD now requires the joint bases to deliver installation support in accordance
with the new standards. DOD officials stated that the increased support costs at the joint bases
might be at least partially offset over time as experience is gained and new efficiencies are
identified and adopted. Table 3 also illustrates how increases in up-front costs can negatively
affect the net present value of a recommendation.

In addition to the decline in 20-year net present value, the number of recommendations that are
expected to produce a negative 20-year net present value (in other words, at the end of the 20-
year period, those recommendations will incur higher costs than any savings) has increased
significantly. Specifically, DOD proposed 23 recommendations to the BRAC Commission that
were based on its assessment of high military value but were expected to have a negative 20-
year net present value. After its review, the Commission approved 30 recommendations that
were expected to result in negative 20-year net present value. However, our analysis of DOD’s
2011 BRAC budget data shows DOD is now expecting 75 out of 182 Commission-approved
BRAC 2005 recommendations (41 percent) to have a negative net present value in the same
20-year period. In contrast, only four recommendations DOD developed in all four prior BRAC
rounds combined were not expected to result in a positive 20-year net present value. See
enclosure III for a list of 20-year net present value estimates for all BRAC 2005
recommendations and enclosure IV for the differences between the BRAC Commission
estimates and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 budget estimates for each recommendation.

Net Annual Recurring BRAC Savings Have Decreased by 9.5 Percent
With regard to annual recurring savings, our analysis of DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC 2005
budget submission to Congress shows that DOD’s net annual recurring savings estimates
resulting from BRAC 2005 have decreased by $400 million to about $3.8 billion, 26 a 9.5 percent
decrease from the Commission’s estimate of $4.2 billion. 27 Three recommendations—two
related to realigning defense logistics functions and one to develop joint bases—accounted for
most of the decrease in net annual recurring savings, primarily due to estimated efficiencies that
did not materialize. Specifically, the net annual recurring savings to realign supply, storage, and
distribution management decreased by $184.5 million, and for the recommendation to
consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management decreased by almost $76 million.
The net recurring savings for the recommendation to develop joint bases decreased by $151.4
million. Some of the decreases in net annual recurring savings were offset by recommendations
that had increases in net annual recurring savings. For example, the recommendation to
consolidate the Defense Finance and Accounting Service had the largest increase in estimated
net annual recurring savings of $396.3 million. The larger than expected savings for this

25
  GAO, Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Periodically Review Support Standards and Costs at Joint
Bases and Better Inform Congress of Facility Sustainment Funding Use, GAO-09-336 (Washington, D.C.:
Mar. 30, 2009).
26
  As we have previously reported, we and the BRAC Commission believe that DOD’s net annual
recurring savings estimates are overstated because they include savings from eliminating military
personnel positions without corresponding decreases in end-strength. DOD disagrees with our position.
27
  The net annual recurring savings is calculated by deducting DOD estimates of the annual recurring
costs from the annual recurring savings that are expected to accrue in 2012, the year after the BRAC
2005 recommendations have been completed and will be in a steady state.



Page 17                                      GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
recommendation resulted from the recommendation being completed earlier than scheduled,
thus allowing savings to begin to accrue sooner. See enclosure V for a list of DOD’s estimated
annual recurring savings from all BRAC 2005 recommendations, and enclosure VI for the
differences between the BRAC Commission estimates and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 budget
estimates for each recommendation.

Concluding Observations
Notwithstanding the $14.1 billion increase in one-time implementation costs of the 2005 BRAC
round, which in turn decreased the amount of 20-year net savings DOD expected to achieve by
72 percent compared to the BRAC Commission’s estimates, OSD officials told us that the
department still expects that implementing BRAC 2005 recommendations will enhance military
value, defense operations, and defense management. We are continuing to analyze the BRAC
2005 implementation and plan to issue a report later this year on lessons learned that could be
applied to any future BRAC round.


Agency Comments

We provided a draft copy of this report to DOD for review and comment. In response, DOD
stated that our draft accurately describes changes in estimated costs and savings from the
reported Commission estimates to the Department's final cost and savings data. In addition,
DOD noted that it continues to believe that the BRAC process is the only fair, objective, and
proven process for closing and realigning bases in the United States. DOD also provided
technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate. DOD’s written comments are
reprinted in enclosure VII.

We are sending copies of this report to interested congressional committees; the Secretary of
Defense; the secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force; the Commandant of the Marine
Corps; the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment) and the Director,
Office of Management and Budget. In addition, the report will be available at no charge on
GAO’s website at http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff have any questions concerning this report, please contact me at (202) 512-
4523 or by e-mail at leporeb@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional
Relations and Public Affairs are on the last page of this report. GAO staff who made major
contributions to this report include Laura Talbott, Assistant Director; Vijay Barnabas; John
Beauchamp; John Clary; Susan Ditto; Brandon Jones; Gregory Marchand; Charles Perdue;
Pauline Reaves; John Trubey; and Erik Wilkins-McKee.




Brian J. Lepore,
Director
Defense Capabilities and Management




Page 18                                   GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure I: DOD’s Estimated Costs to Implement All Recommendations from the 2005
BRAC Round


Table 4: DOD’s Estimated Cost to Implement BRAC 2005 Recommendations Sorted by Highest to Lowest
Cost, fiscal years 2006 through 2011
(Current-year dollars in millions)
Recommendation                                                                                One-time cost
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence and Basing Strategy)                           $2,933.0
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda National Naval Medical
Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir, VA                                                                  2,720.4
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased locations and realign others
at Fort Belvoir, VA                                                                                  2,553.3
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and realign enlisted medical
training to Fort Sam Houston, TX                                                                     1,993.9
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                                                              1,866.4
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                                                        1,688.2
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field activity leased locations                     1,428.3
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee, VA                                   1,419.9
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                                                               804.8
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                                                                  620.5
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                                                             608.2
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at Fort Meade, MD                                       601.8
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities                                              578.4
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management                                                   539.5
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with DOD
Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA                             472.5
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                                                                  470.3
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and Armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center mostly at Naval Air
Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                                                        456.6
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management                                              432.0
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at Redstone Arsenal, AL                                  386.8
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and recruiting centers for the
Army and Air Force                                                                                    381.6
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service                                                    336.2
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                                                                336.1
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign Cambria Regional Airport,
Johnstown, PA                                                                                         297.4
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and School at Fort Sill, OK                          289.7
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                                                                 286.1
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                                                                 284.8
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                                                  269.4
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at multiple locations                               260.3
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical, biological, and medical
research and development and acquisition                                                              258.3
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and National Guard
Headquarters leased locations                                                                         254.6
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional correctional facilities                       244.9
Realign Naval Support Activity, New Orleans, LA                                                       239.8
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX and realign Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi,
TX                                                                                                    209.5
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                                                         201.8
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased locations                                        201.5
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator training                                        193.4
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint training site at Eglin Air Force
Base, FL                                                                                              189.4



Page 19                                                GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                                                               185.1
Consolidate Transportation Command components at Scott Air Force Base, IL                          178.8
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                                               164.8
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northeast                                               155.9
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                                                               147.1
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for media and publications at
Fort Meade, MD                                                                                     142.6
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                                                   142.5
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                                                              140.0
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                                                  138.7
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                                               134.6
Relocate medical command headquarters                                                              134.0
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                                                             129.5
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                                                               129.1
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                                                               127.1
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                                                          127.0
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control, communications, computers,
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; research, development, and
acquisition; and test and evaluation functions at multiple locations                               126.0
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                                                          125.7
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                                                               120.0
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                                                               115.7
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                                                             113.3
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                                                                106.8
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                                                    105.4
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within military department and defense
agencies                                                                                           103.8
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                                                96.9
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to clinics at various installations                95.7
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                                                       93.3
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command Headquarters at Aberdeen
Proving Ground, MD                                                                                  93.0
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                                                                92.7
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                                                         91.7
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication activities                                   88.9
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-St. Louis International
Airport Air Guard Station, MO                                                                       83.0
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                                                79.8
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northwest                                                79.7
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments specialty site for guns
and ammunition at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ                                                             77.2
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                                                76.8
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for culinary training at Fort Lee, VA               73.1
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform Development, and
Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone
Arsenal, AL                                                                                         71.0
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                                                         69.5
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                                                                68.9
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                                                            66.9
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                                                64.9
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                                                 61.5
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                                                61.2
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                                                                60.2
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                                                59.3
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                                                56.1
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans Air Reserve Station, LA                                       55.7
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                                                         54.2




Page 20                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                                                       53.2
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                                               52.0
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity                                         50.2
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                                                               49.0
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA                                               47.7
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                                                               45.9
Close Navy Supply Corps School Athens, GA                                                          45.0
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New England                                             43.0
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                                                  39.0
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at Fort Leonard Wood, MO                      37.6
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                                                               37.2
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                                               37.1
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station, CT                                        35.2
Realign Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA                                                    34.8
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                                                    34.3
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                                                   31.9
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and Midwestern Regions, and
Hopewell, VA, offices                                                                              31.4
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station, OR                                       30.6
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                                                 29.4
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated transportation management
training at Fort Lee, VA                                                                           29.1
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                                               28.3
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                                               28.2
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                                               28.1
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                                                      27.6
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC                                           27.2
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                                                                 26.7
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                                                               26.4
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                                                 26.2
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                                                               25.3
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station, TN                                      24.9
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                                                   23.4
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NM                                                                  23.4
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                                               23.3
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                                                      23.3
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform Research, Development,
and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base,
OH, and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                                   21.6
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                                                      21.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southwest                                               21.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southeast                                               20.8
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity Norfolk, VA                                         20.8
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                                               19.7
Close Naval Station Pascagoula, MS                                                                 18.8
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                                                     18.3
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                                                               17.5
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                                                   15.3
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for religious training and education
at Fort Jackson, SC                                                                                14.9
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                                               14.4
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                                                               14.4
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                                               14.2
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard Station, VA                                       14.1
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                                               13.9
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                                                   13.5
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                                                  13.4



Page 21                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                                                               13.1
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                                                          12.3
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                                                         12.2
Close Marine Corps Support Activity Kansas City, MO                                                         12.0
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                                                        11.6
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair facilities                                            10.2
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL                                           10.1
Realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA                                                                 9.7
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                                                                         9.6
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                                                         9.0
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                                                                   8.9
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                                                                   8.2
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, AR                                                   7.4
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                                                                      7.1
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT                                              6.6
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                                                                6.1
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                                                                 5.8
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                                                            5.7
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                                                                  5.5
Realign commodity management privatization                                                                   4.9
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, OH                                          4.6
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                                                               4.6
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                                                                      4.2
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                                                              3.9
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Eglin Air Force
Base, FL                                                                                                     3.3
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                                                             3.3
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station, ND                                                   3.2
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                                                                      1.8
Realign Naval Submarine Base New London, CT                                                                  1.6
Realign Navy Regions                                                                                         1.2
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                                                              0.8
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development, and Acquisition in a joint
center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                                                                                0.8
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA, by establishing a centralized intermediate
repair facility – F-15 Avionics at Tyndall Air Force Base, FL                                                0.6
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development, and Acquisition to Naval Surface
Warfare Center Carderock Division, MD, and Naval Sea Systems Command, DC                                     0.0
Create joint mobilization sites                                                                              0.0
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                                                                  0.0
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                                                               0.0
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base, WA                                                      0.0
Total                                                                                                 $35,151.7a
Source: GAO analysis based on DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum due to rounding.
a
 Total includes $1.2 billion for BRAC program administration costs because DOD included this amount in the BRAC
budget. However, we did not list it in this table because it is not a recommendation.




Page 22                                           GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure II: Dollar Differences in One-time Costs from BRAC Commission Estimates to
Fiscal Year 2011 DOD Budget


Table 5: Dollar Differences in One-Time Costs From BRAC Commission Estimates to Fiscal Year 2011 DOD
Budget
(Current-year dollars in millions).
Recommendation                                                 2005 BRAC     Fiscal year 2011         Dollar
                                                              Commission         DOD budget      difference
                                                                 estimate
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda
National Naval Medical Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir,
VA                                                                 $988.8           $2,720.4       $1,731.6
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased
locations and realign others at Fort Belvoir, VA                  1,117.3             2,553.3       1,436.0
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                             780.4             1,866.4       1,086.0
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and
realign enlisted medical training to Fort Sam Houston, TX         1,040.9             1,993.9          953.0
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                       773.1             1,688.2          915.1
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field
activity leased locations                                           601.8             1,428.3          826.6
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at
Fort Lee, VA                                                        754.0             1,419.9          665.9
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                            214.5               804.8          590.2
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at
Fort Meade, MD                                                      220.0              601.8           381.9
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities           199.9              578.4           378.5
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management                192.7              539.5           346.8
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement
management                                                          124.9              432.0           307.1
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with
DOD Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine
Corps Base Quantico, VA                                             172.0              472.5           300.5
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                          325.3              608.2           282.9
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and
recruiting centers for the Army and Air Force                       128.7              381.6           252.8
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                                72.4              286.1           213.7
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at
Redstone Arsenal, AL                                                178.2              386.8           208.6
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical,
biological, and medical research and development and
acquisition                                                          55.2              258.3           203.1
Realign Naval Support Activity, New Orleans, LA                      46.2              239.8           193.6
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                               435.8              620.5           184.7
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and
National Guard Headquarters leased locations                         90.5              254.6           164.1
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                        44.1              201.8           157.7
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased
locations                                                            61.8              201.5           139.8
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at
multiple locations                                                  136.1              260.3           124.3
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator
training                                                             71.7              193.4           121.7
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and
Armaments Research, Development, and Acquisition,
Test and Evaluation Center mostly at Naval Air Weapons
Station China Lake, CA                                              343.3              456.6           113.2
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                168.7              269.4           100.7



Page 23                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for
media and publications at Fort Meade, MD                            42.0              142.6          100.6
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                           25.2              125.7          100.5
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                           29.0              127.0           98.0
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                               375.6              470.3           94.7
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                              193.1              284.8           91.6
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                              25.2              113.3           88.1
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                78.7              164.8           86.1
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command
Headquarters at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD                          7.1               93.0           85.9
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                               56.8              140.0           83.2
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service                 254.4              336.2           81.8
Consolidate Transportation Command components at
Scott Air Force Base, IL                                           101.9              178.8           77.0
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional
correctional facilities                                            171.3              244.9           73.5
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for
culinary training at Fort Lee, VA                                    5.4               73.1           67.8
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                               118.9              185.1           66.2
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                         11.5               69.5           58.0
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign
Cambria Regional Airport, Johnstown, PA                            239.5              297.4           57.9
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                                68.9              120.0           51.1
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                                24.1               68.9           44.8
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                               103.8              147.1           43.3
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and
School at Fort Sill, OK                                            247.0              289.7           42.7
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control,
communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance,
and reconnaissance; research, development, and
acquisition; and test and evaluation functions at multiple
locations                                                           86.6              126.0           39.4
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                29.5               64.9           35.4
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA                14.0               47.7           33.7
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX and realign Naval Air
Station, Corpus Christi, TX                                        177.1              209.5           32.4
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at
Fort Leonard Wood, MO                                                6.0               37.6           31.6
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                                30.7               60.2           29.5
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                         62.4               91.7           29.3
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-
St. Louis International Airport Air Guard Station, MO               53.7               83.0           29.3
Relocate medical command headquarters                              106.3              134.0           27.8
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated
transportation management training at Fort Lee, VA                   1.5               29.1           27.6
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                   11.8               39.0           27.2
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC             1.8               27.2           25.4
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                             104.2              129.5           25.3
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                31.1               56.1           25.0
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication
activities                                                          67.1               88.9           21.8
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation
Center at Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone Arsenal, AL              49.4               71.0           21.6
Close Navy Supply Corps School Athens, GA                           23.8               45.0           21.2
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                 40.4               61.5           21.0
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station,
CT                                                                  14.3               35.2           20.9



Page 24                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                                109.2              129.1           19.9
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                         33.5               53.2           19.7
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                        0.0               18.3           18.3
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                         9.3               27.6           18.3
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                 42.6               59.3           16.7
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within military
department and defense agencies                                      87.1              103.8           16.6
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                 61.2               76.8           15.6
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                 13.6               28.3           14.7
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for
religious training and education at Fort Jackson, SC                  1.0               14.9           13.9
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                   12.5               26.2           13.7
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                     18.3               31.9           13.6
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                 47.6               61.2           13.6
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                      2.3               15.3           13.0
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                                 33.1               45.9           12.8
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity           37.9               50.2           12.3
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                 25.3               37.1           11.8
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments
specialty site for guns and ammunition at Picatinny
Arsenal, NJ                                                          66.8               77.2           10.4
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity Norfolk,
VA                                                                   10.6               20.8           10.2
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                 17.9               28.1           10.2
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                   19.4               29.4           10.1
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                 87.0               96.9            9.9
Realign Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA                      26.0               34.8            8.8
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                                 28.6               37.2            8.6
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                         4.8               13.1            8.3
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                 15.1               23.3               8.2
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                  6.3               14.4               8.1
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                                 17.3               25.3               8.0
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                  6.4               14.2               7.8
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                 72.4               79.8               7.4
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                                 85.5               92.7               7.2
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                    5.2               12.3               7.1
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                                 10.7               17.5               6.8
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                            2.6                8.9               6.4
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station
Pensacola, FL                                                         4.1               10.1               6.0
Realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA                          4.0                9.7               5.7
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                      28.6               34.3               5.7
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                      8.3               13.5               5.2
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                  9.2               13.9               4.7
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                         2.0                6.1               4.2
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                   8.1               12.2               4.1
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform
Research, Development, and Acquisition, Test and
Evaluation Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,
OH, and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                     17.7               21.6               3.9
Close Marine Corps Support Activity Kansas City, MO                   8.2               12.0               3.8
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                  7.9               11.6               3.7
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                          50.6               54.2               3.6
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                 26.0               28.2               2.2
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station,
ND                                                                    1.8                3.2               1.4
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                              334.8              336.1               1.3



Page 25                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                  7.9                9.0               1.1
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair
facilities                                                            9.2               10.2               1.0
Close Naval Station Pascagoula, MS                                   17.9               18.8               0.9
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and
armaments Research, Development, and Acquisition,
Test and Evaluation Center at Eglin Air Force Base, FL                2.7                3.3            0.6
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                           0.1                0.0          (0.1)
Create joint mobilization sites                                       0.1                0.0          (0.1)
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                    13.6               13.4          (0.2)
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans Air Reserve
Station, LA                                                          55.9               55.7          (0.2)
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard
Station, MT                                                           6.8                6.6          (0.2)
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                               4.5                4.2          (0.3)
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and
Midwestern Regions, and Hopewell, VA, offices                        31.7               31.4          (0.3)
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                     6.2                5.7          (0.5)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Northwest                                                            80.4               79.7          (0.7)
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                               2.6                1.8          (0.8)
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base,
WA                                                                    1.1                0.0          (1.1)
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA, by establishing a
centralized intermediate repair facility – F-15 Avionics at
Tyndall Air Force Base, FL                                            1.8                0.6          (1.2)
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                        22.8               21.5          (1.2)
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                                128.6              127.1          (1.5)
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development, and
Acquisition to Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock
Division, MD, and Naval Sea Systems Command, DC                       1.5                0.0          (1.5)
Realign commodity management privatization                            6.4                4.9          (1.6)
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                       2.4                0.8          (1.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                 21.4               19.7          (1.7)
Realign Navy Regions                                                  3.2                1.2          (2.0)
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                          8.6                5.8          (2.7)
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development, and
Acquisition in a joint center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                  3.8                0.8          (3.0)
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                        96.7               93.3          (3.4)
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                              10.7                7.1          (3.6)
Realign Naval Submarine Base, New London, CT                          5.5                1.6          (3.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                 56.6               52.0          (4.6)
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                        9.5                4.6          (4.9)
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station,
AR                                                                   13.5                7.4          (6.1)
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                                   32.9               26.7          (6.2)
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard
Station, VA                                                          22.0               14.1          (7.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                142.7              134.6          (8.1)
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                    150.9              142.5          (8.4)
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                   147.4              138.7          (8.6)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Southeast                                                            29.9               20.8          (9.1)
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint
training site at Eglin Air Force Base, FL                           199.1              189.4          (9.7)
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                        33.4               23.3         (10.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                                 36.9               26.4         (10.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                                 61.4               49.0         (12.4)



Page 26                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                  16.7                  3.3            (13.5)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Northeast                                                        171.2                155.9            (15.3)
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                        24.0                  8.2            (15.8)
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                              123.7                106.8            (17.0)
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                  40.6                 23.4            (17.2)
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                              32.4                 14.4            (18.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                             134.8                115.7            (19.1)
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                   27.0                  3.9            (23.1)
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station,
TN                                                                48.7                 24.9            (23.8)
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                          91.4                 66.9            (24.5)
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard
Station, OH                                                       30.8                  4.6            (26.2)
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                       32.4                  5.5            (26.9)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Southwest                                                         55.5                 21.5            (34.0)
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station,
OR                                                                70.0                 30.6            (39.4)
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                              54.2                  9.6            (44.6)
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to
clinics at various installations                                 141.3                 95.7            (45.6)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New
England                                                           96.1                 43.0            (53.1)
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                    63.7                  0.0            (63.7)
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NM                                108.2                 23.4            (84.8)
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                  191.3                105.4            (85.9)
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence
and Basing Strategy)                                           3,946.0              2,933.0         (1,013.0)
Total                                                      $20,947.4             $35,151.7a        $14,204.3
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum of the numbers in each column, due to rounding.
a
    Total includes $1.2 billion for BRAC program administration costs.




Page 27                                               GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure III: DOD’s Estimated 20-Year Net Present Value Data for All BRAC 2005
Recommendations


Table 6: DOD’s Estimated 20-Year Net Present Value Data For BRAC Recommendations Sorted by Lowest to
Highest Savings (Fiscal Years 2006 through 2025)
(Constant fiscal year 2005 dollars in millions)
Recommendation                                                                              Net present value (negative
                                                                                               value indicates net costs
                                                                                           while positive value indicates
                                                                                                             net savings)
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence and Basing Strategy)                                      ($5,795.9)
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                                                                            (1,652.9)
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased locations and realign others
at Fort Belvoir, VA                                                                                              (1,563.0)
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field activity leased locations                                 (1,085.6)
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                                                                             (674.1)
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and realign enlisted medical
training to Fort Sam Houston, TX                                                                                  (628.2)
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda National Naval Medical
Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir, VA                                                                               (595.1)
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                                                                        (421.8)
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with DOD
Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA                                         (343.2)
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint training site at Eglin Air Force
Base, FL                                                                                                          (285.8)
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities                                                         (257.0)
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and National Guard
Headquarters leased locations                                                                                     (198.4)
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional correctional facilities                                   (185.3)
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical, biological, and medical
research and development and acquisition                                                                          (157.0)
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT                                                   (151.9)
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-St. Louis International
Airport Air Guard Station, MO                                                                                     (136.2)
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                                                                     (124.3)
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased locations                                                    (112.9)
Relocate medical command headquarters                                                                             (105.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                                                                               (91.2)
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                                                                 (84.2)
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for media and publications at
Fort Meade, MD                                                                                                      (83.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                                                                                (83.0)
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at Fort Meade, MD                                                    (70.4)
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                                                                                (63.6)
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication activities                                                   (58.7)
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                                                                                (54.2)
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments specialty site for guns
and ammunition at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ                                                                             (53.4)
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                                                                   (47.3)
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station, TN                                                       (47.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                                                                (46.9)
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator training                                                      (46.8)
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for culinary training at Fort Lee, VA                               (44.7)
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform Development and
Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center, at Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone
Arsenal, AL                                                                                                         (41.1)



Page 28                                                GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                                              (40.0)
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                                                         (39.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                                                              (38.8)
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station, CT                                       (33.0)
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                                                     (31.0)
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                                                     (29.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                                                              (26.0)
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at Fort Leonard Wood, MO                     (25.9)
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                                                  (24.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                                              (24.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                                                              (21.3)
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform Research, Development,
and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base,
OH, and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                                  (19.2)
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                                                     (18.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                                              (16.8)
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                                              (15.4)
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                                                (14.5)
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                                                  (11.9)
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                                              (11.5)
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                                                  (11.2)
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for religious training and education
at Fort Jackson, SC                                                                               (10.9)
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                                                (10.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                                              (10.3)
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                                                 (10.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                                                               (9.9)
Close Navy Supply Corps School Athens, GA                                                          (8.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                                               (7.4)
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                                                               (7.2)
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated transportation management
training at Fort Lee, VA                                                                           (7.1)
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                                                       (6.4)
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                                                            (5.9)
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development, and Acquisition in a joint
center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                                                                      (5.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                                               (4.9)
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                                                            (4.4)
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                                               (4.4)
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                                                      (4.1)
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, OH                                (3.7)
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station, ND                                         (3.0)
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                                                   (2.6)
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity Norfolk, VA                                         (2.3)
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Eglin Air Force
Base, FL                                                                                           (1.4)
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station Pensacola, FL                                  (0.9)
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development, and Acquisition to Naval Surface
Warfare Center Carderock Division, MD, and Naval Sea Systems Command, DC                            0.0
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC                                            0.6
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                                                         0.6
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                                                     2.2
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                                                                4.0
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southeast                                                6.5
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair facilities                                    6.8
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                                                8.7



Page 29                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA by establishing a centralized intermediate
repair facility – F-15 Avionics at Tyndall Air Force Base, FL                                   9.5
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard Station, VA                                   10.6
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                                           11.9
Create joint mobilization sites                                                                12.7
Realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA                                                   13.8
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                                           14.3
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                                           15.6
Realign Naval Submarine Base New London, CT                                                    17.1
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                                                         17.8
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                                                    18.3
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                                           18.7
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                                           19.6
Realign Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow, CA                                                20.7
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                                           21.4
Close Marine Corps Support Activity Kansas City, MO                                            22.5
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station, OR                                   22.9
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command Headquarters at Aberdeen
Proving Ground, MD                                                                             23.7
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                                           23.9
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                                           24.3
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                                              24.4
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                                                           26.7
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                                            28.6
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                                                           29.0
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                                                           35.7
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                                                           37.4
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                                           37.5
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                                                  37.6
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southwest                                           40.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New England                                         41.0
Realign Navy Regions                                                                           41.1
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                                           41.7
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                                                        41.7
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                                                        42.2
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                                                43.8
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                                                    52.2
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                                                  52.7
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                                           54.0
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans Air Reserve Station, LA                                  55.5
Realign Naval Support Activity New Orleans, LA                                                 59.0
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                                                 60.4
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northwest                                           63.3
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                                                      69.2
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity                                     79.9
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                                                           83.5
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within military department and defense
agencies                                                                                       87.8
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                                               92.1
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                                                           92.3
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and Midwestern Regions, and
Hopewell, VA, offices                                                                          98.3
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                                                          110.6
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                                                   111.3
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at Redstone Arsenal, AL                          118.2
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, AR                                    118.3
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                                                          123.6



Page 30                                         GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                                                                 133.7
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                                                                147.4
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base, WA                                                         150.8
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                                                                             152.4
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA                                                            154.0
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                                                                              160.6
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management                                                            161.7
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                                                                          163.8
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                                                               164.3
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign Cambria Regional Airport,
Johnstown, PA                                                                                                   178.7
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                                                                   188.8
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                                                                      192.4
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                                                                  193.5
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and School at Fort Sill, OK                                    209.0
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                                                                  210.3
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at multiple locations                                         216.9
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee, VA                                              226.9
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                                                                        245.3
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                                                                     249.2
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and Armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center mostly at Naval Air
Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                                                                  253.9
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                                                                           254.1
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                                                                        262.2
Realign commodity management privatization                                                                      270.0
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northeast                                                            272.6
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control, communications, computers,
intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance; research, development, and
acquisition; and test and evaluation functions at multiple locations                                            283.8
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                                                                           323.9
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                                                             358.6
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                                                                      397.0
Close Naval Station Pascagoula, MS                                                                              459.9
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX, and realign Naval Air Station Corpus Christi,
TX                                                                                                              484.9
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management                                                        703.8
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                                                                           727.3
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to clinics at various installations                            840.1
Consolidate Transportation Command components at Scott Air Force Base, IL                                       906.6
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and recruiting centers for the
Army and Air Force                                                                                            1,411.6
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                                                               2,354.8
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NM                                                                             2,799.2
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                                                                  3,117.1
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service                                                            4,384.9
Total net present value                                                                                     $9,860.1a
Source: GAO analysis based on DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum due to rounding.
a
 Total includes a 20-year net cost of $1 billion for BRAC program administration and overhead costs because DOD
included this amount in the BRAC budget. However, we did not list it in this table because it is not a recommendation.




Page 31                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure IV: Differences in 20-Year Net Present Value from BRAC Commission
Estimates to Fiscal Year 2011 DOD Budget


Table 7: Differences in 20-Year Net Present Value from BRAC Commission Estimates to Fiscal Year 2011 DOD
Budget
(Constant fiscal year 2005 dollars in millions)
Recommendation                                               2005 BRAC     Fiscal year 2011   Dollar difference
                                                            Commission        DOD budgeta      (negative value
                                                               estimate                           indicates net
                                                                                                    costs while
                                                                                                positive value
                                                                                                  indicates net
                                                                                                      savings)
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management            $2,925.8            $161.7           ($2,764.1)
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased
locations and realign others at Fort Belvoir, VA                   535.1          (1,563.0)           (2,098.1)
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                      2,342.5              249.2           (2,093.3)
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda
National Naval Medical Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir,
VA                                                                830.6             (595.1)           (1,425.7)
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field
activity leased locations                                         256.4           (1,085.6)           (1,342.0)
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement
management                                                       1,857.8             703.8            (1,154.0)
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and
realign enlisted medical training to Fort Sam Houston, TX          476.2            (628.2)           (1,104.4)
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                      948.1            (124.3)           (1,072.4)
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                          1,093.4               42.2           (1,051.2)
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at
Fort Lee, VA                                                       934.2              226.9             (707.3)
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                            (980.4)          (1,652.9)             (672.5)
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                           878.7              245.3             (633.3)
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                     3,715.0            3,117.1             (597.9)
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign
Cambria Regional Airport, Johnstown, PA                           757.8              178.7              (579.1)
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at
Fort Meade, MD                                                    491.2              (70.4)             (561.6)
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                        940.7              397.0              (543.7)
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with
DOD Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine
Corps Base Quantico, VA                                           166.4             (343.2)             (509.5)
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and
National Guard Headquarters leased locations                      308.2             (198.4)             (506.6)
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                            637.1               163.8             (473.3)
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and
recruiting centers for the Army and Air Force                    1,884.5            1,411.6             (473.0)
Realign commodity management privatization                         735.9              270.0             (465.9)
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-
St. Louis International Airport Air Guard Station, MO             305.4             (136.2)             (441.6)
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                  407.5              (24.6)             (432.1)
Relocate medical command headquarters                             316.3             (105.9)             (422.1)
Consolidate Transportation Command components at
Scott Air Force Base, IL                                         1,309.3              906.6             (402.7)
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities          122.9            (257.0)             (379.9)
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                              686.6              323.9             (362.7)
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                  347.9             (10.0)             (357.8)




Page 32                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                    2,711.5         2,354.8          (356.7)
Realign Naval Support Activity New Orleans, LA                       387.7            59.0          (328.7)
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to
clinics at various installations                                   1,146.5          840.1           (306.4)
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased
locations                                                           164.7          (112.9)          (277.6)
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at
Redstone Arsenal, AL                                                359.1           118.2           (240.9)
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator
training                                                            174.2           (46.8)          (221.0)
Realign Marine Corps Logistics, Base Barstow, CA                    230.6             20.7          (209.9)
Close Naval Station, Pascagoula, MS                                 665.7           459.9           (205.8)
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical,
biological, and medical research and development and
acquisition                                                          39.5          (157.0)          (196.6)
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional
correctional facilities                                              11.2          (185.3)          (196.5)
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for
media and publications at Fort Meade, MD                             89.0           (83.3)          (172.3)
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                               421.5           254.1           (167.4)
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at
multiple locations                                                  380.3           216.9           (163.4)
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard
Station, MT                                                          (7.2)         (151.9)          (144.7)
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                    132.6           (11.9)          (144.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                                133.2            (9.9)          (143.1)
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control,
communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance,
and reconnaissance; research, development, and
acquisition; and test and evaluation functions at multiple
locations                                                           420.9           283.8           (137.1)
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                       322.0           188.8           (133.2)
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX and realign Naval Air
Station, Corpus Christi, TX                                         614.2           484.9           (129.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                 63.8           (46.9)          (110.7)
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and
School at Fort Sill, OK                                             319.1           209.0           (110.1)
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity, Norfolk,
VA                                                                  104.3            (2.3)          (106.6)
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments
specialty site for guns and ammunition at Picatinny
Arsenal, NJ                                                          51.8           (53.4)          (105.2)
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command
Headquarters at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD                         125.7            23.7           (102.0)
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and
Armaments Research, Development, and Acquisition,
Test and Evaluation Center, mostly at Naval Air
Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                      349.5           253.9            (95.7)
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                           164.2            69.2            (95.0)
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within the military
departments and defense agencies                                    180.5             87.8           (92.6)
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                            53.3           (39.0)           (92.3)
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                    6.1           (84.2)           (90.3)
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                 446.0           358.6            (87.3)
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                         79.6            (6.4)           (86.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                 46.0           (40.0)           (86.0)
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                   70.0           (14.5)           (84.4)
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                        52.8           (31.0)           (83.8)
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                              101.4             17.8           (83.6)



Page 33                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                   214.5           133.7            (80.8)
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                              201.7           123.6            (78.1)
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                             797.9           727.3            (70.6)
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication
activities                                                          11.3          (58.7)           (70.0)
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                       (353.7)         (421.8)           (68.1)
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for
culinary training at Fort Lee, VA                                  15.7           (44.7)           (60.5)
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                   57.0            (2.6)           (59.6)
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint
training site at Eglin Air Force Base, FL                        (226.3)         (285.8)           (59.5)
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                                211.0           152.4           (58.6)
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                         76.8            18.3           (58.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                               140.3            83.5           (56.8)
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                               147.6            92.3           (55.3)
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                        165.5           111.3           (54.2)
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                              (38.2)          (91.2)           (53.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                77.0            24.3           (52.7)
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station,
CT                                                                 17.8           (33.0)           (50.7)
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                    260.9           210.3            (50.6)
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                            91.7             41.7           (50.0)
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                   2.1           (47.3)           (49.4)
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                  70.6             24.4           (46.3)
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA              199.7           154.0            (45.7)
Close Marine Corps Support Activity, Kansas City, MO               67.0             22.5           (44.5)
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                        236.6           192.4            (44.2)
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                    85.0             43.8           (41.2)
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                  187.7           147.4            (40.2)
Realign Naval Submarine Base New London, CT                        55.5             17.1           (38.4)
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform
Research, Development, and Acquisition, Test and
Evaluation Center at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,
OH, and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                   17.9           (19.2)           (37.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                              (46.5)          (83.0)           (36.5)
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                           (639.2)         (674.1)           (34.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                              (19.8)          (54.2)           (34.4)
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                  20.7          (10.6)           (31.3)
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC            31.4             0.6           (30.8)
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                51.7            21.4           (30.3)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Northeast                                                         302.1           272.6            (29.5)
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation
Center at Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone Arsenal, AL            (11.8)          (41.1)           (29.3)
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                       66.7            37.6           (29.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                              139.7           110.6            (29.1)
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                      (1.2)          (29.5)           (28.3)
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at
Fort Leonard Wood, MO                                               0.8           (25.9)           (26.7)
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                               61.0             35.7           (25.3)
Create joint mobilization sites                                    37.9             12.7           (25.2)
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated
transportation management training at Fort Lee, VA                 18.0            (7.1)           (25.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                               53.7            29.0            (24.7)
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                      77.0            52.7            (24.4)




Page 34                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for                 11.9           (10.9)           (22.8)
religious training and education at Fort Jackson, SC
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                    11.2           (11.2)           (22.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                46.1             23.9           (22.2)
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development, and
Acquisition in a joint center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                17.1            (5.0)           (22.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                 6.5           (15.4)           (21.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                58.4             37.5           (20.9)
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                        1.6           (18.3)           (19.9)
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and
armaments Research, Development, and Acquisition,
Test and Evaluation Center at Eglin Air Force Base, FL              17.9            (1.4)           (19.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                (6.1)          (24.5)           (18.4)
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                  6.7          (11.5)           (18.2)
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station,
ND                                                                  12.9            (3.0)           (15.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                34.1            18.7            (15.4)
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base,
WA                                                                 164.4           150.8            (13.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                  8.6           (4.4)           (13.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                24.6             11.9           (12.7)
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                               7.9           (4.4)           (12.3)
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                26.6             14.3           (12.3)
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                     13.8              2.2           (11.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                30.2             19.6           (10.6)
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                (0.9)          (10.3)            (9.4)
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                17.8              8.7            (9.1)
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard
Station, OH                                                          5.4            (3.7)            (9.1)
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                              2.6            (5.9)            (8.5)
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station
Pensacola, FL                                                        7.6            (0.9)            (8.5)
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                62.4            54.0             (8.4)
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard
Station, VA                                                          18.7            10.6            (8.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                (9.0)          (16.8)            (7.8)
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                  171.7           164.3             (7.4)
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                         2.7           (4.1)            (6.8)
Close Navy Supply Corps School Athens, GA                           (1.4)           (8.0)            (6.7)
Realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA                         19.9            13.8            (6.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                 21.6            15.6            (6.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                                (1.3)           (7.2)            (5.9)
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                               (17.1)          (21.3)            (4.2)
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                  32.4            28.6            (3.8)
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                               (60.4)          (63.6)            (3.2)
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                 44.8            41.7            (3.1)
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development and
Acquisition to Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock
Division, MD, and Naval Sea Systems Command, DC                      2.0            (0.0)            (2.0)
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity          81.8            79.9             (1.9)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Northwest                                                           65.0            63.3             (1.7)
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                (4.3)           (4.9)            (0.6)
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair
facilities                                                            7.2             6.8            (0.4)
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                           0.7             0.6            (0.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                (8.0)           (7.4)              0.6




Page 35                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA, by establishing a               8.5                9.5                         1.0
centralized intermediate repair facility – F-15 Avionics at
Tyndall Air Force Base, FL
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                               35.3               37.4                         2.1
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Southeast                                                           1.5                6.5                       5.0
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                              (1.1)                4.0                       5.1
Realign Navy Regions                                               34.6               41.1                       6.5
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                             (47.5)             (38.8)                       8.7
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                        38.6               52.2                      13.6
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans Air Reserve
Station, LA                                                        41.5               55.5                      13.9
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                             (41.7)             (26.0)                      15.7
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New
England                                                            21.8               41.0                      19.2
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                               126.9              160.6                       33.7
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                             (12.9)               26.7                      39.6
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station,
OR                                                               (19.9)               22.9                      42.9
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and
Midwestern Regions, and Hopewell, VA, offices                      53.3               98.3                      45.0
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control -
Southwest                                                         (9.8)               40.5                      50.3
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                      5.2               60.4                      55.2
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                         189.3              262.2                       72.9
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station,
AR                                                                (7.9)             118.3                      126.2
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                 (57.9)               92.1                     150.0
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NM                              2,647.5            2,799.2                      151.8
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                      0.0             193.5                      193.5
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station,
TN                                                             (261.3)              (47.1)                     214.2
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence
and Basing Strategy)                                         (7,846.7)          (5,795.9)                     2,050.8
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service             1,030.4            4,384.9                     3,354.5
Total                                                       $35,659.1          $9,860.1b                  ($25,799.0)
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Negative numbers in parenthesis are costs. Totals may not equal the sum of the numbers in each column, due
to rounding. In addition, a recommendation added by the Commission to close the Navy Broadway Complex in San
Diego, California was not included in DOD's budget books for BRAC 2005 as the property was sold prior to BRAC
implementation.
a
    Fiscal year 2011 dollars were converted to constant 2005 dollars.
b
    Total includes a 20-year net cost of $1 billion for BRAC program administration and overhead costs.




Page 36                                               GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure V: DOD’s Estimated Annual Net Recurring Savings for All BRAC 2005
Recommendations

Table 8: DOD’s Estimated Net Annual Recurring Savings From Implementing BRAC 2005 Recommendations
Sorted by Highest to Lowest Savings
(Current-year dollars in millions)
Recommendation                                                                  Net annual recurring savingsa
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service                                                     $498.9
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                                                            278.4
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NMb                                                                      260.0
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                                                         212.5
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda National Naval
Medical Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir, VA                                                            172.1
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and recruiting centers for
Army and Air Force                                                                                     169.6
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                                                                153.7
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee, VA                                     148.4
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                                                          133.4
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and realign enlisted medical
training to Fort Sam Houston, TX                                                                       103.9
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                                                                   99.9
Consolidate Transportation Command components at Scott Air Force Base,
IL                                                                                                      96.8
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                                                                94.2
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                                                              91.6
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to clinics at various
installations                                                                                           90.8
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management                                                81.0
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX, and realign Naval Air Station Corpus
Christi, TX                                                                                             68.5
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and Armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center mostly at Naval
Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                                                                      67.9
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                                                                   65.3
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased locations and realign
others at Fort Belvoir, VA                                                                              57.3
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and School at Fort Sill, OK                            50.0
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign Cambria Regional
Airport, Johnstown, PA                                                                                  46.2
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at Redstone Arsenal, AL                                    46.1
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at Fort Meade, MD                                        45.7
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at multiple locations                                 43.3
Close Naval Station Pascagoula, MS                                                                      41.9
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                                                                    41.3
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                                                     41.2
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                                                                   39.1
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                                                                38.4
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control, communications,
computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, research,
development, and acquisition, test and evaluation functions at multiple
locations                                                                                               38.2
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northeast                                                    35.4
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                                                           33.7
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                                                             32.3
Realign Naval Support Activity, New Orleans, LA                                                         27.6
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                                                                     27.5
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                                                        26.3



Page 37                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                                                            25.1
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities                                         22.7
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                                                              20.5
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                                                              20.5
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                                                    19.8
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                                                    18.8
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management                                              18.7
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                                                         18.4
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                                              18.4
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                                                        18.1
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within military departments and defense
agencies                                                                                          17.8
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                                                 16.8
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA                                              16.5
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                                                                15.7
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                                                              15.6
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                                              15.5
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                                                       14.2
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base, WA                                           13.7
Realign commodity management privatization                                                        13.5
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                                                 12.6
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                                                              12.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northwest                                              12.4
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                                                   11.8
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity                                        11.2
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                                              11.0
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator training                                    10.9
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, AR                                        10.8
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                                                            10.6
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and Midwestern Regions,
and Hopewell, VA, offices                                                                         10.5
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                                              10.5
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                                                              10.4
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command Headquarters at Aberdeen
Proving Ground, MD                                                                                10.1
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                                               9.7
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                                                   9.2
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                                                        9.2
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans and Air Reserve Station, LA                                  8.8
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                                               8.7
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New England                                             8.7
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                                               8.6
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                                                               7.3
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                                                               7.2
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                                               7.1
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                                                          6.8
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                                               6.7
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                                                      6.6
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                                                               6.5
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                                                    6.4
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                                                               6.4
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical, biological, and
medical research and development and acquisition                                                   6.1
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                                                     6.0
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                                                      5.8
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased locations                                     5.7
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                                                               5.4



Page 38                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                                                       5.3
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                                                5.2
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                                                5.1
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                                                         5.1
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southwest                                                4.9
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station, OR                                        4.8
Realign Marine Corps Logistics Base, Barstow, CA                                                    4.6
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                                                 4.2
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                                                                4.2
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                                                3.8
Close Navy Supply Corps School, Athens, GA                                                          3.8
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                                                             3.7
Realign Navy Regions                                                                                3.6
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                                                3.5
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                                                3.5
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                                                                3.4
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field activity leased
locations                                                                                           3.2
Close Marine Corps Support Activity, Kansas City, MO                                                3.2
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                                                3.1
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                                                3.1
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                                                                3.0
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for media and
publications at Fort Meade, MD                                                                      3.0
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC                                            2.6
Realign Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, CA                                                       2.5
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                                                2.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southeast                                                2.4
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional correctional facilities                     2.0
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                                                2.0
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication activities                                   1.9
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard Station, VA                                        1.9
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                                                1.9
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for culinary training at Fort
Lee, VA                                                                                             1.7
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform Development, and
Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone
Arsenal, AL                                                                                         1.7
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                                                                1.7
Realign Naval Submarine Base, New London, CT                                                        1.6
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated transportation management
training at Fort Lee, VA                                                                            1.5
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                                                1.4
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments specialty site for
guns and ammunition at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ                                                        1.4
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity, Norfolk, VA                                         1.4
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair facilities                                    1.3
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                                                                1.3
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                                                  1.1
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and National Guard
Headquarters leased locations                                                                       1.1
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                                                  0.9
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA, by establishing a centralized
intermediate repair facility – F-15 Avionics at Tyndall Air Force Base, FL                          0.9
Create joint mobilization sites                                                                     0.9
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with DOD
Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine Corps Base Quantico, VA                           0.8




Page 39                                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL                                     0.8
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                                                        0.6
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at Fort Leonard Wood,
MO                                                                                                     0.5
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                                                                   0.2
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                                                   0.2
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for religious training and
education at Fort Jackson, SC                                                                          0.2
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and armaments Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Eglin Air Force
Base, FL                                                                                               0.1
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                                                          0.1
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                                                            0.1
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                                                                   0.0
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                                                       0.0
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                                                       0.0
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                                                      0.0
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                                                       0.0
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development, and Acquisition to Naval
Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, MD, and Naval Sea Systems
Command, DC                                                                                             0.0
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, OH                                   (0.0)
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                                                               (0.0)
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station, ND                                            (0.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                                                  (0.0)
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                                                      (0.0)
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                                                               (0.1)
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                                                         (0.1)
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at Wright-
Patterson Air Force Base, OH, and Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake,
CA                                                                                                    (0.1)
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                                                          (0.1)
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station, CT                                           (0.2)
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development and Acquisition in a joint
center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                                                                         (0.4)
Relocate medical command headquarters                                                                 (0.9)
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                                                     (1.3)
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                                                         (1.7)
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station, TN                                         (2.6)
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-St. Louis
International Airport Air Guard Station, MO                                                           (6.2)
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                                                    (6.9)
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint training site at Eglin Air
Force Base, FL                                                                                       (13.5)
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT                                      (14.7)
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                                                               (38.3)
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                                                           (41.4)
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                                                              (105.8)
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence and Basing Strategy)                          (324.8)
Total net annual recurring savings for all BRAC recommendations                                   $3,808.1
Source: GAO analysis based on DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Totals may not equal the sum due to rounding.
a
    Data provided by DOD for fiscal year 2012 expected recurring costs and savings.




Page 40                                               GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
b
 In May 2005, DOD proposed closing Cannon AFB, New Mexico. In September 2005, the BRAC Commission stated
that Cannon could remain open if DOD identified a new mission for the base. Subsequently, the Air Force announced
in June 2006 that Cannon would remain open because it plans to activate a new mission at the base. The Air Force
BRAC Office said it claimed these savings because the decision to reallocate Air Force resources and mission to
Cannon was made after the BRAC recommendation was approved and was, therefore, a non-BRAC programmatic
decision.




Page 41                                          GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure VI: Dollar Differences in Net Annual Recurring Savings from BRAC
Commission Estimates to Fiscal Year 2011 DOD Budget


Table 9: Dollar Differences in Net Annual Recurring Savings from BRAC Commission Estimates to Fiscal Year 2011
DOD Budget
(current-year dollars in millions)
Recommendation                                                              2005 BRAC     Fiscal year 2011        Dollar
                                                                           Commission         DOD budget     difference
                                                                              estimate
Realign supply, storage, and distribution management                            $203.2              $18.7      ($184.5)
Establish joint bases at multiple locations                                       183.8              32.3       (151.4)
Consolidate depot-level reparable procurement management                          156.8              81.0        (75.7)
Close National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency leased locations
and realign others at Fort Belvoir, VA                                            127.7              57.3        (70.4)
Co-locate miscellaneous OSD, defense agency, and field activity
leased locations                                                                   67.0                3.2       (63.8)
Realign Fort Hood, TX                                                            (45.3)            (105.8)       (60.5)
Realign Grand Forks Air Force Base, ND                                             66.7               25.1       (41.6)
Close Deseret Chemical Depot, UT                                                   38.0                0.0       (38.0)
Close Umatilla Chemical Depot, OR                                                  34.7                0.0       (34.7)
Realign Otis Air National Guard Base, MA, and Lambert-St. Louis
International Airport Air Guard Station, MO                                        27.9              (6.2)       (34.1)
Relocate medical command headquarters                                              32.9              (0.9)       (33.9)
Realign commodity management privatization                                         43.8              13.5        (30.3)
Realign Operational Army (Integrated Global Presence and
Basing Strategy)                                                                (294.7)            (324.8)       (30.1)
Co-locate miscellaneous Air Force leased locations and National
Guard Headquarters leased locations                                                30.8                1.1       (29.8)
Close Naval Air Station Willow Grove, PA, and realign Cambria
Regional Airport, Johnstown, PA                                                    73.9              46.2        (27.7)
Establish San Antonio Regional Medical Center and realign
enlisted medical training to Fort Sam Houston, TX                                 129.0             103.9        (25.1)
Co-locate military department investigation agencies with DOD
Counterintelligence and Security Agency at Marine Corps Base
Quantico, VA                                                                       25.7                0.8       (24.8)
Realign Great Falls International Airport Air Guard Station, MT                   (0.1)             (14.7)       (14.6)
Realign Fort Bragg, NC                                                           (23.8)             (38.3)       (14.6)
Realign Martin State Air Guard Station, MD                                       (27.4)             (41.4)       (14.0)
Realign Marine Corps Logistics Base, Barstow, CA                                   18.4                4.6       (13.8)
Consolidate Defense Information Systems Agency at Fort Meade,
MD                                                                                 59.4              45.7        (13.6)
Consolidate correctional facilities into joint regional correctional
facilities                                                                         14.7               2.0        (12.7)
Relocate miscellaneous Department of the Navy leased locations                     18.0               5.7        (12.3)
Close Newport Chemical Depot, IN                                                   10.9               0.0        (10.9)
Close Brooks City-Base, TX                                                        102.1              91.6        (10.4)
Realign to establish Joint Strike Fighter initial joint training site at
Eglin Air Force Base, FL                                                          (3.3)             (13.5)       (10.2)
Realign to create an integrated weapons and armaments specialty
site for guns and ammunition at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ                               9.1                1.4         (7.7)
Realign Naval Support Activity New Orleans, LA                                     35.3              27.6          (7.7)
Realign March Air Reserve Base, CA                                                  0.8              (6.9)         (7.7)
Realign to relocate undergraduate pilot and navigator training                     18.3              10.9          (7.4)
Realign Mansfield-Lahm Air Guard Station, OH                                        6.7              (0.1)         (6.8)
Realign Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activity Norfolk, VA                          8.2                1.4         (6.8)




Page 42                                                GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Consolidate media organizations into a new agency for media and              9.6             3.0         (6.6)
publications at Fort Meade, MD
Realign Boise Air Terminal Air Guard Station, ID                             6.1             0.0         (6.1)
Close Naval Station Pascagoula, MS                                          47.4            41.9         (5.5)
Realign Andrews Air Force Base, MD                                           6.4             0.9         (5.4)
Realign Defense Intelligence Agency functions                               10.1             5.3         (4.8)
Consolidate Transportation Command components at Scott Air
Force Base, IL                                                             101.5            96.8         (4.7)
Consolidate civilian personnel offices within military department
and defense agencies                                                        22.2            17.8         (4.4)
Close Kulis Air Guard Station, AK                                           16.4            12.6         (3.9)
Co-locate defense and military department adjudication activities            5.7             1.9         (3.8)
Realign by converting medical inpatient services to clinics at
various installations                                                       93.9            90.8         (3.1)
Close Marine Corps Support Activity Kansas City, MO                          6.1             3.2         (2.9)
Realign Naval Submarine Base New London, CT                                  4.4             1.6         (2.8)
Realign to establish centers for fixed wing air platform Research,
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, and Naval Air Weapons
Station China Lake, CA                                                       2.7            (0.1)        (2.8)
Close Navy Recruiting Districts                                             14.5            11.8         (2.7)
Realign Navy Reserve Readiness Commands                                      6.5              3.7        (2.7)
Realign Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport Air Guard Station,
OH                                                                           2.5            (0.0)        (2.5)
Realign Bradley International Airport Air Guard Station, CT                  2.2            (0.2)        (2.5)
Realign Rock Island Arsenal, IL                                              3.1              0.6        (2.4)
Realign to consolidate ground vehicle Development, and
Acquisition in a joint center at Detroit Arsenal, MI                         1.9            (0.4)        (2.3)
Realign Naval Station Newport, RI                                            1.0            (1.3)        (2.3)
Realign Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station, NY                                0.3            (1.7)        (2.0)
Realign Capital Airport Air Guard Station, IL                                1.9            (0.1)        (1.9)
Realign Sierra Army Depot, CA                                                7.5              5.8        (1.7)
Realign Hill Air Force Base, UT                                              8.2              6.4        (1.7)
Close W.K. Kellogg Airport Air Guard Station, MI                             1.5            (0.0)        (1.5)
Realign to create an air integrated weapons and armaments
Research, Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation
Center at Eglin Air Force Base, FL                                           1.4             0.1         (1.3)
Relocate Army headquarters and field operating activities                   23.9            22.7         (1.2)
Realign to create joint centers of excellence for chemical,
biological, and medical research and development and acquisition             7.3             6.1         (1.2)
Realign Naval Shipyard Detachments                                           2.3             1.1         (1.1)
Realign to establish centers for rotary wing air platform
Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation Center at
Patuxent River, MD, and Redstone Arsenal, AL                                 2.8              1.7        (1.1)
Realign Hector International Airport Air Guard Station, ND                   1.0            (0.0)        (1.0)
Relocate Air Force Real Property Agency                                      0.9            (0.1)        (1.0)
Realign Key Field Air Guard Station, MS                                      0.9            (0.0)        (1.0)
Realign Richmond International Airport Air Guard Station, VA                 2.8              1.9        (0.9)
Realign Fairchild Air Force Base, WA                                         0.9              0.2        (0.8)
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for religious
training and education at Fort Jackson, SC                                   0.9             0.2         (0.7)
Close Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers                                  9.8             9.2         (0.5)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northeast                        35.9            35.4         (0.5)
Realign Ellington Field Air Guard Station, TX                                0.3             0.1         (0.2)
Realign to consolidate sea vehicle Development, and Acquisition
to Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division, MD, and
Naval Sea Systems Command, DC                                                0.2             0.0         (0.2)
Reserve Component Transformation, VT                                         1.4             1.3         (0.1)



Page 43                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, OR                                            0.3             0.2        (0.1)
Reserve Component Transformation, MA                                            1.7             1.7        (0.0)
Reserve Component Transformation, ND                                          (0.0)           (0.0)        (0.0)
Realign Officer Training Command, Naval Air Station, Pensacola,
FL                                                                             0.8             0.8         (0.0)
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southeast                           2.4             2.4         (0.0)
Realign Fort Wainwright, AK                                                    0.1             0.1           0.0
Realign to relocate Army Prime Power School training at Fort
Leonard Wood, MO                                                                0.5            0.5          0.0
Reserve Component Transformation, MN                                          (0.0)            0.0          0.0
Close Mississippi Army Ammunition Plant, MS                                     5.1            5.1          0.1
Create joint mobilization sites                                                 0.8            0.9          0.1
Realign Single Drill Sergeant School to Fort Jackson, SC                        2.5            2.6          0.1
Close Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, Concord, CA                          16.4            16.5          0.1
Realign Langley Air Force Base, VA by establishing a centralized
intermediate repair facility – F-15 Avionics at Tyndall Air Force
Base, FL                                                                       0.7             0.9          0.2
Establish F100 engine centralized intermediate repair facilities               1.1             1.3          0.2
Reserve Component Transformation, NY                                           4.0             4.2          0.2
Realign to establish Joint Center for consolidated transportation
management training at Fort Lee, VA                                            1.3             1.5          0.2
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - New England                         8.4             8.7          0.3
Close Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant, CA                                      6.5             6.8          0.3
Reserve Component Transformation, TN                                           2.7             3.0          0.3
Reserve Component Transformation, MD                                           1.7             2.0          0.3
Reserve Component Transformation, NH                                           3.1             3.4          0.3
Close Kansas Army Ammunition Plant, KS                                        10.3            10.6          0.3
Reserve Component Transformation, MI                                           2.1             2.5          0.3
Realign to establish Joint Center of Excellence for culinary training
at Fort Lee, VA                                                                1.4             1.7          0.3
Reserve Component Transformation, IL                                           3.5             3.8          0.4
Reserve Component Transformation, MT                                           1.5             1.9          0.4
Reserve Component Transformation, IN                                           2.7             3.1          0.4
Reserve Component Transformation, NC                                           2.6             3.1          0.4
Reserve Component Transformation, NM                                           3.0             3.5          0.4
Realign Naval Air Station New Orleans Air Reserve Station, LA                  8.3             8.8          0.5
Reserve Component Transformation, NJ                                           3.0             3.5          0.5
Establish Air Force logistics support centers                                  6.1             6.6          0.5
Reserve Component Transformation, DE                                           0.9             1.4          0.5
Reserve Component Transformation, CT                                           5.8             6.4          0.6
Reserve Component Transformation, WY                                           4.5             5.1          0.7
Realign Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, CA                                   1.8             2.5          0.7
Reserve Component Transformation, AR                                           5.8             6.5          0.7
Reserve Component Transformation, RI                                           4.6             5.4          0.8
Realign Watervliet Arsenal, NY                                                 5.2             6.0          0.8
Reserve Component Transformation, MO                                           6.4             7.2          0.8
Realign Navy Regions                                                           2.7             3.6          0.8
Reserve Component Transformation, KY                                           4.3             5.2          0.9
Close Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant, TX                                     17.3            18.4          1.0
Reserve Component Transformation, IA                                          19.4            20.5          1.1
Realign Portland International Airport Air Guard Station, OR                   3.7             4.8          1.1
Reserve Component Transformation, NE                                           6.2             7.3          1.1
Reserve Component Transformation, OH                                           9.3            10.4          1.1
Reserve Component Transformation, WV                                           7.6             8.7          1.1
Reserve Component Transformation, AZ                                           5.9             7.1          1.2
Realign Lackland Air Force Base, TX                                            2.9             4.2          1.3
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Northwest                          11.1            12.4          1.3



Page 44                                              GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Reserve Component Transformation, PR                                         7.3             8.6          1.3
Reserve Component Transformation, PA                                        14.2            15.5          1.3
Reserve Component Transformation, HI                                         9.2            10.5          1.4
Consolidate Army Test and Evaluation Command Headquarters at
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD                                                  8.7            10.1          1.4
Reserve Component Transformation, WA                                         8.2             9.7          1.5
Realign Army Reserve Command and Control - Southwest                         3.4             4.9          1.5
Close Onizuka Air Force Station, CA                                         25.9            27.5          1.6
Reserve Component Transformation, GA                                         5.0             6.7          1.6
Reserve Component Transformation, WI                                        10.8            12.5          1.7
Close U.S. Army Garrison Michigan at Selfridge                              18.1            19.8          1.7
Reserve Component Transformation, OK                                        16.5            18.4          1.8
Close Galena Forward Operating Location, AK                                 12.3            14.2          1.9
Close Naval Facilities Engineering Field Division/Activity                   9.3            11.2          1.9
Reserve Component Transformation, LA                                        13.6            15.6          2.0
Reserve Component Transformation, CA                                         8.9            11.0          2.0
Realign medical functions at McChord Air Force Base, WA                     11.6            13.7          2.1
Close Navy Reserve Centers                                                  15.9            18.1          2.2
Realign Robins Air Force Base, GA                                           14.7            16.8          2.2
Close Navy Supply Corps School Athens, GA                                    1.6             3.8          2.2
Realign defense research service-led laboratories at multiple
locations                                                                   40.8            43.3          2.6
Reserve Component Transformation, AL                                        17.8            20.5          2.7
Realign Pope Air Force Base, NC                                            209.8           212.5          2.7
Realign to consolidate maritime command, control,
communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and
reconnaissance, research, development, and acquisition, test and
evaluation functions at multiple locations                                  34.8            38.2          3.4
Realign Eielson Air Force Base, AK                                          12.1            15.7          3.6
Realign Red River Army Depot, TX                                            22.5            26.3          3.7
Close Fort Gillem, GA                                                       35.3            39.1          3.8
Consolidate Defense Commissary Agency Eastern and
Midwestern Regions, and Hopewell, VA, offices                                6.7            10.5          3.9
Reserve Component Transformation, TX                                        36.0            41.3          5.3
Co-locate miscellaneous Army leased locations                               27.8            33.7          5.9
Realign to relocate Air Defense Artillery Center and School at Fort
Sill, OK                                                                    42.6            50.0          7.4
Close Naval Air Station Atlanta, GA                                         33.7            41.2          7.5
Close Fort Monmouth, NJ                                                    146.0           153.7          7.7
Close Fort Monroe, VA                                                       56.9            65.3          8.4
Close Naval Station Ingleside, TX and realign Naval Air Station
Corpus Christi, TX                                                          59.5            68.5          9.0
Co-locate missile and space defense agencies at Redstone
Arsenal, AL                                                                 36.1            46.1         10.0
Realign Maneuver Training to Fort Benning, GA                              123.3           133.4         10.1
Realign Fort Smith Municipal Airport Air Guard Station, AR                    0.4           10.8         10.5
Realign Beale Air Force Base, CA                                            (1.7)            9.2         11.0
Close Naval Air Station Brunswick, ME                                       88.7            99.9         11.2
Close Fort McPherson, GA                                                    82.1            94.2         12.1
Realign Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID                                    23.8            38.4         14.6
Realign to create a Naval Integrated Weapons and Armaments
Research, Development, and Acquisition, Test and Evaluation
Center mostly at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, CA                   52.1            67.9         15.8
Realign to establish Combat Service Support Center at Fort Lee,
VA                                                                         131.8           148.4         16.6
Realign Nashville International Airport Air Guard Station, TN              (20.7)           (2.6)        18.1
Consolidate/co-locate active and reserve personnel and recruiting
centers for Army and Air Force                                             151.2           169.6         18.4



Page 45                                            GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Close General Mitchell Air Reserve Station, WI                                0.0              18.8                   18.8
Realign Walter Reed Army Medical Center to Bethesda National
Naval Medical Center, MD, and to Fort Belvoir, VA                           145.3            172.1                     26.8
Realign to establish fleet readiness centers                                248.4            278.4                     30.0
Realign Cannon Air Force Base, NM                                           206.5            260.0                     53.5
Consolidate Defense Finance and Accounting Service                          102.6            498.9                    396.3
Total                                                                    $4,222.9         $3,808.1                 ($414.8)
Source: GAO analysis of 2005 BRAC Commission data and DOD’s fiscal year 2011 BRAC budget data.

Note: Negative numbers in parenthesis are costs. Totals may not equal the sum of the numbers in each column, due
to rounding.




Page 46                                          GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Enclosure VII: Comments from the Department of Defense




Page 47                             GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Related GAO Products

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Key Factors Contributing to BRAC 2005 Results.
GAO-12-513T. Washington, D.C.: March 8, 2012.

Excess Facilities: DOD Needs More Complete Information and a Strategy to Guide Its Future
Disposal Efforts. GAO-11-814. Washington, D.C.: September 19, 2011.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Review of the Iowa and Milan Army Ammunition
Plants. GAO-11-488R. Washington. D.C.: April 1, 2011.

GAO’s 2011 High-Risk Series: An Update. GAO-11-394T. Washington, D.C.: February 17,
2011.

Defense Infrastructure: High-Level Federal Interagency Coordination Is Warranted to Address
Transportation Needs beyond the Scope of the Defense Access Roads Program. GAO-11-165.
Washington, D.C.: January 26, 2011.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Is Taking Steps to Mitigate Challenges but Is
Not Fully Reporting Some Additional Costs. GAO-10-725R. Washington, D.C.: July 21, 2010.

Defense Infrastructure: Army Needs to Improve Its Facility Planning Systems to Better Support
Installations Experiencing Significant Growth. GAO-10-602. Washington, D.C.: June 24, 2010.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Estimated Costs Have Increased while Savings
Estimates Have Decreased Since Fiscal Year 2009. GAO-10-98R. Washington, D.C.:
November 13, 2009.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Transportation Impact of Personnel Increases Will Be
Significant, but Long-Term Costs Are Uncertain and Direct Federal Support Is Limited. GAO-09-
750. Washington, D.C.: September 9, 2009.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Needs to Update Savings Estimates and
Continue to Address Challenges in Consolidating Supply-Related Functions at Depot
Maintenance Locations. GAO-09-703. Washington, D.C.: July 9, 2009.

Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Periodically Review Support Standards and Costs at
Joint Bases and Better Inform Congress of Facility Sustainment Funding Uses. GAO-09-336.
Washington, D.C.: March 30, 2009.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: DOD Faces Challenges in Implementing
Recommendations on Time and Is Not Consistently Updating Savings Estimates. GAO-09-217.
Washington, D.C.: January 30, 2009.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Army Is Developing Plans to Transfer Functions from
Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, but Challenges Remain.
GAO-08-1010R. Washington, D.C.: August 13, 2008.

Defense Infrastructure: High-Level Leadership Needed to Help Communities Address
Challenges Caused by DOD-Related Growth. GAO-08-665. Washington, D.C.: June 17, 2008.


Page 48                                  GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Defense Infrastructure: DOD Funding for Infrastructure and Road Improvements Surrounding
Growth Installations. GAO-08-602R. Washington, D.C.: April 1, 2008.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Higher Costs and Lower Savings Projected for
Implementing Two Key Supply-Related BRAC Recommendations. GAO-08-315. Washington,
D.C.: March 5, 2008.

Defense Infrastructure: Realignment of Air Force Special Operations Command Units to
Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico. GAO-08-244R. Washington, D.C.: January 18, 2008.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Estimated Costs Have Increased and Estimated
Savings Have Decreased. GAO-08-341T. Washington, D.C.: December 12, 2007.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Cost Estimates Have Increased and Are Likely to
Continue to Evolve. GAO-08-159. Washington, D.C.: December 11, 2007.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Impact of Terminating, Relocating, or Outsourcing
the Services of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. GAO-08-20. Washington, D.C.:
November 9, 2007.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Transfer of Supply, Storage, and Distribution
Functions from Military Services to Defense Logistics Agency. GAO-08-121R. Washington,
D.C.: October 26, 2007.

Defense Infrastructure: Challenges Increase Risks for Providing Timely Infrastructure Support
for Army Installations Expecting Substantial Personnel Growth. GAO-07-1007. Washington,
D.C.: September 13, 2007.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Plan Needed to Monitor Challenges for Completing
More Than 100 Armed Forces Reserve Centers. GAO-07-1040. Washington, D.C.: September
13, 2007.

Military Base Realignments and Closures: Observations Related to the 2005 Round. GAO-07-
1203R. Washington, D.C.: September 6, 2007.

Military Base Closures: Projected Savings from Fleet Readiness Centers Are Likely Overstated
and Actions Needed to Track Actual Savings and Overcome Certain Challenges. GAO-07-304.
Washington, D.C.: June 29, 2007.

Military Base Closures: Management Strategy Needed to Mitigate Challenges and Improve
Communication to Help Ensure Timely Implementation of Air National Guard
Recommendations. GAO-07-641. Washington, D.C.: May 16, 2007.

Military Base Closures: Opportunities Exist to Improve Environmental Cleanup Cost Reporting
and to Expedite Transfer of Unneeded Property. GAO-07-166. Washington, D.C.: January 30,
2007.

Military Bases: Observations on DOD’s 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Selection Process
and Recommendations. GAO-05-905. Washington, D.C.: July 18, 2005.




Page 49                                  GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
Military Bases: Analysis of DOD’s 2005 Selection Process and Recommendations for Base
Closures and Realignments. GAO-05-785. Washington, D.C.: July 1, 2005.

Military Base Closures: Observations on Prior and Current BRAC Rounds. GAO-05-614.
Washington, D.C.: May 3, 2005.




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Page 50                                GAO-12-709R Military Base Realignments and Closures
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