oversight

Gun Control: States' Laws and Requirements for Concealed Carry Permits Vary across the Nation

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-07-17.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office

GAO          Report to Congressional Requesters




July 2012
             GUN CONTROL

             States’ Laws and
             Requirements for
             Concealed Carry
             Permits Vary across
             the Nation




GAO-12-717
                                           July 2012

                                           GUN CONTROL
                                           States’ Laws and Requirements for Concealed Carry
                                           Permits Vary across the Nation
Highlights of GAO-12-717, a report to
congressional requesters




Why GAO Did This Study                     What GAO Found
According to state reporting to GAO,       The number of states allowing concealed carry permits is increasing, and states
there were at least 8 million active       broadly differ in eligibility requirements and the extent to which they have
permits to carry concealed handguns        reciprocity agreements. In June 2002, 7 states and the District of Columbia
in the United States as of December        prohibited the concealed carry of handguns. As of March 2012, individuals can
31, 2011. States and local authorities     carry concealed handguns in all but 1 state (Illinois) and the District of Columbia
control the issuance of concealed carry    (see fig. below). “Shall-issue” states—in which issuing authorities are required to
permits. Applicants who wish to obtain     issue a permit to an applicant that fulfills the objective statutory criteria—
such permits are required to meet          generally issue more permits than states with greater discretion in granting
certain state eligibility requirements,
                                           permits (“may-issue” states). Because of differing eligibility requirements, some
such as minimum age and the lack of a
                                           states would issue a permit to an applicant, while others would not. For example,
felony conviction. States also decide
which other states’ permits to honor.
                                           some states define what constitutes a disqualifying felony differently or have
Typically, states enter into reciprocity   different firearms training requirements. As of March 2012, 39 states that issue
agreements that establish which out-       permits and Vermont (permits not required) recognize concealed carry permits
of-state permit holders can carry          from other states. Of the 9 states that do not grant reciprocity, 8 are may-issue
concealed firearms within each state.      states.
In recent years, Members of Congress
                                           State Concealed Carry Permit Designation as of 2012
have introduced legislation that would
require each issuing state to recognize
any permit. GAO was asked to provide
information on the status of concealed-
carry permitting. This report describes
(1) the extent to which states allow
concealed carry permits, and how
select states’ eligibility requirements
and recognition of other states’ permits
differ, (2) what processes select states
use to help ensure they revoke permits
when holders no longer meet eligibility
requirements, and (3) how law
enforcement officials in select states
determine whether permits they
                                           Issuing authorities from all 9 states included in GAO’s case study stated that they
encounter are current and valid. GAO
                                           take action to confirm an individual’s continued eligibility to hold a permit as part
gathered information on the number of
permits, laws, issuing authorities, and
                                           of the permit renewal process; and issuing authorities from 8 of these 9 states
reciprocity agreements for 50 states       reported using mechanisms to monitor resident permit holders’ continued
and the District of Columbia, and          eligibility between issuance and renewal. In these 8 states, issuing authorities
conducted a case study on 9 states         told GAO that they are notified if a permit holder commits a disqualifying act
that issue permits. GAO selected these     within their state through law enforcement or state databases. After detecting a
states to reflect differences among        disqualifying criminal offense or other disqualifying factors, each of the 9 states
states’ eligibility requirements, state    begins the revocation process by notifying the permit holder. The states have
reciprocity of permits, and permit-        varying retrieval processes, and 3 of them have authority to impose a penalty for
issuing processes; the results cannot      failure to surrender a revoked permit or continuing to possess one.
be generalized across all states but
provide a broad understanding of the       Law enforcement in the 9 case study states that issue permits told GAO that
different requirements and processes       when encountering permits, such as during routine traffic stops, they visually
states utilized in issuing permits.        check them and can take additional steps, such as checking state databases, as
                                           needed, to determine whether the permits are current and valid.
View GAO-12-717. For more information,
contact Carol R. Cha (202)512-8777 or
chac@gao.gov.

                                                                                       United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                      1
                Background                                                                  5
                States Allowing Concealed Carry Permits Have Increased, but
                  Eligibility Requirements and Extent of Reciprocity Differ                 8
                Select States Reported Monitoring if Certain Permits Should Be
                  Revoked and Having Processes to Revoke Them when Needed                 23
                Law Enforcement in Select States Visually Check Permits to Verify
                  Validity, among Other Actions                                           29

Appendix I      Case Study State Summaries                                                33



Appendix II     Objectives, Scope and Methodology                                         68



Appendix III    State Issuing Authority, as of March 2012                                 71



Appendix IV     State Concealed Carry Permit Designation, as of March 28, 2012            73



Appendix V      Number of Valid Permits                                                   75



Appendix VI     Approximate Total Number of Active Permits by Residency                   78



Appendix VII    State Reciprocity, as of March 2012                                       80



Appendix VIII   GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments                                    84



Tables
                Table 1: Change in States’ Concealed Carry Permit Designation,
                         2002 and 2012                                                      8



                Page i                                      GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
          Table 2: Case Study States’ Specific Disqualifiers for Concealed
                   Carry Permits                                                    17
          Table 3: Case Study States’ Training Requirements to Qualify for a
                   Concealed Carry Permit                                           18
          Table 4: Approximate Numbers of Revoked and Issued Permits,
                   2011                                                             26
          Table 5: Physical Characteristics of Case Study States’ Concealed
                   Carry Permits                                                    30
          Table 6: State Concealed Carry Permit Designation, as of March
                   2012                                                             73
          Table 7: Number of Valid Permits (as Reported by States) as of
                   December 31, 2011, unless noted otherwise                        75
          Table 8: Status for States that issue to Nonresidents, as of
                   December 31, 2011, unless otherwise noted                        78


Figures
          Figure 1: State Concealed Carry Permit Designation for 2002 and
                   2012                                                              9
          Figure 2: State Concealed Carry Permits Profile 2011                      11
          Figure 3: State Reciprocity as of March 2012                              20
          Figure 4: Length of Time Permit Is Valid for Initial Applicants           24




          Page ii                                     GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Abbreviations

ATF               Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
CA DOJ            California Department of Justice
CCDW              Carry of Concealed Deadly Weapon
CWP/CWL           Concealed Weapon Permit/License
CHL/CHP           Concealed Handgun License/Permit
CJIS              Criminal Justice Information Services
CPL               Concealed Pistol License
DUI               driving under the influence
DWI               driving while intoxicated
FBI               Federal Bureau of Investigation
FOID              Firearm Owner’s Identification Card
III               Interstate Identification Index
LTC/LTCF          License To Carry (Firearms)
NCIC              National Crime Information Center
NGI               Next Generation Identification
NICS              National Instant Criminal Background Check System
NRA               National Rifle Association
Nlets             International Justice and Public Safety Network


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Page iii                                              GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548




                                   July 17, 2012

                                   The Honorable Dianne Feinstein
                                   Chair, Caucus on International Narcotics Control
                                   United States Senate

                                   The Honorable F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr.
                                   Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security
                                   Committee on the Judiciary
                                   House of Representatives

                                   In 2010, approximately 118 million handguns were available for sale to, or
                                   were possessed by, civilians in the United States. 1 States regulate if,
                                   where, and how their residents can carry handguns—openly or
                                   concealed. 2 According to state reporting, there were approximately 8
                                   million active concealed carry permits in the United States as of
                                   December 31, 2011. 3 Through the years, gun rights and gun control
                                   advocates have debated the efficacy of carrying a concealed handgun
                                   and constitutionality of the right to carry a concealed handgun. The
                                   debates have included such issues as who may legally carry a concealed
                                   handgun and where the concealed handgun may be legally carried (i.e.,
                                   state parks, government buildings, public arenas, etc.), among other
                                   issues. State and local authorities control the issuance of concealed carry
                                   permits. 4 Applicants who wish to obtain such permits are required to meet


                                   1
                                    GAO estimate based on Congressional Research Service Report Gun Control
                                   Legislation, (March 12, 2012) RL 32842 p. 5 and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,
                                   Firearms and Explosives (ATF) Firearms Commerce in the United States Annual
                                   Statistical Update 2012 (May 4, 2012).
                                   2
                                    For the purposes of this report, we will refer to firearms and weapons as handguns (i.e.,
                                   pistols and revolvers)—although some states’ permits also define weapons as knives,
                                   rifles, and billy clubs, and so forth.
                                   3
                                    This number is an estimate based upon state reporting to GAO. Given that many states
                                   reported approximate numbers and some states that issue permits were unable to provide
                                   the number of permits, the number is likely understated.
                                   4
                                    For the purposes of this report, we will refer to all permits as concealed carry permits.
                                   States use different terms for licenses or permits to carry a concealed firearm, such as
                                   Concealed Handgun License/Permit (CHL/CHP),Concealed Weapon Permit/License
                                   (CWP/CWL), Concealed Firearm Permit/License, License To Carry (Firearms)
                                   (LTC/LTCF), Carry a Concealed Deadly Weapon License (CCDW), Concealed Pistol
                                   License (CPL), and so forth.




                                   Page 1                                                  GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
certain state eligibility requirements. For example, in many states, a
person must be at least 21 years old and not have any felony convictions
to receive a permit. 5 Currently, state law determines whether and to what
degree to honor other states’ permits. Typically, states enter into
reciprocity agreements that establish which out-of-state permit holders
can carry concealed firearms within each state. Congress has considered
the issue of concealed carry permitting and the concept of national
reciprocity. Most recently, Members of the 112th Congress have
proposed legislation that would address certain aspects of concealed
carry permitting as well as national reciprocity. 6 Proposed legislation
currently pending in Congress would provide national reciprocity or allow
individuals that have a concealed carry permit issued from one state to be
eligible to carry a concealed weapon in any other state that issues
concealed carry permits. Other proposed legislation would require states
to have minimum standards for the process of issuing concealed carry
permits as well as minimum eligibility requirements to attain a permit.
Both gun rights and gun control advocates have raised concerns with a


5
 For example, Arizona specifically requires, among other things, that an individual be 21
years of age or older and have not been convicted in any jurisdiction of a felony unless
that conviction has been expunged, set aside, or vacated or in certain other limited
circumstances under Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(E). For more information on select states’
eligibility requirements for concealed weapons permits, see appendix I.
6
  For example, one proposed bill, H.R. 822, the National Right-to-Carry Reciprocity Act of
2011, would generally allow persons with valid state-issued concealed firearm permits or
licenses to carry a concealed firearm in any other state that also issues concealed
firearms permits or licenses, or in any other state that does not generally prohibit the
carrying of concealed firearms, subject to the same conditions and limitations (except as
to eligibility to possess or carry) imposed by federal, state, or local law that apply to
residents of the state. This proposed bill would not create a national licensing scheme, but
would require states that currently permit people to carry concealed firearms to recognize
other states’ valid concealed carry permits. Similarly to the National Right-to-Carry
Reciprocity Act of 2011, another proposed bill, the Secure Access to Firearms
Enhancement Act of 2011, H.R. 2900, 112th Cong. (2011), would generally allow a person
who is not prohibited by federal law from possessing, transporting, shipping, or receiving a
firearm, and is carrying a valid license or permit to carry a concealed weapon issued by a
state, to carry a concealed weapon in any state in accordance with the terms of the
license or permit and the laws of the state in which the firearm is carried concerning
specific types of locations in which firearms may not be carried. The Common Sense
Concealed Firearms Permit Act of 2011, S. 176, 112th Cong. (2011), another proposed
bill, would require states that allow residents of the state to carry concealed firearms to
establish a process to issue permits to residents of the state to carry concealed firearms
and require that each resident of the state seeking to carry a concealed firearm in the
state obtain a permit through this process. Further, in establishing a process, the state
would have minimum requirements related to the process as well as the eligibility
requirements of the applicant.




Page 2                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
variety of proposed legislation related to concealed carry permitting and
national reciprocity. In this context, you requested that we provide
information on the status of concealed carry permitting. Accordingly, this
report describes

•   the extent to which states allow concealed carry permits, and how
    select states’ eligibility requirements and laws regarding recognition of
    other states’ permits differ;
•   the processes select states use to help ensure they revoke permits
    when holders no longer meet eligibility requirements; and
•   how law enforcement officials in select states determine whether
    permits they encounter are current and valid.

To answer these objectives, we contacted 48 states to obtain information
on the number of valid concealed carry permits, denials, and revocations
in each state. 7 Further, we gathered information for 50 states and the
District of Columbia on their permit issuing laws (as they were as of
March 2012), issuing authorities, and reciprocity agreements, among
other things. 8 Moreover, we conducted a case study on 9 of the 50
states—Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland,
Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia—which we selected to reflect differing
state eligibility requirements, state reciprocity of permits, and permit-
issuing processes. From these states, we obtained and analyzed state
data and information for 2011 on their eligibility requirements for issuing
permits, procedures for monitoring permit holders’ continued eligibility,
and the number of permits issued and revoked. In the 9 states included in
our case study that issue permits, we also interviewed state and local
officials responsible for issuing permits to obtain information on applicable
laws and procedures for issuing, monitoring, and revoking permits, and
entering into reciprocity agreements. In addition, we interviewed state and
local law enforcement officials in these states to obtain information on


7
 The remaining 2 states (Illinois and Vermont) and the District of Columbia do not issue
concealed carry permits, so the number of valid permits does not apply to them. However,
Vermont allows individuals to carry concealed handguns without a permit.
8
 On the basis of their permit issuing laws, states and the District of Columbia are generally
designated as:(1) No-issue: carrying concealed is prohibited; (2) May-issue: the issuing
authority has discretion to grant concealed carry permits to eligible individuals after
considering additional subjective prohibitors, such as the applicant’s history, character,
and intended purpose for carrying a firearm; (3) Shall-issue: a concealed carry permit
must be issued if no statutory reason for denial is revealed during a background check of
the applicant; and (4) Permit not required to carry concealed.




Page 3                                                 GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
processes they use to determine whether permits are valid when needed.
The results from our case studies cannot be generalized across all states.
However, the information obtained from these case studies provides a
broad understanding of the different requirements and processes states
utilize in issuing permits. To assess the reliability of the data and
information, we asked the states about the systems they use to track the
data, any steps taken to verify accuracy, and any limitations to the data.
Our analysis was largely dependent on the availability of state data on the
number of concealed carry permits. In some cases, statewide data were
not available, and in other cases only data from certain time periods were
available. As a result of these limitations, we determined that the data
were sufficiently reliable solely to illustrate a minimum number of total
active permits and approximate number of state-specific permits.

In addition, we obtained information from and interviewed federal officials
with firearms-related experience and law enforcement responsibilities—
the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) and the
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). We obtained information from and
interviewed FBI Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division
officials on their federal databases that states query when screening
concealed carry permit applicants’ criminal history backgrounds. We
obtained information and interviewed ATF headquarters officials and field
special agents on their experience with and perspectives on state
concealed carry permits. We also interviewed non-governmental groups
representing a cross section of different views on concealed carry permit
issues to gain an understanding of the historical context on these issues. 9
Appendix II contains a more detailed discussion of our objectives, scope,
and methodology.

We conducted our work from August 2011 through July 2012 in
accordance with all sections of GAO’s Quality Assurance Framework that
are relevant to our objectives. The framework requires that we plan and
perform the engagement to obtain sufficient and appropriate evidence to
meet our stated objectives and to discuss any limitations in our work. We
believe that the information and data obtained, and the analysis
conducted, provide a reasonable basis for any findings in this product.




9
 We interviewed organizations such as the Brady Campaign, Gun Owners of America,
Mayors Against Illegal Guns, and the National Rifle Association.




Page 4                                            GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Background
State Concealed Carry   States’ concealed carry laws can allow handgun owners, under certain
Laws                    conditions, to carry a loaded handgun either concealed on a person, in a
                        vehicle, or in public. “Concealed carry” means a person may carry a
                        handgun in a manner so that others cannot see the handgun. Generally,
                        these laws apply to handguns—i.e. pistols and revolvers; therefore, for
                        the purposes of this report, we use this category to define firearms. 10
                        States can allow civilians to carry a concealed handgun with or without a
                        permit. Generally, states regulate whether individuals can carry handguns
                        in public places such as schools, government buildings, and state and
                        national parks, among other restricted places.

                        States can be classified into one of the following four categories based on
                        their concealed carry laws:

                        •    No-issue: The state does not permit residents or nonresidents to carry
                             concealed handguns.
                        •    May-issue: The state applies discretion in granting permits to carry
                             concealed handguns.
                        •    Shall-issue: Issuing authorities are required to issue a permit to an
                             applicant that fulfills the objective statutory criteria if no statutory
                             reason for denial exists.
                        •    Permit not required: States do not require a permit to carry a
                             concealed handgun. 11

                        State laws also define which entities issue permits in their state. For
                        example, some states have delegated the authority to issue permits to a
                        single issuing authority (sometimes referred to as a centralized system),
                        such as departments of public safety, while other states have multiple
                        issuing authorities (referred to as a decentralized system), such as local
                        law enforcement and local courts. There are also states with a mixture of



                        10
                          States’ concealed carry laws can also regulate the carrying of other weapons (e.g.,
                        knives).
                        11
                          For the purposes of this report, we will refer to states’ issue designation as, no-issue,
                        may-issue, shall-issue, or permit not required. These designations exclude individuals
                        permitted to carry concealed weapons under federal law, such as qualified law
                        enforcement officers under 18 U.S.C. § 926B, or qualified retired law enforcement officers
                        under 18 U.S.C. § 926C.




                        Page 5                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
               both centralized and decentralized systems. Of the 48 states that issue
               concealed carry permits (2 states do not issue permits—Illinois and
               Vermont), 20 states have centralized issuing authorities that process all
               applications and issue all permits for their state. Another 23 states have
               decentralized issuing authorities that process applications and issue
               permits at the jurisdictional level. The remaining 5 states use a combination
               of centralized and decentralized issuing authorities. These states generally
               utilize decentralized authorities for residents and a centralized authority for
               nonresidents (see app. III for a list of states’ issuing authorities).


Federal Role   There is no federal law specifically addressing the issuance of concealed
               carry permits at the state level. While the FBI does not have a direct role
               in the issuance of concealed carry permits, the FBI serves as a source for
               criminal history background information. 12 States may contact the FBI to
               obtain national criminal history records, if any, on applicants who apply for
               a concealed carry permit, but checking with the FBI prior to issuing a
               state permit is not required by federal law. Generally, states request
               name-based background checks from the FBI CJIS Division’s National
               Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) to help them make a
               determination about who is prohibited from receiving or possessing a
               handgun and thus prohibited from obtaining a concealed carry permit. 13
               During the course of a NICS background check, the applicant’s
               descriptive information is checked against three computerized systems to
               determine if the person is eligible to obtain the handgun. Those systems
               include the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), the Interstate
               Identification Index (III), and the NICS Index. 14 If the applicant indicates


               12
                 Under 28 U.S.C. § 534(a)(1), the Attorney General has the authority to acquire, collect,
               classify, and preserve identification, criminal identification, crime, and other records.
               13
                 Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, Pub. L. No. 103-159, 107 Stat. 1536 (1993);
               and GAO, Gun Control: Opportunities to Close Loopholes in the National Instant Criminal
               Background Check System, GAO-02-720 (Washington, D.C.: July 12, 2002).
               14
                  Specifically, a NICS check queries the following three information sources: (1) the
               National Crime Information Center (NCIC) which, inter alia, provides access to fugitive
               arrest warrants and protective orders; (2) the Interstate Identification Index (III), an index-
               pointer system that provides access to state criminal history records and FBI criminal
               history databases; and (3) the NICS Index, which contains information provided by local,
               state, tribal, and federal agencies on persons prohibited from receiving or possessing
               firearms under federal law that is not found in the NCIC or the III, e.g., information
               concerning persons who have been adjudicated as mentally defective or committed to a
               mental institution.




               Page 6                                                   GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                    that he or she is not a U.S. citizen, a query is generated against the
                    immigration and naturalization databases maintained by the Department
                    of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. ATF
                    is the primary agency that enforces federal firearms laws regulating the
                    commerce of firearms in the United States.

                    Although the federal government does not have a direct role in the
                    issuance of concealed carry, there is federal law making it unlawful for
                    individuals to receive or possess a handgun if they
                             (1) have been convicted in any court of, a crime punishable by
                             imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year;
                             (2) are fugitives from justice;
                             (3) are unlawful drug users or are addicted to any controlled
                             substance;
                             (4) have been adjudicated as mental defective or have been
                             committed to a mental institution;
                             (5) are aliens illegally or unlawfully in the United States, or certain
                             other aliens admitted under a nonimmigrant visa;
                             (6) have been discharged from the Armed Forces under
                             dishonorable conditions;
                             (7) have renounced their U.S. citizenship;
                             (8) are the subject of certain types of a qualifying restraining order
                             of a court; or
                             (9) have been convicted in any court of a misdemeanor crime of
                             domestic violence. 15

State Eligibility   In practice, state determinations about eligibility to obtain concealed carry
Restrictions        permits depend largely upon a person’s criminal history. When
                    determining who should receive a concealed carry permit, generally
                    states use eligibility prohibitors that are similar to the federal eligibility


                    15
                       18 U.S.C. § 922(g). Under 18 U.S.C. § 922(n), it is unlawful for any person who is under
                    indictment for a crime punishable by imprisonment for a term exceeding 1 year to ship or
                    transport in interstate or foreign commerce any firearm or ammunition or receive any
                    firearm or ammunition which has been shipped or transported in interstate or foreign
                    commerce. In addition, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. § 922(x)(2), generally it is unlawful for any
                    person who is a juvenile, a person that is less than 18 years of age, to knowingly possess
                    a handgun or ammunition that is suitable for use only in a handgun.




                    Page 7                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                            restrictions that apply for possessing or receiving a handgun. For
                            example, persons convicted of a felony, the subject of certain types of
                            orders of protection, or who have been committed to a mental institution
                            are disqualified from receiving a concealed carry permit in many states.


                            Since 2002, more states are required by law to issue permits and more
States Allowing             permits have been issued to eligible applicants, although some states still
Concealed Carry             maintain discretion in determining who receives permits. States can issue
                            to either residents of the state only or to both residents and nonresidents,
Permits Have                depending on state law. Because eligibility requirements differ, an
Increased, but              individual could obtain a permit in one state but not another. In addition,
Eligibility                 the number of states that recognize other states’ permits has grown since
                            2002, but some states do not recognize any other states’ permits.
Requirements and
Extent of Reciprocity
Differ

Since 2002, More States
Required to Issue Permits
to Eligible Applicants,
though Some States Have
Discretion in Who
Receives a Permit

More States Are Granting    Over time, more states have changed their concealed carry laws either
Permits                     from no-issue or may-issue to shall-issue, as shown in table 1 below.

                            Table 1: Change in States’ Concealed Carry Permit Designation, 2002 and 2012

                                Number of States by Issue Designation                      June 2002              March 2012
                                No-issue States that Prohibit the                    7 states and the           1 state and the
                                Concealed Carry of Handguns                       District of Columbia     District of Columbia
                                Shall-Issue States                                                 29                       39
                                May-Issue States                                                   13                       10
                                                                                                       a                        b
                                States that Do Not Require a Permit to                             1                        4
                                Concealed Carry
                            Source: GAO analysis of state laws.
                            a
                             The total number of states and the District of Columbia adds to 51.




                            Page 8                                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                        b
                                         The total number of states and the District of Columbia adds to 55 in this analysis, because 4 states
                                        (Alaska, Arizona, Rhode Island, and Wyoming) are counted in two categories. Alaska, Arizona, and
                                        Wyoming do not require permits but are considered shall-issue; and Rhode Island provides may- and
                                        shall-issue authority. Rhode Island law provides for two mechanisms for obtaining a permit: the
                                        Rhode Island Attorney General has “may- issue” authority to issue permits under R.I. Gen. Laws §
                                        11-47-18, and cities and towns have “shall-issue” authority, with limited discretion, to issue a permit,
                                        under R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-11.


                                        Figure 1 below shows changes in issue designation, by state, for 2002
                                        and 2012. See app. IV for a list of issue designation by state).

Figure 1: State Concealed Carry Permit Designation for 2002 and 2012




Shall-Issue States Issue More           Shall-issue states generally issue more permits than may-issue states
Permits than May-Issue States           relative to the state population. (See app. V for information on the
                                        approximate number of active permits by state as of December 31, 2011.)
                                        Of the 48 states that issue permits, 45 provided us with permit
                                        information. The top 5 states by ratio of active permits issued to the adult
                                        population (20 years or older) are shall-issue states—Utah, Iowa, South




                                        Page 9                                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Dakota, Georgia, and Indiana. 16 The ratio of active permits relative to
adult population in Georgia and South Dakota (shall-issue states) is
approximately 9 percent and 11 percent respectively, while the same ratio
in California and Maryland (may-issue states) is approximately 0.1
percent and 0.3 percent respectively. 17 See figure 2 for state-specific
profiles (see apps. III, IV, and V for detailed information on each state).




16
 Of these 5 states, Utah, Iowa, and Indiana issue to both residents and nonresidents,
while Georgia and South Dakota issue to residents only.
17
  The states and percentages mentioned above include permits issued to both residents
and nonresidents.




Page 10                                              GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
 Interactive graphic Figure 2: State Concealed Carry Permits Profile 2011

Move mouse over the name of each state for its concealed carry information.




                   Wash.*

                                          Mont.                                                                                                                  Maine*
                                                                 N.Dak.*
                                                                                     Minn.*
                                                                                                                                                        Vt.
              Ore.*
                                                                                                                                                                        N.H.*
                                                                                                     Wisc.
                              Idaho*                                                                                                            N.Y.*                     Mass.*
                                                                 S.Dak.
                                                                                                                      Mich.                                             R.I.*
                                           Wyo.
                                                                                                                                                                     Conn.*
                                                                                       Iowa*                                             Pa.*
                                                                   Nebr.                                                                                        N.J.*
                      Nev.*                                                                                               Ohio
                                                                                                                Ind.*
                                  Utah*                                                                  Ill.                                                 Del.
                                               Colo.                                                                             W.VA.                   Md.*
         Calif.*                                                                                                                             Va.*
                                                                       Kans.                  Mo.                        Ky.
                                                                                                                                                              D.C.
                                                                                                                                         N.C.
                                                                                                                Tenn.*
                                 Ariz.*                                     Okla.
                                                                                            Ark.                                     S.C.*
                                            N.Mex.
                                                                                                        Miss.                  Ga.
                                                                                                                  Ala.
                                                                                               La.
                                                                    Tex.*

                                                                                                                                     Fla.*

                        Alaska


                                                                                                                                         State issue classification
                                                                                                                                                    No-Issue

                                                                                                                                                    Permit not required
                                                                       Hawaii*
                                                                                                                                                    May-issue

                                                                                                                                                    Classified as both May
                                                                                                                                                    and Shall-Issue
                                                                                                                                                    Shall-issue

                                                                                                                                                    Permit not required and
                                                                                                                                                    Shall-Issue
                                                                                                                                                    Represents number of
                                                                                                                                                    resident and non-resident
                                                                                                                                                    permits

                                                  Source: GAO analysis based on state reported data and state laws.




                                                  Page 11                                                                     GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                 If applicants do not meet states’ eligibility requirements, issuing
                                 authorities may deny the applicant a permit. Of the 45 states that reported
                                 permit information, 36 stated that they track denials and 29 provided
                                 some common reasons for the denials. For example, in 2011, Louisiana
                                 reported that the state denied approximately 400 permits and issued
                                 12,000 concealed handgun permits (this includes original and renewal)
                                 citing failure to provide information within the specified time frames as
                                 required by the state as a common cause of denial. Likewise, Florida
                                 reported that from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2011, the state issued
                                 approximately 124,000 concealed carry permits (this includes original),
                                 and denied approximately 2,000 permits. Like Louisiana officials, Florida
                                 officials identified failure to provide required information, such as proof of
                                 citizenship and legible fingerprint cards, as common reasons for denial.

About Half of the States’ Laws   Authorities in 26 states (10 may-issue and 16 shall-issue) that grant
Provide Issuing Authorities      permits have discretion in making permit decisions. While 10 may-issue
Discretion, beyond Standard      states have broad discretion in making permit decisions, authorities in 16
Eligibility Requirements, in     shall-issue states have limited discretion in making permit decisions, if no
Granting Permits                 statutory reason for denial exists. In Virginia (a shall-issue state), for
                                 example, issuing authorities stated that they can deny individuals whom
                                 the court finds are likely to use a weapon unlawfully or negligently to
                                 endanger others, based on a preponderance of the evidence. 18 Similarly,
                                 in Georgia (a shall-issue state), issuing authorities noted that applicants
                                 are subject to denial if the issuing authority determines, among other
                                 things, that the applicant is not of good moral character. 19 However, both
                                 Virginia and Georgia officials told us that although they have the
                                 discretion to deny a permit based on the factors mentioned above, it is
                                 rarely utilized.

                                 In the 10 may-issue states, issuing authorities may issue a permit to
                                 eligible individuals after considering additional requirements, such as the


                                 18
                                    Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(E)(13). The sheriff, chief of police, or attorney for the
                                 Commonwealth may submit to the court a sworn written statement indicating that, in the
                                 opinion of the sheriff, chief of police, or attorney of the Commonwealth, based upon a
                                 disqualifying conviction or upon specific acts set forth in the statement, the applicant is
                                 likely to use a weapon unlawfully or negligently to endanger others.
                                 19
                                   Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(d)(4). The judge of the probate court shall issue an
                                 applicant a license or renewal license to carry any weapon unless facts establishing
                                 ineligibility have been reported or unless the judge determines such applicant has not met
                                 all the qualifications, is not of good moral character, or has failed to comply with any of the
                                 statutory requirements to receive a license.




                                 Page 12                                                 GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
applicant’s history and personal character. For example, Maryland issues
permits to residents who, on the basis of an investigation, can
demonstrate a good and substantial reason for needing a permit, and
Maryland’s issuing authority is responsible for making the determination
of what constitutes a good and substantial reason. 20 For example, in one
instance, Maryland’s issuing authority denied a permit to a community
activist working in anti-drug and anti-crime programs because, although
the activist claimed that people had told him that others had made threats
of bodily harm against him, the activist could not provide the names of the
persons who had made the threats and had not reported any assaults. In
upholding the denial on appeal, the issuing authority explained that a
good and substantial reason should include additional evidence, rather
than be based solely on personal anxiety or concern about
unsubstantiated threats. Similarly, issuing authorities in California use
discretion to determine if the applicant is of good moral character, and
good cause exists for the issuance of the permit. 21 For example, issuing
authorities in California (local law enforcement) told us that an example of
a good cause is a business owner who may regularly retain cash on-hand
used to pay employees. The issuing authorities of the 2 may-issue states
in our case study also conduct additional detailed investigations (e.g.,
physical verification of residency, reviews of applicants’ financial history,
and in-person interviews, etc.) of permit applicants. For example,
Maryland’s issuing authority sends local law enforcement to an
applicant’s neighborhood or place of business to verify the applicant’s
address and help decide whether to issue a permit, according to the
Maryland State Police. Likewise, several of the issuing authorities in
California that we interviewed noted that they hold face-to-face interviews
with applicants when determining permit eligibility.




20
  Md. Code Ann. Pub. Safety§ 5-306(a)(5)(ii). However, the United States District Court
for the District of Maryland held in Woollard v. Sheridan, Civil Case No. L-10-2068, 2012
WL 695674 (Mar. 2, 2012) that Maryland’s requirement of a “good and substantial reason”
for issuance of a handgun permit is insufficiently tailored to the State’s interest in public
safety and crime prevention and therefore this portion of the Maryland law is
unconstitutional because it impermissibly infringes upon the right to keep and bear arms
as guaranteed by the Second Amendment. The State of Maryland has filed a timely
appeal of this ruling.
21
 Cal. Penal Code § 26150(a)(1)-(2).




Page 13                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
More than Half of the States    Of the 48 states that issue permits, 22 states’ laws allow for authorities to
Grant Permits to Nonresidents   issue only to residents of their state, while 26 allow for issuance to both
who are Eligible                residents and nonresidents. State laws allow issuing authorities to issue
                                permits to nonresidents in 10 of these 26 states on a limited basis. For
                                example, the issuing authorities in California may issue permits to
                                nonresidents whose principal place of employment or business is within
                                the state. 22 The remaining 16 states do not have such limitations. See
                                appendix VI for a listing of states that issue nonresident permits and the
                                number of permits issued as of December 31, 2011.


States’ Eligibility             While the majority of states share some common eligibility requirements
Requirements Differ; Thus       for qualifying an individual for a concealed carry permit, such as firearms
Some States Would Issue a       safety training and being at least 21 years of age, the 9 states included in
                                our case study that issue permits define certain eligibility requirements
Permit to an Applicant and      very differently, which can affect who is granted a permit (see app. I for
Others Would Not                individual state summaries in our case study). States disqualify
                                individuals convicted of a felony, but these 9 states differed in defining
                                what crimes constitute a felony (i.e., a particular crime could be a felony
                                in a particular state, but a misdemeanor in another). For example, in
                                Virginia, certain types of larceny are considered Class 6 felonies and
                                would disqualify an individual convicted of these crimes from being
                                eligible for a concealed carry permit. 23 If an individual either takes money
                                or an item worth at least $5 directly from a person, or takes goods valued


                                22
                                  California issues permits to applicants whose principal place of employment or business
                                is in the country or city, and the applicant spends a substantial period of time in that place
                                of employment or business. Cal. Penal Code, § 26150(a)(3). However, this type of permit
                                is valid for any period of time not to exceed 90 days from the issue date of the license
                                (Cal. Penal Code, § 26220(b)) and is valid only in the county in which it was originally
                                issued Cal. Penal Code, § 26220(b).
                                23
                                   The least severe punishment for a felony in Virginia is for a Class 6 felony, which has an
                                authorized punishment for conviction of a term of imprisonment of not less than 1 year nor
                                more than 5 years, or in the discretion of the jury or the court trying the case without a
                                jury, confinement in jail for not more than 12 months and a fine of not more than $2,500,
                                either or both. Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-10. By statute in Virginia, any person who (i) commits
                                larceny from the person of another of money or other thing of value of $5 or more, (ii)
                                commits simple larceny not from the person of another of goods or chattels of the value of
                                $200 or more, or (iii) commits simple larceny not from the person of another of any
                                firearm, regardless of the firearm’s value, shall be guilty of grand larceny, punishable by
                                imprisonment in a state correctional facility for not less than 1 nor more than 20 years or,
                                in the discretion of the jury or court trying the case without a jury, be confined in jail for a
                                period not exceeding 12 months or fined not more than $2,500, either or both. Va. Code
                                Ann. § 18.2-95.




                                Page 14                                                  GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
at $200 or more not directly from a person, he or she could be convicted
of a Class 6 felony in Virginia. Alternatively, in Tennessee, if an individual
commits a crime of theft of property or services that is valued at $500 or
less, it would be classified as a Class A misdemeanor and the individual
would remain eligible for a concealed carry permit. 24 Thus, permit
applicants who have committed a particular crime could be eligible to
receive a permit in some states, but not in others.

In another example, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia all disqualify
applicants if they have been convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI)
or driving under the influence (DUI), but each state has its own definitions
for what warrants disqualification. For instance, Louisiana disqualifies
applicants who have been convicted of operating a vehicle while
intoxicated at any time in the 5 years before the individual applied for a
permit, 25 while Virginia uses the prior 3 years, 26 and Tennessee
disqualifies applicants who were convicted two or more times within 10
years of the date of the application of driving under the influence and one
of the convictions has occurred within 5 years from the date of application
or renewal. 27 Thus, it is possible for an applicant who was convicted of a
DWI in Virginia or DUI in Tennessee 4 years ago to qualify for a permit in
those states, but not in Louisiana; and an applicant who was convicted of
two DWIs in Virginia 5 years ago to qualify for a permit, while in Louisiana
and Tennessee an individual convicted of two DWIs or DUIs within 5
years of applying for a permit would be ineligible.

Some states also have unique eligibility requirements that may disqualify
applicants. For example, Louisiana’s, Florida’s, and Tennessee’s laws


24
  Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-14-105. In Tennessee, “theft” constitutes a single offense
embracing the separate offenses that were referenced as embezzlement, false pretense,
fraudulent conversion, larceny, receiving or concealing stolen property, and other similar
offenses. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-14-101. Further, a person commits theft of property if,
with intent to deprive the owner of property, the person knowingly obtains or exercises
control over the property without the owner’s effective consent. Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-14-
103(a).
25
  La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C)(8).
26
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(E)(9).
27
  Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(c)(11). According to Tennessee’s Department of Public
Safety and Homeland Security, if a person is currently under the jurisdiction of the court
for driving under the influence and that person’s driver’s license is revoked, the person is
ineligible for a concealed carry permit.




Page 15                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
specifically disqualify applicants who suffer from a mental or physical
infirmity, 28 while the other 6 states in our case study that issue permits do
not. 29 Similarly, Texas and Tennessee disqualify applicants for
delinquency on child support. 30 The other 7 states in our case study that
issue permits did not cite this as a factor for denial or revocation. See
table 2 below for a listing of state disqualifiers for the 9 states included in
our case study.




28
   La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C)(5) (disqualifying an applicant for a concealed
handgun permit who suffers from a mental or physical infirmity due to disease, illness, or
retardation which prevents the safe handling of a handgun); Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.06(2)(c),
(i) (disqualifying an applicant for a license who suffers from a physical infirmity which
prevents the safe handling of a weapon or firearm; or has been adjudicated an
incapacitated person by Florida statute, or similar laws of any other state, unless 5 years
have elapsed since the applicant’s restoration to capacity by court order). Tenn. Code
Ann. § 39-17-1351(c)(12)(generally disqualifying an applicant that has been adjudicated
as a mental defective, been judicially committed to or hospitalized in a mental institution
by statute, has had a court appoint a conservator for the applicant by reason of a mental
defect, or has been judicially determined to be disabled by reason of mental illness,
developmental disability or other mental incapacity).
29
  The other select states may refer to mental deficiencies or psychiatric disorders that
disqualify applicants for eligibility for a permit. In Georgia, under Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-
129(b)(2)(J), any person who has been hospitalized as an inpatient in any mental hospital
within the five years immediately preceding the application for a permit may be prohibited
from eligibility for a permit.
30
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(a)(10)-(11). Under 42 U.S.C. § 666(a)(16), each state
must have procedures under which the state has (and uses in appropriate cases) authority
to withhold or suspend, or to restrict the use of driver’s licenses, professional and
occupational licenses, and recreational and sporting licenses of individuals owing overdue
support or failing, after receiving appropriate notice, to comply with subpoenas or warrants
relating to paternity or child support proceedings. Some states may consider a concealed
carry permit to be a “recreational” or “sporting” license. For instance, Tennessee considers
any concealed carry permit to be deemed a “license” when dealing with the enforcement
of child support obligations through license denial and revocation. Tenn. Code. Ann. § 39-
17-1351(v).




Page 16                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Table 2: Case Study States’ Specific Disqualifiers for Concealed Carry Permits

                         Arizona   California     Florida           Georgia           Louisiana            Maryland   Tennessee     Texas     Virginia
Abuse of controlled         X          X             X                X                   X                   X           X           X          X
substances
Conviction of a            X           X               X                 X                   X                 X          X           X          X
felony
Mental deficiencies        X           X               X                 X                   X                 X          X           X          X
or psychiatric
disorders
Subject of a               X           X               X                 X                   X                 X          X           X          X
protective/restraining
order
Discharged from the        X           X               X                 X                   X                            X           X          X
armed forces under
dishonorable
conditions
Conviction for a           X           X               X                 X                   X                            X           X
crime of domestic
violence
Chronic/habitual use                                   X                 X                   X                 X          X           X          X
of alcohol
History of violent                                                                           X                 X                                 X
behavior
Needs a “good and                      X                                                                       X
substantial” reason
to carry
Mental or physical                                     X                                     X                            X
Infirmity
Must be of “good                       X                                 X                                                                       X
moral character”
Violent                                X               X                                     X                                                   X
misdemeanor
Delinquency in the                     X                                                                                  X           X
payment of child
support
Delinquency in the                     X                                                                                              X
payment of taxes
                                           Source: GAO analysis of state laws in the 9 states in its review.



                                           The laws of 8 of the 9 states we examined that issue permits also require
                                           applicants to complete training related to firearms safety to qualify for a
                                           permit; however, the training requirements differ considerably. These
                                           requirements range from a list of approved training courses with no
                                           specified curriculum to a prescriptive state curriculum that can include a
                                           combination of classroom and live fire proficiency testing, which table 3
                                           illustrates (also see app. I for state summaries):




                                           Page 17                                                                    GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Table 3: Case Study States’ Training Requirements to Qualify for a Concealed Carry Permit

                                                                                          Proficiency                Specific topics
                   Training                               Hours of                        requirement                as prescribed by state
State              requirement   Live fire required       Instruction required            (written or shooting)      regulations/laws covered
Tennessee          Yes           Yes: 48 rounds (12 8 (4 hours of           70% on both written                      Handgun Nomenclature,
                                 rounds each at 3, 7, classroom and 4 hours and shooting exams                       function, and operation;
                                 and 15 yards, as     of firing range.)                                              handgun Safety, cleaning, and
                                 well as a distance                                                                  storage; legal liabilities of
                                 between 2 and 25                                                                    carrying a handgun
                                 yards specified by
                                 the instructor)
Texas              Yes           Yes                      Between 10 and 15               70% on both written        Use of deadly force; Handgun
                                                                                          and shooting exams         use, proficiency, and safety;
                                                                                                                     nonviolent dispute resolution;
                                                                                                                     proper storage practices with
                                                                                                                     an emphasis on child access
                                                                                                                     prevention
           a                                 b                                                                                      b
Arizona            Yes           Not specified            No                              No                         Not specified
                                             b
California         Yes           Not specified            Up to 16 hours                  75% on both written        Firearm safety; and permissible
                                                                                          and shooting exams         use of a firearm laws
        a                                                                    b                                                      b
Florida            Yes           Yes                      Not specified                   Yes                        Not specified
               a                             b                               b
Louisiana          Yes           Not specified            Not specified                   No                         Child access prevention
          a                                  b                               b                                                      b
Virginia           Yes           Not specified            Not specified                   No                         Not specified
Georgia            No            Not applicable           Not applicable                  Not applicable             Not applicable
               c
Maryland           No            Not applicable           Not applicable                  Not applicable             Not applicable
                                             Source: GAO analysis of state information.
                                             a
                                              Applicants in these states can fulfill their training requirement by taking a state-approved National
                                             Rifle Association, law enforcement, or other firearms safety-training course, or by presenting
                                             evidence of experience with a firearm through participation in current military service or proof of an
                                             honorable discharge from any branch of the armed services. In Florida, an applicant may also
                                             demonstrate firearm proficiency by presenting evidence of equivalent experience with a firearm
                                             through participation in organized shooting competition. Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.06(2)(h)5.
                                             b
                                                 For certain states, the amount of training and the specific topics are not specified in their state laws.
                                             c
                                              Maryland does not require training for applicants wishing to obtain a permit for personal protection.
                                             However, other applicants (e.g., security guards) have to show evidence of training completion to
                                             qualify for a permit.


                                             Further, differences in the information required by issuing authorities for
                                             eligibility determination exist not only between states but within states.
                                             Issuing authorities in some decentralized states augment their application
                                             process with additional requirements, which means the steps an
                                             individual must take to get a permit will vary by jurisdiction. For example,
                                             the issuing authority in one of the California counties we interviewed
                                             reported that it requires applicants to have three letters of reference
                                             before considering applicants for a permit. Other California counties in our
                                             review do not have this requirement. In another example, in Virginia, a


                                             Page 18                                                            GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                              shall-issue state, the decision of requiring applicants to submit fingerprints
                              was left to the discretion of each issuing authority, however this discretion
                              has been removed by the Virginia legislature effective July 1, 2012. 31


Majority of States            As of March 2012, 39 of the 48 states that issue permits and Vermont allow
Recognize Permits of at       concealed carry, and recognize permits from other states. Of these, the
Least 20 Other States; May-   number of other states whose permits they recognize varies, as follows:
Issue States Generally Do     •    7 states recognize permits issued in 1 to 19 states,
Not Grant Reciprocity         •    17 states recognize permits issued in 20 to 39 states, and
                              •    15 states recognize permits issued in 40 or more states—of these, 13
                                   states recognize permits issued in all 47 other states that issue permits.
                              •    Vermont does not require a permit to carry concealed handguns and
                                   does not issue permits (residents and nonresidents can carry
                                   concealed handguns). 32

                              The other 9 states that issue permits do not recognize permits issued
                              from other states; 8 of these states are may-issue states. In addition,
                              Illinois and the District of Columbia do not allow concealed carrying of
                              handguns or issue permits, nor do they recognize other states’ permits. 33

                              Over the last 10 years, shall-issue states have increasingly honored more
                              states’ permits. For example, Georgia honored 12 states’ permits in 2002,
                              but increased that number to 26 by 2012. Similarly, Louisiana honored 5
                              states’ permits in 2002, but honored 38 states’ permits as of March 2012.
                              Figure 3 shows which states’ permits each state will recognize (see app.
                              VII for a listing by state).




                              31
                                Pursuant to H.B. 754, 2012 Va. Acts ch. 175, the Virginia legislature amended the
                              Virginia statute governing the issuance of concealed handgun permits, Va. Code Ann. §
                              18.2-308, to remove the option for a locality to require that an applicant for a concealed
                              handgun permit submit fingerprints as part of the application effective July 1, 2012.
                              32
                                Alaska, Arizona, Wyoming, and Vermont do not require permits to carry concealed
                              handguns; however, Alaska, Arizona, and Wyoming issue permits to their residents so
                              that they may carry concealed handguns outside their state and other states may
                              recognize these permits, whereas Vermont does not issue any permits.
                              33
                                Illinois law requires anyone acquiring or possessing a firearm to have a Firearm Owner’s
                              Identification Card (FOID card). 430 Ill. Comp. Stat. 65/2(a)(1).




                              Page 19                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
 Interactive graphic Figure 3: State Reciprocity as of March 2012

Move mouse over the black and teal circle in each state to see carry permit information for states.




          2012 State
          Reciprocity
          Profile


                                 Wash.
                                                      Mont.                                                                                                  Maine
                                                                      N.Dak.       Minn.
                                                                                                                                                      Vt.
                           Ore.                                                                                                                                    N.H.
                                                                                               Wisc.                                                                 Mass.
                                          Idaho                       S.Dak.                                                                   N.Y.
                                                                                                               Mich.                                              R.I.
                                                         Wyo.
                                                                                                                                                                Conn.
                                                                                       Iowa                                              Pa.
                                   Nev.                                Nebr.                                                                                 N.J.
                                                                                                                          Ohio
                                                                                                     Ill.    Ind.
                                               Utah                                                                                                     Del.
                                                              Colo.                                                              W.VA.
                        Calif.                                                                                                                          Md.
                                                                         Kans.             Mo.                                           Va.
                                                                                                                    Ky.                                     D.C.

                                                                                                                                         N.C.
                                                                                                             Tenn.
                                              Ariz.                            Okla.
                                                        N.Mex.                             Ark.                                    S.C.
                                                                                                     Miss.                  Ga.
                                                                                                             Ala.
                                                                                              La.
                                                                       Tex.

                                                                                                                                    Fla.

                                     Alaska




                                                                         Hawaii


                                                                                                  Permits from Other States that are Recognized by this State

                                                                                                  States that Recognize Permits Issued in this State



                                                      Source: GAO analysis of state published information.




                                                      Page 20                                                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
In general, shall-issue states recognize permits from more states than
may-issue states. For example, Texas honors the permits of 40 states,
while 32 states honor Texas permits; and Arizona and Tennessee honor
the permits of 47 states, while 35 states honor Arizona permits, and 37
honor Tennessee permits. Alternatively, may-issue states do not
generally grant reciprocity. Of the 10 may-issue states, Alabama and
Delaware are the only states whose laws allow for recognition of permits
issued by other states. 34 States may not grant reciprocity for a number of
reasons. For example, states may require that eligibility requirements are
similar to those of their own state, or that similar background checks are
conducted on permit applicants; if this is not the case, they are unlikely to
enter into a reciprocity agreement. For the 9 states included in our case
study, state laws prescribe the criteria for recognizing other states’
permits, as discussed below.

•     Tennessee and Arizona (shall-issue states), as required by law, will
      recognize permits issued in any other state. 35
•     Florida, 36 Georgia, 37 and Louisiana’s (shall-issue states) laws require
      that they can only recognize a state if the other state recognizes their
      permit. 38
•     Under Texas (a shall-issue state) law, the Governor of Texas can only
      enter into reciprocity agreements with states if the Texas Attorney
      General determines that the other states check two of the three



34
    Ala. Code § 13A-11-85, Del. Code Ann. tit. 11, § 1441(j).
35
   Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(r), (recognizing that a facially valid handgun permit,
firearms permit, weapons permit or license issued by another state is valid in Tennessee
according to its terms and is treated as if it is a handgun permit issued by Tennessee;
provided, however, this is not construed to authorize the holder of any out-of-state permit
or license to carry any firearm or weapon other than a handgun within the state). Ariz.
Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(Q) (recognizing concealed weapon permits issued by other states if
the permit is recognized as valid in the issuing state, and the permit holder is legally
present in Arizona and not legally prohibited from possessing a firearm in Arizona).
However, even when these requirements are met, a person with a permit from another
state may not carry a concealed weapon in Arizona if the person is under 21 years of age,
or is under indictment for, or has been convicted of, a felony in any jurisdiction, unless the
conviction has been expunged, set aside or vacated, or the person’s rights have been
restored pursuant to Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(S).
36
    Fla. Stat. Ann. § 790.015.
37
    Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-126(e).
38
    La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(T)(2).




Page 21                                                 GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
      criminal history databases that make up NICS when screening
      applicants for a concealed carry permit. 39
•     Virginia (a shall-issue state) law allows for recognition of permits
      issued only in states that provide the means for validation of a permit
      24 hours a day, among other things. 40
•     California and Maryland (may-issue states) alternatively, by law, do
      not recognize permits issued in any other state.

States also have the ability to rescind reciprocity agreements, particularly
if reciprocal states make changes to their concealed carry laws or
requirements. For example, according to a Florida issuing authority
official, Nevada no longer recognizes Florida permits because the time
between renewals, and subsequent background checks, was changed
from 5 to 7 years in 2009, and thus deemed too long for Nevada’s
standards.

Currently, permit holders who want to carry concealed during their travel
to or through other states must know which states will recognize their
permits or else they must obtain a nonresident permit in the state they are
traveling to or through. This can be challenging since state laws change
regularly and permit holders may not always be aware of the most recent
changes, though state websites post information on whose permits they
honor. For example, because of a recent change in Louisiana’s
reciprocity laws, while Louisiana recognizes nonresident permits issued in
other states, Louisiana residents can no longer use a nonresident permit
from another state to carry a concealed weapon in Louisiana. 41




39
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.173(b). Texas will only recognize permits issued in states
that conduct background checks in NCIC and III.
40
    Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(P).
41
    La. Rev. Stat. § 40:1379.3(T)(4).




Page 22                                              GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                         All 9 states in our case study reported reconfirming permit holders’
Select States            eligibility at renewal, and 8 reported having mechanisms to monitor
Reported Monitoring      eligibility between issuance and renewal. These 9 states utilize similar
                         methods to revoke permits, provide for an appeal process, and use
if Certain Permits       varying processes to retrieve revoked permits.
Should Be Revoked
and Having Processes
to Revoke Them when
Needed

Select States Reported   Issuing authorities from all 9 states included in our case study reported
Having Mechanisms to     that they take action to confirm an individual’s continued eligibility to hold
Monitor Continued        a permit as part of the permit renewal process, and 8 of these 9 states
                         also use mechanisms to monitor resident permit holders’ continued
Eligibility              eligibility between issuance and renewal. As part of this process, issuing
                         authorities consider the length of time permits are valid. During this
                         period, they look for any violations committed by the permit holders since
                         issuance of the permit. The length of time that issuing authorities have to
                         monitor permits holders generally ranges from 1 to 7 years, as shown in
                         figure 4, with the majority (38 of 48) of the states that issue permits
                         having a 4 to 5-year period of validity (see app. V for specific state
                         information on length of time a permit is valid).




                         Page 23                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Figure 4: Length of Time Permit Is Valid for Initial Applicants




In 8 of the 9 states that issue permits in our case study, issuing
authorities are to be notified if a resident or nonresident permit holder
commits a disqualifying act within their state through law enforcement or
state databases. For example, according to officials from the Virginia
State Police, they monitor their state criminal databases on a daily basis
and receive information from the courts that they use to identify resident
permit holders who commit offenses that would make them ineligible to
hold permits. In such cases, the Virginia State Police is to inform the
state’s local permit issuing authorities via fax when permit holders are
convicted of a criminal offense or commit an act that would make them
ineligible. However, authorities may not be made aware if permit holders
commit disqualifying acts outside of their state until conducting
background checks during the renewal period or if an out-of-state law
enforcement official contacts the state issuing authority. In Florida and
Tennessee, issuing authority officials said that they receive arrest reports
and review the reports for matches against their permit databases, and
when necessary, take appropriate action, such as revoking the permit. In
Arizona, California, Louisiana, Maryland, Texas, and Virginia, issuing




Page 24                                             GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
authority officials reported that they receive an automatic alert if permit
holders are arrested within their state, which they refer to as “rap back.” 42
The issuing authorities in these states then review the charges and take
appropriate action, to include revoking of a permit if warranted.

According to FBI officials, in response to user needs including those of
law enforcement for notification of nationwide, subsequent criminal
activity, the FBI is developing a national Rap Back service. Specifically,
through the Next Generation Identification’s (NGI) Rap Back Service of
the FBI CJIS Division, states may have the opportunity to subscribe to
this service and automatically be notified of subsequent arrests across
the United States for crimes committed by permit holders and other
individuals who have had a federal background check. In order for states
to use FBI’s NGI Rap Back, technical and legislative updates may be
required. 43 The FBI’s NGI Rap Back Service is expected to be available to
states by the summer of 2014.

In Georgia, the remaining case study state, the state’s 159 county
probate courts that issue permits in the state could become aware of
disqualifying acts committed by permit holders through other means. For
example, according to Georgia permit issuing authority officials, law
enforcement entities within the issuing county may call the issuing
probate courts of permit holders who have committed disqualifying acts,
which may result in the court revoking the permit. Additionally, probate
court officials could become aware of disqualifying acts committed by
permit holders through other means, such as reading or scanning the
local newspaper and watching local news television broadcasts, which
may result in a revocation.




42
   A “rap back” or “hit notice” program will inform a designated entity (i.e., state police)
when an individual who has undergone a fingerprint-based background check, and whose
fingerprints are retained by a criminal history repository after the check, is subsequently
arrested. His or her fingerprints, obtained after the arrest, are matched against a database
that contains the fingerprints that were initially submitted. Designated entities are then
notified of the individual’s arrest.
43
  With respect to legislation, states that wish to use the FBI’s NGI Rap Back services
need legislation requiring concealed carry permit applicants to be fingerprinted and a
background check conducted at the federal level. Further, state legislation would also
have to allow for retention of those fingerprints at the federal level for use in the FBI’s NGI
Rap Back Services.




Page 25                                                  GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Most States Track            Of the 45 states that reported permitting information, 35 reported that they
Revocations, and Select      track revocation information, such as the number of permits revoked and
States Use Similar           the general reasons for the revocations. For the 9 states in our case
                             study, in 2011, the number of revocations per state ranged from
Mechanisms to Revoke         approximately 30 to 900. All except 1 select state (Georgia) provided data
Permits and Provide for an   on the number of revocations for 2011. 44 As shown in table 4, the number
Appeals Process              of revocations and issuances vary across the case study states.

                             Table 4: Approximate Numbers of Revoked and Issued Permits, 2011

                              State                                                 Revoked                      Issued
                              Virginia                                                    920                    49,000
                              Texas                                                       900                   143,700
                              Florida (fiscal year)                                       790                   123,800
                              Maryland                                                    270                      1,700
                              California                                                  150                    32,700
                              Tennessee                                                   100                    95,000
                              Louisiana                                                    60                    12,000
                              Arizona                                                      30                    12,200
                             Source: GAO analysis of state reported data.



                             Generally, issuing authorities in the 9 states in our case study that issue
                             permits revoke permits when a permit holder commits a criminal offense,
                             such as a felony, that would make the individual no longer eligible to hold
                             a permit. In Virginia, an issuing authority reported that a common reason
                             for a revocation is if a permit holder is found to be driving under the
                             influence. In Louisiana, the issuing authority reported that a common
                             reason for a revocation is if a permit holder failed to notify the department
                             of public safety of an arrest within 15 days. In Virginia, for example, a
                             revocation could also be warranted if the permit holder has a noncriminal
                             prohibition against carrying a concealed firearm, such as being diagnosed
                             with a mental illness or subject to a domestic violence restraining order.
                             For example, in Arizona, if a judge orders a permit holder to receive
                             mental health treatment or a permit holder is involuntarily committed to a
                             mental health facility, the holder’s permit is revoked.



                             44
                                Georgia does not have a centralized database to track permit information from its 159
                             permit issuing authorities. Rather, each permit issuing authority may track revocations for
                             its respective jurisdiction.




                             Page 26                                                GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                              After detecting a disqualifying criminal offense or other disqualifying
                              factors, officials from each of the 9 states in our case study that issues
                              permits reported that they begin the revocation process by notifying the
                              permit holder through a letter or court order, or in some cases, issuing
                              authorities send law enforcement to deliver the letter and retrieve the
                              permit. The letter is to outline the procedures for either appealing the
                              revocation (if applicable) or physically surrendering the permit. Further, all
                              9 states in our case study have an appeals process. 45 Some states, such
                              as Louisiana and Texas, have a suspension process until the appeal
                              process is completed, final disposition is determined by a court, or the
                              individual surrenders the permit. For example, when a permit holder is
                              arrested, the issuing authority is to suspend the permit until the final
                              disposition has been determined by the court. If the court convicts the
                              permit holder, the issuing authority is to revoke the permit. For example,
                              Louisiana offers permit holders the option of providing additional evidence
                              for the issuing authority to consider as part of its appeals process before
                              final revocation. Texas offers its permit holders the option of requesting a
                              hearing to review the denial, suspension, or revocation of their permit.


Select States Use Different   As mentioned above, the 9 states in our case study that issue permits
Mechanisms to Retrieve        have mechanisms for indicating in their respective systems that a permit
Revoked Permits               has been revoked. In addition, these states have varying retrieval
                              processes. For example:

                              •    In Arizona, the permit holder is required to surrender a revoked
                                   permit. If the holder does not surrender the permit and is caught by
                                   law enforcement with the revoked permit, the law enforcement officer
                                   is directed to seize the permit and return it to the issuing authority.
                              •    In California, although doing so is not a requirement in state law, local
                                   law enforcement officials said that permit holders are asked to
                                   physically return their revoked permit to the issuing authority (a city
                                   police department or sheriff’s department).
                              •    Some Georgia issuing authorities send a letter communicating the
                                   court order via certified mail notifying permit holders that their permits
                                   have been revoked and to surrender the permits. If the issuing
                                   authorities do not receive a response, they can send local law
                                   enforcement to retrieve the revoked permit.


                              45
                                In California, the ability to appeal a permit issuance or non-issuance is at the discretion
                              of the local issuing authority (i.e., county sheriff or city police department).




                              Page 27                                                 GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
•    Virginia’s issuing authorities use different processes to retrieve
     revoked permits. For example, one issuing authority in Virginia sends
     local law enforcement to the permit holder’s residence to retrieve the
     revoked permit. Another jurisdiction requires the permit holder to
     come to the circuit court for a hearing. The judge may charge the
     permit holder with contempt if the person does not show up for the
     hearing.

Of the 9 states in our case study that issue permits, 3 (Georgia, Maryland,
and Tennessee) reported that they can impose a penalty for failure to
surrender a revoked permit or continuing to possess one. 46 Permit issuing
authority officials in 5 out of the remaining 6 states (Arizona, California,
Florida, 47 Louisiana, Texas, and Virginia) said that they were not aware of
any instances where individuals have presented revoked permits to law
enforcement and noted that because revocations are annotated in their
state-wide systems available to law enforcement, law enforcement could
know if someone presented a revoked permit.




46
  While Georgia state law does not mandate retrieval of revoked permits, one of the select
counties reported sending sheriffs to serve revoked permit holders and seize the permits.
47
   Florida issuing authority has been made aware of isolated instances when a suspended
license has been presented to law enforcement.




Page 28                                              GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                         When encountering an individual with a concealed carry permit, such as
Law Enforcement in       during a routine traffic stop, law enforcement officials in our 9 case study
Select States Visually   states that issue permits told us that they visually inspect a permit to
                         verify its status to ensure it is valid and active. 48 They also have
Check Permits to         mechanisms available to further validate the permit, as needed, such as
Verify Validity, among   checking a permit against state databases or contacting state
Other Actions            dispatchers. Law enforcement in these states may take steps to confirm a
                         permit is valid and active if law enforcement knows a person has a permit
                         and determines a need to take this action. In Texas, permit holders are
                         required by law to present their permit when encountering law
                         enforcement and identification is requested. 49 In addition, in 5 of our case
                         study states (Arizona, Florida, Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia),
                         permit holders are required to produce a permit if law enforcement
                         demands it. 50 For example, in 4 of these states (Louisiana, Tennessee,
                         Texas, and Virginia), law enforcement could become aware if an
                         individual had an active permit when running his or her driver’s license, as
                         permits in these states are linked to the driver’s license system. During
                         these checks, law enforcement in these states would also receive
                         information on whether the individual had a permit revoked. Permit
                         holders may also voluntarily present permits to law enforcement officials
                         immediately when being pulled over for a traffic stop regardless of state
                         requirements. While Tennessee law does not require permit holders to
                         present permits unless requested by law enforcement officers, according
                         to Tennessee issuing authority officials, firearms safety training required



                         48
                           The extent to which law enforcement in states encounters permits would likely depend
                         upon the extent to which states issue permits and recognize other states’ permits. As
                         such, law enforcement in may-issue states that issue a lower number of permits relative to
                         their state population and do not recognize other states’ permits would be less likely to
                         encounter permits than law enforcement in shall-issue states. Further, law enforcement
                         officials in 9 of the states in our case study said that during the course of performing their
                         duties, they can become aware that an individual possesses a permit through various
                         means. For example, during a routine traffic stop, permit holders may inform law
                         enforcement officials that they have a firearm in their car and provide the officer a permit
                         along with their driver’s license.
                         49
                           Pursuant to Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.205, if a permit holder is carrying a handgun on
                         or about the person when a magistrate or a peace officer demands that the permit holder
                         display identification, the permit holder is required to display both the permit holder’s
                         driver’s license or identification certificate and the permit holder’s handgun permit.
                         50
                           There is no statutory requirement for California residents to declare firearms to law
                         enforcement upon a routine traffic stop. However, individual chiefs/sheriffs may require
                         such behavior as a condition of permit issuance.




                         Page 29                                                 GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                          for all Tennessee permit holders teaches them to do so when
                                          encountering law enforcement.

                                          Generally, law enforcement officials in all 9 case study states said that
                                          when presented with a permit, they would visually inspect the permit to
                                          verify that the permit was current and belonged to the individual. All of
                                          these states have a standardized permit prescribed by state law, which
                                          can make it easier for law enforcement to verify. Further, all of these
                                          states’ permits contain the permit holders’ name, permit expiration date,
                                          and unique permit number—this information assists law enforcement in
                                          verifying whether a permit is current. As shown in table 5, the permits
                                          have other physical features such as a photograph, the date of birth, or a
                                          state seal or hologram, among others.

Table 5: Physical Characteristics of Case Study States’ Concealed Carry Permits
                                                                                                                                                    a
State                         Arizona   California       Florida        Georgia Louisiana Maryland          Tennessee       Texas      Virginia
Permit holder’s name             X          X               X             X         X        X                  X             X            X
Expiration date                  X          X               X             X         X        X                  X             X            X
Permit number                    X          X               X             X         X        X                  X             X            X
Height/Weight                    X          X                             X         X        X                  X             X            X
Date of birth                    X          X                X            X                                     X             X            X
Issuing authority and contact    X          X                X            X         X        X                                             X
information
Issuance date                    X            X              X               X           X        X                                         X
Address                                       X                              X           X                        X            X            X
Photograph                                                   X               X           X        X               X            X
State seal                                                   X               X           X        X               X                         X
Laminated                                                    X               X           X        X               X            X
Hologram                         X                           X               X                                    X            X
Driver’s license lumber                                                                  X        X               X            X
Race                             X                           X                                    X                            X
Bar code                                                                     X                    X              X             X
Sex                              X                                           X                    X              X             X
Permit holder’s signature                                                    X                                   X             X
      b
Other                                         X                              X                    X                            X
                                          Source: GAO analysis of state reported data.
                                          a
                                           Virginia nonresident permit includes a photo and is laminated while the resident permit does not
                                          have these features.
                                          b
                                           Other features may include hair color, eye color, magnetic strip, listing of firearms authorized to be
                                          carried concealed, or fingerprint, among other things.


                                          Law enforcement officials in all 9 case study states said they would not
                                          routinely take additional steps to verify a permit beyond visual inspection



                                          Page 30                                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
and verifying permit information in the driver’s license system in states
where permits are linked to such systems. These officials explained that
their top priorities during a traffic stop would be officer safety and the
reason for the stop (e.g., traffic violation). However, law enforcement in all
of these states has other means to further validate a permit as needed,
although some methods are easier to use than others. According to
issuing authority officials in Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana,
Maryland, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, law enforcement within their
state can instantly access state databases, which have permit holders’
information, to validate the status of a permit as needed. In Florida, for
example, issuing authority officials said that they update all information
related to permit holders in the state’s criminal database nightly. The
Florida Department of Law Enforcement —which manages the
database—makes the information available to all law enforcement
agencies. Thus, a law enforcement officer in the field can obtain current
information on the status of a permit usually by contacting the officer’s
dispatcher, or in some Florida jurisdictions, law enforcement can obtain
current permit information from their vehicles’ on-board computer
systems. In Georgia and Maryland, law enforcement officers can call the
issuing authority to verify the status of resident permits. However, law
enforcement may not be able to instantly validate a permit because
permit issuing authorities generally operate during normal business hours
(Monday through Friday, between the hours of 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.).

In addition, law enforcement may have mechanisms to validate permits
issued by other states. As noted above, Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, and
Virginia provide access to permit information when officers check these
driver’s licenses; consequently, this check can be used to validate permits
within their state or outside of their state. Further, an out-of-state law
enforcement agency can obtain current information on Florida-issued
permits by submitting an information request to the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement Customer Support Center. Additionally, Arizona, Florida,
Louisiana, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia input permit information into the
International Justice and Public Safety Network (Nlets), an information-
sharing system available to all states’ law enforcement agencies. Nlets
provides users instant access to permit holder information, such as permit
status (i.e., whether the permit is valid, active, or revoked, etc.), and a
description of the permit holder. Submission of permit holder information
into Nlets is strictly voluntary for states that have a centralized state
database. Currently, approximately 20 states input permit information into
Nlets. States that do not have a centralized state database of permit
holders (e.g., Georgia) cannot make information available in Nlets. Law
enforcement in other states can also call select states’ dispatchers in


Page 31                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Florida and Maryland to validate permits issued by these states. To validate
a permit issued in California, officers from other states could call the
California Department of Justice, which collects permit information from the
issuing authorities throughout the state.


We provided portions of a draft of this report to state and local officials in
Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Tennessee,
Texas, and Virginia. We did not obtain official comments from the
Department of Justice because we were not directly auditing its
programs. However to ensure the accuracy of the information in the
report that relates to the department provided, the department provided
technical comments, which we incorporated as appropriate.

We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional
committees, the Attorney General of the United States; and other
interested parties. In addition, this report is available at no charge on the
GAO web site at: http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff members have any questions about this report please
contact Carol Cha at (202) 512-4456 or chac@gao.gov or Eileen Larence
at (202) 512-6510 or larencee@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of
Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page
of this report. GAO staff who made major contributions to this report are
listed in appendix VIII.




Carol R. Cha
Acting Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues




Eileen R. Larence
Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues




Page 32                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries
                             Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




Arizona Summary: Shall-      Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of December 31, 2011: 163,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             4,572,376

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: Yes

                             Permit to Carry Concealed: Arizona significantly revised its weapons
                             permit laws in 2010. Arizona had allowed the open carrying of a weapon
                             without a permit prior to that time, but since 2010, Arizona has allowed
                             residents to carry a firearm open or concealed without a permit. 1
                             However, Arizona does issue concealed carry permits, which may be
                             used for purposes of reciprocity, and to carry in certain locations. 2

                             Length of Permit Validity: 5 years

                             Eligibility Requirements: The Arizona Department of Public Safety is
                             required to issue a permit to carry a concealed weapon to a person who
                             meets all of the following eligibility requirements: 3

                             1. is a resident of Arizona or a United States citizen (i.e., in-state and
                                out-of-state residents);
                             2. is 21 years of age or older;
                             3. is not under indictment for and has not been convicted in any
                                jurisdiction of a felony; 4
                             4. does not suffer from mental illness and has not been adjudicated
                                mentally incompetent or committed to a mental institution;
                             5. is not unlawfully present in the United States;



                             1
                              2010 Ariz. Sess. Laws ch. 59, § 2 (amending Ariz. Rev. Stat. §13-3102, which formerly
                             read, “A person commits misconduct involving weapons by knowingly: 1. Carrying a
                             deadly weapon without a permit pursuant to section 13–3112 except a pocket knife
                             concealed on his person; 2. Carrying a deadly weapon without a permit pursuant to
                             section 13–3112 concealed within immediate control of any person in or on a means of
                             transportation…”).
                             2
                             See Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112; § 4-244 (29)-(30) (premises that sell alcohol).
                             3
                             Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(A).
                             4
                              Unless the conviction has been set aside in some way, or the applicant’s rights have
                             restored, and applicant is not a prohibited possessor under state or federal law.




                             Page 33                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




6. has ever demonstrated competence with a firearm (as described in
   the training requirement section below) and provides adequate
   documentation that the person has satisfactorily completed a training
   program
       a. adequate documentation means: a) a current or expired
           Arizona permit; b) a certificate or affidavit of completion from
           the conductor of the course; c) evidence of current military
           service or proof of honorable discharge or general discharge
           under honorable conditions from the United States armed
           forces; d) a concealed weapon permit as described in the
           training requirement section below. 5

Firearms Training Requirements: An applicant shall demonstrate
competence with a firearm through any of the following:

1. Completion of any firearms safety or training course or class that is
available to the general public; that is offered by a law enforcement
agency, a junior college, a college or a private or public institution,
academy, organization or firearms training school; and that is approved
by the Department of Public Safety or that uses instructors who are
certified by the National Rifle Association.

2. Completion of any hunter education or hunter safety course approved
by the Arizona game and fish department or a similar agency of another
state.

3. Completion of any National Rifle Association firearms safety or training
course.

4. Completion of any law enforcement firearms safety or training course
or class that is offered for security guards, investigators, special deputies,
or other divisions or subdivisions of law enforcement or security
enforcement and that is approved by the Department of Public Safety.

5. Evidence of current military service or proof of honorable discharge or
general discharge under honorable conditions from the United States
armed forces.




5
    Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(E).




Page 34                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




6. A valid current or expired concealed weapon, firearm, or handgun
permit or license that is issued by another state or a political subdivision
of another state and that has a training or testing requirement for initial
issuance.

7. Completion of any governmental police agency firearms training course
and qualification to carry a firearm in the course of normal police duties.

8. Completion of any other firearms safety or training course or class that
is conducted by a Department of Public Safety-approved or National Rifle
Association-certified firearms instructor. 6

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Arizona law requires
that the concealed weapon, firearm, or handgun permit or license issued
by another state or its political subdivision be recognized if the following
conditions are met:

1. the permit or license is recognized as valid in the issuing state;
2. the permit holder is legally present in Arizona;
3. the permit holder is not legally prohibited from possessing a firearm in
   Arizona. 7
4. the permit holder is 21 years of age or older; and
5. the permit holder is not under indictment for, or been convicted of, a
   felony offense in any jurisdiction (unless the conviction has been set
   aside in some way, or the applicant’s rights have been restored, and
   the permit holder is not a prohibited possessor under state or federal
   law). 8

Revocation Process: The permit must be suspended or revoked if the
person no longer meets the eligibility requirements listed above. The
department must notify the permit holder in writing within 15 working days
of the revocation or suspension and state the reasons for the action. 9
Arizona law also provides that if a person is arrested or indicted for an
offense that would disqualify him or her from obtaining a permit, or



6
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(N).
7
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(Q).
8
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(S).
9
Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(M).




Page 35                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                           Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




                           prohibited from possessing a weapon under state law, 10 the permit is
                           required to be immediately suspended and seized. 11 The permit is to be
                           restored if the permittee is found not guilty or the charges are
                           dismissed. 12 Permits may also be suspended when permittees do not
                           present their permit at the request of law enforcement. 13

                           Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                           outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                           State:

                           Law enforcement officials in Arizona, and in states that participate in the
                           International Justice and Public Safety Network (Nlets), can run a
                           Concealed Weapons Query through the system. Law enforcement
                           officials in states that do not participate in Nlets can call dispatch at the
                           Arizona Department of Public Safety.


California Summary: May-   Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents)    of September 1, 2011: 35,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)

                           State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                           26,801,914

                           Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: No

                           Permit to Carry Concealed: California law provides license-issuing
                           authority to various officials:

                           •     a sheriff of a county; 14 or




                           10
                             Under Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3101(A)(7), this includes a person who has been found to
                           constitute a danger to himself or others, who has been convicted of a felony, who is
                           serving a term of imprisonment or probation, or is an undocumented alien, among other
                           things.
                           11
                               Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(B).
                           12
                               Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(B).
                           13
                               Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-3112(C).
                           14
                               Cal. Penal Code § 26150(b).




                           Page 36                                              GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




•     the chief or other head of a municipal police department of any city, or
      city and county. 15

The issuing authority may issue one or two forms of concealed carry
license:

•     a license to carry a firearm capable of being concealed on the person;
      or
•     in a county of less than 200,000, a license to carry, only in that
      county, a loaded and exposed firearm capable of being concealed
      upon the person. 16

The issuing authority may include any reasonable restrictions or
conditions that the issuing authority deems warranted, including
restrictions as to the time, place, manner, and circumstances under which
the person may carry the concealed firearm. 17 These restrictions are to be
indicated on the permit. 18

Length of Permit Validity: The license is generally valid for a period not
to exceed 2 years. 19 For peace officers, it is 4 years. 20 For judges, it is 3
years. 21

Eligibility Requirements: The license may be issued if the following
conditions are met:

1.    the person applying is of good moral character;
2.    good cause exists for the issuance;
3.    the applicant is a resident of the county or city within the county;
4.    the applicant has completed a course of training; and




15
    Cal. Penal Code § 26155(a).
16
    Cal. Penal Code §§ 26150(b), 26155(b).
17
    Cal. Penal Code § 26200(a).
18
    Cal. Penal Code § 26200(b).
19
    Cal. Penal Code § 26220(a).
20
    Cal. Penal Code § 26220(e).
21
    Cal .Penal Code § 26220(c).




Page 37                                         GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




5. The California Department of Justice (CA DOJ) has determined that
   the person is not prohibited by state or federal law from possessing,
   receiving, owning, or purchasing a firearm. 22

Firearms Training Requirements: Applicant must complete a firearms
safety training course:

     a. For new applicants, the course must be acceptable to the
        licensing authority, not be longer than 16 hours, and must include
        instruction on at least firearm safety and the law regarding the
        permissible use of a firearm.
     b. For renewal applicants, the course must be acceptable to the
        licensing authority, be at least 4 hours, and must include
        instruction on at least firearm safety and the law regarding the
        permissible use of a firearm. 23

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: California does not
recognize concealed carry permits from other states.

Revocation Process: The license must be revoked by the local licensing
authority if it has either been notified by the CA DOJ or determines that
the person is prohibited by California or federal law from possessing,
receiving, owning, or purchasing a firearm. 24 Correspondingly, if the CA
DOJ determines that the licensee is subject to any of these prohibitions, it
must notify the local licensing authority. 25 If the licensing authority revokes
the license, the CA DOJ must be notified of the revocation immediately.
The licensee must also be immediately notified of the revocation in
writing. 26




22
 Cal. Penal Code § 26195(a).
23
  Cal. Penal Code §26165. The licensing authority may require a community college
course certified by the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, up to a
maximum of 24 hours, but only if required uniformly of all license applicants without
exception.
24
 Cal. Penal Code § 26195(b)(1).
25
 Cal. Penal Code § 26195(b)(2).
26
 Cal. Penal Code § 26195(b)(3).




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                             If a person moves from his or her original county of residence, the license
                             will expire 90 days after the move. 27 If the license was to carry a loaded
                             and exposed firearm, the license will be revoked immediately when the
                             licensee changes his or her place of residence. 28

                             Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                             outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                             State:

                             California law enforcement uses local law enforcement and the CA DOJ
                             databases to verify the validity of permits; for example:

                             •     A California police department enters all concealed carry permit
                                   information into the Police Department Records Management System
                                   which is linked to COPLINK (a computer system that accepts
                                   information from all law enforcement agencies that are linked into
                                   COPLINK). Other law enforcement entities that are linked into
                                   COPLINK can get concealed carry permit information.

                             •     Another police department stated that it can check its database or CA
                                   DOJ databases to verify the status of a concealed carry holder’s
                                   permit.

Florida Summary: Shall-      Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of December 31, 2011: 887,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             14,288,320

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: No

                             Permit to Carry Concealed: Yes. Under Florida law, it is a crime to carry
                             a concealed firearm without having a license to carry. 29




                             27
                                 Cal. Penal Code § 26210(d).
                             28
                                 Cal. Penal Code § 26210(e).
                             29
                                 Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.01.




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Length of Permit Validity: Licenses are valid for 7 years from the date of
issuance. 30

Eligibility Requirements: The Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services is required to issue a license when the applicant meets the
following requirements: 31

1. General:
   a. Is a resident of the United States or permanent resident alien, in
      certain circumstances, a foreign government official;
   b. Is 21 years of age or older;
   c. Does not suffer from a physical infirmity that prevents the safe
      handling of a firearm;
   d. Desires a legal means to carry a concealed firearm for lawful self-
      defense;

2. Criminal History Information:
   a. Is not ineligible to possess a firearm by virtue of a felony
      conviction;
   b. Is not prohibited from purchasing or possessing a firearm by any
      other provision of Florida or federal laws.
   c. Has not had adjudication of guilt withheld or imposition of
      sentence suspended on any felony or misdemeanor crime of
      domestic violence unless 3 years have elapsed since probation or
      any other conditions set by the court have been fulfilled, or the
      record has been sealed or expunged;
   d. Has not been issued an injunction that is currently in force and
      effect and that restrains the applicant from committing acts of
      domestic violence or acts of repeat violence;
   e. Licenses must be denied if the applicant has been found guilty of,
      had adjudication of guilt withheld for, or had imposition of
      sentence suspended for one or more crimes of violence
      constituting a misdemeanor, unless 3 years have elapsed since
      probation or any other conditions set by the court have been
      fulfilled or the record has been sealed or expunged. 32 If the



30
 Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(1).
31
 Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(2).
32
 Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(3).




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           applicant is charged with a disqualifying crime or injunction related
           to domestic violence during the processing, the processing must
           be suspended pending final disposition. 33

1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Information
   a. Has not been committed for the abuse of a controlled substance
      or been found guilty under Florida’s drug laws or similar laws of
      another state within 3 years prior to the application submission;
   b. Does not chronically and habitually use alcoholic beverages or
      other substances to the extent that his or her normal faculties are
      impaired; 34
   c. Has not been adjudicated an incapacitated person under Florida
      law or similar laws or another state unless 5 years have elapsed
      since the applicant’s restoration to capacity by court order;
   d. Has not been committed to a mental institution under Florida law
      or similar laws of another state, unless the applicant produces a
      certificate from a licensed psychiatrist that the applicant has not
      suffered from the disability for at least 5 years prior to the date of
      submission.

Firearms Training Requirements: The Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services is required to issue a license when the applicant: 35

•     Demonstrates competence with a firearm by completion of an
      approved class, such as one offered by the National Rifle Association,
      a certified instructor, or law enforcement, or through evidence of
      experience through the military service, among other things.

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Florida will grant
reciprocity to only those states that honor its concealed weapons permit.

Revocation or Suspension Process: Licenses must be revoked if the
licensee has been found guilty of a crime of violence within the preceding



33
    Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(3).
34
  This will be presumed where in the 3 years immediately preceding the application, the
applicant has been committed for substance abuse treatment under Florida law, has been
convicted as a habitual offender of disorderly intoxication, or has two or more convictions
of driving under the influence or similar state law.
35
    Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(2).




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                          3 years. 36 Once the department has been notified by a law enforcement
                          agency, court, or the Florida Department of Law Enforcement that an
                          applicant or licensee has been arrested or formally charged for a
                          disqualifying crime, or an injunction related to domestic violence, the
                          department must obtain written verification and then must suspend the
                          license. 37 Florida also provides suspension and revocation authority to the
                          department if a licensee becomes ineligible due to the previously outlined
                          physical, mental health or criminal disqualifications. 38

                          Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officer’s within and
                          outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in this
                          State:

                          Law enforcement (in-state and out-of-state) can check the validity of a
                          Florida permit through the Florida Department of Law Enforcement’s
                          database.

Georgia Summary: Shall-   Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents)   of December 31, 2011: 600,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)

                          State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per US 2010 Census:
                          6,906,024

                          Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: No

                          Permit to Carry Concealed: Georgia law allows an individual to carry a
                          weapon in a concealed or open manner—in the person’s home, car, or
                          place of business.

                          Length of Permit Validity: License valid for 5 years

                          Eligibility Requirements: The judge of the probate court of each county
                          has the authority to issue a weapons carry license or renewal license for
                          a 5-year period, which allows the person to carry any weapon in any



                          36
                            Includes where the holder had an adjudication of guilt withheld or had the imposition of
                          sentence suspended.
                          37
                           Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(3).
                          38
                           Fla. Stat. Ann § 790.06(10).




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county. 39 An applicant is eligible for a license to carry a concealed
handgun if the person:

1. is domiciled in that county. 40 This also includes non-citizens, who
   provide certain identifying information.
2. is at least 21 years of age. 41

Criminal history

3.  has not been convicted 42 of a felony by any court (unless pardoned);
4.  does not have felony proceedings pending against the person;
5.  is not a fugitive from justice;
6.  is not federally prohibited from possessing or shipping a firearm;
7.  has not been convicted of the offense of unlawful manufacture or
    distribution of a controlled substance or other dangerous drug; 43
8. has not had his or her weapons carry license revoked;
9. has not been convicted of specified weapons-related offenses, such
    as carrying a weapon without a license, unless it has been 5 years
    since any related restraint or supervision or other conviction; and 44
10. has not been convicted of a drug-related offense and is not subject to
    related restraint and supervision, a second drug related conviction, or
    a conviction related to (6)–(8) above, in the 5 years prior to the date of
    application.


39
  Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(a). This language provides that the judge “may” issue a
permit; however, Ga. Code. Ann. 16-11-129(d)(4) requires the judge to issue the permit if
certain eligibility requirements are met. A 1989 opinion by the Georgia Attorney General
clarifies that the judge does not have discretion to deny a permit if the eligibility
requirements are met, other than the “good moral character” determination1989 Op. Atty
Gen. Ga. 188; 1989 Ga. AG LEXIS 64.
40
  May also provide licenses to military personnel. Ga. Code Ann. §16-11-129(a).
41
  Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(b)(2)(A).
42
  Convicted includes a plea of guilty or a finding of guilt by a court of competent
jurisdiction or the acceptance of a plea of nolo contendere, irrespective of the pendency or
availability of an appeal or an application for collateral relief. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-
129(b)(1)(B).
43
  Unless it was first offender treatment without adjudication of guilt for a conviction and
such sentence was successfully completed and the person has not had any other
conviction since the completion of such sentence and for at least five years prior to the
application. Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(b)(3).
44
  Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(b)(2)(H).




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Mental Health and Substance Abuse

11. Has not been hospitalized as an inpatient in any mental hospital or
    alcohol or drug treatment center within the 5 years immediately
    preceding the application; however, the judge has discretion to issue
    the weapons carry license or renewal license, considering the
    circumstances surrounding the hospitalization and the
    recommendation of the superintendent of the hospital or treatment
    center where the individual was a patient. 45

Firearms Training Requirements: Not Required

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Georgia law
provides that an out-of-state resident who is licensed to carry a weapon in
a state whose laws recognize Georgia licenses can carry a weapon in
Georgia. The license holder must follow Georgia law in carrying the
weapon. 46 Other states’ permits are not valid for Georgia residents. 47

Revocation Process: If the judge learns or has brought to his or her
attention any reasonable ground to believe that the licensee is not eligible
to have the license, after notice and hearing, the judge may revoke the
license. 48 The judge must find that the person does not meet the weapons
carry license eligibility requirements, has falsified the application, is
mentally incompetent, or chronically uses alcohol or narcotics. 49

Possession of a revoked license is a misdemeanor offense. 50

Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
State:


45
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(b)(2)(J).
46
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-126(e).
47
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-126(e).
48
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(e).
49
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(e).
50
 Ga. Code Ann. § 16-11-129(e).




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                            Law enforcement officers within and outside of the state can call the
                            issuing probate court during normal business hours to verify the validity of
                            permits. Some probate courts require documentation or other proof that
                            the person requesting is a member of law enforcement (a faxed request
                            on letterhead, or an in-person request by a uniformed officer with a proper
                            identification such as a badge).


Louisiana Summary: Shall-   Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents)     of December 31, 2011: 40,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)

                            State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                            3,279,135

                            Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: Yes

                            Permit to Carry Concealed: The Deputy Secretary of Public Safety
                            Services of the Department of Public Safety and Corrections is required
                            to issue a concealed handgun permit to any Louisiana resident who
                            qualifies for a permit under the Louisiana permit eligibility provisions. 51

                            Length of Permit Validity: 5 years. 52

                            Eligibility Requirements: Permits can be issued only to Louisiana
                            residents who qualify. 53 Applicants must make a sworn application to the
                            Deputy Secretary of Public Safety Services of the Department of Public
                            Safety and Corrections. Any false or misleading information provided is
                            grounds for the denial or revocation of a permit. As part of the application,
                            the applicant must:

                            1.   Include any training in pistols or revolvers on the application;
                            2.   be a resident of the state and not be an illegal alien; and
                            3.   be 21 years of age or older.
                            4.   Criminal history:




                            51
                             La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(A)(1).
                            52
                             La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(H)(2).
                            53
                             La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(B).




                            Page 45                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
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   a. not be ineligible to possess a firearm by virtue of having been
      convicted of a felony;
   b. not have been convicted of a crime of violence at the
      misdemeanor level, unless 5 years have elapsed since the
      completion of any sentence or conditions set by the court. Or
      unless the conviction was set aside and the prosecution
      dismissed, prior to the date on which the application is submitted;
   c. not have been convicted of or charged with any crime of violence
      or any crime punishable for a term of imprisonment of greater than
      1 year; 54
   d. not have a history of engaging in violent behavior; 55
   e. not be ineligible to possess a firearm under federal law; and
   f. not be a fugitive from justice.
5. Mental health information:
   a. not suffer from a mental or physical infirmity due to disease,
      illness, or retardation that prevents the safe handling of a
      handgun;
   b. not have been committed, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for the
      abuse of a controlled dangerous substance or have been
      convicted of a misdemeanor relating to a controlled dangerous
      substance within the last 5 years, or be currently charged with
      such an offense;
   c. not chronically and habitually use alcoholic beverages to the
      extent that his normal faculties are impaired; 56
   d. not be an unlawful user of, or addicted to, marijuana, depressants,
      stimulants, or narcotic drugs; and
   e. not have been adjudicated to be mentally deficient or been
      committed to a mental institution;


54
  This includes even where the conviction has been set aside or expunged, except for
individuals convicted under 18 U.S.C. § 491(a), who shall be permitted to qualify for a
concealed handgun permit if 15 or more years has elapsed between the date of
application and the successful completion or service of any sentence, deferred
adjudication, or period of probation or parole.
55
  There is a rebuttable presumption that an applicant has a history of engaging in violent
behavior upon proof that, within a 10-year period immediately preceding the date of the
application, the applicant has been arrested or charged on three or more occasions for
any crime of violence, or has been arrested or charged on two or more occasions for any
crime of violence that may be punished by death.
56
  This will be assumed if the applicant has been convicted of operating a vehicle while
intoxicated, or has been admitted, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for treatment as an
alcoholic, within the last 5 years, or at any time after the application has been submitted.




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6. not have been discharged from the U.S. armed forces under certain
   circumstances (e.g., dishonorable discharge).
7. Prior permit applications:
   a. not have had a permit denied within 1-year prior to the most
       recent application; and
   b. not have a permit revoked within 4 years prior to the most recent
       application. 57
8. demonstrate competence with a handgun.

Firearms Training Requirements: Upon application to the department
for a permit, all applicants shall demonstrate competence with a handgun
by any one of the following:

     a. completion of any Department of Public Safety and Corrections-
        approved firearms safety or training course that shall include at
        least a minimum of 9 hours of instruction as detailed below:

          i.   one hour of instruction on handgun nomenclature and safe
               handling procedures of a revolver and semi-automatic pistol;
       ii.     one hour of instruction on ammunition knowledge and
               fundamentals of pistol shooting;
      iii.     one hour of instruction on handgun shooting positions;
      iv.      three hours of instruction on the use of deadly force and
               conflict resolution that will include a review of La. Rev. Stat.
               Ann. §§14:18 through 14:22 and which may include a review
               of any other laws relating to the use of deadly force;
      v.       one hour of instruction on child access prevention; and
      vi.      two hours of actual live range fire and proper handgun
               cleaning procedures:

               1. live range fire shall include 12 rounds each at 6 feet, 10
                  feet, and 15 feet for a total of 36 rounds;
               2. each applicant or permittee must perform at least one safe
                  reload of the handgun at each distance;
               3. each applicant or permittee must score 100 percent hits
                  within the silhouette portion of a National Rifle Association
                  (NRA) B-27-type silhouette target with at least 36 rounds;


57
   La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(C). The applicant must also agree in writing to hold
harmless and indemnify the department, the state, or any peace officer for any and all
liability arising out of the issuance or use of the concealed handgun permit;




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     b. completion of the NRA personal protection course including
        instruction in child access prevention conducted by a NRA
        certified instructor;
     c. completion of the NRA basic pistol shooting course including
        instruction in child access prevention conducted by a NRA
        certified instructor;
     d. completion of a firearms training course approved by the
        Louisiana State Board of Private Security Examiners, in
        accordance with La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 37:3284 et seq., including
        instruction in child access prevention;
     e. possession of a current valid license or permit to carry a
        concealed handgun issued by a parish law enforcement officer;
     f. completion of a law enforcement training academy program
        certified by the Council on Peace Officer Standards and Training;
        or
     g. proof of completion of small arms training while serving with the
        armed forces of The United States of America as described in La.
        Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(D)(1). 58

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: While Louisiana law
recognizes the validity of out-of-state permits when carried by out-of-state
residents, it does not allow Louisiana residents to obtain permits from
other states for the purpose of carrying a concealed weapon in Louisiana.

The permits of out-of-state residents are valid in Louisiana in the following
circumstances:

1. The permit is current and valid;
2. the permit holder is at least 21 years of age; and
3. the state in which the permit was issued recognizes permits issued by
   Louisiana. 59

Louisiana residents may not use permits issued by another state for the
purpose of authorizing the carrying of a concealed weapon in Louisiana.




58
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(D).
59
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(T)(2).




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The Deputy Secretary for Public Safety Services is authorized to enter
into reciprocity agreements with other states so that full-time active peace
officers commissioned in another state have the same authority as a
person issued a concealed handgun permit to carry a concealed handgun
while in Louisiana, regardless of whether or not they are in the official
discharge of their duties. 60

Revocation Process: A permit is to be revoked if the permittee fails to
satisfy any of the qualification requirements.

Permit holders are prohibited from carrying a weapon while under the
influence of alcohol or a controlled dangerous substance; the permit is
considered automatically suspended and is not valid. 61 The department
is required to revoke the permit where the holder has carried the weapon
in these circumstances, refuses to submit to a chemical test, or where the
holder commits negligent carrying of a concealed handgun. 62

Permit holders are required to make law enforcement officers aware that
the holder has a weapon and the permit is to be revoked for violation of
this requirement. 63

Whenever a peace officer determines that grounds under exist for the
revocation of a concealed handgun permit, the officer is to prepare an
affidavit indicating the reasons for the revocation and all other available
information regarding the revocation. A copy of the peace officer’s report
relating to the incident must be attached to the affidavit when submitted to
the department. 64




60
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(T).
61
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(F).
62
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(F), (I).
63
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(I)(2).
64
 La. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 40:1379.3(I)(5).




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                             Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                             outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                             State:

                             Law enforcement officers can access concealed carry permit status when
                             checking a Louisiana resident’s driver’s license.


Maryland Summary: May-       Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of October 1, 2011: 12,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             4,256,926

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: Maryland state law requires a
                             person to have a permit issued “before the person carries, wears, or
                             transports a handgun.” 65 The person must have the permit in his or her
                             possession whenever carrying, wearing, or transporting a handgun. 66

                             Permit to Carry Concealed: A permit is to be issued to a person when
                             the Secretary of the Maryland State Police finds that the applicant meets
                             specific eligibility requirements.

                             Length of Permit Validity: Permits expire on the last day of the holder’s
                             birth month following 2 years after the date the permit is issued and may
                             be renewed for successive 3-year periods. 67

                             Eligibility Requirements: A permit is to be issued to a person when the
                             Secretary of the Maryland State Police finds that the applicant:

                             1. is an adult;
                             2. has not been convicted of a felony or of a misdemeanor for which a
                                sentence of imprisonment of more than 1 year has been imposed; 68




                             65
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-303; Md. Code. Ann., Crim., § 4-203(a).
                             66
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-308.
                             67
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-309.
                             68
                              Unless the person is pardoned or granted other relief by the Attorney General.




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3. has not been convicted or a crime involving the possession, use, or
   distribution of a controlled dangerous substance;
4. is not presently an alcoholic, addict, or habitual user of a controlled
   dangerous substance, unless under legitimate medical direction;
5. based on an investigation, has not exhibited a propensity for violence
   or instability that may reasonably render the person’s possession of a
   handgun a danger to the person or to another; and
6. based on an investigation, has good and substantial reason to wear,
   carry, or transport a handgun, such as a finding that the permit is
   necessary as a reasonable precaution against apprehended danger. 69

When an applicant is under 30 years of age, the Secretary must
additionally find that the applicant has not been:

1. committed to a juvenile facility for longer than 1 year after an
   adjudication of delinquency by a juvenile court; or
2. adjudicated delinquent by a juvenile court for an act that if committed
   by an adult would be a crime of violence, a felony under Maryland
   law, or a misdemeanor under Maryland law that carries a statutory
   penalty of more than 2 years. 70

These requirements are in addition to those enumerated in Maryland law
to legally possess a firearm. 71

Firearms Training Requirements: Maryland does not require handgun
safety training for residents wishing to obtain a concealed handgun permit
for specific purposes of personal protection.

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Maryland does not
recognize other states’ concealed carry handgun permits with the



69
  Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-306(a). ). However, the United States District Court for
the District of Maryland held in Woollard v. Sheridan, Civil Case No. L-10-2068, 2012 WL
695674 (Mar. 2, 2012) that Maryland’s requirement of a “good and substantial reason” for
issuance of a handgun permit is insufficiently tailored to the State’s interest in public safety
and crime prevention and therefore this portion of the Maryland law is unconstitutional
because it impermissibly infringes upon the right to keep and bear arms as guaranteed by
the Second Amendment. The State of Maryland has filed a timely appeal of this ruling.
70
  Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-306(b).
71
     See Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-133.




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                             exception of other states’ armored car personnel who possess a valid
                             permit who are on duty in Maryland.

                             Revocation Process: The Secretary may revoke the permit after finding
                             that the holder does not meet the permit application requirements listed
                             above, or did not have the permit in the person’s possession when
                             carrying, wearing, or transporting a handgun. 72 The failure to return a
                             revoked permit is a misdemeanor offense, subject to the imprisonment of
                             up to 1 year, and/or a fine between $100 and $1,000. 73 A permit holder is
                             prohibited from wearing, carrying, or transporting a handgun while under
                             the influence of alcohol or drugs, and doing so may result in a
                             misdemeanor violation subject to 1 year of imprisonment and/or a fine of
                             up to $1,000. 74

                             Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                             outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                             State:

                             Law enforcement officers within Maryland can check the Maryland
                             Automated Firearms Services System to verify the validity of concealed
                             carry weapons permits. Law enforcement officers from other states can
                             call the Licensing Division of the Maryland State Police during normal
                             business hours to verify the validity of permits.


Tennessee Summary: Shall-    Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of January 3, 2012: 341,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             4,669,984

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: No




                             72
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-310.
                             73
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-313.
                             74
                              Md. Code Ann., Pub. Safety, § 5-314.




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Permit to Carry Concealed: Permit holders do not have to carry
handguns in a concealed manner. 75

Length of Permit Validity: Permits are generally valid for 4 years. 76

Eligibility Requirements: The following are eligibility requirements for a
permit, and the applicant must provide information about them on the
application under oath. 77 In addition to being eligible to purchase or
possess a handgun under state and federal law, the applicant must:

1. be a resident of Tennessee; 78
2. have United States citizenship or be a permanent lawful resident; and
3. be at least 21 years of age. 79
      1. Identifying information:
           a. full legal name and any aliases;
           b. addresses for the last 5 years;
           c. date of birth;
           d. Social Security number;
           e. physical description (height, weight, race, sex, hair color
               and eye color);
      2. Criminal History Information:
           a. that the applicant has not been convicted of or currently
               charged with a criminal offense that is designated as a
               felony, 80 or that is one of the disqualifying
               misdemeanors; 81


75
  Tenn. Att’y Gen. Op. 05-154.
76
  Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(n).
77
  Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(c).
78
  A resident is someone who has lived in Tennessee for more than 30 days, is employed
in the state, would qualify as registered voter, or has taken action to establish the state as
his or her principal place of domicile. Tenn. Code Ann. § 55-50-102(47).
79
  Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(b).
80
  Disqualifying felonies do not include those pertaining to antitrust violations, unfair trade
practices, restraints of trade, or similar offenses related to the regulation of business
practices.
81
  Disqualifying misdemeanors include driving under the influence, in Tennessee or
another state, 2 or more times in the past 10 years or in the past 5 years; crimes of
domestic violence; and stalking.




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               b. that the applicant is not currently subject to any order of
                   protection and, if so, the applicant must provide a copy of
                   the order; and
               c. that the applicant is not a fugitive from justice;
          3.   Substance Abuse and Mental Health Information:
               a. that the applicant is not an unlawful user of or addicted to
                   alcohol or any controlled substance, and the applicant has
                   not been a patient in a rehabilitation program or
                   hospitalized for alcohol or controlled substance abuse or
                   addiction within 10 years from the date of application;
               b. that the applicant has not been adjudicated as a mental
                   defective; has not been judicially committed to or
                   hospitalized in a mental institution; 82 has not had a court
                   appoint a conservator for the applicant by reason of a
                   mental defect; has not been judicially determined to be
                   disabled by reason of mental illness, developmental
                   disability, or other mental incapacity; and has not, within 7
                   years from the date of application, been found by a court to
                   pose an immediate substantial likelihood of serious harm
                   because of mental illness; and
               c. that the applicant is not receiving Social Security disability
                   benefits by reason of alcohol dependence, drug
                   dependence, or mental disability;
          1.   that the applicant is not an alien and is not illegally or
               unlawfully in the United States;
          2.   that the applicant has not renounced the applicant’s United
               States citizenship; and
          3.   that the applicant has not been discharged from the armed
               forces under dishonorable conditions. 83

The applicant must also provide two sets of classifiable fingerprints and
must be photographed for the permit. 84 The applicant must present photo
identification to the department when filing the application; the name and
photo must match those of the application. 85



82
 Under Tennessee’s procedures for involuntary commitment.
83
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(c).
84
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(d)(1).
85
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(d)(2).




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Firearms Training Requirements: The department must require
applicants to provide proof of successful completion of an approved
handgun safety course. The course must include both classroom hours
and firing range hours, as well as instruction on alcohol and drugs; the
effects of those substances on a person’s reflexes, judgment, and ability
to handle a firearm; and laws related to possession of a firearm while
intoxicated.

An applicant may be exempt from the firing range and classroom hours
requirements if, within the past 5 years, the applicant completed training
or had been certified related to being a law enforcement officer, security
guard, or in the military. 86

Once a permit has been obtained, permit holders cannot be required to
complete a handgun safety course to maintain or renew a permit. 87

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: An out-of-state
permit is valid in Tennessee to carry a handgun, and the holder must
carry the permit at all times the person carries a handgun in Tennessee. 88

Tennessee law requires the Commissioner of Safety to enter into
reciprocity agreements with other states that require the execution of
such agreements. The Commissioner is to publish a list of the states that
honor the permits of Tennessee, as well as a list of the states that refuse
to enter into reciprocity agreements with the state, or honor Tennessee
handgun carry permits. If another state imposes conditions on Tennessee
permit holder in a reciprocity agreement, the conditions will apply to the
other state’s permit holder when they carry a handgun in Tennessee. 89

Persons who move to Tennessee: If a person with a handgun permit from
another state decides to become a resident of Tennessee, the person
must obtain a Tennessee handgun permit within 6 months. If the state the
person moved from has substantially similar permit eligibility
requirements, the permit may be issued based on the fact that the person


86
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(e).
87
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(m)
88
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(r)(1)-(2).
89
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1351(r)(3).




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already has a permit. If the permit application is denied in Tennessee,
that person cannot carry a handgun based on the former state’s permit.

Persons who work in Tennessee: If a person is a resident and a permit
holder of another state, but is employed in Tennessee and wants to carry
a handgun in Tennessee, once the person has been working in
Tennessee for 6 months, the person has 6 months to obtain a Tennessee
handgun permit. If the state the person has a permit from has
substantially similar permit eligibility requirements, the permit may be
issued based on the fact that the person already has a permit. If the
application for a permit is denied in Tennessee, that person cannot carry
a handgun based on the former state’s permit. These provisions do not
apply if the state of residence of the person employed has a reciprocity
agreement with Tennessee.

Revocation Process: The department is required to suspend or revoke a
handgun permit when its records or other evidence show that the holder:

     1. is prohibited from purchasing a handgun under applicable state or
         federal law;
     2. has not accurately disclosed material information required for
         permit eligibility;
     3. poses a material likelihood of risk of harm to the public;
     4. has been arrested for a felony that involves the use or attempted
         use of force, violence, or a deadly weapon, or for a felony drug
         offense;
     5. has been convicted of a felony;
     6. has violated any provision of the Tennessee code related to
         weapons permits;
     7. has engaged in conduct that would make the holder ineligible to
         apply for or obtain a permit under the permit eligibility
         requirements;
     8. has been convicted of domestic assault or other misdemeanor
         crime of domestic violence and is still subject to the disabilities of
         such a conviction;
     9. is subject to a current order of protection; or
     10. has been judicially committed to a mental institution or adjudicated
         as a mental defective. 90



90
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(a).




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Once the department suspends or revokes a permit, the department is
required to send notice to the holder and appropriate law enforcement
officers. In addition to stating that the permit has been suspended or
revoked, the notice must tell the holder to surrender the permit within 10
days and that it is a crime not to do so, and that the permit holder has 30
days to request a hearing, among other things. 91

The permit holder has 10 days to surrender the permit once the holder
has notice it has been surrendered or revoked. Failure to do so is a Class
A misdemeanor. 92

The permit holder has a right to have the suspension or revocation
reviewed in court. 93 If the holder has been arrested and charged with
certain felony offenses, including a felony offense involving violence or
the use of a firearm, the court with jurisdiction over the criminal charge is
required to find out if the defendant has a permit and order the surrender
of the permit. On other felony charges, the permit holder can petition for a
hearing to keep the permit and may retain the permit if the court
determines that the permit holder will not present a material risk of
physical harm to the public if released and allowed to retain the permit. If
the holder is acquitted of charges, the permit is restored; if the holder is
convicted, the permit is revoked. Permits are suspended during pre-trial
diversion or judicial diversion. 94 Permit holders must also surrender their
permits if convicted of a Class A misdemeanor for the term of the
sentence imposed. 95 Permit holders who have received a notice of
suspension or revocation may make a written request for review of the
determination at a hearing. The hearing must be scheduled within 30
days. 96 After this determination, there is a right of review in court. 97




91
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(c).
92
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(b).
93
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(d).
94
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(e).
95
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1352(f).
96
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1353.
97
 Tenn. Code Ann. § 39-17-1354.




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                             Appendix I: Case Study State Summaries




                             Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                             outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                             State:

                             Information about the status of a Tennessee handgun permit (whether it
                             is valid, or revoked, or there is no permit) is in the Tennessee driver’s
                             license system and the status is shown on the driver’s license. However,
                             there is no way to check all states’ databases to determine the status of a
                             permit unless the states’ permits are linked to their driver’s license
                             systems.


Texas Summary: Shall-        Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of December 31, 2011: 519,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             17,523,847

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: No

                             Permit to Carry Concealed: If specific eligibility and application
                             requirements are met, the Texas Department of Public Safety is required
                             to issue a license to the applicant. 98

                             Length of Permit Validity: Texas licenses to carry concealed weapons
                             expire on the first birthday of the license holder occurring after the fourth
                             anniversary of the date of issuance, and renewed licenses expire on the
                             license holder’s birth date, 5 years after the date of the expiration of the
                             previous license. 99

                             Eligibility Requirements: Under Texas law, a person is eligible for a
                             license to carry a concealed handgun if the person:

                             1. has been a legal resident of Texas for 6 months, or meets eligibility
                                requirements for out-of-state residents;




                             98
                              Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.177(a).
                             99
                              Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.183.




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2. is at least 21 years of age; 100
3. with respect to criminal history: Is not charged with or convicted of a
   felony; 101 is not charged with or has not been convicted of in the past
   5 years a Class A or Class B misdemeanor offense 102 or disorderly
   conduct or equivalent offenses; and has not been adjudicated as
   having engaged in delinquent conduct constituting a felony;
4. is not fugitive from justice for a felony or a Class A or Class B
   misdemeanor or equivalent offense;
5. is not a chemically dependent person; 103
6. is not incapable of exercising sound judgment with respect to the
   proper use and storage of a handgun; 104
7. is qualified under state and federal law to purchase a handgun;
8. has not been determined to be delinquent in paying a child support
   payment or taxes;


100
   A person at least 18 years of age is eligible if the person is a veteran of the US Armed
Forces and discharged honorably, so long as the person meets the other eligibility
requirements.
101
   Texas’s eligibility statute gives further content to these requirements. Specifically, there
is a definition for what constitutes a felony. Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(b).
102
   Class A misdemeanors are punishable by up to 1 year in prison or a fine of $4,000, or
both, Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 12.21; Class B misdemeanors are punishable by up to 6
months in prison, a fine of $2,000, or both, Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 12.22.
103
    A chemically dependent person means a person who frequently or repeatedly becomes
intoxicated by excessive indulgence in alcohol or uses controlled substances or
dangerous drugs so as to acquire a fixed habit and an involuntary tendency to become
intoxicated or use those substances as often as the opportunity is presented. Tex. Gov’t
Code Ann. § 411.172. A person is also chemically dependent and not entitled to a permit
if, within the past 10 years, the person has been convicted two times of a Class B
misdemeanor or greater that involves alcohol or a controlled substance as part of the
crime. Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(c). Other evidence may also show someone is a
chemically dependent person.
104
   A person is incapable of exercising sound judgment with respect to the proper use and
storage of a handgun if the person has been diagnosed with or suffers from certain
psychiatric disorders or conditions; has been declared incompetent to manage the
person’s own affairs; or has entered a plea of not guilty by reason of insanity, among other
things. Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(d). Evidence that a person has a psychiatric
disorder, or condition may include, for example, involuntary psychiatric hospitalization;
inpatient or residential substance abuse treatment in the preceding 5-year period; or
diagnoses by a physician that the person is dependent on alcohol or drugs, or has certain
mental disorders including bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or chronic
dementia, among others. Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(e). The person may, however,
provide a certificate from a physician stating that the disorder or condition is in remission
and not likely to develop at a future time. Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172(f).




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9. is not subject to a restraining order or court protective order; and
10. has not made any material misrepresentation, or failed to disclose any
    material fact in the permit application. 105

Firearms Training Requirements: The Department of Public Safety is
required to establish minimum standards for handgun proficiency,
develop a course to teach proficiency, and administer examinations to
measure proficiency. One part of the course is to be classroom, and the
other part range instruction, where the applicant must demonstrate the
applicant’s ability to safely and proficiently use the applicable category of
handgun.

The course must be administered by a qualified instructor. The course
must include between 10 and 15 hours of instruction on 1) laws related to
deadly force; 2) handgun use, proficiency, and safety; 3) nonviolent
dispute resolution; and 4) proper storage practices.

The department must also develop a continuing education course for
holders who want to renew a license. The course must be administrated
by a qualified instructor and must include at least 4 hours of the subjects
from the initial course.

The proficiency exam includes a written exam on the subjects taught in
the course and a physical demonstration of proficiency and handgun
safety procedures. The qualified handgun instructor may submit to the
department a recommendation concerning an applicant’s proficiency. 106

Certain applicants and license holders do not have to complete the range
instruction portion of the course. These include persons who are currently
serving or were honorably discharged from the U.S. or Texas state
military forces; and who within the last 5 years have completed a course
in handgun proficiency with the military forces. Applicants and license
holders that work in the criminal justice system may also avail themselves
of alternative proficiency procedures. 107




105
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.172.
106
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.188.
107
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. §§ 411.1881-411.1882.




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Unique State Disqualifiers/Prohibitions: Delinquent taxes or child
support payment.

Factors State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Texas law requires
the Governor to negotiate reciprocity agreements with any other states
that provide conceal carry licenses, if the Texas Attorney General
determines that the authorities of the other state initiate background
checks of its applicants. The background check must include a search of
the FBI’s National Crime Information Center database and the Interstate
Identification Index. 108

Every year, the Texas Attorney General must submit a report listing the
states that the Attorney General has determined qualify for reciprocity and
review the statutes of states that do not to determine whether changes to
their statues are necessary to qualify.

Revocation Process: Licenses are to be revoked if the holder:

1. was not entitled to the license when it was issued;
2. made a material misrepresentation or failed to disclose a material fact
   in an application;
3. becomes ineligible, unless the only basis of ineligibility is being
   charged with the commission of a crime (in which case the license is
   suspended);
4. is convicted of an offense related to the unlawful carrying of a
   handgun by a license holder;
5. is determined to have engaged in conduct constituting a reason to
   suspend a license (listed above) after the person’s license has been
   previously suspended twice for the same reason; or
6. the holder’s fee is returned and the holder does not repay it plus $25,
   within 30 days of being notified.

The holder can reapply for a license after 2 years and the reason for
revocation does not exist and has not existed for 2 years. A holder whose
fee was returned can reapply at any time. 109




108
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.173(b).
109
  Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.186.




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                             After receiving written notice of a denial, revocation, or suspension of a
                             license, the holder has 30 days to request a hearing before a justice of
                             the peace acting as an administrative hearing officer. The hearing must
                             be scheduled within 30 days of the request and held within no more than
                             60 days. The ruling may be appealed within 30 days to a county court. 110

                             Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
                             outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
                             State:

                             Law enforcement officials in Texas, and other states, have access to
                             concealed carry permit information when they run a wanted person check
                             on permit holders. Texas law enforcement officers can also access
                             concealed carry permit information from the computers of squad cars.

Virginia Summary: Shall-     Approximate Number of Active Concealed Carry Permit Holders as
Issue State (Residents and   of December 31, 2011: 279,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand)
Nonresidents)
                             State Adult Population (age 20 or over) per U.S. 2010 Census:
                             5,917,339

                             Unlicensed Open Carry Permitted: Virginia allows residents to carry
                             firearms openly without a permit.

                             Permit to Carry Concealed: Persons wishing to apply for a concealed
                             carry permit can apply to the clerk of the circuit court of their county or
                             city.

                             Length of Permit Validity: 5 years 111

                             Eligibility Requirements: The applicant must be 21 years of age or
                             older 112 and the following persons are ineligible to be issued a permit:

                             Criminal History:




                             110
                               Tex. Gov’t Code Ann. § 411.180.
                             111
                               Va Code Ann. § 18.2-308(D).
                             112
                               Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(D).




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1. Persons who have been convicted of a felony;
2. individuals subject to a restraining or protective order and prohibited
   from purchasing or transporting a firearm;
3. persons who have been adjudicated delinquent for certain crimes,
   unless they file a petition to the circuit court that is granted;
4. individuals who have been convicted of two or more misdemeanors
   within the 5 years prior to the application, if one of the misdemeanors
   was Class 1; if two or more of the misdemeanors are not Class 1,
   then the judge has discretion;
5. individuals who have been convicted of driving while under the
   influence or public drunkenness within the 3-year period preceding the
   application, or have been determined to be a habitual drunkard under
   Virginia law.
6. fugitives from justice;
7. individuals who have been convicted within 3 years of the application,
   or have a charge pending for, specified crimes, including assault,
   assault and battery, sexual battery, discharging a firearm, and
   brandishing a firearm;
8. individuals who have been convicted of or have a charge pending for
   stalking; and
9. Individuals who have previous convictions or adjudications of
   delinquency that would have been a felony if committed by an
   adult; 113

Mental Health and Substance Abuse:

10. persons who were admitted to outpatient treatment; adjudicated
    mentally incapacitated or legally incompetent; or were acquitted by
    reason of insanity under Virginia or similar state law, unless the
    person was discharged or released from custody, or competency was
    restored, as applicable, more than 5 years prior to the date of
    application;
11. individuals addicted to, using, or distributing any controlled substance;
12. individuals who have received mental health treatment or substance
    abuse treatment in a residential setting within 5 years prior to the date
    of their application; and




113
   Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(E)(16). This applies where the convictions occurred within
16 years of the later of the conviction or adjudication or the release from incarceration. Id.




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13. individuals who within the 3 years prior to the date of application were
    found guilty of any criminal offense set forth in Virginia’s controlled
    substances laws, or of illegal possession or distribution of any
    controlled substance; this prohibitor also applies where the court find
    the facts sufficient for a finding of guilty but ordered probation or other
    conditions; 114

Other:
14. aliens not lawfully admitted for permanent residence;
15. persons who have been discharged from the U.S. Armed Forces
    under dishonorable conditions; and
16. individuals who the court finds, by a preponderance of the evidence,
    based on specific acts by the applicant, are likely to use a weapon
    unlawfully or negligently to endanger others. 115

This final condition provides for limited discretion to deny a permit. To
support this finding, the sheriff, chief of police, or attorney for the
Commonwealth may submit to the court a sworn written statement
indicating the applicant is likely to use a weapon unlawfully or negligently
to endanger others. This statement is to be based on personal knowledge
or that of a sheriff, police officer, or assistant attorney for the
Commonwealth, or a sworn statement of a competent person having
personal knowledge of specific acts.

Firearms Training Requirements: Each applicant is required to submit
proof that the applicant has demonstrated competence with a handgun.
This can be satisfied in one of the following ways:

1. Completing any hunter education or hunter safety course approved by
   the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries or a similar agency of
   another state;
2. completing any National Rifle Association (NRA) firearms safety or
   training course;
3. completing any firearms safety or training course or class that is
   available to the general public that is approved by the Department of
   Public Safety or that uses NRA-certified instructors. The course may
   be offered by a law enforcement agency, a junior college, a college or


114
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(E).
115
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(E).




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      a private or public institution, academy, organization, or firearms
      training school;
4.    completing any law enforcement firearms safety or training course or
      class approved by the department of public safety offered for security
      guards, investigators, etc;
5.    presenting evidence of equivalent experience with a firearm through
      participation in organized shooting competition or current military
      service or proof of an honorable discharge from any branch of the
      armed services;
6.    obtaining or previously having held a license to carry a firearm in
      Virginia or a locality, unless such license has been revoked for cause;
7.    completing any firearms training or safety course or class, including
      an electronic, video, or on-line course, conducted by a state-certified
      or NRA-certified firearms instructor;
8.    completing any governmental police agency firearms training course
      and qualifying to carry a firearm in the course of normal police duties;
      or
9.    completing any other firearms training that the court deems adequate.

The documentation must include one of the following: a photocopy of a
certificate of completion of any of the courses or classes, an affidavit from
the instructor or organization that conducted the course or class attesting
to the completion by the applicant, or a copy of any document that shows
completion of the course or evidences participation in a firearms
competition. 116

Factor(s) State Considers in Granting Reciprocity: Virginia law
provides for an out-of-state permit to be valid if the following requirements
are met:

1. the holder is at least 21 years of age;
2. the issuing state authority provides the means for instantaneous
   verification of the validity permits issued within that state, accessible
   24 hours a day; and
3. the requirements and qualifications of that state’s law are adequate to
   prevent possession of a permit by persons who would be denied a




116
     Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(G).




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      permit in Virginia (other than the age requirements and the type of
      weapon authorized to be carried). 117

The Superintendent of State Police, in consultation with the Office of the
Attorney General, is required to determine whether states meet these
requirements, maintain a registry of the qualifying states on the Virginia
Criminal Information Network, and enter into agreements for reciprocal
recognition with qualifying states. The registry is to be available to law
enforcement officers for investigative purposes

Revocation Process: Virginia law provides for revocation of a permit for
generally any offense that would disqualify a person from obtaining a
permit and also provides for some specific grounds for revocation. Any
person who is convicted of an offense that would disqualify that person
from obtaining a permit, or who made materially false statements on the
person’s application, is required to forfeit his or her permit and surrender
it to the court. When the Central Criminal Records Exchange obtains a
record of arrest, conviction or occurrence of any other event that would
disqualify a person from obtaining a concealed handgun permit, the
Central Criminal Records Exchange must notify the court that issued the
permit. The court will then revoke the permit of the disqualified person,
and notify the State Police and the person whose permit was revoked. 118

The permit is also required to be revoked if the permit holder is under the
influence of alcohol or illegal drugs while carrying the handgun in a public
place, which is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. The convicting court is
required to revoke the permit and notify the issuing circuit court. The
permit holder is ineligible to apply for a permit for 5 years. 119

The court must revoke the permit of a person who is admitted to
outpatient treatment or adjudicated mentally incapacitated or legally
incompetent under Virginia or similar state law, and must notify the State
Police and the permit holder of the revocation. 120



117
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(P).
118
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(J); Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(D).
119
   Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(J1). Conviction of specified crimes is prima facie evidence
that the person is “under the influence” for purposes of this section. Id.
120
  Va. Code Ann. § 18.2-308(J4).




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Virginia law provides for suspension only in limited circumstances, where
a person has a felony charge pending for stalking or assault, assault and
battery, sexual battery, discharging a firearm, or brandishing a firearm. In
these instances, the court hearing the charge or the court that issued the
permit may have the permit suspended while the charge is pending.

Mechanism Available for Law Enforcement Officers within and
outside the State to Verify the Validity of Permits Issued in This
State:

Law enforcement officials in Virginia can check the Virginia Crime
Information Network to obtain information related to the status of permits
issued in Virginia. Law enforcement officials from other states can run a
Concealed Weapons Query in the International Justice and Public Safety
Network to verify the status of permits issued in Virginia. Law
enforcement officials from other states can also query the Federal Bureau
of Investigation’s Interstate Identification Index, or call the Duty Sergeant
at the Virginia State Police to verify the validity of a Virginia permit.




Page 67                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope and
              Appendix II: Objectives, Scope and
              Methodology



Methodology

              This report describes (1) the extent to which states allow concealed carry
              permits, and how select states’ eligibility requirements and laws regarding
              and recognition of other states’ permits differ, (2) what processes select
              states use to help ensure they revoke permits when holders no longer meet
              eligibility requirements, and (3) how law enforcement officials in select
              states determine whether permits they encounter are current and valid.

              To address all three objectives, we conducted a case study on 9 states—
              Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Tennessee,
              Texas, and Virginia—which we selected to illustrate a variety of
              applicable state laws and procedures. However the results cannot be
              generalized across all states. The information obtained from these case
              studies provides a broad understanding of the different requirements and
              processes states utilize in issuing permits. Our selection covers states
              representing each of the factors outlined below:

                  •     States from each of the permit issue designations-states classify
                        themselves based on their issuing laws: (1) no-issue: where
                        concealed carry is prohibited; (2) may-issue: the issuing authority
                        has discretion to grant concealed carry permits to eligible
                        individuals; (3) shall-issue: a concealed carry permit must be
                        issued if no statutory reason for denial exists; and (4) permit not
                        required to carry concealed handguns. We selected states that
                        issue to residents only, and states that issue to both residents and
                        nonresidents.

                  •     Issuing authority—states with a centralized (singular) issuing
                        authority and decentralized—multiple issuing authorities within a
                        state.

                  •     Reciprocity—the number of states that have reciprocity with each
                        other and the number of agreements in place.

                  •     The selection includes states that represent a range of the length
                        of time concealed carry permits are valid, as well as differing
                        eligibility requirements such as mandatory training on a gun safety
                        program or demonstrating proficiency of firing a handgun, and
                        reason(s) for requesting the permit.

              To determine states’ concealed carry permit practices and whose permits
              they honor, we gathered information on permit issuing laws, issuing
              authorities, and reciprocity agreements for the 50 states and the District
              of Columbia. This report presents the states’ laws as they were as of



              Page 68                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope and
Methodology




March 2012. To obtain data on the current number of active concealed
carry permits, and the length of time a permit is valid, we contacted 48
states. 1 We also contacted the 48 states to obtain information on their
permit tracking systems, reasons for denials, and revocations. Of the 48
states, we received data from 45 states. 2 We requested data for the
period 2007 through 2011 to illustrate any trends; however some states
could not provide complete data for this period. Most states were able to
provide 2011 data. To assess the reliability of these data, we asked the
states questions about the systems they use to track the data, any steps
taken to verity accuracy, and any limitations to the data. Our analysis was
largely dependent on the availability of state data on the number of
concealed carry permits. In some cases, statewide data were not
available, and in other cases only data from certain time periods were
available. As a result of these limitations, we determined that the data
were sufficiently reliable solely to illustrate a minimum number of total
active permits and approximate number of state specific permits.

In addition, we obtained information from and interviewed federal
agencies with firearms-related experience and law enforcement
responsibilities—the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and
Explosives (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). We
obtained information from and interviewed FBI headquarters officials on
their audits of select states that utilize federal databases that states query
when screening concealed carry permit applicants. We obtained
information and interviewed ATF headquarters officials and field special
agents on their experience and perspective on state permits. In addition,
we interviewed non-governmental groups representing a cross section of
different views on concealed carry permit issues to obtain information
regarding a historical perspective of carry conceal issues. 3

To obtain more detailed information about specific state laws and
procedures for carry concealed permits, we met with officials at various


1
 The remaining 2 states (Illinois and Vermont) do not issue concealed carry permits, so
the number of valid permits does not apply to them. The District of Columbia does not
issue concealed carry permits.
2
 Three states did not provide data, 1-state does not capture the data centrally (Alabama),
2 other states did not respond to our requests for information (New Hampshire and North
Dakota).
3
 We interviewed organizations such as the Brady Campaign, Gun Owners of America,
Mayors Against Illegal Guns, and the National Rifle Association.




Page 69                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope and
Methodology




state and local agencies in the 9 states in our case study. We obtained
and analyzed information about state laws, eligibility requirements, and
procedures including, (1) how states screen, approve, and deny permit
applicants and (2) factors considered by states when entering into
reciprocity agreements with other states and the number of current
reciprocity agreements in place. We also obtained and analyzed state
data on state-maintained statistics on the number of active and denied
permits, and other firearms-related information such as specific
requirements and training guidance.

To determine how the 9 states we selected for our case study monitor
active holders to ensure they remain eligible to possess firearms and
what actions the states take to revoke permits when permit holders
become ineligible, we obtained information from the 9 states that issue
permits: Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland,
Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. Of these 9, 3 states (California, Georgia,
and Virginia) have a decentralized process for issuing permits. We
obtained information and interviewed the issuing officials (county sheriffs,
probate court staff, and circuit court staff) from three to five jurisdictions
per state. From the 9 states, we selected for our case study that issue
permits, we obtained and analyzed available data on the number of
permits revoked, and the extent to which states recovered revoked
permits from permit holders. We also interviewed state and local officials
responsible for issuing permits to obtain information on applicable laws
and procedures for monitoring, and revoking permits.

To identify how law enforcement officials in the 9 select states that issue
permits determine whether permits they encounter are current and valid,
we obtained information on the physical features embedded in each state’s
permit, and the state and federal systems utilized to check the status of
permits, and we interviewed state and local law enforcement officials
across the 9 states to obtain information on processes they use to validate
permits. These law enforcement officials included those representing state
department of law enforcement, state departments of public safety, state
police or state highway patrol, county sheriffs, and city police.

We conducted our work from August 2011 through July 2012 in
accordance with all sections of GAO’s Quality Assurance Framework that
are relevant to our objectives. The framework requires that we plan and
perform the engagement to obtain sufficient and appropriate evidence to
meet our stated objectives and to discuss any limitations in our work. We
believe that the information and data obtained, and the analysis
conducted, provide a reasonable basis for any findings in this product.



Page 70                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix III: State Issuing Authority, as of
                                     Appendix III: State Issuing Authority, as of
                                     March 2012



March 2012


                                                                                                           Approximate number
                                                                                                                   of authorities
State           Type of authority                  Issuing authority                                          (if decentralized)
Alabama         Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            67
Alaska          Centralized                        Department of Public Safety                                                   1
Arizona         Centralized                        Department of Public Safety                                                   1
Arkansas        Centralized                        Arkansas State Police                                                         1
California      Decentralized                      County or city sheriffs or other heads of
                                                                                                                                 a
                                                   municipal police departments                                            60+
Colorado        Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            64
Connecticut     Centralized                        Specialized Licensing and Firearms Unit                                       1
Delaware        Decentralized                      Superior courts                                                               3
Florida         Centralized                        Department of Agriculture and Consumer
                                                   Services                                                                      1
Georgia         Decentralized                      County probate courts                                                     159
Hawaii          Decentralized                      County or municipal police chiefs                                             4
Idaho           Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            44
Illinois        Not applicable                     Not applicable                                                            N/A
Indiana         Decentralized                      Heads of local law enforcement municipalities                             556
Iowa            Decentralized for                  County sheriffs for residents, Commissioner of
                residents/centralized for          Public Safety for nonresidents
                nonresidents                                                                                                  99
Kansas          Centralized                        Attorney General’s Office                                                     1
Kentucky        Centralized                        Kentucky State Police                                                         1
Louisiana       Centralized                        Deputy Secretary of the Department of Public
                                                   Safety and Corrections                                                        1
Maine           Decentralized for                  Mayor and municipal officers or councilors of a
                residents/centralized for          city or town for residents, Chief of State Police
                nonresidents                       for nonresidents                                                          488
Maryland        Centralized                        Licensing Division of the State Police
                                                   Department                                                                    1
Massachusetts   Decentralized for                  Local police or Colonel of the State Police
                residents/centralized for
                nonresidents                                                                                                 351
Michigan        Decentralized                      Counties Concealed Weapon Licensing Boards                                 83
Minnesota       Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            87
Mississippi     Centralized                        Department of Public Safety                                                   1
Missouri        Decentralized                      County or city sheriffs                                                   115
Montana         Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            56
Nebraska        Centralized                        Nebraska State Patrol                                                         1
Nevada          Decentralized                      County sheriffs                                                            17




                                     Page 71                                                   GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                       Appendix III: State Issuing Authority, as of
                                       March 2012




                                                                                                                                 Approximate number
                                                                                                                                         of authorities
State             Type of authority                       Issuing authority                                                         (if decentralized)
New Hampshire     Decentralized for                       Local mayor or police chief for residents; Director
                  residents/centralized for               of State Police for nonresidents
                                                                                                                                                        a
                  nonresidents                                                                                                                   235+
New Jersey        Decentralized                           County superior courts                                                                    21
New Mexico        Centralized                             Department of Public Safety                                                                   1
New York          Decentralized                           Licensing officer of the city or county of
                                                          applicant’s primary residence or place of
                                                          business                                                                                 50+
North Carolina    Decentralized                           County sheriffs                                                                          100
North Dakota      Centralized                             Bureau of Criminal Investigation                                                              1
Ohio              Decentralized                           County sheriffs                                                                           88
Oklahoma          Centralized                             Bureau of Investigation                                                                       1
Oregon            Decentralized                           County sheriffs                                                                           36
                                                                                                                                                        a
Pennsylvania      Decentralized                           County sheriffs or city police chiefs                                                  67+
Rhode Island      Decentralized                           Attorney General’s Office and city chiefs of police                                       39
South Carolina    Centralized                             Law Enforcement Division                                                                      1
South Dakota      Decentralized                           County sheriffs                                                                           66
Tennessee         Centralized                             Department of Safety and Homeland Security                                                    1
Texas             Centralized                             Department of Public Safety                                                                   1
Utah              Centralized                             Bureau of Criminal Identification                                                             1
Vermont           Not applicable                          Not applicable                                                                           N/A
Virginia          Decentralized for                       Clerk of Circuit Courts for residents, Department
                  residents/centralized for               of State Police for nonresidents
                  nonresidents                                                                                                                     120
                                                                                                                                                        a
Washington        Decentralized                           Chiefs of police of municipalities, county sheriffs                                    39 +
Washington D.C.   Not applicable                          Not applicable (N/A)                                                                     N/A
West Virginia     Decentralized                           County sheriffs                                                                           55
Wisconsin         Centralized                             Department of Justice                                                                         1
Wyoming           Centralized                             Attorney General’s Office through the Division of
                                                          Criminal Investigation                                                                        1
                                       Source: GAO analysis of state laws and publicly available state information
                                       a
                                        For states that have a + symbol beside the number of authorities, the approximate number of
                                       authorities may be significantly higher.




                                       Page 72                                                                       GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix IV: State Concealed Carry Permit
                                         Appendix IV: State Concealed Carry Permit
                                         Designation, as of March 28, 2012



Designation, as of March 28, 2012

                                         While there is no federal law specifically addressing the issuance of
                                         concealed carry permits, 48 states have passed laws allowing the state to
                                         issue citizens concealed carry permits. A few states do not require a
                                         permit to carry certain firearms in public within that particular state, but
                                         issue permits for reciprocity purposes in other states. See table 6 below.

Table 6: State Concealed Carry Permit Designation, as of March 2012

                                 Shall-issue   Shall-        Limited     May-issue to                Nonresidents
State-by-state                  to residents  issue to      discretion    residents   May-issue to     subject to
issue              Permit not        and     residents      to deny a        and       residents        certain        No-
                                                                    a                                             b
designation         required    nonresidents    only         permit      nonresidents    only        requirements     issue
Alabama                                                                                    X
Alaska                 X                           X
Arizona                X             X
Arkansas                                           X             X
California                                                                      X                          X
Colorado                                           X             X
Connecticut                                                                     X
Delaware                                                                                   X
Florida                              X
Georgia                                            X             X
Hawaii                                                                          X
Idaho                                X
Illinois                                                                                                               X
Indiana                              X                           X                                         X
Iowa                                 X                           X
Kansas                                             X
Kentucky                                           X
Louisiana                                          X
Maine                                X                           X
Maryland                                                                        X
Massachusetts                                                                   X                          X
Michigan                                           X             X
Minnesota                            X                           X
Mississippi                                        X
Missouri                                           X             X
Montana                                            X             X
Nebraska                                           X
Nevada                               X




                                         Page 73                                          GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                        Appendix IV: State Concealed Carry Permit
                                        Designation, as of March 28, 2012




                                Shall-issue   Shall-                 Limited      May-issue to                      Nonresidents
State-by-state                 to residents  issue to               discretion     residents   May-issue to           subject to
issue             Permit not        and     residents               to deny a         and       residents              certain             No-
                                                                            a                                                    b
designation        required    nonresidents    only                  permit       nonresidents    only              requirements          issue
New Hampshire                       X                                         X
New Jersey                                                                             X
New Mexico                                             X
New York                                                                               X                                    X
North Carolina                                         X
North Dakota                        X
Ohio                                                   X
Oklahoma                                               X
Oregon                              X                                         X                                             X
Pennsylvania                        X                                         X                                             X
             c
Rhode Island                        X                                                  X                                    X
South Carolina                      X                                                                                       X
South Dakota                                           X
Tennessee                           X                                                                                       X
Texas                               X
Utah                                X                                         X                                             X
Vermont               X
Virginia                            X                                         X
Washington                          X
Washington D.C.                                                                                                             X
West Virginia                                          X
Wisconsin                                              X
Wyoming               X                                X                      X
                                        Source: GAO analysis of state laws.
                                        a
                                         These states are “shall-issue” states, but state law provides the licensing authority with limited
                                        discretion in specified circumstances to deny a permit. For example, based on demonstrated
                                        evidence, the applicant is likely to use a weapon unlawfully or in such other manner that would
                                        endanger the applicant or others.
                                        b
                                         The laws of these states provide authority to issue permits to non-residents on a limited basis, for
                                        example, to non-residents who own property in the state, who are employed in the state, or who have
                                        a permit from their home state, among other requirements. Oregon shall issue to residents, and may
                                        issue to residents of contiguous states who have a compelling business interest or other legitimate
                                        demonstrated need.
                                        c
                                          Rhode Island law provides for two mechanisms for obtaining a permit: the Rhode Island Attorney
                                        General has "may issue" authority to issue permits under R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-47-18, and cities and
                                        towns have "shall-issue" authority, with limited discretion, to issue a permit, under R.I. Gen. Laws §
                                        11-47-11.




                                        Page 74                                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix V: Number of Valid Permits
                                                     Appendix V: Number of Valid Permits




Table 7: Number of Valid Permits (as Reported by States) as of December 31, 2011, unless noted otherwise

                                    Approximate number of               Approximate             Ratio of active              Length of time
                                       active permits (as of        adult population            permits issued                permit/license
                                      December 31, 2011 or           (age 20 or over)      to adult population                  valid (years)
State                               unless otherwise noted)    per U.S. 2010 Census            (age 20 or over)        for initial applicants
                    a
Alabama                                        Not available               3,503,000              Not available                         1 year
Alaska                                                7,000                  502,000                     1.4%                         5 years
               b
Arizona                                             163,000                4,572,000                       3.6                        5 years
Arkansas                                            111,000                2,120,000                       5.2                        5 years
                    b
California                                           35,000               26,802,000                       0.1    2 years ; 4 years for peace
(as of 09/01/11)                                                                                                  officers; 3 years for judges
Colorado                                             90,000                3,665,000                       2.5                        5 years
                            b
Connecticut                                         165,000                2,658,000                       6.2                        5 years
Delaware                                              5,000                  664,000                       0.8                        3 years
              b
Florida                                             887,000               14,288,000                       6.2                        7 years
Georgia                                            600,000                 6,906,000                      11.5                        5 years
              b,c
Hawaii                                                    0                1,022,000                         0                          1 year
          b
Idaho                                                76,000                1,092,000                       7.0       4 years if issued before
                                                                                                                  7/1/06; 5 yrs if after 7/1/06
Illinois                                      Not applicable           Not applicable           Not applicable                Not applicable
              b
Indiana                                             406,000                4,677,000                       8.7           4 years; lifetime for
                                                                                                                        honorably retired law
                                                                                                                               enforcement
      b
Iowa (estimate based                                243,000                2,226,000                      10.9                        5 years
on number of
issuances from 2007 to
2011)
Kansas                                               39,000                2,042,000                       1.9                        4 years
Kentucky                                            170,000                3,193,000                       5.3                        5 years
Louisiana (Estimate)                                 40,000                3,279,000                       1.2                        5 years
          b
Maine                                                 4,000                1,017,000                       0.4                        4 years
                    b
Maryland                                            12,000                 4,257,000                       0.3         2 years; 3 years after
(as of 10/1/11)                                                                                                                     renewal
                                b
Massachusetts                                       251,000                4,926,000                       5.1                        6 years
(as of 2/1/12)
Michigan (as of 1/5/12)                             296,000                7,235,000                       4.1                        5 years
                        b
Minnesota                                            91,000                3,873,000                       2.3                        5 years
Mississippi                                         43,000                 2,118,000                         .2                       4 years
Missouri                                            133,000                4,388,000                       3.0                        3 years
(as of 1/20/12)
Montana                                              27,000                  738,000                       3.7                        4 years




                                                     Page 75                                            GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                                        Appendix V: Number of Valid Permits




                                       Approximate number of                    Approximate                                Ratio of active              Length of time
                                          active permits (as of             adult population                               permits issued                permit/license
                                         December 31, 2011 or                (age 20 or over)                         to adult population                  valid (years)
State                                  unless otherwise noted)         per U.S. 2010 Census                               (age 20 or over)        for initial applicants
Nebraska                                                13,000                            1,314,000                                   1.0                        5 years
           b
Nevada                                                  55,000                            1,964,000                                   2.8                        5 years
                                 a,b
New Hampshire                                     Not available                             991,000                          Not available                       4 years
                 b
New Jersey                                              32,000                            6,501,000                           At least 0.5                       2 years
New Mexico (estimate)                                   22,000                            1,479,000                                   1.5    4 years (5 years for retired
                                                                                                                                                      law enforcement)
               b,d
New York                                                                                14,481,000                                           3 years in New York City; 5
                                                                                                                                              years for Nassau, Suffolk,
                                                                                                                                                 and Westchester; Until
                                                                                                                                                   Revoked for all other
                                                                                                                                                               counties
North Carolina                                         240,000                            6,977,000                                   3.4                        5 years
                         a,b
North Dakota                                      Not available                             501,000                          Not available                       5 years
Ohio                                                   270,000                            8,469,000                                   3.2    5 years on/after 3/14/07; 4
(as of 1/1/12)                                                                                                                                    years prior to 3/14/07
Oklahoma                                               122,000                            2,710,000                                   4.5 5 or 10 years (optional if no
(as of 1/26/12)                                                                                                                                          prohibitions)
          b
Oregon                                                 147,000                            2,859,000                                   5.1                        4 years
                         b
Pennsylvania                                           786,000                            9,523,000                                   8.3                        5 years
                         b
Rhode Island (does                                        4,000                             791,000                           At least 0.5                       4 years
not include permits
issued by localities)
                             b
South Carolina                                         148,000                            3,401,000                                   4.4                        4 years
(as of 12/26/11)
South Dakota                                            62,000                              587,000                                  10.6                        4 years
                b
Tennessee                                              341,000                            4,670,000                                   7.3                        4 years
(as of 1/3/12)
         b,e
Texas                                                  519,000                          17,524,000                                    3.0         4 years; 5 years after
                                                                                                                                                               renewal
     b
Utah                                                   347,000                            1,801,000                                  19.3                        5 years
Vermont                                          Not applicable                    Not applicable                          Not applicable                Not applicable
          b
Virginia                                               279,000                            5,917,000                                   4.7                        5 years
                     b
Washington                                             351,000                            4,955,000                                   7.1                        5 years
Washington D.C.                                  Not applicable                    Not applicable                          Not applicable                Not applicable
West Virginia                                           92,000                            1,414,000                                   4.7                        5 years
Wisconsin                                               40,000                            4,185,000                                   1.0                        5 years
Wyoming                                                 23,000                              412,000                                   5.6                        5 years
                                                        Source: GAO analysis of state reported data and state laws.




                                                        Page 76                                                                    GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix V: Number of Valid Permits




a
 States that have missing data either do not track, could not provide, or declined to provide the
information requested.
b
 These states issue permits to residents and nonresidents, and the approximate number for these
states includes permits issued to both groups. As a result, the ratios of active permit holders to adult
population for these states reflect permit holders that do not reside in the state, which may result in a
higher percentage.
c
 Of the four counties that issue permits in Hawaii, only two provided information.
d
 New York has no mechanism to purge inactive files. The New York State Police became the
repository for concealed carry permit data in 1936. As of December 31, 2011, New York had
1,281,662 applications on file since 1936. However, this number is not an accurate count of people
who possess a valid carry concealed weapons permit from the state of New York. Some permit
holders may have died and some permit holders may have had their permits revoked or cancelled
since 1936.
e
    Texas’ approximate number of nonresident permits is as of September 22, 2011




Page 77                                                        GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix VI: Approximate Total Number of
                                         Appendix VI: Approximate Total Number of
                                         Active Permits by Residency



Active Permits by Residency

                                         Of the 48 states that issue concealed carry permits, 26 issue to residents
                                         and nonresidents of their state, and of these 26 states that issue to
                                         nonresidents, 10 provided data on the number of valid nonresident
                                         permits, as shown in the table.

Table 8: Status for States that issue to Nonresidents, as of December 31, 2011, unless otherwise noted

                                                                                                                Approximate
                                   Approximate                                             Approximate         percentage of
                                   total number       Approximate number of            number of active          nonresident
                                               a                             a                         a
State                         of active permits       active resident permits       nonresident permits       permit holders
Arizona                                 163,000                   Not available             Not available
California                                37,000                        37,000              Not available
(as of 09/01/11)
Connecticut                             165,000                       148,000                     16,000                9.7%
Florida                                 887,000                       784,000                   104,000                  11.7
         b
Hawaii                                         0                             0                           0                0.0
Idaho                                     77,000                        76,000                       700                  0.9
Indiana                                 406,000                       406,000                         50                  0.0
Iowa (estimate based on                 243,000                   Not available             Not available
number of issuances from
2007 to 2011)
Maine                                      6,000                         4,000                     2,000                 33.3
Maryland                                  12,000                  Not available             Not available
Massachusetts                           251,000                       250,000                      1,000                  0.4
(as of 2/1/12)
Minnesota                                 91,000                  Not available             Not available
Nevada                                    55,000                        50,000                     6,000                 10.9
New Hampshire                       Not available                 Not available             Not available
New Jersey                                32,000                  Not available             Not available
             c
New York                            Not available                 Not available             Not available
North Dakota                        Not available                 Not available             Not available
Oregon                                  147,000                   Not available             Not available
Pennsylvania                            786,000                   Not available             Not available
Rhode Island (does not                     4,000                  Not available             Not available
include permits issued by
localities)
South Carolina                          148,000                   Not available             Not available
(as of 12/26/11)
Tennessee                               341,000                   Not available             Not available
(as of 1/3/12)
        d
Texas                                   519,000                       515,000                      4,000                  0.8




                                         Page 78                                            GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                        Appendix VI: Approximate Total Number of
                        Active Permits by Residency




                                                                                                                  Approximate
                  Approximate                                                           Approximate              percentage of
                  total number             Approximate number of                    number of active               nonresident
                              a                                   a                                 a
State        of active permits             active resident permits               nonresident permits            permit holders
Utah                   347,000                                         147,000                201,000                       57.9
Virginia               279,000                                         274,000                   5,000                       1.8
Washington             351,000                               Not available               Not available
                        Source: GAO analysis of state reported data.

                        Notes: Differences in total are due to the rounding of numbers.
                        a
                         States that have missing data either do not track, could not provide, or declined to provide the
                        information requested.
                        b
                            Of the four counties that issue permits in Hawaii, only two provided information.
                        c
                         New York has no mechanism to purge inactive files. The New York State Police became the
                        repository for concealed carry permit data in 1936. As of December 31, 2011, New York had
                        1,281,662 applications on file since 1936. However, this number is not an accurate count of people
                        who possess a valid carry concealed weapons permit from the state of New York. Some permit
                        holders may have died and some permit holders may have had their permits revoked or cancelled
                        since 1936.
                        d
                            Texas’ approximate number of nonresident permits is as of September 22, 2011




                        Page 79                                                          GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix VII: State Reciprocity, as of March
                                     Appendix VII: State Reciprocity, as of March
                                     2012



2012


              Permits from other states                                  States that recognize
State         that are recognized by this state                          permits issued in this state
Alabama       AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS,        AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS,
              MO, NH, NC, ND, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, WY (23)                MO, NH, NC, ND, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, WY (23)
Alaska        AL, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IN, IA,        AL, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,
              KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,            MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH,
              NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV, WY (35)
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Arizona       AL, AK, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IN, IA,        AL, AK, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,
              KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,            MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK,
              NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, WV, WY (35)
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Arkansas      AL, AK, AZ, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,        AL, AK, AZ, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,
              ME, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, ND, NC,            ME, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NC, ND, OH,
              OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV,            OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY
              WY (38)                                                    (37)
California    CA does not honor permits issued in other states.          AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NE, NC, OK, SD,
                                                                         TN, TX, UT, WI (17)
Colorado      AL, AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, AL, AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,
              MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN,         MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD,
              TX, UT, WI, WY (30)                                     TN, TX, UT, WI, WY (30)
Connecticut   CT does not honor permits issued in other states.          AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NE, NC, OK, SD,
                                                                         TN, TX, UT, WI (17)
Delaware      AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, KY, ME, MI, MO, NM, NC, ND,            AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, ID, IN, IA, KY, ME, MI, MO, NM,
              OH, OK, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV (19)                            NC, ND, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV (23)
Florida       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA,
              MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA,            MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA,
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WY (35)                SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY (33)
Georgia       AL, AK, AR, AZ, CO, FL, IA, ID, IN, KY, LA, MI, MS,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS,
              MO, MT, ND, NH, NC, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, WI,            MO, MT, NH, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, WI,
              WY (26)                                                    WY (26)
Hawaii        HI does not honor permits issued in other states.          AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MO, NE, NC, OK, SD,
                                                                         TN, TX, UT, WI (17)
Idaho         AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IN, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MO,
              KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,            MT, NE, NH, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT,
              NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            WI, WY (27)
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Illinois      IL does not honor permits issued in other states.          Not applicable
Indiana       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS,
              KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,            MO, MT, NH, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, WI,
              NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            WY (26)
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Iowa          AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IN,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, KY, LA, MI, MO,
              KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,            MT, NE, NH, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, WI,
              NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            WY (26)
              SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)




                                     Page 80                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                      Appendix VII: State Reciprocity, as of March
                                      2012




                Permits from other states                                 States that recognize
State           that are recognized by this state                         permits issued in this state
Kansas          AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, HI, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, NE, NV,       AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO,
                NJ, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, SC, TN, TX, WV (23)               MT, NE, NV, NC, ND, OH, OK, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT,
                                                                          WI, WV (27)
Kentucky        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, LA,
                IN, KS, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,           MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH,
                NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,           OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI, WV, WY (36)
                SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Louisiana       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, ME, AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, ME,
                MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NM, NV, NH, NC, ND, OH,     MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NC, ND, OH, OK,
                OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY (36)
                (38)
Maine           AR, DE, LA, MI, ND, PA, SD, WY (8)                        AK, AZ, AR, DE, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MO, NE, NC,
                                                                          ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, UT, WY (20)
Maryland        MD does not honor permits issued in other states.         AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NC OK, SD, TN,
                                                                          TX, UT, WI (16)
Massachusetts   MA does not honor permits issued in other states.         AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NC, OK, SD, TN,
                                                                          TX, UT (15)
Michigan        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE,           LA, ME, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND,
                NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,           OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV,
                SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)               WY (38)
Minnesota       AK, AR, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, NM, NV, OH, OK, TN, TX, AK, AZ, AR, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, MT,
                UT, WY (15)                                         NE, NM, NC, OK, SD, TN, UT, VA, WI, WY (23)
Mississippi     AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, IN, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO,       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI,
                MT, NH, NC, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY            MO, MT, NH, NC, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV,
                (25)                                                      WY (26)
Missouri        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA, AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MT, NE, NV, LA, MI, MN, MS, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH,
                NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC,     OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY (36)
                SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Montana         AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,       AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS,
                LA, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, NE, NV, NJ, NM, NY,           MO, NE, NM, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA,
                NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA,           WI, WY (27)
                WA, WI, WV, WY (41)
Nebraska        AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, FL, HI, ID, IA, KS, KY, LA,       AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO,
                ME, MI, MN, MT, MO, NV, NJ, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK,           MT, NV, NC, ND, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI,
                OR, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV, WY (34)                   WY (26)
Nevada          AK, AZ, AR, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, NE, NM, NC, OH, TN, AK, AZ, AR, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MT,
                RI, WV (15)                                         NE, NC, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT (20)
New Hampshire   AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, ID, IN, KY, LA, MI,       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI,
                MO, MS, NC, ND, OK, PA, TN, UT, WY (22)                   MS, MO, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, UT, WY (23)
New Jersey      NJ does not honor permits issued in other states.         AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, MI, MO, MT, NE, NC, OK,
                                                                          SD, TN, TX, UT (17)
New Mexico      AK, AZ, CO, DE, FL, KY, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND,           AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI,
                OH, OK, SC, TN, TX , VA, WY (19)                          MN, MO, MT, NE, NV, NC, ND, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX,
                                                                          UT, VA, WV, WI, WY (30)




                                      Page 81                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                        Appendix VII: State Reciprocity, as of March
                                        2012




                 Permits from other states                                  States that recognize
State            that are recognized by this state                          permits issued in this state
New York         NY does not honor permits issued in other states           AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NC, OK, SD, TN,
                                                                            TX, UT, WI (16)
North Carolina   AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,            LA, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, ND, OH, OK,
                 NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI,            PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY (36)
                 SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
North Dakota     AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                 LA, ME, MI, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, OH, OK, PA,            LA, ME, MI, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, OH, OK, PA,
                 SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY (35)                SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (34)
Ohio             AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, ID, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, NE, NM,        AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN,
                 NC, ND, OK, SC, TN, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY (23)                MO, MT, NE, NV, NM, NC, ND, OK, SC, SD, TN, UT,
                                                                            VA, WA, WV, WY (29)
Oklahoma         AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,            LA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH,
                 NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OR, PA, RI,            PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY (35)
                 SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Oregon           OR does not honor permits issued in other states.          AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, MT, NE, NC, OK, SD,
                                                                            TN, UT (15)
Pennsylvania     AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, IA, ID, IN, KY, LA. ME, MI,        AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME, MI,
                 MO, MT, ND, NH, NC, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI,            MO, MT, NH, NC, ND, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV,
                 WV, WY (27)                                                WI, WY (27)
Rhode Island     RI does not honor permits issued in other states.          AK, AZ, ID, IN, IA, KY, MI, MO, NE, NV, NC, OK, SD,
                                                                            TN, TX, UT (16)
South Carolina   AK, AZ, AR, FL, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, NC, OH, OK, TX,        AK, AZ, AR, FL, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MO, MT,
                 TN, VA, WV, WY (17)                                        NE, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV,
                                                                            WY (26)
South Dakota     AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,            MI, MS, MO, MT, NC, ND, OK, PA, TN, TX, UT, VA,
                 NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA,            WV, WY (27)
                 RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Tennessee        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,            LA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NM, NC, ND,
                 NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA,            OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY
                 RI, SC, SD, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)                (37)
Texas            AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IA, ID,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MS, MO, MT, NE, NM,            LA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NM, NC, ND, OK, PA,
                 NC, ND, NJ, NV, NY, OK, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, UT, VA,        SC, SD, TN, UT, VA, WI, WV, WY (33)
                 WA, WV, WY (41)
Utah             AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO ,CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IA,        AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, DE, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA,
                 IN, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,            MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA,
                 NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA,            SD, TN, TX, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (34)
                 RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY (47)
Vermont          VT does not require concealed weapons carriers to          Not applicable
                 have a permit. Therefore, reciprocity does not apply in
                 the state. Local statutes may vary.




                                        Page 82                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
                                        Appendix VII: State Reciprocity, as of March
                                        2012




                  Permits from other states                                                 States that recognize
State             that are recognized by this state                                         permits issued in this state
Virginia          AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, KY, LA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO,
                  NC, ND, NM, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, WA,     MT, NE, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TN, TX,
                  WV, WY (27)                                         UT, WV, WI, WY (29)
Washington        AR, FL, LA, MI, MS, MO, NC, ND, OH, OK, TN, UT (12) AK, AZ, AR, FL, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, MT,
                                                                      NC, ND, OH, OK, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI (23)
Washington D.C.   DC does not honor permits issued in other states.                         Not applicable
West Virginia     AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, KS, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO, NM, NC, AK, AZ, AR, DE, FL, ID, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, MI, MS,
                  ND, OK, OH, PA, SC, SD, TX, TN, UT, VA, WI (24)     MO, MT, NE, NV, NC, ND, OH, OK, PA, SC, SD, TX,
                                                                      TN, UT, VA, WY (29)
Wisconsin         AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, GA, HI, ID, IA, IN, KS, KY, LA,                       AK, AZ, AR, CO, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, MI, MS, MO,
                  MD, MI, MN, MT, NE, NM, NY, NC, ND, PA, TN, TX,                           MT, NE, NV, NH, NC, ND, OK, PA, SD, TN, UT, WV
                  UT, VA, WA, WY (29)                                                       (26)
Wyoming           AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME,                       AL, AK, AZ, AR, CO, FL, GA, ID, IN, IA, KY, LA, ME,
                  MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK,                           MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NH, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK,
                  PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WV (33)                                       PA, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WI (33)
                                        Source: GAO analysis of publically available state information.




                                        Page 83                                                               GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
Appendix VIII: GAO Contacts and Staff
                  Appendix VIII: GAO Contacts and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments

                  Carol R. Cha (202) 512-4456 or chac@gao.gov
GAO Contacts
                  Eileen R. Larence (202) 512-6510 or larencee@gao.gov


                  In addition to the contacts named above, Kirk Kiester (Assistant Director),
Staff             Aditi S. Archer, Willie Commons III, Michele C. Fejfar, Sally P. Gilley,
Acknowledgments   Andrew C. Moore, and Janet G. Temko made significant contributions to
                  the work. Also contributing to this report were Katherine M. Davis, Eric
                  Hauswirth, Linda S. Miller, and Robert Robinson.




(440992)
                  Page 84                                      GAO-12-717 Concealed Carry Permits
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