oversight

Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices: Multiple DOD Organizations are Developing Numerous Initiatives

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-08-01.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States Government Accountability Office
Washington, DC 20548



           August 1, 2012

           The Honorable Adam Smith
           Ranking Member
           Committee on Armed Services
           House of Representatives

           The Honorable Roscoe G. Bartlett
           Chairman
           The Honorable Silvestre Reyes
           Ranking Member
           Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces
           Committee on Armed Services
           House of Representatives

           Subject: Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices: Multiple DOD Organizations are
           Developing Numerous Initiatives

           Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are the enemy's weapon of choice (e.g., 16,500 IEDs
           were detonated or discovered being used against U.S. forces in Afghanistan in 2011) and,
           according to the Department of Defense (DOD) will probably be a mainstay in any present
           and future conflict given their low cost to develop coupled with their potential for strategic
           impact. Multiple DOD components, 1 including the military services, have been pursuing
           counter-IED (C-IED) efforts leading up to June 2005 when DOD established the Joint IED
           Defeat Task Force followed in 2006 with the establishment of the Joint IED Defeat
           Organization (JIEDDO) to lead and coordinate all DOD actions to defeat IEDs. From fiscal
           years 2006 through 2011, JIEDDO has received over $18 billion in funding; 2 however, DOD
           has funded other C-IED efforts outside of JIEDDO, including $40 billion for Mine Resistant
           Ambush Protected vehicles.

           We reported in February 2012 that DOD does not have full visibility over all of its C-IED
           efforts. 3 DOD relies on various sources and systems for managing its C-IED efforts, but has
           not developed a process that provides DOD with a comprehensive listing of its C-IED

           1
            Other federal agencies are involved with C-IED efforts, including the Departments of Homeland Security,
           Justice, State, and Agriculture.

           2
             This total represents appropriations and rescissions made to the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat
           Fund for JIEDDO. The appropriation provisions often specify that the Secretary of Defense may transfer funds to
           other appropriations categories after notifying the congressional defense committees. See, e.g,, Department of
           Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10, div. A, tit. IV (2011).
           3
            GAO, Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Strategic Outcome-Related Goals and Visibility over Its Counter-IED
           Efforts, GAO-12-280 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 22, 2012); GAO, 2012 Annual Report: Opportunities to Reduce
           Duplication, Overlap and Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue, GAO-12-342SP,
           (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 28, 2012).


                                                            GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
initiatives and activities. In response to our recommendation that the Secretary of Defense
direct JIEDDO to develop an implementation plan for the establishment of DOD’s C-IED
database including a detailed timeline with milestones to help achieve this goal, DOD
officials said that a revision of DOD's Directive 2000.19E 4 will contain a new task requiring
combatant commands, the military services, and DOD agencies to report C-IED initiatives to
JIEDDO. This would include programming and funding pursued by a military service,
combatant command, or other DOD component, in addition to activities funded by JIEDDO.
In January 2012, DOD estimated it would complete draft revisions to DOD Directive
2000.19E in early 2012, but as of July 2012, Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD)
officials stated that the revised draft was under review at the OSD level, and therefore, not
issued. In addition, according to JIEDDO officials, DOD is conducting an ongoing review of
C-IED capabilities across the Department that may affect JIEDDO and the contents of the
draft directive.

This report responds to your request asking us to examine the potential for overlap and
duplication in DOD's C-IED efforts. Because DOD lacks a comprehensive database of C-
IED initiatives, we conducted a department-wide survey to determine (1) the number of
different C-IED initiatives and the organizations developing them from fiscal year 2008
through the closing date of our survey, January 6, 2012, and the extent to which DOD is
funding these initiatives, and (2) the extent and nature of any overlap that could lead to
duplication of C-IED efforts. In July 2012, we briefed committee staff on the results of our
survey and analysis. Enclosure 1 provides briefing slides detailing the results of our work.

Scope and Methodology

To answer the objectives of this report, we used a two-phased survey approach. We
administered a preliminary survey to identify potential C-IED initiatives, followed by a more
detailed survey to obtain more specific information on the identified initiatives. We
administered the preliminary survey to identify potential C-IED initiatives. We determined
who should receive this survey by extracting contact information from (1) a DOD database
of C-IED technologies under development, (2) a DOD-sponsored C-IED conference
attendee list, and (3) other sources. The preliminary survey also asked survey recipients to
identify other individuals and organizations outside their own that conduct C-IED initiatives.
We then followed with a more detailed survey to obtain more specific information on the
identified C-IED initiatives. We allowed survey recipients to respond from August 2011 to
January 2012, and during those 5 months, followed up with those who had not responded in
order to increase the number of surveys returned to the greatest extent possible during the
survey period. The information that both surveys provided was sufficient for our analyses.

To determine the number of different C-IED initiatives and the extent different organizations
used DOD funding for developing C-IED initiatives, we used the preliminary survey and




4
  Department of Defense Directive 2000.19E, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO)
(Feb. 14, 2006).




Page 2                                Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
JIEDDO financial data to compile a list of potential initiatives managed by organizations
outside of JIEDDO that, in DOD officials’ opinion, met the definition we developed for C-IED
initiatives, which follows. 5

         Any operational, materiel, technology, training, information, intelligence, or research and
         development project, program, or other effort funded by any component of the Department of
         Defense that is intended to assist or support efforts to counter, combat, or defeat the use of
         improvised explosive devices and related networks. This includes IED precursors [e.g., raw
         materials], such as chemicals or associated components such as command wires [e.g.,
         triggering wire].

In addition to the survey, we contacted DOD officials involved in C-IED management to
further identify the number of C-IED initiatives that DOD funded and conducted and
organizations involved with developing C-IED initiatives and followed up with associated
DOD officials to further identify any other organizations the survey may have missed. We
also aggregated the funding data reported by respondents from the detailed survey for the
C-IED initiatives we identified to provide a measure of magnitude of resources expended.

To determine the extent and nature of any overlap that could lead to potential duplication of
C-IED initiatives, our detailed survey contained questions about the type and nature of the
initiative, technology-focus of the initiative, funding associated with it, the organizational
placement of the initiative, and degree of communication with JIEDDO and other DOD
organizations regarding each of the potential initiatives identified in the preliminary survey. 6
From the survey results, we divided the total number of potential C-IED initiatives into two
subsets—those with survey responses and those without survey responses. We also
separated survey responses that contained classified information from those that did not
and, after determining that 81 percent of the responses were unclassified, focused our
analysis on the data from the unclassified survey responses. With those unclassified
responses, we identified C-IED initiatives concentrated within similar areas of development,
which resulted in our grouping initiatives into 9 broad categories, such as detection or
training efforts, and 20 examples of associated subcategories, such as chemical sensors, a
subcategory under the detect category. The development of these categories and
subcategories was based on follow-up discussions we had with the DOD officials who
manage these C-IED initiatives.

We conducted this performance audit from November 2011 to August 2012 in accordance
with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we
plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable
basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the
evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on
our audit objectives. Appendix I of the enclosed briefing contains additional details of our
scope and methodology.

5
  We developed this definition relying in part on a provision in the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act
for Fiscal Year 2011 that defines a C-IED initiative as “any project, program, or research activity funded by any
component of the Department of Defense that is intended to assist or support efforts to counter, combat, or
defeat the use of improvised explosive devices.” See Pub. L. No. 111-383, § 124(c) (2011) (10 U.S.C. § 113
note). We augmented this description based on comments from DOD officials during survey expert review and
pre testing.

6
  As defined in GAO 12-342SP, “Overlap" occurs when programs have similar goals, devise similar activities and
strategies to achieve them, or target similar users. "Duplication" occurs when two or more agencies or programs
are engaged in the same activities or provide the same services to the same beneficiaries.


Page 3                                   Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Summary

We identified 1,340 potential, separate initiatives that DOD funded from fiscal year 2008
through the first quarter of fiscal year 2012 that, in DOD officials’ opinion, met the above
definition for C-IED initiatives. We relied on our survey, in part, to determine this number
because DOD has not determined, and does not have a ready means for determining, the
universe of C-IED initiatives. Of the 1,340 initiatives, we received detailed survey responses
confirming that 711 initiatives met our C-IED definition. Of the remaining 629 initiatives for
which we did not receive survey responses, 481 were JIEDDO initiatives. JIEDDO officials
attribute their low survey returns for reasons including that C-IED initiatives are currently not
fully identified, catalogued, and retrievable; however, they expect updates to their
information technology system will correct this deficiency. Our survey also identified 45
different organizations that DOD is funding to undertake these 1,340 identified initiatives.
Some of these organizations receive JIEDDO funding while others receive other DOD
funding. We documented $4.8 billion of DOD funds expended in fiscal year 2011 in support
of C-IED initiatives, but this amount is understated because we did not receive survey data
confirming DOD funding for all initiatives. As an example, at least 94 of the 711 responses
did not include funding amounts for associated C-IED initiatives. Further, the DOD agency
with the greatest number of C-IED initiatives identified—JIEDDO—did not return surveys for
81 percent of its initiatives.

Our survey results showed that multiple C-IED initiatives were concentrated within some
areas of development, resulting in overlap within DOD for these efforts—i.e., programs
engaged in similar activities to achieve similar goals or target similar beneficiaries. For
example, our survey data identified 19 organizations with 107 initiatives being developed to
combat cell phone-triggered IEDs. While the concentration of initiatives in itself does not
constitute duplication, this concentration taken together with the high number of different
DOD organizations that are undertaking these initiatives and JIEDDO’s inability to identify
and compare C-IED initiatives, demonstrates overlap and the potential for duplication of
effort. According to JIEDDO officials, the organization has a robust coordinating process in
place that precludes unintended overlap. However, through our survey and follow-up with
relevant agency officials, we found examples of overlap in the following areas: (1) IED-
related intelligence analysis: two organizations were producing and disseminating similar
IED-related intelligence products to the warfighter, (2) C-IED hardware development: two
organizations were developing similar robotics for detecting IEDs from a safe distance, and
(3) IED detection: two organizations had developed C-IED initiatives using chemical sensors
that were similar in their technologies and capabilities.

Our survey results showed that a majority of respondents said they communicated with
JIEDDO regarding their C-IED initiatives; however, JIEDDO does not consistently record
and track this data. Based on our prior work, JIEDDO does not have a mechanism for
recording data communicated on C-IED efforts. Therefore, these data are not available for
analysis by JIEDDO or others in DOD to reduce the risk of duplicating efforts and avoid
repeating mistakes.

Concluding Observations

As we previously reported, and as our survey results confirmed, DOD has funded hundreds
of C-IED initiatives but has not yet developed a comprehensive database of these initiatives
and the organizations conducting them. DOD plans to provide JIEDDO access to
department-wide C-IED data to enable the identification and development of a


Page 4                             Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
comprehensive C-IED initiatives database, but it had not done so as of July 2012. Further,
our survey identified high concentrations of initiatives falling under several key C-IED areas
of development. This condition, coupled with DOD’s lack of knowledge regarding its prior
and current C-IED investments, demonstrates the potential for overlap and duplication and
re-emphasizes the findings in our prior work. DOD concurred with our February 2012
recommendation to develop an implementation plan and timeline for establishing a C-IED
database. 7 Therefore, we are not making additional recommendations in this report.

Agency Comments and Our Evaluation

We provided a draft of this report to DOD. In its written comments reproduced in enclosure
2, DOD listed the actions it is taking to implement prior GAO recommendations to develop a
C-IED database. However, DOD disagreed with several details contained in our findings.
DOD also provided technical comments that we incorporated as appropriate.

DOD stated that we portrayed JIEDDO as uncooperative in responding to our survey and
that JIEDDO provided GAO access to its records for all inactive C-IED efforts for the survey
sample. It was not our intent to imply that JIEDDO was uncooperative; rather it was to fully
disclose limitations in the data we collected and the reasons for those limitations. However,
the limitations we cited with regard to JIEDDO’s survey responses underscore our previous
findings that JIEDDO does not have comprehensive visibility over its own or DOD-wide
counter-IED efforts. Moreover, DOD’s comments overstate the degree and utility of the
access it provided. For example, although DOD provided us with access to JIEDDO’s
enterprise management system, this system was of limited utility because identifying and
extracting the relevant, reliable information needed from the system files would require the
expertise of a knowledgeable JIEDDO program manager (as stated in our scope and
methodology appendix at the end of our briefing slides). The limited utility of its enterprise
management system for purposes of completing the survey is corroborated by discussions
with JIEDDO officials regarding their efforts to complete our survey. Officials stated that
completing the survey for JIEDDO’s inactive initiatives would be too time consuming
because those staff familiar with these initiatives no longer worked at JIEDDO and therefore
completing the surveys would require a manual effort to locate and review relevant files for
the information needed to complete the survey since they could not retrieve the necessary
information through JIEDDO’s enterprise system.

DOD stated that our comment that JIEDDO is unable to distinguish expenditures is incorrect
because JIEDDO uses its financial management database to reliably identify C-IED initiative
costs, and its financial management data provides the ability to identify all JIEDDO’s
initiatives and staff and infrastructure costs. However, DOD’s comments do not accurately
reflect our findings. Specifically, we stated that JIEDDO is unable to comprehensively and
automatically distinguish individual C-IED initiatives from other expenditures, including
JIEDDO’s infrastructure and overhead costs such as facilities, contractor services, pay and
benefits, and travel. Although we agree that JIEDDO can use its financial management
database to help identify individual initiative costs, JIEDDO’s financial management
database does not automatically distinguish between costs for C-IED initiatives and those
for staff and infrastructure costs, which would not be considered counter-IED initiatives. To
do so would require JIEDDO to review the listing JIEDDO’s financial management database
produces to manually identify and remove efforts that it does not consider C-IED initiatives
per either its definition or our definition.

7
    GAO-12-280.


Page 5                            Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
DOD stated that the examples of overlap we cited in our report are overstated, noting that
the figure [on page 17 of our briefing] showing 60 chemical sensor efforts by 14
organizations fails to explain that these are different sensors for different chemical
signatures. However, since DOD has not developed a comprehensive database listing all of
its C-IED efforts—including those involving chemical sensors—it is not clear to what degree
the chemical sensors associated with the 60 efforts represented in the figure are different
from one another or apply to different chemical signatures. Therefore, we continue to
believe, as noted in the briefing, that the potential for duplication exists.

DOD stated that the chemical sensor example (on page 21 of our briefing) highlights two
systems that use similar technologies and may appear to overlap but do not because the
systems were designed for distinctly different threats and targets. Although DIA did not
develop its system for purposes of countering IEDs or design its system to detect IEDs,
when DIA deployed its system in theater in 2009, the system proved effective in detecting
IEDs. DIA then approached JIEDDO to fund further development of DIA’s system because
of its new found C-IED capability. JIEDDO declined and in 2010 started developing its
system using similar technology for the purpose of detecting IEDs. Therefore, we continue
to believe that because both systems use similar technology and provide similar capabilities
overlap exists, regardless of the intended users.

DOD stated that our example comparing two intelligence analysis entities (on page 18 of our
briefing) is based on a dated report and that routine collaboration now occurs between the
two entities with the two entities “deconflicting” requests for support to minimize duplication
of effort. The report we cite in our slides was dated January 2011, and we updated our
information by discussing the issue with OSD, Army, and JIEDDO officials as recently as
March 2012 to corroborate the continued validity of the January 2011 report finding that
there was overlap between the two entities. Further, we cannot evaluate the effectiveness of
the specific efforts cited in DOD’s comments because DOD did not provide evidence of their
implementation or effectiveness. We continue to support our position that DOD improve
collaboration, identify and address overlapping efforts, and minimize duplication.

DOD stated that the Senior Integration Group, established by the Secretary of Defense,
ensures collaboration related to joint urgent needs DOD-wide and will reduce potential
overlap of C-IED initiatives across DOD. We agree that senior level attention can be
effective in prioritizing efforts, directing actions and resolving issues associated with joint
urgent needs; however, the ability of the Senior Integration Group to comprehensively
review DOD’s counter-IED efforts to identify and address overlap and duplication is limited.
For example, without a DOD-wide data base of counter-IED efforts, the group would not
have adequate visibility to comprehensively identify overlapping efforts. Further, the scope
of the Senior Integration Group is to oversee all joint urgent operational needs, which is
much broader than counter-IED. As such, with the approximately 1,300 C-IED efforts we
identified in addition to the universe of efforts that address other joint urgent operational
needs, the number of efforts that the SIG can address may be limited to only those of the
highest priority.

In its comments to our report, DOD also requested that we provide a listing of the efforts and
associated contacts for C-IED initiatives conducted outside of JIEDDO so that they may be
reviewed for inclusion in JIEDDO’s forthcoming database. We will cooperate to the extent
possible as JIEDDO takes this action to establish a database of counter-IED efforts.




Page 6                            Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
                                            -----

We are sending copies of this report to the appropriate congressional committees, the
Secretary of Defense, and the Director of JIEDDO. The report also is available at no charge
on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov. Should you or your staff have any questions on
the matters discussed in this report, please contact me at (202) 512-5431, or
russellc@gao.gov. Contact points for our offices of Congressional Relations and Public
Affairs may be found on the last page of this report. GAO staff who contributed to this report
are listed in enclosure 3.




Cary B. Russell
Acting Director, Defense Capabilities and Management

Enclosures-3




Page 7                            Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I


                          Briefing for Congressional Requesters




         Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices:
         Multiple DOD Organizations Are Developing
         Numerous Initiatives




                  Briefing for Congressional Requesters
                                 July 2012




         Page 1                             GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices




Page 8                      Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Background


   •     Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are the enemy’s weapon of choice (e.g., 16,500 IEDs were
         detonated or discovered being used against U.S. forces in Afghanistan in 2011), and according to the
         Department of Defense (DOD) probably will be a mainstay in any present and future conflict involving
         insurgents, terrorists, or criminal gangs. For example, according to DOD, the widespread availability and
         low cost of IED materials and the potential for strategic impact guarantee that the IED will remain a threat
         and the main casualty-producing weapon for decades to come.
   •     Multiple DOD components, including the military services, have been pursuing counter-IED (C-IED) efforts
         since June 2005, when DOD established the Joint IED Defeat Task Force for which the Army provided
         primary administrative support. This task force replaced the Army IED Task Force, the Joint IED Task
         Force, and the Under Secretary of Defense, Force Protection Working Group.
   •     In 2006, DOD issued Directive 2000.19E,1 which designated the Joint Improvised Explosive Device
         Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) as DOD’s lead entity to focus all DOD actions in support of the combatant
         commanders’ and their joint task forces’ efforts to defeat IEDs as weapons of strategic influence.
   •     From fiscal years 2006 through 2011, JIEDDO received more than $18 billion in funding; 2 however, DOD
         has funded other C-IED efforts conducted outside of JIEDDO including $40 billion for Mine Resistant
         Ambush Protected vehicles.
         1 Department   of Defense Directive 2000.19E, Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) (Feb. 14, 2006).
         2 Thistotal represents appropriations and rescissions made to the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Fund for JIEDDO. The appropriation
         provisions often specify that the Secretary of Defense may transfer funds to other appropriations categories after notifying the congressional defense
         committees. See, e.g., Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, Pub. L. No. 112-10, div. A, tit. IV (2011).


                                                                                                                                                            Page 2




Page 9                                                Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Background, Cont’d.

   •   We reported in October 2009 that many organizations involved in addressing the IED threat continued to
       develop, maintain, and expand their own IED defeat capabilities after the creation of JIEDDO.3
   •   DOD does not have a ready means for determining the universe of its C-IED initiatives. We reported in
       February 2012 that DOD does not have full visibility over all of its C-IED efforts. It relies on various
       sources and systems for managing its C-IED efforts, but has not developed a process that provides the
       department with a comprehensive listing of its C-IED initiatives and activities.4
   •   In response to our recommendation that the Secretary of Defense direct JIEDDO to develop an
       implementation plan for the establishment of DOD’s C-IED database including a detailed timeline with
       milestones to help achieve this goal, DOD officials said that a draft revision of DOD Directive 2000.19E
       will contain a new task requiring combatant commands, the military services, and DOD agencies to report
       C-IED initiatives to JIEDDO to enable JIEDDO to have visibility of all C-IED initiatives, programming, and
       funding pursued individually by a Service, combatant command, or DOD agencies.
   •   In January 2012, DOD estimated that it would complete draft revisions to DOD Directive 2000.19E in early
       2012, but as of July 2012, Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) officials stated that the revised draft
       was under review at the OSD level and therefore not issued. In addition, according to JIEDDO officials,
       DOD is conducting an ongoing review of C-IED capabilities across the Department, which according to
       JIEDDO, may affect JIEDDO and the contents of the draft directive.
       3GAO, Warfighter Support: Actions Needed to Improve Visibility and Coordination of DOD's Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Efforts, GAO 10-95
       (Washington D.C.: Oct. 29, 2009).
       4 GAO, Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Strategic Outcome-Related Goals and Visibility Over Its Counter-IED Efforts, GAO-12-280 (Washington D.C.: February
       17, 2012), and Opportunities to Reduce Duplication, Overlap, and Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue , GAO-12-342SP (Washington
       D.C.: February 28, 2012).

                                                                                                                                                         Page 3




Page 10                                           Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Objectives


   This work is based on a request from the House Armed Services Committee--
        Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, asking GAO to report on the potential
        for overlap and duplication in DOD’s C-IED efforts. In response, we conducted a
        departmentwide survey to determine

   1.     the number of different C-IED initiatives and the organizations developing them from
          fiscal year 2008 through January 6, 2012, the closing date of our survey, and the
          extent to which DOD is funding these initiatives, and

   2.     the extent and nature of any overlap that could lead to duplication of C-IED efforts.




                                                                                             Page 4




Page 11                           Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Scope and Methodology

   To answer these objectives, we used a two-phased survey approach. We administered a preliminary survey to
         identify potential C-IED initiatives, followed by a more detailed survey to obtain more specific information on the
         identified initiatives. We sent the preliminary and detailed surveys to representatives of all potential C-IED
         initiatives we could identify. However, because there may be C-IED initiatives that we did not become aware of,
         the results of the surveys cannot be generalized to all DOD-funded C-IED efforts.
   •          To determine the number of different C-IED initiatives and the extent different organizations used DOD funding
              for developing these initiatives, we used the preliminary survey and JIEDDO financial data to
              •      Identify the number of potential C-IED initiatives that JIEDDO funded and conducted that met the
                     following definition we developed for C-IED initiatives: 5
                     Any operational, materiel, technology, training, information, intelligence, or research and development
                     project, program, or other effort funded by any component of the Department of Defense that is intended
                     to assist or support efforts to counter, combat, or defeat the use of improvised explosive devices and
                     related networks. This includes IED precursors [e.g., raw materials] such as chemicals or associated
                     components such as command wires [e.g., triggering wire].
              •      Compile a list of potential initiatives managed by organizations outside of JIEDDO that, in DOD officials’
                     opinion, met this definition.
              •      Identify other organizations involved with developing C-IED initiatives and followed up with associated
                     DOD officials to further identify any other organizations the survey may have missed.

       5 We developed this definition relying in part on a provision in the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 that
       defines a C-IED initiative as “any project, program, or research activity funded by any component of the Department of Defense that is intended
       to assist or support efforts to counter, combat, or defeat the use of improvised explosive devices.” See Pub. L. No. 111-383, 124(c) (2011)
       (10 U.S.C. 113 note). We augmented this description based on comments from DOD officials during survey expert review and pre testing.

                                                                                                                                             Page 5




Page 12                                            Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.


   •         To provide a measure of magnitude of resources expended, we also aggregated the funding data
             reported by respondents from the detailed survey for the C-IED initiatives we identified.


   •         To determine the extent and nature of any overlap that could lead to potential duplication of C-IED
             initiatives,6 we
             •     Sent out a detailed survey with questions about the type and nature of the initiative, technology
                   focus of the initiative, funding associated with it, the organizational placement of the initiative, and
                   degree of communication with JIEDDO and other DOD organizations regarding each of the
                   potential initiatives identified in the preliminary survey.
             •     Requested survey recipients respond within a 2-week period. However, we allowed recipients a
                   total of 5 months to respond and followed up with recipients who had not responded in order to
                   increase the number of surveys returned to the greatest extent possible during the survey period.
                   Despite these efforts, some survey recipients did not respond.
             •     Divided the total number of potential C-IED initiatives we identified into two subsets—those with
                   survey responses and those without survey responses.



       6As we previously reported in GAO 12-342SP, “Overlap" occurs when programs have similar goals, devise similar activities and
       strategies to achieve them, or target similar users. "Duplication" occurs when two or more agencies or programs are engaged in the
       same activities or provide the same services to the same beneficiaries.


                                                                                                                                        Page 6




Page 13                                         Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.


          •      Separated detailed survey responses that contained classified information from those that did not,
                 and after determining that 81 percent of the responses were unclassified, we focused our
                 analysis and presentation of summary survey data on unclassified survey responses.
          •      Identified C-IED initiatives concentrated within similar areas of development, which resulted in our
                 grouping initiatives into 9 comprehensive categories, such as detection or training efforts, and 20
                 examples of associated subcategories, such as chemical sensors, a subcategory under the
                 detect category. The development of these categories and subcategories was based on follow-up
                 discussions we had with the DOD officials who manage these C-IED initiatives (See appendix 1
                 for a more detailed Scope and Methodology).7




      7Through    our data collection and analysis procedures, we attempted to ensure that all initiatives we analyzed were unique. However,
      multiple organizations working on different aspects of the same initiative may use different titles for their portion of an initiative and may
      have submitted survey responses for just their portion of an initiative. Therefore while we believe all survey responses describe unique
      activities, it is possible that the total number of initiatives we report include some of the same activities.


                                                                                                                                               Page 7




Page 14                                          Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure I




   Objective 1: Summary


   •   Number of DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives: We identified 1,340 potential separate initiatives
       that DOD funded from fiscal year 2008 through January 6, 2012, the closing date of our
       survey and that, in DOD officials’ opinion, met the definition for C-IED initiatives. Of the 1,340
       initiatives, we received survey responses confirming 711 initiatives that met the above C-IED
       definition. Of the remaining 629 initiatives for which we did not receive survey responses, 76
       percent were JIEDDO initiatives.
   •   Organizations Undertaking DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives: We also identified 45 different
       organizations that DOD is funding to undertake the initiatives above [see the list of
       organizations on slide 12]. Some of these organizations receive JIEDDO funding while
       others receive other DOD funding.
   •   DOD Funding for C-IED Initiatives: Funding data for DOD-funded C-IED initiatives are
       limited. We documented $4.8 billion of DOD fiscal year 2011 funding in support of C-IED
       initiatives, but this amount is understated because we did not receive survey data confirming
       DOD funding for all initiatives. As an example, 94 of the 711 responses did not include
       funding amounts for associated C-IED initiatives. Further, the DOD agency with the greatest
       number of C-IED initiatives identified—JIEDDO—did not return surveys for 81 percent of its
       initiatives.



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      Objective 1: Number of DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives


  •        Our survey and database analyses identified 1,340 separate potential initiatives that DOD
           funded from fiscal years 2008 through January 6, 2012, and, in DOD officials’ opinion, met
           the above definition for C-IED initiatives.
       •         DOD designated JIEDDO as DOD’s joint organization to coordinate its C-IED
                 initiatives. However, JIEDDO does not have comprehensive knowledge of all of DOD’s
                 C-IED initiatives because it and DOD do not have a ready means for determining the
                 universe of C-IED initiatives. Further, according to JIEDDO, its governing directive to
                 coordinate the overall C-IED efforts—DOD Directive 2000.19E—does not give it
                 sufficient authority to (1) compel the military services to report their C-IED activity or (2)
                 direct or limit their C-IED activities. Of the 1,340 potential C-IED initiatives,
             •       596 C-IED initiatives are conducted by JIEDDO.
             •       744 C-IED initiatives are not conducted by JIEDDO.
       •         The following figure compares the number of initiatives managed within and outside of
                 JIEDDO. It also shows the percentage of survey responses received.




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   Objective 1: Number of DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives, Cont’d.


    Of the 1,340 potential C-IED initiatives that we identified, the following figure compares the number of initiatives
    managed within and outside of JIEDDO and a breakdown of responses received.
          Figure 1: Comparison of JIEDDO and non-JIEDDO Survey Responses




           *Initiatives determined as JIEDDO-conducted were identified through their financial database.            Page 10




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      Objective 1: Number of DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives, Cont’d.

  •    JIEDDO provided survey responses for 19 percent of the potential JIEDDO initiatives we identified,
       which was low compared to all other organizations’ survey responses.
          •   The following are reasons JIEDDO gave regarding its low number of survey returns:
               • Historic records for C-IED initiatives are not fully identified, catalogued, and retrievable.
                 However, according to JIEDDO officials, the organization is updating its information
                 technology system and expects that it will provide a capability to rapidly generate
                 responses with minimal impact to daily operation.
               • Significant turnover of personnel has resulted in a loss of staff expertise and institutional
                 knowledge.
               • JIEDDO’s concern that applying its resources to complete the remaining surveys would
                    • detract from the time needed to perform its day-to-day mission priority of fielding
                      capabilities to minimize and eventually eliminate the IED threat, and
                    • require 2,400 personnel man hours which JIEDDO considered too high a cost.
          •   As stated in our prior reports (listed at the end of this briefing), JIEDDO is unable to
              comprehensively and automatically distinguish individual C-IED initiatives from other
              expenditures, including JIEDDO’s infrastructure and overhead costs such as facilities,
              contractor services, pay and benefits, and travel.



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   Objective 1: Number of DOD-Funded C-IED Initiatives, Cont’d.
   Table 1: Organizations Undertaking DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
    • Our survey identified 45 organizations undertaking DOD-funded C-IED initiatives, which we grouped below by major component.8




     8Organizations may   receive funding from JIEDDO, other DOD sources, or a combination of the two.
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      Objective 1: DOD Funding for C-IED Initiatives

  •      Table 2 aggregates survey data of any DOD funding expended in FY 2011 reported by the 45 organizations shown in
         table 1–and is summarized by major component in descending order of total funding. However, funding data for
         DOD-funded C-IED initiatives are limited for the following reasons:
          •    We did not receive survey data confirming DOD funding for all initiatives. Specifically, 94 of the 711 initiatives, for which we
               received responses in the second survey, did not include funding amounts for associated C-IED initiatives.
          •    Further, JIEDDO—the DOD agency with the greatest number of C-IED initiatives identified—did not return surveys for 81 percent
               of its initiatives. Consequently, its survey responses may understate funds expended.

        Table 2: Survey Data-Funds Reported as Expended in FY 2011 on Initiatives Summarized by Major Component
      Component                                                                                                                               Amount (millions) 9
      JIEDDO                                                                                                                                          $1,320.77
      Army                                                                                                                                             1,110.09
      Navy                                                                                                                                             1,089.52
      DOD or joint military organization other than JIEDDO                                                                                             1,021.24
      Marine Corps                                                                                                                                       231.95
      Air Force                                                                                                                                            22.83
      Combatant Command                                                                                                                                    30.00
      Non-DOD Organization                                                                                                                                  0.86
                                                                                                                   Total                              $4,827.26
         9 Through  our data collection and analysis procedures, we attempted to ensure that all initiatives we analyzed were unique. However, multiple
         organizations working on different aspects of the same initiative may use different titles for their portion of an initiative and may have submitted
         survey responses for just their portion of an initiative. Therefore while we believe all survey responses describe unique activities, it is possible that
         the total number of initiatives we report include some of the same activities. Therefore, in these cases, the dollar amounts in this table for major
         components other than JIEDDO may include funds provided by JIEDDO.

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   Objective 2: Summary


  •   Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives Were Concentrated in Some Areas of Development: Our survey results showed
      that multiple C-IED initiatives were concentrated within some areas of development. These concentrations of initiatives overlap
      as they share the same goal of protecting the warfighter and defeating IEDs through the use of similar technologies or
      capabilities. Further, given that DOD is not fully aware of the number and types of its C-IED initiatives or the organizations
      conducting its C-IED initiatives and that multiple initiatives are concentrated in some areas, there may be duplication of effort in
      C-IED initiatives—i.e., two or more initiatives are providing the same services to the same beneficiaries. The following are
      examples of overlap we identified through our survey and follow-up with relevant agency officials:
          •   Intelligence Analysis: In the area of IED-related intelligence analysis, we determined that several organizations have
              ongoing C-IED initiatives involving the production and dissemination of IED-related intelligence. Further, we identified an
              example involving potential overlap between JIEDDO and Army C-IED network intelligence analysis.
          •   Robotic Devices: In the area of counter-IED hardware development efforts, we determined that at least four
              organizations conduct initiatives developing robotic devices for detection of IEDs from a safe standoff distance for
              soldiers and explosive ordnance disposal specialists. Through follow-up discussions with DOD officials regarding these
              robotic efforts, we identified a specific example in which the Army and Navy separately developed robotic systems
              which illustrates overlap in DOD robotics efforts and confirms a continued risk of duplication in DOD’s C-IED initiatives.
          •   Sensor Collection Systems: In the area of IED-detection development efforts, we determined that two organizations
              are conducting C-IED initiatives using chemical sensors. In analyzing these initiatives involved in the development of
              sensor collection systems for use in C-IED initiatives, we identified a specific example—two sensor systems developed
              by the Defense Intelligence Agency and JIEDDO that were similar in their technologies and capabilities—confirming
              and illustrating potential overlap in this category of C-IED efforts.

  •   JIEDDO Does Not Consistently Collect and Track C-IED Data It Receives from DOD Organizations : While survey results
      showed that a majority of respondents said that they communicated with JIEDDO with respect to their individual C-IED efforts,
      JIEDDO does not consistently collect and track this information. Therefore, these data are not available for analysis to JIEDDO
      or others in DOD to reduce the risk of duplicating efforts and avoid repeating mistakes.


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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development

      Our survey data for the 577 initiatives for which we received unclassified survey responses show high
      concentrations of DOD-funded C-IED initiatives in some areas of development. For example, survey data
      identified 19 organizations with 107 initiatives being developed to combat cell phone-triggered IEDs. While the
      concentration of initiatives in itself does not constitute duplication, this concentration taken together with the
      following factors demonstrates overlap and the potential presence of duplication in DOD-funded C-IED initiatives:
              •   The high number of different DOD organizations that are undertaking these initiatives.
              •   The universe of DOD-funded C-IED initiatives that remain unidentified as of June 2012.
              •   As a result—
                   •   DOD, including JIEDDO, does not know the number of C-IED initiatives that different
                       organizations have developed using DOD funding, and cannot fully identify concentrations of C-
                       IED initiatives that pose the greatest risk of duplication of efforts and inefficient allocation of
                       limited resources.
                   •   According to JIEDDO officials, the organization has a robust coordinating process in place that
                       precludes unintended overlap and duplication of C-IED efforts within DOD. However, various
                       entities expending DOD funding on C-IED initiatives cannot be fully aware of the number and
                       types of DOD-funded C-IED initiatives outside their own organizations without reliable,
                       comprehensive data identifying the universe of C-IED initiatives at DOD.
     Our analysis showing concentrations of C-IED initiatives when broken into categories and subcategories is
      summarized in Table 3.



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    Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
    Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.
            Table 3: C-IED Categories and Subcategories Showing Concentrations of Initiatives




 a An initiative may apply to more than one subcategory(e.g., an initiative may address convoy protection as well as armor needs) thereby exceeding the number of total initiatives for each category
 as a whole as some initiatives may overlap and be counted more than once.
 b Since an initiative may apply to more than one subcategory, the organization conducting these initiatives may also apply to more than one subcategory thereby being counted more than once.
 c This table is not all-inclusive of potential sub categories in our survey data.
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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.

    Figure 2: Example Illustrating Organizations and Subcategory Relationship Data from Table 3
    --14 Organizations Conducting 60 initiatives Involving Detection of IEDs Using Chemical Sensors




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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.

   Intelligence Analysis Example
      In the area of IED-related intelligence analysis, we determined through survey responses and follow-up
      discussions with DOD officials that several organizations have ongoing C-IED initiatives involving the production
      and dissemination of IED-related intelligence. Further we identified an example among these initiatives that
      illustrates potential overlap in DOD’s intelligence analytical efforts.
       •   JIEDDO and other DOD entities perform intelligence analysis for the warfighter. For example, JIEDDO and
           the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center (NGIC) can both perform C-IED network intelligence analysis
           and provide intelligence reports to the warfighter that identify members, locations, and activities of an IED
           network. However, the extent to which Army and JIEDDO intelligence activities overlap remains unresolved.
           In 2011, the U.S. Army Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence attempted a comparison of Army and JIEDDO
           intelligence activities,10 but according to Army officials, JIEDDO did not provide the information the Army
           needed to fully complete this effort.
       •   JIEDDO has stated that it provides distinct intelligence analysis from other DOD intelligence entities but
           analysis by other DOD intelligence entities have created potential overlap. At the onset of operations in
           Afghanistan, NGIC provided intelligence analysis of warfighters at a strategic level addressing broader
           theater objectives, and as the war progressed, JIEDDO developed a distinct intelligence analytical capability
           to serve the unmet need of warfighters at a tactical level. However, Army intelligence analysis, including
           NGIC, expanded to meet tactical level warfighter intelligence analysis needs. For example, according to
           Army intelligence officials, in 2009, Army leaders instructed intelligence personnel in theater to adjust their
           emphasis to better support tactical level customers. According to these Army officials and other DOD
           intelligence officials, JIEDDO and NGIC compete to provide similar information to both tactical and strategic
           level customers.
       10This   effort was an attempt to achieve efficiencies directed by Secretary Gates in 2010 that could reduce potential duplication.

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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.

   Intelligence Analysis Example, cont’d.

   •   A January 2011 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence briefing stated in its findings that there is overlap
       between JIEDDO’s intelligence analysis activity and the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center. Therefore,
       the briefing recommended that after the war, JIEDDO’s intelligence analytical capabilities transition to the Army’s
       National Ground Intelligence Center. Such a consolidation should eliminate any duplication between JIEDDO and
       the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center. According to DOD officials, DOD has decided to separately
       maintain these intelligence analytical capabilities until after the war.




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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.

   Robotics Example
      In the area of hardware-related C-IED development efforts, we determined through survey responses that at least four
      organizations conduct initiatives developing robotic devices for detection of IEDs from a safe standoff distance for
      soldiers and explosive ordnance disposal specialists. Through follow-up discussions with DOD officials regarding
      these robotic efforts, we identified the following example that confirms and illustrates potential overlap in DOD’s
      robotics efforts.
         •   Two organizations are developing robotics devices with similar technologies and capabilities. According to
             Army and Navy officials:
               • The Army and Navy are each separately developing a family of robotic systems that share the following
                   four characteristics:
                     • Base platforms which accommodate interchangeable tools, such as cameras, sensors, etc.
                     • Small, medium, and large versions of these base platforms which address varying portability needs.
                     • Open designs which allow upgrades, modifications, and new tools to be added as missions evolve.
                     • Purchase of technical data to allow competitive procurement during their systems’ life-cycles, as
                        needed.
               • The purposes of these systems differ in one critical dimension. To satisfy explosive ordnance handling
                   needs, the Navy robotic system requires tools to handle or detonate explosive devices, while the Army
                   robotic system does not need to have such tools.
                     • This requirement may not be sufficient to justify development of two families of robotic systems
                        because with adaptable base platforms either system could be used as the base for the tools needed
                        by explosive ordnance technicians to handle or detonate explosive devices.
         •   According to DOD officials, the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise is an organization that provides oversight of
             consolidation of DOD ground robotic efforts, but it does not have the ability to direct individual services and
             organizations developing robotics within DOD to consolidate overlapping efforts. Also, the President’s fiscal
             year 2013 budget request does not include funds for this organization’s operations for next fiscal year.

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   Objective 2: Multiple DOD-funded C-IED Initiatives
   Concentrated in Some Areas of Development, Cont’d.

   Sensor Collection Systems Example:
      In the area of C-IED efforts involving the detection of IEDs, we determined that multiple organizations are
      conducting initiatives using chemical sensors. In analyzing these initiatives involved in the development of sensor
      collection systems for use in C-IED initiatives, we identified two sensor systems developed by two different
      organizations that are similar in their technologies and capabilities—illustrating potential overlap in this category of
      counter-IED efforts. In 2011, DOD decided to terminate one of these two initiatives.
         • In 2007, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) developed a sensor collections system initiative which DOD
             deployed in Afghanistan to detect IEDs in 2009.
         • In 2010, JIEDDO began development of its own sensor collection system initiative with similar technology
             and capabilities.
         • In 2011, according to a DOD official, DOD considered these two sensor collection system initiatives in its
             assessment of sensor collection systems to identify the most effective and efficient system for DOD’s
             continued use.
                • Because DOD lacks comprehensive data providing visibility over C-IED initiatives, DOD had to make a
                    broad data call across the department to identify and obtain data on all of the specific sensor collection
                    system initiatives within the department. The task force determined that there were at least four
                    different sensor collection system initiatives with similar technologies and capabilities.
         • Later in 2011 as a result of this assessment, DOD’s Joint Urgent Operational Needs Senior Integration
             Group determined that JIEDDO’s initiative would be the department’s sensor collection system for use in
             theater, and consequently DOD discontinued DIA’s initiative in October 2011.
         • In June 2012, DOD began transitioning JIEDDO’s initiative to the Army and, according to JIEDDO officials,
             it is expected to become a program of record in fiscal year 2014 or fiscal year 2015.
         • Total funding for DIA’s initiative was approximately $240 million from inception until October 2011. As of
             May 2011, JIEDDO funding for its initiative was approximately $181 million.


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   Objective 2: JIEDDO Does Not Consistently Collect and Track
   C-IED Data It Receives from DOD Organizations

      In response to the survey question asking respondents if they communicate with JIEDDO about
      their particular effort, survey results showed that a majority of respondents communicated with
      JIEDDO. However, our prior work found that JIEDDO does not have a system that consistently
      records data communicated on C-IED efforts.11 Therefore, these data are not available for analysis
      to JIEDDO or others in DOD to help reduce the risk of duplicating efforts and share best practices.
          •   Unclassified responses to our survey reported that for 76.6 percent (412 of 538) of initiatives
              outside of JIEDDO, there had been communication with JIEDDO.
          •   Unclassified responses to our survey reported that for 16.9 percent ( 91 of 538) of initiatives
              conducted outside of JIEDDO, there had been no communication with JIEDDO; for the
              remaining 6.5 percent (35 of 538) of initiatives, responses did not answer whether or not there
              had been communication with JIEDDO.
               • DOD has a diminished ability to use information when all organizations conducting C-IED
                 initiatives do not communicate with JIEDDO.
               • This lack of communication with JIEDDO may increase the potential for multiple
                 organizations to pursue overlapping efforts



          11GAO-12-280



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   Concluding Observations

   As we stated in our prior work, and as our survey results confirmed, DOD has funded
      hundreds of C-IED initiatives but has not developed a comprehensive database of these
      initiatives or the organizations conducting them. While DOD plans to provide JIEDDO
      access to department-wide C-IED data to enable the identification and development of a
      comprehensive C-IED initiatives database, it had not issued new guidance to require
      additional reporting on initiatives as July 2012. Further, our survey identified high
      concentrations of initiatives falling under several key C-IED areas of development. This
      condition, coupled with DOD’s lack of knowledge regarding its prior and current C-IED
      investments, demonstrates the potential for overlap and duplication. Because DOD
      concurred with our February 2012 recommendation to develop an implementation plan
      and timeline for establishing a counter-IED database, we are not making additional
      recommendations.




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   Appendix I: Scope and Methodology

   •   To answer the objectives of this report, we used a two-phased survey approach. A preliminary survey
       identified potential C-IED initiatives funded by DOD—this survey was sent in December 2010 and completed
       in July 2011 as part of a prior GAO engagement. The engagement resulted in issuance of GAO-12-280
       (related GAO products page 29), however the report did not include preliminary survey data because the
       second phase of the survey was not yet completed. We sent a more detailed survey in July 2011—also as
       part of the same prior GAO engagement —and this survey closed in January 2012. To identify recipients to
       receive the preliminary survey—i.e., persons conducting potential C-IED initiatives—we extracted contact
       information from a DOD database of C-IED technologies under development, DOD-sponsored C-IED
       conference attendee lists, and other sources. The preliminary survey also asked respondents to identify other
       individuals and organizations outside their own that conduct C-IED initiatives.
   •   To determine the number of different C-IED initiatives and the extent DOD is funding different organizations
       to develop C-IED initiatives, we:
          • Used the preliminary survey to compile an initial list of potential initiatives managed by organizations
               outside of JIEDDO that, in DOD officials’ opinion, met the definition we developed for C-IED initiatives:
                 • Any operational, materiel, technology, training, information, intelligence, or research and
                    development project, program, or other effort funded by any component of the Department of
                    Defense that is intended to assist or support efforts to counter, combat, or defeat the use of
                    improvised explosive devices and related networks. This includes IED precursors [e.g., raw
                    materials] such as chemicals or associated components such as command wires [e.g., triggering
                    wire].
          • Requested that the knowledgeable official of these identified C-IED initiatives—i.e., the persons we
               identified in our preliminary survey—complete and return a detailed survey (described in the
               methodology section below for our second objective) for the C-IED initiative(s) that met the definition.

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   Appendix I: Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.

          •  Determined that all JIEDDO efforts met our definition for C-IED initiatives and consequently identified the
             number of C-IED initiatives that JIEDDO funded and conducted by reviewing its data (1) for all JIEDDO
             activity recorded as of May 1, 2011 in its financial management system and (2) for a June 2011 JIEDDO
             listing that contained additional C-IED efforts begun after May 1, 2011. Based on these data sets, we
             developed a list of potential JIEDDO C-IED initiatives. We submitted the listing to JIEDDO for completion
             of surveys for each individual initiative. We also added these efforts to our list of potential C-IED initiatives
             identified through DOD organizations outside of JIEDDO.
         • Identified organizations involved with developing C-IED initiatives funded by DOD and followed up with
             DOD officials of those organizations to further identify any other organizations the survey may have missed.
         • Aggregated the funding data reported by respondents from the detailed survey for the C-IED initiatives we
             identified.
   •   To determine the extent and nature of any overlap that could lead to potential duplication of C-IED initiatives, we
         • Confirmed that each C-IED initiative of the total number identified met the definition of a C-IED initiative in
             order to send out a detailed survey to obtain further information about them.
         • Developed the detailed survey which included, among other things, requests for a narrative description of
             the initiative along with detailed data on the type, nature, and technology focus of the initiative, the funding
             associated with the initiative, and the organizational placement of the initiative. Most questions could be
             answered by a single check mark or a Yes/No/Don’t Know response, for example,
                  “Does this effort develop, operate, or maintain systems that do any of the following detection activities,
                  other than for training?”
                  “Detecting IEDs or IED components such as command wires (Yes/No/Don’t Know)”
                  “Detecting IED precursors such as stockpiled chemicals before inclusion in IEDs (Yes/No/Don’t Know)”
                  Etc.


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   Appendix I: Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.

          •   We sent the detailed survey to JIEDDO and to individuals identified through the preliminary survey.
              The survey was developed based on the following:
                • Discussions with DOD officials involved in C-IED management including JIEDDO, Joint Rapid
                    Acquisition Cell (JRAC), the Military Services, and managers of individual DOD C-IED efforts;
                • Pretests of the survey with C-IED program managers and other directly knowledgeable DOD
                    officials and revised it accordingly; and
                • Removal of C-IED initiatives. We removed C-IED initiatives from our list of potential initiatives
                    when we (1) determined that an effort was outside of our scope—i.e., C-IED initiatives funded by
                    DOD before 2008, (2) concluded that an effort was represented by another survey respondent or
                    (3) concluded that the effort did not meet the C-IED initiative definition above that we developed.
                    We made these determinations based on the responses we received from the detailed survey or
                    from another reliable source, and discussions with knowledgeable DOD officials.
          •   Grouped and totaled the C-IED efforts remaining (after removing C-IED initiatives from our potential
              initiatives list based on the preceding reasons) into two subsets —those with survey responses and the
              remaining without survey responses—to separate confirmed C-IED initiatives from remaining potential
              C-IED initiatives, which we were unable to confirm further.
          •   Separated confirmed survey responses that contained classified information from those that did not
              and determined that the vast majority of the responses were unclassified. For purposes of reporting on
              this objective, our analyses and presentation of summary survey data were then confined to the data
              from unclassified survey responses.




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   Appendix I: Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.

          •   Attempted to extract information from JIEDDO’s enterprise management system, where historic and
              management documentation is filed, to obtain additional information on the C-IED initiatives from
              unclassified responses but concluded that we did not have sufficient familiarity with the files to identify
              and extract the relevant, reliable information needed. We concluded that it would require the expertise
              of a knowledgeable JIEDDO program manager to do so.
          •   Used the organizational placement data collected from completed detailed surveys to list and
              summarize the organizations involved in C-IED initiatives within our scope of DOD-funded C-IED
              initiatives occurring in 2008 or later. We also analyzed the data to determine the concentration of all
              potential and confirmed C-IED initiatives that fell within and outside JIEDDO.
          •   Used the type/nature/technical nature data from completed surveys to identify concentrations in areas
              of development. Using 9 broad categories of C-IED initiatives we developed in the survey based on
              discussions with DOD officials who manage initiatives, we summarized all initiatives for survey data
              collected. We also developed 20 subcategories that demonstrate concentrations of C-IED initiatives at
              a level supporting each of the 9 broad categories. (Note: Through our data collection and analysis
              procedures, we attempted to ensure that all initiatives we analyzed were unique. However, multiple
              organizations working on different aspects of the same initiative may use different titles for their portion
              of an initiative and may have submitted survey responses for just their portion of an initiative. Therefore
              while we believe all survey responses describe unique activities, it is possible that the total number of
              initiatives we report include some of the same activities.)
          •   Used data on whether respondents communicated (by phone, e-mail, or in person) with other
              organizations regarding their C-IED initiative(s) to determine the degree of communication with
              JIEDDO for C-IED efforts conducted outside of JIEDDO.



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   Appendix I: Scope and Methodology, Cont’d.

   •   We sent the preliminary and detailed surveys to representatives of all potential C-IED initiatives we could
       identify. However, because there may be C-IED initiatives that we did not become aware of, the results of
       the surveys cannot be generalized to all DOD-funded C-IED efforts. The preliminary and detailed surveys
       were sent to recipients by email as MS Word form documents; recipients then filled in the documents and
       returned the surveys by email. The response rate for surveys sent to recipients other than JIEDDO (prior
       to editing survey responses) was 61.2 percent. The response rate for surveys sent to JIEDDO was 19
       percent. The information that these surveys provided was sufficient for our analyses.
   •   We conducted this performance audit from November 2011 through August 2012 in accordance with
       generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the
       audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and
       conclusions based on our audit objectives.




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   Related GAO Products

          •   Combating Terrorism: State Should Enhance Its Performance Measures for Assessing Efforts in Pakistan to Counter Improvised
              Explosive Devices. GAO-12-614 (Washington, D.C.: May 15, 2012.)

          •   Urgent Warfighter Needs: Opportunities Exist to Expedite Development and Fielding of Joint Capabilities. GAO-12-385
              (Washington, D.C.: Apr 24, 2012).

          •   2012 Annual Report: Opportunities to Reduce Duplication, Overlap and Fragmentation, Achieve Savings, and Enhance Revenue,
              GAO-12-342SP. (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 28, 2012).

          •   Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Strategic Outcome-Related Goals and Visibility Over Its Counter-IED Efforts. GAO-12-280
              (Washington, D.C.: February 17, 2012).

          •   Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Government Programs, Save Tax Dollars, and Enhance Revenue. GAO-11-
              318SP (Washington, D.C.: March 1, 2011).

          •   Warfighter Support: DOD’s Urgent Needs Processes Need a More Comprehensive Approach and Evaluation for Potential
              Consolidation.GAO-11-273 (Washington, D.C.: Mar 1, 2011).

          •   Warfighter Support: Actions Needed to Improve the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization's System of Internal
              Control.GAO 10-660 (Washington, D.C.: Jul.1, 2010).

          •   Warfighter Support: Improvements to DOD’s Urgent Needs Processes Would Enhance Oversight and Expedite Efforts to Meet
              Critical Warfighter Needs.GAO-10-460 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 30, 2010).

          •   Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Comprehensive Planning and a Results-Oriented Training Strategy Are Needed to Support Growing
              Inventories. GAO-10-331 (Washington, D.C.: Mar. 26, 2010).

          •   Warfighter Support: Challenges Confronting DOD's Ability to Coordinate and Oversee Its Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices
              Efforts. GAO-10-186T (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 29, 2009).

          •   Warfighter Support: Actions Needed to Improve Visibility and Coordination of DOD's Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Efforts.
              GAO 10-95 (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 29, 2009).

                                                                                                                                    Page 29




Page 36                                      Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure II


               Comments from the Department of Defense




Page 37                 Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure II




Page 38        Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
Enclosure III


                       GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments

GAO Contact:

Cary Russell, (202) 512-5431 or russellc@gao.gov

Staff Acknowledgments:

In addition to the contact named above, key contributors to this report were Grace Coleman,
Rajiv D’Cruz, Guy LoFaro, Emily Norman, Michael Shaughnessy, Rebecca Shea, Michael
Silver, Amie Steele, John David Strong, and Tristan T.To.




(351665)




Page 39                           Page GAO-12-861R Counter Improvised Explosive Devices
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