oversight

Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2012-07-17.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                          United States Government Accountability Office

GAO                       Testimony
                          Before the Committee on Energy and
                          Natural Resources, U.S. Senate


                          CYBERSECURITY
For Release on Delivery
Expected at 10 a.m. EDT
Tuesday, July 17, 2012



                          Challenges in Securing the
                          Electricity Grid
                          Statement of Gregory C. Wilshusen, Director
                          Information Security Issues




GAO-12-926T
                                             July 17, 2012

                                             CYBERSECURITY
                                             Challenges in Securing the Electricity Grid

Highlights of GAO-12-926T, a testimony
before the Committee on Energy and Natural
Resources, U.S. Senate




Why GAO Did This Study                       What GAO Found
The electric power industry is               The threats to systems supporting critical infrastructures are evolving and
increasingly incorporating information       growing. In testimony, the Director of National Intelligence noted a dramatic
technology (IT) systems and networks         increase in cyber activity targeting U.S. computers and systems, including a
into its existing infrastructure (e.g.,      more than tripling of the volume of malicious software. Varying types of threats
electricity networks, including power        from numerous sources can adversely affect computers, software, networks,
lines and customer meters). This use         organizations, entire industries, and the Internet itself. These include both
of IT can provide many benefits, such        unintentional and intentional threats, and may come in the form of targeted or
as greater efficiency and lower costs to     untargeted attacks from criminal groups, hackers, disgruntled employees,
consumers. However, this increased
                                             nations, or terrorists. The interconnectivity between information systems, the
reliance on IT systems and networks
                                             Internet, and other infrastructures can amplify the impact of these threats,
also exposes the grid to cybersecurity
vulnerabilities, which can be exploited
                                             potentially affecting the operations of critical infrastructures, the security of
by attackers. Moreover, GAO has              sensitive information, and the flow of commerce. Moreover, the electricity grid’s
identified protecting systems                reliance on IT systems and networks exposes it to potential and known
supporting our nation’s critical             cybersecurity vulnerabilities, which could be exploited by attackers. The potential
infrastructure (which includes the           impact of such attacks has been illustrated by a number of recently reported
electricity grid) as a governmentwide        incidents and can include fraudulent activities, damage to electricity control
high-risk area.                              systems, power outages, and failures in safety equipment.
GAO was asked to testify on the status       To address such concerns, multiple entities have taken steps to help secure the
of actions to protect the electricity grid   electricity grid, including the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the
from cyber attacks. Accordingly, this        National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Federal Energy
statement discusses (1) cyber threats        Regulatory Commission, and the Departments of Homeland Security and
facing cyber-reliant critical                Energy. These include, in particular, establishing mandatory and voluntary
infrastructures, which include the           cybersecurity standards and guidance for use by entities in the electricity
electricity grid, and (2) actions taken      industry. For example, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation and
and challenges remaining to secure           the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which have responsibility for
the grid against cyber attacks. In           regulation and oversight of part of the industry, have developed and approved
preparing this statement, GAO relied         mandatory cybersecurity standards and additional guidance. In addition, NIST
on previously published work in this
                                             has identified cybersecurity standards that support smart grid interoperability and
area and reviewed reports from other
                                             has issued a cybersecurity guideline. The Departments of Homeland Security
federal agencies, media reports, and
other publicly available sources.            and Energy have also played roles in disseminating guidance on security
                                             practices and providing other assistance.
What GAO Recommends                          As GAO previously reported, there were a number of ongoing challenges to
In a prior report, GAO has made              securing electricity systems and networks. These include:
recommendations related to electricity
grid modernization efforts, including        •   A lack of a coordinated approach to monitor industry compliance with
developing an approach to monitor                voluntary standards.
compliance with voluntary standards.         •   Aspects of the current regulatory environment made it difficult to ensure the
These recommendations have not yet               cybersecurity of smart grid systems.
been implemented.                            •   A focus by utilities on regulatory compliance instead of comprehensive
                                                 security.
                                             •   A lack of security features consistently built into smart grid systems.
                                             •   The electricity industry did not have an effective mechanism for sharing
                                                 information on cybersecurity and other issues.
                                             •   The electricity industry did not have metrics for evaluating cybersecurity.
View GAO-12-926T. For more information,
contact Gregory C. Wilshusen at (202) 512-
6244 or wilshuseng@gao.gov or David C.
Trimble at (202) 512-3841or
trimbled@gao.gov.
                                                                                      United States Government Accountability Office
Chairman Bingaman, Ranking Member Murkowski, and Members of the
Committee:
Thank you for the opportunity to testify at today’s hearing on the status of
actions to protect the electricity grid from cyber attacks.
As you know, the electric power industry is increasingly incorporating
information technology (IT) systems and networks into its existing
infrastructure (e.g., electricity networks including power lines and
customer meters). This use of IT can provide many benefits, such as
greater efficiency and lower costs to consumers. Along with these
anticipated benefits, however, cybersecurity and industry experts have
expressed concern that, if not implemented securely, modernized
electricity grid systems will be vulnerable to attacks that could result in
widespread loss of electrical services essential to maintaining our national
economy and security.
In addition, since 2003 we have identified protecting systems supporting
our nation’s critical infrastructure (which includes the electricity grid) as a
governmentwide high-risk area, and we continue to do so in the most
recent update to our high-risk list. 1
In my testimony today, I will describe (1) cyber threats facing cyber-reliant
critical infrastructures, 2 which include the electricity grid, and (2) actions
taken and challenges remaining to secure the grid against cyber attacks.
In preparing this statement in July 2012, we relied on our previous work in
this area, including studies examining efforts to secure the electricity grid
and associated challenges and cybersecurity guidance. 3 (Please see the
related GAO products in appendix I.) The products upon which this


1
 GAO’s biennial high-risk list identifies government programs that have greater
vulnerability to fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement or need transformation to
address economy, efficiency, or effectiveness challenges. We have designated federal
information security as a governmentwide high-risk area since 1997; in 2003, we
expanded this high-risk area to include protecting systems supporting our nation’s critical
infrastructure—referred to as cyber-critical infrastructure protection, or cyber CIP. See,
most recently, GAO, High-Risk Series: An Update, GAO-11-278 (Washington, D.C.:
February 2011).
2
 Federal policy established 18 critical infrastructure sectors. These include, for example,
banking and finance, communications, public health, and energy. The energy sector
includes subsectors for oil and gas and for electricity.
3
 GAO, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but More
Can Be Done to Promote Its Use, GAO-12-92 (Washington, D.C.: Dec. 9, 2011), and
Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity Guidelines, but Key
Challenges Remain to be Addressed, GAO-11-117 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 12, 2011).




Page 1                                            GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
             statement is based contain detailed overviews of the scope of our reviews
             and the methodology we used. We also reviewed documents from the
             Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the North American Electric
             Reliability Corporation, the Department of Energy, including its Office of
             the Inspector General, and the Department of Homeland Security
             Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team, as well as
             publicly available reports on cyber incidents. The work on which this
             statement is based was performed in accordance with generally accepted
             government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan
             and perform audits to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a
             reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions. We believe that the
             evidence obtained provided a reasonable basis for our findings and
             conclusions based on our audit objectives.


Background
             The electricity industry, as shown in figure 1, is composed of four distinct
             functions: generation, transmission, distribution, and system operations.
             Once electricity is generated—whether by burning fossil fuels; through
             nuclear fission; or by harnessing wind, solar, geothermal, or hydro
             energy—it is generally sent through high-voltage, high-capacity
             transmission lines to local electricity distributors. Once there, electricity is
             transformed into a lower voltage and sent through local distribution lines
             for consumption by industrial plants, businesses, and residential
             consumers. Because electric energy is generated and consumed almost
             instantaneously, the operation of an electric power system requires that a
             system operator constantly balance the generation and consumption of
             power.




             Page 2                                     GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
Figure 1: Functions of the Electricity Industry




                                           Utilities own and operate electricity assets, which may include generation
                                           plants, transmission lines, distribution lines, and substations—structures
                                           often seen in residential and commercial areas that contain technical
                                           equipment such as switches and transformers to ensure smooth, safe
                                           flow of current and regulate voltage. Utilities may be owned by investors,
                                           municipalities, and individuals (as in cooperative utilities). System
                                           operators—sometimes affiliated with a particular utility or sometimes
                                           independent and responsible for multiple utility areas—manage the



                                           Page 3                                  GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                             electricity flows. These system operators manage and control the
                             generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power using control
                             systems—IT- and network-based systems that monitor and control
                             sensitive processes and physical functions, including opening and closing
                             circuit breakers. 4 As we have previously reported, the effective
                             functioning of the electricity industry is highly dependent on these control
                             systems. 5 However, for many years, aspects of the electricity network
                             lacked (1) adequate technologies—such as sensors—to allow system
                             operators to monitor how much electricity was flowing on distribution
                             lines, (2) communications networks to further integrate parts of the
                             electricity grid with control centers, and (3) computerized control devices
                             to automate system management and recovery.
Modernization of the Electricity Infrastructure
                             As the electricity industry has matured and technology has advanced,
                             utilities have begun taking steps to update the electricity grid—the
                             transmission and distribution systems—by integrating new technologies
                             and additional IT systems and networks. Though utilities have regularly
                             taken such steps in the past, industry and government stakeholders have
                             begun to articulate a broader, more integrated vision for transforming the
                             electricity grid into one that is more reliable and efficient; facilitates
                             alternative forms of generation, including renewable energy; and gives
                             consumers real-time information about fluctuating energy costs.
                             This vision—the smart grid—would increase the use of IT systems and
                             networks and two-way communication to automate actions that system
                             operators formerly had to make manually. Electricity grid modernization is
                             an ongoing process, and initiatives have commonly involved installing
                             advanced metering infrastructure (smart meters) on homes and
                             commercial buildings that enable two-way communication between the
                             utility and customer. Other initiatives include adding “smart” components
                             to provide the system operator with more detailed data on the conditions
                             of the transmission and distribution systems and better tools to observe
                             the overall condition of the grid (referred to as “wide-area situational
                             awareness”). These include advanced, smart switches on the distribution
                             system that communicate with each other to reroute electricity around a



                             4
                              Circuit breakers are devices used to open or close electric circuits. If a transmission or
                             distribution line is in trouble, a circuit breaker can disconnect it from the rest of the system.
                             5
                              GAO, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Multiple Efforts to Secure Control Systems Are
                             Under Way, but Challenges Remain, GAO-07-1036 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 10, 2007).




                             Page 4                                              GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                              troubled line and high-resolution, time-synchronized monitors—called
                              phasor measurement units—on the transmission system.
                              The use of smart grid systems may have a number of benefits, including
                              improved reliability from fewer and shorter outages, downward pressure
                              on electricity rates resulting from the ability to shift peak demand, an
                              improved ability to shift to alternative sources of energy, and an improved
                              ability to detect and respond to potential attacks on the grid.
Regulation of the Electricity Industry
                              Both the federal government and state governments have authority for
                              overseeing the electricity industry. For example, the Federal Energy
                              Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulates rates for wholesale electricity
                              sales and transmission of electricity in interstate commerce. This includes
                              approving whether to allow utilities to recover the costs of investments
                              they make to the transmission system, such as smart grid investments.
                              Meanwhile, local distribution and retail sales of electricity are generally
                              subject to regulation by state public utility commissions.
                              State and federal authorities also play key roles in overseeing the
                              reliability of the electric grid. State regulators generally have authority to
                              oversee the reliability of the local distribution system. The North American
                              Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is the federally designated U.S.
                              Electric Reliability Organization, and is overseen by FERC. NERC has
                              responsibility for conducting reliability assessments and developing and
                              enforcing mandatory standards to ensure the reliability of the bulk power
                              system—i.e., facilities and control systems necessary for operating the
                              transmission network and certain generation facilities needed for
                              reliability. NERC develops reliability standards collaboratively through a
                              deliberative process involving utilities and others in the industry, which
                              are then sent to FERC for approval. These standards include critical
                              infrastructure protection standards for protecting electric utility-critical and
                              cyber-critical assets. FERC has responsibility for reviewing and approving
                              the reliability standards or directing NERC to modify them.
                              In addition, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 6
                              established federal policy to support the modernization of the electricity
                              grid and required actions by a number of federal agencies, including the
                              National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), FERC, and the




                              6
                              Pub. L. No. 110-140 (Dec. 19, 2007).




                              Page 5                                     GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                       Department of Energy. With regard to cybersecurity, the act required
                       NIST and FERC to take the following actions:
                       •   NIST was to coordinate development of a framework that includes
                           protocols and model standards for information management to
                           achieve interoperability of smart grid devices and systems. As part of
                           its efforts to accomplish this, NIST planned to identify cybersecurity
                           standards for these systems and also identified the need to develop
                           guidelines for organizations such as electric companies on how to
                           securely implement smart grid systems. In January 2011, 7 we
                           reported that NIST had identified 11 standards involving cybersecurity
                           that support smart grid interoperability and had issued a first version
                           of a cybersecurity guideline. 8
                       •   FERC was to adopt standards resulting from NIST’s efforts that it
                           deemed necessary to ensure smart grid functionality and
                           interoperability. However, according to FERC officials, the statute did
                           not provide specific additional authority to allow FERC to require
                           utilities or manufacturers of smart grid technologies to follow these
                           standards. As a result, any standards identified and developed
                           through the NIST-led process are voluntary unless regulators use
                           other authorities to indirectly compel utilities and manufacturers to
                           follow them.


The Electricity Grid Is Potentially Vulnerable to an Evolving Array of
Cyber-Based Threats
                       Threats to systems supporting critical infrastructure—which includes the
                       electricity industry and its transmission and distribution systems—are
                       evolving and growing. In February 2011, the Director of National
                       Intelligence testified that, in the past year, there had been a dramatic
                       increase in malicious cyber activity targeting U.S. computers and
                       networks, including a more than tripling of the volume of malicious
                       software since 2009. 9 Different types of cyber threats from numerous


                       7
                       GAO-11-117.
                       8
                        NIST Special Publication 1108, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid
                       Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0, January 2010 and NIST Interagency Report 7628,
                       Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security, August 2010.
                       9
                        Director of National Intelligence, Statement for the Record on the Worldwide Threat
                       Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community, statement before the Senate Select
                       Committee on Intelligence (Feb. 16, 2011).




                       Page 6                                          GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                                         sources may adversely affect computers, software, networks,
                                         organizations, entire industries, or the Internet. Cyber threats can be
                                         unintentional or intentional. Unintentional threats can be caused by
                                         software upgrades or maintenance procedures that inadvertently disrupt
                                         systems. Intentional threats include both targeted and untargeted attacks
                                         from a variety of sources, including criminal groups, hackers, disgruntled
                                         employees, foreign nations engaged in espionage and information
                                         warfare, and terrorists. Table 1 shows common sources of cyber threats.

Table 1: Sources of Cybersecurity Threats

Threat source                  Description
Bot-network operators          Bot-net operators use a network, or bot-net, of compromised, remotely controlled systems to
                               coordinate attacks and to distribute phishing schemes, spam, and malware attacks. The services of
                               these networks are sometimes made available on underground markets (e.g., purchasing a denial-
                               of-service attack or services to relay spam or phishing attacks).
Criminal groups                Criminal groups seek to attack systems for monetary gain. Specifically, organized criminal groups
                               use spam, phishing, and spyware/malware to commit identity theft, online fraud, and computer
                               extortion. International corporate spies and criminal organizations also pose a threat to the United
                               States through their ability to conduct industrial espionage and large-scale monetary theft and to
                               hire or develop hacker talent.
Hackers                        Hackers break into networks for the thrill of the challenge, bragging rights in the hacker community,
                               revenge, stalking, monetary gain, and political activism, among other reasons. While gaining
                               unauthorized access once required a fair amount of skill or computer knowledge, hackers can now
                               download attack scripts and protocols from the Internet and launch them against victim sites. Thus,
                               while attack tools have become more sophisticated, they have also become easier to use.
                               According to the Central Intelligence Agency, the large majority of hackers do not have the requisite
                               expertise to threaten difficult targets such as critical U.S. networks. Nevertheless, the worldwide
                               population of hackers poses a relatively high threat of an isolated or brief disruption causing serious
                               damage.
Insiders                       The disgruntled organization insider is a principal source of computer crime. Insiders may not need
                               a great deal of knowledge about computer intrusions because their knowledge of a target system
                               often allows them to gain unrestricted access to cause damage to the system or to steal system
                               data. The insider threat includes contractors hired by the organization, as well as careless or poorly
                               trained employees who may inadvertently introduce malware into systems.
Nations                        Nations use cyber tools as part of their information-gathering and espionage activities. In addition,
                               several nations are aggressively working to develop information warfare doctrine, programs, and
                               capabilities. Such capabilities enable a single entity to have a significant and serious impact by
                               disrupting the supply, communications, and economic infrastructures that support military power—
                               impacts that could affect the daily lives of citizens across the country. In his January 2012
                               testimony, the Director of National Intelligence stated that, among state actors, China and Russia
                               are of particular concern.
Phishers                       Individuals or small groups execute phishing schemes in an attempt to steal identities or
                               information for monetary gain. Phishers may also use spam and spyware or malware to accomplish
                               their objectives.
Spammers                       Individuals or organizations distribute unsolicited e-mail with hidden or false information in order to
                               sell products, conduct phishing schemes, distribute spyware or malware, or attack organizations
                               (e.g., a denial of service).




                                         Page 7                                             GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
Threat source                      Description
Spyware or malware authors         Individuals or organizations with malicious intent carry out attacks against users by producing and
                                   distributing spyware and malware. Several destructive computer viruses and worms have harmed
                                   files and hard drives, including the Melissa Macro Virus, the Explore.Zip worm, the CIH (Chernobyl)
                                   Virus, Nimda, Code Red, Slammer, and Blaster.
Terrorists                         Terrorists seek to destroy, incapacitate, or exploit critical infrastructures in order to threaten national
                                   security, cause mass casualties, weaken the economy, and damage public morale and confidence.
                                   Terrorists may use phishing schemes or spyware/malware in order to generate funds or gather
                                   sensitive information.
                                             Source: GAO analysis based on data from the Director of National Intelligence, Department of Justice, Central Intelligence Agency, and
                                             the Software Engineering Institute’s CERT® Coordination Center.

                                             These sources of cyber threats make use of various techniques, or
                                             exploits that may adversely affect computers, software, a network, an
                                             organization’s operation, an industry, or the Internet itself. Table 2 shows
                                             common types of cyber exploits.

Table 2: Types of Cyber Exploits

Type of exploit                              Description
Cross-site scripting                         An attack that uses third-party web resources to run script within the victim’s web browser
                                             or scriptable application. This occurs when a browser visits a malicious website or clicks a
                                             malicious link. The most dangerous consequences occur when this method is used to
                                             exploit additional vulnerabilities that may permit an attacker to steal cookies (data
                                             exchanged between a web server and a browser), log key strokes, capture screen shots,
                                             discover and collect network information, and remotely access and control the victim’s
                                             machine.
Denial-of-service                            An attack that prevents or impairs the authorized use of networks, systems, or
                                             applications by exhausting resources.
Distributed denial-of-service                A variant of the denial-of-service attack that uses numerous hosts to perform the attack.
Logic bombs                                  A piece of programming code intentionally inserted into a software system that will cause
                                             a malicious function to occur when one or more specified conditions are met.
Phishing                                     A digital form of social engineering that uses authentic-looking, but fake, e-mails to
                                             request information from users or direct them to a fake website that requests information.
Passive wiretapping                          The monitoring or recording of data, such as passwords transmitted in clear text, while
                                             they are being transmitted over a communications link. This is done without altering or
                                             affecting the data.
Structured Query Language (SQL)              An attack that involves the alteration of a database search in a web-based application,
injection                                    which can be used to obtain unauthorized access to sensitive information in a database.
Trojan horse                                 A computer program that appears to have a useful function, but also has a hidden and
                                             potentially malicious function that evades security mechanisms by, for example,
                                             masquerading as a useful program that a user would likely execute.
Virus                                        A computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or
                                             knowledge of the user. A virus might corrupt or delete data on a computer, use e-mail
                                             programs to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything on a hard disk.
                                             Unlike a computer worm, a virus requires human involvement (usually unwitting) to
                                             propagate.




                                             Page 8                                                                  GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
Type of exploit              Description
War driving                  The method of driving through cities and neighborhoods with a wireless-equipped
                             computer– sometimes with a powerful antenna–searching for unsecured wireless
                             networks.
Worm                         A self-replicating, self-propagating, self-contained program that uses network
                             mechanisms to spread itself. Unlike computer viruses, worms do not require human
                             involvement to propagate.
Zero-day exploit             An exploit that takes advantage of a security vulnerability previously unknown to the
                             general public. In many cases, the exploit code is written by the same person who
                             discovered the vulnerability. By writing an exploit for the previously unknown vulnerability,
                             the attacker creates a potent threat since the compressed timeframe between public
                             discoveries of both makes it difficult to defend against.
                             Source: GAO analysis of data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, United States Computer Emergency Readiness
                             Team, and industry reports.

Electricity Grid Faces Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities
                             The potential impact of these threats is amplified by the connectivity
                             between information systems, the Internet, and other infrastructures,
                             creating opportunities for attackers to disrupt critical services, including
                             electrical power. In addition, the increased reliance on IT systems and
                             networks also exposes the electric grid to potential and known
                             cybersecurity vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities include
                             •     an increased number of entry points and paths that can be exploited
                                   by potential adversaries and other unauthorized users;
                             •     the introduction of new, unknown vulnerabilities due to an increased
                                   use of new system and network technologies;
                             •     wider access to systems and networks due to increased connectivity;
                                   and
                             •     an increased amount of customer information being collected and
                                   transmitted, providing incentives for adversaries to attack these
                                   systems and potentially putting private information at risk of
                                   unauthorized disclosure and use.
                             In May 2008, we reported that the corporate network of the Tennessee
                             Valley Authority—the nation’s largest public power company, which
                             generates and distributes power in an area of about 80,000 square miles
                             in the southeastern United States—contained security weaknesses that
                             could lead to the disruption of control systems networks and devices
                             connected to that network. 10 We made 19 recommendations to improve
                             the implementation of information security program activities for the



                             10
                              GAO, Information Security: TVA Needs to Address Weaknesses in Control Systems and
                             Networks, GAO-08-526 (Washington, D.C.: May 21, 2008).




                             Page 9                                                               GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                             control systems governing the Tennessee Valley Authority’s critical
                             infrastructures and 73 recommendations to address specific weaknesses
                             in security controls. The Tennessee Valley Authority concurred with the
                             recommendations and has taken steps to implement them.
                             We and others have also reported that smart grid and related systems
                             have known cyber vulnerabilities. For example, cybersecurity experts
                             have demonstrated that certain smart meters can be successfully
                             attacked, possibly resulting in disruption to the electricity grid. In addition,
                             we have reported that control systems used in industrial settings such as
                             electricity generation have vulnerabilities that could result in serious
                             damages and disruption if exploited. 11 Further, in 2007, the Department of
                             Homeland Security, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, ran a
                             test that demonstrated that a vulnerability commonly referred to as
                             “Aurora” had the potential to allow unauthorized users to remotely control,
                             misuse, and cause damage to a small commercial electric generator.
                             Moreover, in 2008, the Central Intelligence Agency reported that
                             malicious activities against IT systems and networks have caused
                             disruption of electric power capabilities in multiple regions overseas,
                             including a case that resulted in a multicity power outage. 12 As
                             government, private sector, and personal activities continue to move to
                             networked operations, the threat will continue to grow.
Reported Incidents Illustrate the Potential Impact of Cyber Threats
                             Cyber incidents continue to affect the electricity industry. For example,
                             the Department of Homeland Security’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber
                             Emergency Response Team recently noted that the number of reported
                             cyber incidents affecting control systems of companies in the electricity
                             sector increased from 3 in 2009 to 25 in 2011. In addition, we and others
                             have reported 13 that cyber incidents can affect the operations of energy
                             facilities, as the following examples illustrate:
                             •     Smart meter attacks. In April 2012, it was reported that sometime in
                                   2009 an electric utility asked the FBI to help it investigate widespread
                                   incidents of power thefts through its smart meter deployment. The
                                   report indicated that the miscreants hacked into the smart meters to



                             11
                                 GAO-07-1036.
                             12
                               The White House, Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient
                             Information and Communications Infrastructure (Washington, D.C.: May 29, 2009).
                             13
                                 GAO-07-1036 and GAO-12-92.




                             Page 10                                       GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                          change the power consumption recording settings using software
                          available on the Internet.
                      •   Phishing attacks directed at energy sector. The Department of
                          Homeland Security’s Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency
                          Response Team reported that, in 2011, it deployed incident response
                          teams to an electric bulk provider and an electric utility that had been
                          victims of broader phishing attacks. The team found three malware
                          samples and detected evidence of a sophisticated threat actor.
                      •   Stuxnet. In July 2010, a sophisticated computer attack known as
                          Stuxnet was discovered. It targeted control systems used to operate
                          industrial processes in the energy, nuclear, and other critical sectors.
                          It is designed to exploit a combination of vulnerabilities to gain access
                          to its target and modify code to change the process.
                      •   Browns Ferry power plant. In August 2006, two circulation pumps at
                          Unit 3 of the Browns Ferry, Alabama, nuclear power plant failed,
                          forcing the unit to be shut down manually. The failure of the pumps
                          was traced to excessive traffic on the control system network, possibly
                          caused by the failure of another control system device.
                      •   Northeast power blackout. In August 2003, failure of the alarm
                          processor in the control system of FirstEnergy, an Ohio-based electric
                          utility, prevented control room operators from having adequate
                          situational awareness of critical operational changes to the electrical
                          grid. When several key transmission lines in northern Ohio tripped
                          due to contact with trees, they initiated a cascading failure of 508
                          generating units at 265 power plants across eight states and a
                          Canadian province.
                      •   Davis-Besse power plant. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission
                          confirmed that in January 2003, the Microsoft SQL Server worm
                          known as Slammer infected a private computer network at the idled
                          Davis-Besse nuclear power plant in Oak Harbor, Ohio, disabling a
                          safety monitoring system for nearly 5 hours. In addition, the plant’s
                          process computer failed, and it took about 6 hours for it to become
                          available again.


Actions Have Been Taken to Secure the Electricity Grid, but
Challenges Remain
                      Multiple entities have taken steps to help secure the electricity grid,
                      including NERC, NIST, FERC, and the Departments of Homeland
                      Security and Energy. NERC has performed several activities that are
                      intended to secure the grid. It has developed eight critical infrastructure
                      standards for protecting electric utility-critical and cyber-critical assets.



                      Page 11                                    GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
The standards established requirements for the following key
cybersecurity-related controls: critical cyber asset identification, security
management controls, personnel and training, electronic “security
perimeters,” physical security of critical cyber assets, systems security
management, incident reporting and response planning, and recovery
plans for critical cyber assets. In December 2011, we reported that
NERC’s eight cyber security standards, along with supplementary
documents, were substantially similar to NIST guidance applicable to
federal agencies. 14
NERC also has published security guidelines for companies to consider
for protecting electric infrastructure systems, although such guidelines are
voluntary and typically not checked for compliance. For example, NERC’s
June 2010 Security Guideline for the Electricity Sector: Identifying Critical
Cyber Assets is intended to assist entities in identifying and developing a
list of critical cyber assets as described in the mandatory standards.
NERC also has enforced compliance with mandatory cybersecurity
standards through its Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement Program,
subject to FERC review. NERC has assessed monetary penalties for
violations of its cyber security standards.
NIST, in implementing its responsibilities under the Energy Independence
and Security Act of 2007 with regard to standards to achieve
interoperability of smart grid systems, planned to identify cybersecurity
standards for these systems. In January 2011, we reported 15 that it had
identified 11 standards involving cybersecurity that support smart grid
interoperability and had issued a first version of a cybersecurity
guideline. 16 NIST’s cybersecurity guidelines largely addressed key
cybersecurity elements, such as assessment of cybersecurity risks and
identification of security requirements (i.e., controls); however, its
guidelines did not address an important element essential to securing
smart grid systems—the risk of attacks using both cyber and physical
means. 17 NIST officials said that they intended to update the guidelines to
address this and other missing elements they identified, but their plan and



14
 GAO-12-92.
15
 GAO-11-117.
16
  NIST Special Publication 1108, NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid
Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0, January 2010 and NIST Interagency Report 7628,
Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security, August 2010.
17
 GAO-11-117.




Page 12                                        GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
schedule for doing so were still in draft form. We recommended that NIST
finalize its plan and schedule for incorporating missing elements, and
NIST officials agreed. We are currently working with officials to determine
the status of their efforts to address these recommendations.
FERC also has taken several actions to help secure the electricity grid.
For example, it reviewed and approved NERC’s eight critical
infrastructure protection standards in 2008. Since then, in its role of
overseeing the development of reliability standards, the commission has
directed NERC to make numerous changes to standards to improve
cybersecurity protections. However, according to the FERC Chairman’s
February 2012 letter in response to our report on electricity grid
modernization, many of the outstanding directives have not been
incorporated into the latest versions of the standards. The Chairman
added that the commission would continue to work with NERC to
incorporate the directives. In addition, FERC has authorized NERC to
enforce mandatory reliability standards for the bulk power system, while
retaining its authority to enforce the same standards and assess penalties
for violations. We reported in January 2011 that FERC also had begun
reviewing initial smart grid standards identified as part of NIST efforts.
However, in July 2011, the commission declined to adopt the initial smart
grid standards identified as a part of the NIST efforts, finding that there
was insufficient consensus to do so.
The Department of Homeland Security has been designated by federal
policy as the principal federal agency to lead, integrate, and coordinate
the implementation of efforts to protect cyber-critical infrastructures and
key resources. Under this role, the Department’s National Cyber Security
Division’s Control Systems Security Program has issued recommended
practices to reduce risks to industrial control systems within and across all
critical infrastructure and key resources sectors, including the electricity
subsector. For example, in April 2011, the program issued the Catalog of
Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers,
which is intended to provide a detailed listing of recommended controls
from several standards related to control systems. 18 The program also
manages and operates the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency
Response Team to respond to and analyze control-systems-related
incidents, provide onsite support for incident response and forensic
analysis, provide situational awareness in the form of actionable



18
 DHS, National Cyber Security Division, Control Systems Security Program, Catalog of
Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (April 2011).




Page 13                                       GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
                           intelligence, and share and coordinate vulnerability information and threat
                           analysis through information products and alerts. For example, it reported
                           providing on-site assistance to six companies in the electricity subsector,
                           including a bulk electric power provider and multiple electric utilities,
                           during 2009-2011.
                           The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency which is responsible
                           for coordinating critical infrastructure protection efforts with the public and
                           private stakeholders in the energy sector, including the electricity
                           subsector. In this regard, we have reported that officials from the
                           Department’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability stated
                           that the department was involved in efforts to assist the electricity sector
                           in the development, assessment, and sharing of cybersecurity
                           standards. 19 For example, the department was working with NIST to
                           enable state power producers to use current cybersecurity guidance. In
                           May 2012, the department released the Electricity Subsector
                           Cybersecurity Risk Management Process. 20 The guideline is intended to
                           ensure that cybersecurity risks for the electric grid are addressed at the
                           organization, mission or business process, and information system levels.
                           We have not evaluated this guide.
Challenges to Securing Electricity Systems and Networks
                           In our January 2011 report, we identified a number of key challenges that
                           industry and government stakeholders faced in ensuring the cybersecurity
                           of the systems and networks that support our nation’s electricity grid. 21
                           These included the following:
                           •     There was a lack of a coordinated approach to monitor whether
                                 industry follows voluntary standards. As mentioned above, under the
                                 Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, FERC is responsible
                                 for adopting cybersecurity and other standards that it deems
                                 necessary to ensure smart grid functionality and interoperability.
                                 However, FERC had not developed an approach coordinated with
                                 other regulators to monitor, at a high level, the extent to which
                                 industry will follow the voluntary smart grid standards it adopts. There
                                 had been initial efforts by regulators to share views, through, for



                           19
                               GAO-12-92.
                           20
                             U.S. Department of Energy, Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management
                           Process, DOE/OE-0003 (Washington, D.C.: May 2012).
                           21
                               GAO-11-117.




                           Page 14                                       GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
     example, a collaborative dialogue between FERC and the National
     Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, which had discussed
     the standards-setting process in general terms. Nevertheless,
     according to officials from FERC and the National Association of
     Regulatory Utility Commissioners, FERC and the state public utility
     commissions had not established a joint approach for monitoring how
     widely voluntary smart grid standards are followed in the electricity
     industry or developed strategies for addressing any gaps. Moreover,
     FERC had not coordinated in such a way with groups representing
     public power or cooperative utilities, which are not routinely subject to
     FERC’s or the states’ regulatory jurisdiction for rate setting. We noted
     that without a good understanding of whether utilities and
     manufacturers are following smart grid standards, it would be difficult
     for FERC and other regulators to know whether a voluntary approach
     to standards setting is effective or if changes are needed. 22

•    Aspects of the current regulatory environment made it difficult to
     ensure the cybersecurity of smart grid systems. In particular,
     jurisdictional issues and the difficulties associated with responding to
     continually evolving cyber threats were a key regulatory challenge to
     ensuring the cybersecurity of smart grid systems as they are
     deployed. Regarding jurisdiction, experts we spoke with expressed
     concern that there was a lack of clarity about the division of
     responsibility between federal and state regulators, particularly
     regarding cybersecurity. While jurisdictional responsibility has
     historically been determined by whether a technology is located on
     the transmission or distribution system, experts raised concerns that
     smart grid technology may blur these lines. For example, devices
     such as smart meters deployed on parts of the grid traditionally
     subject to state jurisdiction could, in the aggregate, have an impact on
     those parts of the grid that federal regulators are responsible for—
     namely the reliability of the transmission system.



22
  In an order issued on July 19, 2011, FERC reported that it had found insufficient
consensus to institute a rulemaking proceeding to adopt smart grid interoperability
standards identified by NIST as ready for consideration by regulatory authorities. While
FERC dismissed the rulemaking, it encouraged utilities, smart grid product manufacturers,
regulators, and other smart grid stakeholders to actively participate in the NIST
interoperability framework process to work on the development of interoperability
standards and to refer to that process for guidance on smart grid standards. Despite this
result, we believe our recommendations to FERC in GAO-11-117, with which FERC
concurred, remain valid and should be acted upon as consensus is reached and
standards adopted.




Page 15                                         GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
     There was also concern about the ability of regulatory bodies to
     respond to evolving cybersecurity threats. For example, one expert
     questioned the ability of government agencies to adapt to rapidly
     evolving threats, while another highlighted the need for regulations to
     be capable of responding to the evolving cybersecurity issues. In
     addition, our experts expressed concern with agencies developing
     regulations in the future that are overly specific in their requirements,
     such as those specifying the use of a particular product or technology.
     Consequently, unless steps are taken to mitigate these challenges,
     regulations may not be fully effective in protecting smart grid
     technology from cybersecurity threats.
•    Utilities were focusing on regulatory compliance instead of
     comprehensive security. The existing federal and state regulatory
     environment creates a culture within the utility industry of focusing on
     compliance with cybersecurity requirements, instead of a culture
     focused on achieving comprehensive and effective cybersecurity.
     Specifically, experts told us that utilities focus on achieving minimum
     regulatory requirements rather than designing a comprehensive
     approach to system security. In addition, one expert stated that
     security requirements are inherently incomplete, and having a culture
     that views the security problem as being solved once those
     requirements are met will leave an organization vulnerable to cyber
     attack. Consequently, without a comprehensive approach to security,
     utilities leave themselves open to unnecessary risk.

•    There was a lack of security features built into smart grid systems.
     Security features are not consistently built into smart grid devices. For
     example, experts told us that certain currently available smart meters
     had not been designed with a strong security architecture and lacked
     important security features, including event logging 23 and forensics
     capabilities that are needed to detect and analyze attacks. In addition,
     our experts stated that smart grid home area networks—used for
     managing the electricity usage of appliances and other devices in the
     home—did not have adequate security built in, thus increasing their
     vulnerability to attack. Without securely designed smart grid systems,
     utilities may lack the capability to detect and analyze attacks,
     increasing the risk that attacks will succeed and utilities will be unable
     to prevent them from recurring.



23
  Event logging is a capability of an IT system to record events occurring within an
organization’s systems and networks, including those related to computer security.




Page 16                                          GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
•    The electricity industry did not have an effective mechanism for
     sharing information on cybersecurity and other issues. The electricity
     industry lacked an effective mechanism to disclose information about
     cybersecurity vulnerabilities, incidents, threats, lessons learned, and
     best practices in the industry. For example, our experts stated that
     while the electricity industry has an information sharing center, it did
     not fully address these information needs. In addition, President
     Obama’s May 2009 cyberspace policy review also identified
     challenges related to cybersecurity information sharing within the
     electric and other critical infrastructure sectors and issued
     recommendations to address them. 24 According to our experts,
     information regarding incidents such as both unsuccessful and
     successful attacks must be able to be shared in a safe and secure
     way to avoid publicly revealing the reported organization and
     penalizing entities actively engaged in corrective action. Such
     information sharing across the industry could provide important
     information regarding the level of attempted cyber attacks and their
     methods, which could help grid operators better defend against them.
     If the industry pursued this end, it could draw upon the practices and
     approaches of other industries when designing an industry-led
     approach to cybersecurity information sharing. Without quality
     processes for information sharing, utilities will not have the information
     needed to adequately protect their assets against attackers.

•    The electricity industry did not have metrics for evaluating
     cybersecurity. The electricity industry was also challenged by a lack of
     cybersecurity metrics, making it difficult to measure the extent to
     which investments in cybersecurity improve the security of smart grid
     systems. Experts noted that while such metrics 25 are difficult to
     develop, they could help compare the effectiveness of competing
     solutions and determine what mix of solutions combine to make the
     most secure system. Furthermore, our experts said that having
     metrics would help utilities develop a business case for cybersecurity
     by helping to show the return on a particular investment. Until such
     metrics are developed, there is increased risk that utilities will not
     invest in security in a cost-effective manner, or have the information


24
  The White House, Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and Resilient
Information and Communications Infrastructure (Washington, D.C.: May 29, 2009).
25
  Metrics can be used for, among other things, measuring the effectiveness of
cybersecurity controls for detecting and blocking cyber attacks.




Page 17                                         GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
    needed to make informed decisions on their cybersecurity
    investments.
To address these challenges, we made recommendations in our January
2011 report. To improve coordination among regulators and help
Congress better assess the effectiveness of the voluntary smart grid
standards process, we recommended that the Chairman of FERC
develop an approach to coordinate with state regulators and with groups
that represent utilities subject to less FERC and state regulation to (1)
periodically evaluate the extent to which utilities and manufacturers are
following voluntary interoperability and cybersecurity standards and (2)
develop strategies for addressing any gaps in compliance with standards
that are identified as a result of this evaluation. We also recommended
that FERC, working with NERC as appropriate, assess whether
commission efforts should address any of the cybersecurity challenges
identified in our report. FERC agreed with these recommendations.
Although FERC agreed with these recommendations, they have not yet
been implemented. According to the FERC Chairman, given the
continuing evolution of standards and the lack of sufficient consensus for
regulatory adoption, commission staff believe that coordinated monitoring
of compliance with standards would be premature at this time, and that
this may change as new standards are developed and deployed in
industry. We believe that it is still important for FERC to improve
coordination among regulators and that consensus is reached on
standards. We will continue to monitor the status of its efforts to address
these recommendations.
In summary, the evolving and growing threat from cyber-based attacks
highlights the importance of securing the electricity industry’s systems
and networks. A successful attack could result in widespread power
outages, significant monetary costs, damage to property, and loss of life.
The roles of NERC and FERC remain critical in approving and
disseminating cybersecurity guidance and enforcing standards, as
appropriate. Moreover, more needs to be done to meet challenges facing
the industry in enhancing security, particularly as the generation,
transmission, and distribution of electricity comes to rely more on
emerging and sophisticated technology.
Chairman Bingaman, Ranking Member Murkowski, and Members of the
Committee, this concludes my statement. I would be happy to answer any
questions you may have at this time.




Page 18                                 GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
Contact and Acknowledgments
                   If you have any questions regarding this statement, please contact
                   Gregory C. Wilshusen at (202) 512-6244 or wilshuseng@gao.gov or
                   David C. Trimble, Director, Natural Resources and Environment Team, at
                   (202) 512-3841 or trimbled@gao.gov. Other key contributors to this
                   statement include Michael Gilmore, Anjalique Lawrence, and Jon R.
                   Ludwigson (Assistant Directors), Paige Gilbreath, Barbarol James, Lee
                   McCracken, and Dana Pon.




                   Page 19                               GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
Appendix I: Related GAO Products
                     Cybersecurity: Threats Impacting the Nation. GAO-12-666T. Washington,
                     D.C.: April 24, 2012.
                     Cybersecurity: Challenges in Securing the Modernized Electricity Grid,
                     GAO-12-507T. Washington, D.C.: February 28, 2012.
                     Critical Infrastructure Protection: Cybersecurity Guidance Is Available, but
                     More Can Be Done to Promote Its Use. GAO-12-92. Washington, D.C.:
                     December 9, 2011.
                     High-Risk Series: An Update. GAO-11-278. Washington, D.C.: February
                     2011.
                     Electricity Grid Modernization: Progress Being Made on Cybersecurity
                     Guidelines, but Key Challenges Remain to Be Addressed. GAO-11-117.
                     Washington, D.C.: January 12, 2011.
                     Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Needed to Protect Our Nation's
                     Critical Infrastructure. GAO-11-865T. Washington, D.C.: July 26, 2011.
                     Critical Infrastructure Protection: Key Private and Public Cyber
                     Expectations Need to Be Consistently Addressed. GAO-10-628.
                     Washington, D.C.: July 15, 2010.
                     Cyberspace: United States Faces Challenges in Addressing Global
                     Cybersecurity and Governance. GAO-10-606. Washington, D.C.: July 2,
                     2010.
                     Cybersecurity: Continued Attention Is Needed to Protect Federal
                     Information Systems from Evolving Threats. GAO-10-834T. Washington,
                     D.C.: June 16, 2010.
                     Critical Infrastructure Protection: Update to National Infrastructure
                     Protection Plan Includes Increased Emphasis on Risk Management and
                     Resilience. GAO-10-296. Washington, D.C.: March 5, 2010.
                     Cybersecurity: Progress Made but Challenges Remain in Defining and
                     Coordinating the Comprehensive National Initiative. GAO-10-338.
                     Washington, D.C.: March 5, 2010.
                     Cybersecurity: Continued Efforts Are Needed to Protect Information
                     Systems from Evolving Threats. GAO-10-230T. Washington, D.C.:
                     November 17, 2009.
                     Defense Critical Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Improve the
                     Identification and Management of Electrical Power Risks and


                     Page 20                                  GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
           Vulnerabilities to DOD Critical Assets. GAO-10-147. Washington, D.C.:
           October 23, 2009.
           Critical Infrastructure Protection: Current Cyber Sector-Specific Planning
           Approach Needs Reassessment. GAO-09-969. Washington, D.C.:
           September 24, 2009.
           National Cybersecurity Strategy: Key Improvements Are Needed to
           Strengthen the Nation’s Posture. GAO-09-432T. Washington, D.C.:
           March 10, 2009.
           Electricity Restructuring: FERC Could Take Additional Steps to Analyze
           Regional Transmission Organizations’ Benefits and Performance.
           GAO-08-987. Washington, D.C.: September 22, 2008.
           Information Security: TVA Needs to Address Weaknesses in Control
           Systems and Networks. GAO-08-526. Washington, D.C.: May 21, 2008.
           Critical Infrastructure Protection: Multiple Efforts to Secure Control
           Systems Are Under Way, but Challenges Remain. GAO-07-1036.
           Washington, D.C.: September 10, 2007.
           Cybercrime: Public and Private Entities Face Challenges in Addressing
           Cyber Threats. GAO-07-705. Washington, D.C.: June 22, 2007.
           Meeting Energy Demand in the 21st Century: Many Challenges and Key
           Questions. GAO-05-414T. Washington, D.C.: March 16, 2005.




(311091)   Page 21                                   GAO-12-926T Electricity Grid Cybersecurity
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