oversight

Federal Vehicle Fleets: Agencies Have Continued to Incorporate Alternative Fuel Vehicles into Fleets, but Challenges Remain

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2019-08-26.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

             United States Government Accountability Office
             Report to Congressional Requesters




             FEDERAL VEHICLE
July 2019




             FLEETS

             Agencies Have
             Continued to
             Incorporate
             Alternative Fuel
             Vehicles into Fleets,
             but Challenges
             Remain




GAO-19-397
                                             July 2019

                                             FEDERAL VEHICLE FLEETS
                                             Agencies Have Continued to Incorporate Alternative
                                             Fuel Vehicles into Fleets, but Challenges Remain
Highlights of GAO-19-397, a report to
congressional requesters




Why GAO Did This Study                       What GAO Found
Since 1988, a series of laws have been       In responding to fleet management requirements over the past 10 years,
enacted and executive orders issued          agencies have incorporated an increasing number of alternative fuel vehicles into
related to federal goals of reducing         their fleets. These have been predominantly flex-fuel vehicles, as hybrid and
federal fleets’ petroleum use and            battery electric vehicles continue to make up a small percentage of agencies’
greenhouse gas emissions. For fiscal         fleets (see figure). The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for
year 2017, federal agencies were             overseeing agencies’ compliance by analyzing fleet data. Most agencies
required to: (1) to acquire certain types    reported meeting the fiscal year 2017 requirements to reduce petroleum use and
of vehicles, (2) to use more alternative     per-mile greenhouse gas emissions. DOE and other agency officials attributed
fuel, and (3) to meet targets for
                                             agencies’ success in meeting these requirements to (1) acquiring low
reducing petroleum and per-mile
                                             greenhouse-gas-emitting and alternative fuel vehicles, and (2) improving general
greenhouse gas emissions. Federal
agencies were also under a directive to
                                             fleet management such as by reducing miles traveled.
increase acquisitions of zero emission
(electric) vehicles.                         Total Numbers of All Domestic Alternative Fuel Vehicles for Federal Agencies Subject to the
                                             Energy Policy Act, by Type, for Fiscal Years 2008 through 2017
GAO was asked to review federal
agencies’ efforts related to these fiscal
year 2017 requirements. This report
addresses: (1) how agencies reported
meeting fleet energy requirements and
how agencies efforts changed their
fleets and (2) challenges agencies face
related to further meeting fleet energy
goals.
To conduct this review, GAO surveyed
29 federal agencies subject to fleet
energy requirements and selected 5
agencies—of a variety of sizes and
missions—for case studies. The case
studies results are not generalizable to
all agencies. GAO also: (1) reported on
DOE’s and GSA’s data on federal
fleets for fiscal years 2008 through
2017, including GSA’s acquisition and
cost data for fiscal year 2017, the most     According to agency officials, three challenges have continued to hinder
current data available; (2) reviewed         agencies’ efforts to further the goals of reducing federal fleets’ petroleum use
DOE’s and EPA’s information on               and greenhouse gas emissions. First, while hybrid and electric vehicles can offer
agencies’ performance related to fiscal      reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions, the costs of these
year 2017 requirements; and (3)              vehicles and their charging infrastructure make it challenging for agencies to
interviewed federal officials. The           acquire them on a large scale. According to GSA data, agencies purchased 373
directives to reduce per-mile                electric vehicles (sedans and minivans) in fiscal year 2017—along with about
greenhouse gas emissions and                 4,500 hybrid electric sedans—out of a total of over 16,000 sedans and minivans
increase acquisitions of electric            acquired. In total, agencies spent about $10.5 million more to purchase hybrid or
vehicles were revoked by an Executive        electric vehicles than they would have to purchase comparably sized
Order issued in May 2018.                    conventionally fueled vehicles. However, agencies did not consistently track the
                                             life-cycle costs of these vehicles. Second, agencies also stated that a lack of fuel
View GAO-19-397. For more information,       and infrastructure availability limits agencies’ use of alternative fuel. Third,
contact Andrew Von Ah at (202) 512-2834 or
vonaha@gao.gov.
                                             agency officials stated that a continuing need for larger vehicles limits the
                                             number of low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles agencies can acquire.


                                                                                          United States Government Accountability Office
Contents


Letter                                                                                     1
               Background                                                                   4
               Agencies Reported Meeting Most Fleet Energy Requirements by
                 Adding More Alternative Fuel Vehicles to their Fleets and
                 Improving Fleet Management                                               14
               Several Challenges May Limit Further Progress toward Fleet
                 Energy Goals                                                             23
               Agency Comments                                                            38

Appendix I     Survey of Federal Agencies on Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles          40



Appendix II    Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                         49



Appendix III   Agencies’ Consideration of Costs in Selecting Electric Vehicles            54



Appendix IV    GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments                                      57



Tables
               Table 1: Selected Statutory Energy Requirements and Directives
                       for Federal Fleets in Place for Fiscal Year 2017                    5
               Table 2: Total Number of Federal Agencies That Reported
                       Meeting Selected Statutory Energy Requirements and
                       Directives for Federal Fleets for Fiscal Year 2017                 15
               Table 3: Costs of Selected Passenger Vehicles Purchased by
                       Federal Agencies, Fiscal Year 2017                                 30

Figures
               Figure 1: Select Types of Light-duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles
                        Available to Federal Agencies through the General
                        Services Administration’s Fiscal Year 2019 Alternative
                        Fuel Vehicle Guide                                                 9




               Page i                                        GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Figure 2: Total Alternative Fuel Use by All Federal Agencies
         Subject to Requirements to Increase the Use of
         Alternative Fuel, from Fiscal Year 2005 to 2017                  19
Figure 3: Composition of All Federal Agencies’ Domestic Fleets by
         Various-Sized Vehicles, Fiscal Years 2013–2017                   21
Figure 4: Total Numbers of All Domestic Alternative Fuel Vehicles
         for Federal Agencies Subject to the Energy Policy Act of
         1992, by Type, for Fiscal Years 2008 through 2017                23
Figure 5: Estimated Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Tailpipe
         and Production of Fuel) of Selected Subcompact Sedans
         Driven in Regions That Do or Do Not Depend Heavily on
         Coal for Electricity Generation                                  28
Figure 6: Estimated Costs of Selected Subcompact Vehicles Paid
         to General Services Administration over a 5 Year Lease,
         Fiscal Year 2019                                                 33




Page ii                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Abbreviations

AFLEET            Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic
                  Transportation
CEQ               Council on Environmental Quality
DOD               Department of Defense
DOE               Department of Energy
DOT               Department of Transportation
E85               gasoline and ethanol fuel blends (51–83 percent ethanol)
EPA               Environmental Protection Agency
FAST              Federal Automotive Statistical Tool
FleetDASH         Fleet Sustainability Dashboard
GSA               General Services Administration
OMB               Office of Management and Budget
RFS               Renewable Fuel Standard
VA                Department of Veterans Affairs


This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
United States. The published product may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety
without further permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain
copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be
necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately.




Page iii                                                 GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
441 G St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20548




                       July 26, 2019

                       The Honorable Ron Johnson
                       Chairman
                       The Honorable Gary C. Peters
                       Ranking Member
                       Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
                       United States Senate

                       The Honorable James Lankford
                       Chairman
                       Subcommittee on Regulatory Affairs and Federal Management
                       Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
                       United States Senate

                       The federal government, like the rest of the nation, has relied largely on
                       petroleum-powered vehicles—i.e., gasoline or diesel fuel—in its fleets. In
                       fiscal year 2017, these fleets included about 604,000 domestic vehicles
                       that traveled over 4.5 billion miles to help meet a variety of government
                       missions. Since 1988, a series of laws have been enacted and executive
                       orders issued aimed at reducing federal fleets’ reliance on petroleum. 1
                       Among other things, for fiscal year 2017, federal agencies were required
                       to (1) acquire certain types of vehicles, such as vehicles that run on fuels
                       other than petroleum or use gasoline efficiently; (2) increase use of
                       alternative fuel; and (3) meet targets for reducing petroleum and per-mile
                       greenhouse gas emissions. In light of these requirements, agencies have
                       identified broad goals to reduce reliance on petroleum fuel and reduce
                       greenhouse gas emissions. 2 As technological advancements have
                       enabled manufacturers to develop a variety of vehicles that run on
                       alternative fuels, agencies have had to balance costs, availability of




                       1
                        The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 required the acquisition of alcohol and natural
                       gas vehicles. Pub. L. No. 100-494, § 4 (1988).
                       2
                        These broad energy goals are identified in agency guidance for implementation of
                       statutory requirements and directives.




                       Page 1                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
alternative fuel vehicles that meet agencies’ needs, and other issues with
their efforts to meet these requirements. 3

You asked us to review federal agencies’ efforts and any challenges they
face related to meeting the federal energy requirements and goals for
vehicle fleets. This report addresses:

•   how agencies meet fleet energy requirements and how agencies’
    efforts changed their fleet composition, and
•   challenges federal agencies face related to furthering fleet energy
    goals.
The report also includes information on the extent to which agencies
consider lifecycle costs when selecting vehicles.

To determine the extent to which federal agencies reported meeting fleet
energy requirements and the composition of federal agencies’ fleets, we
analyzed data from the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool’s (FAST)
database on the composition and fuel use of federal agencies’ fleets from
fiscal years 2008 through 2017, the most current data available at the
time of our review. Federal regulations direct agencies to submit
information annually on all of their non-tactical vehicles (those not used
for military purposes) to this database, which the Department of Energy
(DOE) and General Services Administration (GSA) established in 2000. 4
To assess the reliability of these data, we interviewed and collected
written responses from DOE officials on how the data are collected,
maintained, analyzed, and presented. This effort included how DOE flags
suspicious data, reviews the data, and validates the final entries. Based
on the information collected, we found the data sufficiently reliable for
reporting on the composition and fuel use of federal agencies’ fleets.

We reviewed federal statutes, regulations, and executive orders, and
examined DOE and GSA guidance on the various applicable statutory
requirements and executive orders. We reported on DOE or the
Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) assessment of agencies’
performance relative to select statutory requirements and directives in
3
  For this review we focused on four types of alternative fuel vehicles: flex-fuel vehicles,
hybrid-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. As of
fiscal year 2017, these types of alternative fuel vehicles were the most numerous in
federal fleets or were specifically mentioned in requirements.
4
 41 C.F.R. § 102-34.335.




Page 2                                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
executive orders (which we refer to as federal fleet energy requirements)
that were in effect for fiscal year 2017. This effort included two directives
that were issued in a 2015 Executive Order—to acquire zero emission
vehicles and to reduce per mile greenhouse gas emissions.
Subsequently, in May 2018, a new Executive Order issued by the current
administration revoked the 2015 Executive Order, so that these two
directives were no longer in effect for fiscal year 2018. Guidance for the
new Executive Order was issued in April 2019.

We also identified five agencies for case study—Department of the
Interior (Interior); Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); Department of
Transportation (DOT); the Army; and the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA). We selected these agencies to include a variety of fleet
sizes, vehicle compositions, and agency missions. We reviewed
documents reporting on the extent to which these agencies met federal
fleet energy requirements and interviewed agency officials, including fleet
managers, to understand how they met these requirements. We spoke
with these officials both before and after the 2015 Executive Order was
revoked. The results from the case studies cannot be generalized to
make inferences about all agencies.

To determine any challenges agencies face related to further meeting
fleet energy goals, we reviewed information on costs, petroleum
consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative fuel vehicles
and petroleum-fueled vehicles offered for lease by GSA using DOE’s
Vehicle Cost Calculator and Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle Environmental
and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) tool and GSA’s annual vehicle
guides. 5 We did not conduct a full life-cycle accounting of the relative
environmental costs and benefits of alternative fuel vehicles compared to
petroleum-fueled vehicles in federal fleets because we did not find
reliable data to conduct a study of that detail. However, we reviewed
available studies and government reports related to life-cycle accounting
of the costs of alternative fuel vehicles compared to petroleum fueled
vehicles in general. We also reviewed lease and purchase cost data
provided by GSA for fiscal year 2017 for all federal agencies. We
requested information from our case study agencies on actual costs of
using alternative fuel vehicles, but agencies were unable to provide that
information because they had not consistently tracked these data. In April
5
 DOE developed the AFLEET tool to enable users to estimate a vehicle’s petroleum use,
greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, and cost of ownership based on the
vehicle type, fuel-type, and various assumptions such as miles driven.




Page 3                                                GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                   2018, we also surveyed 29 federal agencies subject to the requirements
                   that support the fleet energy goals on challenges they have faced in
                   meeting them. 6 (See app. I for survey results).

                   At the time of the survey, the federal fleet energy requirements and
                   directives for fiscal year 2017 were still in effect, as the 2015 Executive
                   Order had not yet been revoked. We received a 100 percent response
                   rate to our survey. We also reviewed documentation from these agencies,
                   including their Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans and fleet
                   management plans. The strategic sustainability plan is to prioritize agency
                   actions to support the reduction of greenhouse gas emission and other
                   agency wide targets. The fleet management plan is to specifically address
                   how an agency’s fleet will meet its greenhouse gas reduction targets and
                   other relevant fleet requirements. In addition, we interviewed fleet
                   managers and other agency officials from the case study agencies as well
                   as GSA and DOE on the challenges agencies face related to fleet energy
                   requirements and goals. For more information about our scope and
                   methodology, see appendix II.

                   We conducted this performance audit from November 2017 to July 2019
                   in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
                   Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
                   sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
                   findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
                   the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
                   conclusions based on our audit objectives.



Background
Fleet Energy       Federal agencies’ fleets consist of many types of vehicles that support a
Requirements and   variety of purposes. For example, federal vehicles may be used to carry
                   staff and gear to remote, off-road locations to perform maintenance or
Directives
                   other tasks; to transport and provide healthcare to veterans; or to support
                   daily operations on military installations. Congress and several
                   administrations have required federal agencies to take various steps to

                   6
                    Overall, 31 federal agencies were subject to federal energy requirements in 2017. We
                   excluded Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency because its fleet management
                   is decentralized and the Defense Agencies within the Department of Defense (DOD)
                   because it was small relative to other DOD agencies.




                   Page 4                                               GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                                           reduce federal fleets’ petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.
                                           During fiscal year 2017, agencies were:

                                           •    to meet requirements to acquire alternative fuel vehicles and low
                                                greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles;
                                           •    to increase use of alternative fuel; and
                                           •    to decrease use of petroleum and per-mile greenhouse gas emissions
                                                (see table 1). 7

                                           According to DOE guidance for the 2015 Executive Order, acquiring such
                                           vehicles and increasing the use of alternative fuels can facilitate the goals
                                           of reducing both petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.

Table 1: Selected Statutory Energy Requirements and Directives for Federal Fleets in Place for Fiscal Year 2017

Requirement category      Energy requirement          Description
                                                                                                                        a
Vehicle acquisitions      Acquire alternative fuel    Acquire alternative fuel vehicles for 75% of new light-duty vehicle acquisitions
                          vehicles                    in metropolitan statistical areas by fleets of 20 or more (Energy Policy Act of
                                                           b
                                                      1992 )
                                                                                                                               c
                          Acquire low greenhouse-     Prohibits agencies from acquiring any light-duty vehicle or medium-duty
                          gas-emitting vehicles       passenger vehicle that is not a low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicle, unless an
                                                      agency self-certifies that no low greenhouse gas vehicle is available to meet
                                                      its needs or is reducing greenhouse gas emissions through an alternative
                                                                                                                  d
                                                      measure. (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 )
                          Acquire zero emission       Acquire zero emission vehicles, such as battery electric vehicles, or plug-in
                          (electric) vehicles         hybrid vehicles for 20 percent of all new agency passenger vehicle
                                                                                                                                e
                                                      acquisitions by fiscal year 2020, and for 50 percent by fiscal year 2025.
                                                      (Executive Order 13693 – revoked May 2018)
Alternative fuel use      Use alternative fuel in     Use only alternative fuels in dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles unless
                          dual-fueled vehicles        granted a waiver by Department of Energy. A waiver can be granted if there is
                                                      not a fueling station within 5 miles or 15 minutes of the vehicle’s primary
                                                      location or where the alternative fuel is unreasonably more expensive. (Energy
                                                                          f
                                                      Policy Act of 2005 )
                          Increase alternative fuel   Increase overall annual alternative fuel consumption by 10 percent by October
                          consumption                 1, 2015, and for each year thereafter, relative to the 2005 baseline. (Energy
                                                                                               g
                                                      Independence and Security Act of 2007 )




                                           7
                                            According to EPA, the greenhouse gas emissions level for any given model year will be
                                           determined by estimating the level needed to designate approximately 25 percent of cars
                                           and 25 percent of light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles as compliant with
                                           the Energy Independence Security Act of 2007. These vehicles can consume alternative
                                           fuels or petroleum and are considered low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles.




                                           Page 5                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Requirement category                  Energy requirement                   Description
Reduction targets                     Reduce fleet petroleum               Reduce annual petroleum consumption 20 percent by October 1, 2015, and for
                                      consumption                          each year thereafter, relative to the 2005 baseline. (Energy Independence and
                                                                                               h
                                                                           Security Act of 2007 )
                                      Reduce per-mile                      Reduce fleet-wide per-mile greenhouse gas emissions by 4 percent by fiscal
                                      greenhouse gas                       year 2017, by 15 percent by fiscal year 2021, and by 30 percent by fiscal year
                                                                                                                            .i
                                      emissions                            2025, all relative to a fiscal year 2014 baseline (Executive Order 13693 –
                                                                           revoked May 2018)
Source: GAO summary of federal requirements. | GAO-19-397
                                                            a
                                                             The term light-duty motor vehicle means a vehicle of up to and including 8,500 pounds gross vehicle
                                                            weight and can include cars, smaller pickup trucks, minivans, vans and sport-utility vehicles.
                                                            Agencies may define any of these as passenger vehicles if used to carry passengers.
                                                            b
                                                                Pub. L. No. 102-486, §303, 106 Stat. 2871 (1992).
                                                            c
                                                             Medium-duty passenger vehicles are of gross weight between 8,500 and 10,000 pounds, such as a
                                                            pickup truck, which agencies can classify as a passenger vehicle if used to carry passengers.
                                                            d
                                                                Pub. L No. 110–140, § 141 (2007).
                                                            e
                                                             80 Fed. Reg. 15871 (Mar. 25,2015). This Executive Order was subsequently revoked. 83 Fed. Reg.
                                                            23771 (May 22, 2018). Zero emission vehicles include fuel-cell vehicles. However, in 2018 and 2019
                                                            GSA did not offer any fuel-cell passenger vehicles.
                                                            f
                                                                Pub. L. 109-58, § 701 (2005).
                                                            g
                                                                Pub. L. No. 110-140 § 142 (2007).
                                                            h
                                                                Pub. L. No. 110-140 § 142 (2007).
                                                            i
                                                            80 Fed. Reg. 15871 (Mar. 25,2015). This Executive Order was subsequently revoked. 83 Fed. Reg.
                                                            23771 (May 22, 2018).




                                                            For fiscal year 2017, in addition to meeting the above requirements,
                                                            federal agencies were to meet other requirements related to overall fleet
                                                            management. Federal regulations require agencies to complete a fleet
                                                            management plan annually and conduct an assessment of their fleet at
                                                            least every 5 years. 8 In addition, an Executive Order issued by the prior
                                                            administration in 2015 directed agencies to determine and plan for their
                                                            optimum fleet inventory with emphasis placed on eliminating unnecessary
                                                            or non-essential vehicles. 9

                                                            Certain federal fleet energy directives in place in fiscal year 2017 were
                                                            revoked by an Executive Order issued in May 2018. Specifically,

                                                            8
                                                             Federal agencies are to conduct a Vehicle Allocation Methodology assessment that
                                                            reviews their vehicle fleet and determines the appropriate size, type, and number of
                                                            vehicles to optimize the fleet. 41 C.F.R. §102–34.50(b). GSA requires federal agencies to
                                                            conduct the assessment every 5 years.
                                                            9
                                                             Executive Order 13693 directed agencies to conduct this review of their fleet as part of its
                                                            Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. 80 Fed. Reg. 15871 (Mar. 25, 2015).




                                                            Page 6                                                         GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
directives related to acquiring zero emission (electric) vehicles and
reducing per-mile greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the additional
fleet management expectations, were revoked. 10 The Trump
administration issued a new Executive Order requiring that the Secretary
of Energy, in collaboration with other federal agencies, review existing
federal vehicle fleet requirements and report to the Council on
Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Office of Management and Budget
(OMB) regarding opportunities to optimize federal fleet performance,
reduce associated costs, and streamline reporting and compliance
requirements. According to DOE officials, DOE submitted a report to CEQ
and OMB as required.

In April 2019, CEQ and OMB issued implementing instructions for the
Executive Order. 11 The implementing instructions emphasized that
agencies should focus on the statutory requirements while increasing
efficiency, optimizing performance, and reducing waste and costs. The
guidance particularly emphasized agencies’ focus on reducing petroleum
use and increasing alternative fuel consumption. The guidance did not
mention the extent to which agencies should continue to acquire any
specific type of alternative fuel vehicle.

Annually, federal agencies are responsible for reporting vehicle inventory
(including acquisitions and disposals), fuel consumption, mileage, and
cost to the FAST database. Additionally, federal agencies are required to
annually report on their fleets’ inventories, operating costs, and other fleet
data. 12 Costs submitted to the FAST database include acquisition costs,
maintenance, fuel costs, indirect costs, commercial lease, GSA lease,
and disposal proceeds. Prior to fiscal year 2017, agencies submitted this
data at an aggregate, rather than the vehicular level, so that costs or
other performance could not be analyzed at the vehicular level. For fiscal
year 2017, as required by GSA and DOE, agencies began submitting
vehicular level data to the FAST database, providing more detail about
agency’s vehicles. 13 The FAST database specifically tracks data to

10
  80 Fed. Reg. 15871 (Mar. 25, 2015); 83 Fed. Reg. 23771 (May 22, 2018).
11
  The Executive Order directed CEQ to review and where needed, revise existing
guidance.
12
  41 C.F.R. § 102-34.335.
13
   According to DOE officials, not all agencies were able to provide vehicular level data for
fiscal year 2017. Furthermore, GSA indicated they expected that fiscal year 2018
vehicular level data would be usable for analysis by government agencies.




Page 7                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                            assess agencies’ performance relative to fleet energy requirements in
                            federal statute and executive orders.

Alternative Fuel Vehicles   A range of vehicles qualify as alternative fuel vehicles (see fig. 1). This
                            range includes vehicles that run entirely on alternative fuel, such as
                            electricity, and dual-fueled vehicles that can run on an alternative fuel as
                            well as on gasoline, such as flex-fuel vehicles, which can run on gasoline
                            or ethanol fuel blends (E85). 14 In 2008, the definition of alternative fuel
                            vehicles was amended to include hybrid electric vehicles, which run on
                            gasoline with help from an electric battery, and, in certain circumstances,
                            other vehicles that would achieve a significant reduction in petroleum
                            consumption, such as highly fuel efficient gasoline vehicles that are also
                            low greenhouse gas-emitting vehicles. 15




                            14
                              Flex-fuel vehicles can operate on an ethanol blend, E85, or exclusively on gasoline. E85
                            is a blend of up to 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. Alternative fuel vehicles
                            also include those that operate on natural gas, bio-diesel, and propane powered vehicles.
                            Gasoline can also be a blend of up to 10-15 percent ethanol. In fiscal year 2019, GSA
                            offered 14 different hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicles including
                            a Ford Fusion hybrid electric vehicle and a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.
                            GSA only offered one battery-electric vehicle, the Chevrolet Bolt.


                            15
                              The National Defense Reauthorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 modified the definition of
                            alternative fuel vehicles to include qualified fuel cell vehicles. Pub. L.No. 110-181, § 2862
                            (2008). According to DOE, when locating these low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles
                            they must be in areas where alternative fuel is not reasonably available or is unreasonably
                            expensive.




                            Page 8                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Figure 1: Select Types of Light-duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles Available to Federal Agencies through the General Services
Administration’s Fiscal Year 2019 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Guide




                                         Note: General Services Administration (GSA) is the mandatory source for the purchase of federal
                                         agency non-tactical vehicles and also offers a vehicle leasing program to federal customers. In this
                                         role, GSA develops an Alternative Fuel Vehicle guide annually that outlines the available alternative
                                         fuel vehicle configurations to the federal government. In 2019, GSA vehicle offerings include a
                                         Chevrolet Bolt (battery electric), a Ford Fusion (plug-in hybrid electric), and a Hyundai Ioniq (hybrid
                                         electric), among others. In addition to flex fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric
                                         vehicles, and battery-electric vehicles, for fiscal year 2019, GSA also offered other types of alternative
                                         fuel vehicles, including bio-diesel capable vehicles, compressed natural gas vehicles, propane
                                         vehicles, and liquefied natural gas vehicles. A full listing of the available alternative fuel vehicles can
                                         be found in the Alternative Fuel Vehicle guide at
                                         https://www.gsa.gov/buying-selling/products-services/transportation-logistics-services/vehicle-leasing/
                                         alternative-fuel-vehicles-technology/alternative-fuel-vehicle-afv-guides-and-helpful-links.
                                         a
                                          As part of our analysis of GSA’s offered vehicles above, we refer to vehicles that are classified as
                                         compact and midsize sedans as “midsized” since they both have 4 doors and can fit 5 passengers.
                                         See 40 C.F.R. § 600.315.
                                         b
                                          Regenerative braking allows electric vehicles to capture energy normally lost during braking by using
                                         the electric motor as a generator and storing that captured energy in the battery.
                                         c
                                          Batteries in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are larger than those in a hybrid electric vehicle and allow
                                         it to travel on electricity alone.




                                         Alternative fuel vehicles, including electric vehicles, can offer
                                         environmental benefits compared to similarly-sized conventional
                                         petroleum-fueled vehicles but also carry their own environmental costs.
                                         For example, flex-fuel vehicles, if fueled by E85, reduce petroleum use


                                         Page 9                                                              GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
because E85 consists of up to about 85 percent ethanol 16, and according
to DOE, using ethanol as a vehicle fuel reduces greenhouse gas
emissions, along with emission of other harmful toxics. 17 However, using
ethanol increases other harmful emissions deemed carcinogenic and may
also contribute to ozone formation. 18 Furthermore, as we reported in May
2019, the production of biofuels, such as ethanol, just like the production
of gasoline, results in greenhouse gas emissions throughout its life-
cycle—including growing the corn feedstock, transporting it, converting it
to ethanol, distributing the ethanol, and burning it in an engine. Other
emissions are released indirectly through broad economic changes
associated with increased biofuel use, including increased ethanol use,
such as when changes in land use to grow corn cause the conversion of
previously nonagricultural lands into agricultural lands. Nonetheless,
recent studies have found the life-cycle emissions of corn ethanol to be
lower than those of gasoline 19.

Similarly, battery-electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hybrid-electric
vehicles rely on batteries for all or some of their power, reducing or
eliminating petroleum use and associated tailpipe greenhouse gas
emissions, but charging, producing, and disposing of these batteries can
result in environmental effects. With respect to charging, the production of
electricity to power these vehicles results in emissions, the amount of
which is dependent on the source of the electricity, a factor we discuss in

16
  According to DOE’s Alternative Fuels Data Center, E85 (or flex fuel) is a term that refers
to ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51% to 83% ethanol, depending on geography and
season.
17
  Other harmful toxics from vehicle emissions include benzene, which is a known
carcinogen.
18
  DOE oversees the Alternative Fuels Data Center’s website where more information on
ethanol emissions can be found. Accessed May 31, 2019.
https://afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/flexible_fuel_emissions.html.
19
  GAO. Renewable Fuel Standard: Information on Likely Program Effects on Gasoline
Prices and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, GAO-19-47 (Washington, D.C.: May 3, 2019).
This report focused on the 2005 Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates that
transportation fuels sold in the United States contain increasing amounts of biofuels—
which to date have mostly been corn ethanol—to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
among other things. We reported that experts we interviewed generally agreed that the
RFS has likely had a limited effect on such emissions. In 2016, we also reported that
advanced biofuels can achieve greater emissions reductions than corn ethanol, but such
biofuels have been uneconomical to produce at the volumes required by the RFS. GAO,
Renewable Fuel Standard: Program Unlikely to Meet Its Targets for Reducing
Greenhouse Gas Emissions, GAO-17-94 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 28, 2016)




Page 10                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                           greater detail later in this report. With respect to production, GAO
                           previously reported that extracting lithium and other minerals from
                           locations where it is abundant, such as in South America, can pose
                           environmental challenges that would damage the ecosystems in these
                           areas. 20 With respect to disposal, according to DOE’s alternative-fuels
                           data center, the disposal of batteries used in electric and hybrid-electric
                           vehicles can result in hazardous materials entering the waste stream—
                           but work is under way to develop battery recycling processes that
                           minimize the life-cycle effects of such batteries. According to DOE, as
                           electric-drive vehicles become increasingly common, the battery-recycling
                           market may expand. 21

                           In addition, the climate in which battery-electric and plug-in electric
                           vehicles are used can affect the life of the battery. However, federal
                           agencies do not collect the data that would allow analysis of these effects
                           specific to the use of vehicles in federal agencies’ fleets. Furthermore,
                           emissions related to fuel production or battery production or disposability
                           are not incorporated into the requirements placed on federal agencies
                           with respect to their fleets. 22 As we discuss in more detail later, the
                           various types of alternative fuel vehicles vary in the extent to which they
                           can help agencies meet existing requirements to reduce petroleum use
                           and the subsequently revoked requirement in place for fiscal year 2017 to
                           reduce tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions.


Federal Responsibilities   According to DOE officials, DOE is responsible for overseeing energy
                           goals and requirements and assists agencies in meeting these federal
                           energy requirements. DOE tracks whether federal agencies are meeting
                           the fleet energy requirements by analyzing the fleet inventory, fuel
                           consumption, and fuel use data uploaded to the FAST database. DOE
                           also oversees the Fleet Sustainability Dashboard (FleetDASH) database.
                           FleetDASH tracks agencies’ fuel consumption through data produced


                           20
                             See GAO, Federal Energy and Fleet Management: Plug-in Vehicles Offer Potential
                           Benefits, but High Costs and Limited Information Could Hinder Integration into the Federal
                           Fleet, GAO-09-493 (Washington, D.C., June 9, 2009).
                           21
                             DOE, Alternative Fuels Data Center, accessed May 29, 2019.
                           https://afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/electric_batteries.html
                           22
                             According to GSA, these negative effects in the life-cycle are also seen in other vehicle
                           fuel types, such as petroleum fueled vehicles from drilling for petroleum.




                           Page 11                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
when employees use fuel cards. 23 This tool can track where vehicles are
filling up and if there was an alternative fuel station nearby that could
have been used. 24 FleetDASH can also provide agency fleet managers
with reports on alternative fuel use and when drivers missed opportunities
to fuel with alternative fuels. DOE also issues guidance and conducts
research into vehicle technologies that can support energy requirements,
including electric vehicles. In prior work, we recommended that DOE
develop guidance for agencies that specifies the elements that agencies
should include in their plans for acquiring a mix of vehicles to meet
federal requirements and goals. In June 2010, DOE issued the
Comprehensive Federal Fleet Management Handbook, implementing this
recommendation. DOE’s Fleet Management Handbook recommends to
agencies how to develop greenhouse gas and petroleum reduction
strategies and acquire vehicles in support of these strategies, among
other issues. DOE also has developed online tools to help provide
guidance to agencies and consumers on the fuel efficiency and
environmental effects of vehicles.

GSA is responsible for providing vehicles for federal agencies to
purchase or lease. GSA is a mandatory source for purchase of new
vehicles for executive agencies and other eligible users. 25 Federal
agencies can also use GSA to acquire leased vehicles. Under this
arrangement, an agency informs GSA what kind of vehicle is necessary
for its mission. 26 Every year, GSA publishes an annual guide on vehicles
available for purchase or lease that includes the vehicles’ fuel type,
purchase and lease prices, size, and other specifications.




23
  According to DOE staff, a fleet fuel card is used to track the fuel type, transactions, and
use which is captured in FleetDASH. However, according to DOE, for a small percentage
of fuel transactions, the data, particularly the type of fuel, has been found to be inaccurate
due to gas stations’ mis-identifying the type of fuel being pumped.
24
  According to DOE, while FleetDASH is primarily used to identify ethanol use and
consumption but can also be used to identify fueling stations for other types of alternative
fuels, such as natural gas stations, electric-vehicle-charging stations, and other types of
alternative fuel stations.
25
  41 C.F.R. § 101-26.501-1.
26
  According to GSA officials, an agency that lacks specific authority to purchase or hire
passenger motor vehicles or has not been delegated leasing authority is required to
participate in the GSA’s centralized leasing program.




Page 12                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
In setting the lease prices, GSA is required by law to recover all costs it
incurs in providing vehicles and services to federal customers. 27 Agencies
that lease vehicles from GSA generally pay a monthly rate and a mileage
rate. 28 These charges are designed to cover fixed costs such as: (1) the
vehicle’s acquisition cost; (2) administrative costs (including staff and
facilities); and (3) depreciation—as well as the variable costs of fueling
(except electricity used 29) and vehicles’ maintenance. In the case of
alternative fuel vehicles, if the cost of the vehicle is greater than that of an
equivalent conventional vehicle, agencies must cover these higher
costs. 30 Pursuant to law, GSA distributes these higher costs for
alternative fuel vehicles across the agency’s entire leased fleet via a flat
per-vehicle monthly surcharge in the year the vehicle was acquired.
Surcharges are set at the agency headquarters’ level. According to a
GSA fact sheet, this approach allows GSA to offer a greater variety of
alternative fuel vehicles without affecting lease rates of non-alternative
fuel vehicles and spread the additional cost across all agencies. 31

At times, GSA has conducted special pilot programs that have waived
higher costs of alternative fuel vehicles in order to test new technology.
For example, in 2011 and 2014, GSA ran two pilot programs that added
over 300 electric vehicles and charging stations to the fleet. According to
GSA officials, these pilots were designed to help GSA Fleet understand
more about the performance, costs, and maintenance needs of electric
vehicles to help them prepare for the potential increase in electric
vehicles in the fleets in order to better advise other agencies on these
vehicles’ use and operation. In these programs, GSA spent over $5.9
million covering the additional costs for the electric vehicles and spent
another $1.2 million on purchasing electric-vehicle-charging stations.



27
  40 U.S.C. § 605(b).
28
 Leased vehicles have an associated fleet fuel card to purchase fuel that is charged to
GSA.
29
  Effective June 2019, electricity usage is now covered in rates for certain charging
stations that accept the GSA Fleet Services Card.
30
  The higher cost of an alternative fuel vehicle is referred to as the “incremental” cost, and
GSA is required to allocate the incremental cost over the entire fleet. 42 U.S.C. §
13212(c).
31
  According to GSA, the variety of alternative fuel vehicles available is the result of what
vehicle manufacturers and vendors are producing and offering to GSA.




Page 13                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                          The majority of agencies subject to federal-fleet energy requirements
Agencies Reported         reported meeting most requirements for fiscal year 2017 by changing the
Meeting Most Fleet        mix of vehicles acquired and improving fleet management. 32 Specifically,
                          agencies credited acquiring low greenhouse-gas-emitting and alternative
Energy Requirements       fuel vehicles for helping to reduce petroleum use and per-mile
by Adding More            greenhouse gas emissions. Agencies also described improving their fleet
                          management in other ways, such as removing unnecessary vehicles and
Alternative Fuel          reducing miles traveled in order to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse
Vehicles to their         gas emissions. Agencies’ fleets reflected increasing numbers of
                          alternative fuel vehicles over the past 10 years, predominantly flex-fuel
Fleets and Improving      vehicles.
Fleet Management


Agency Officials Stated   DOE and other agency officials we spoke with from agencies that met the
That Acquisitions and     reduction targets for petroleum use and per-mile greenhouse gas
                          emissions generally attributed their ability to meet these requirements to
Better Fleet Management
                          efforts in two areas:
Helped Reduce Petroleum
Use and Greenhouse Gas    1. acquiring low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles whenever they could
Emissions                    (even if they did not meet the related requirement) as well as
                             alternative fuel vehicles, and
                          2. improving fleet management in other ways, such as by eliminating
                             unnecessary vehicles or driving fewer miles, in line with GSA’s fleet
                             management guidance.




                          32
                            Specifically, federal agencies subject to federal fleet requirements are to report data to
                          the FAST database that pertains to the federal fleet requirements. In some cases, the
                          agencies report on whether they have met requirements based on this data; in other
                          cases, DOE has reported on whether agencies met the requirement, and in the case of
                          the requirement to acquire low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles, EPA reports on whether
                          agencies have met the requirement, also based on data reported by agencies in the FAST
                          database.




                          Page 14                                                  GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                                                                In line with these efforts, a majority of agencies reported meeting most
                                                                fleet energy requirements for fiscal year 2017 (see table 2). 33

Table 2: Total Number of Federal Agencies That Reported Meeting Selected Statutory Energy Requirements and Directives for
Federal Fleets for Fiscal Year 2017

Requirement category                                            Requirement description                                         Number of the 29 agencies GAO reviewed
                                                                                                                                      that were reported as meeting the
                                                                                                                                                           requirement
Vehicle acquisitions                                            Acquire alternative fuel vehicles                                                                              24
                                                                for 75 percent of the total number of light-
                                                                duty passenger vehicles in metropolitan
                                                                                                 a
                                                                statistical areas per fiscal year
                                                                                                                                                                                    b
                                                                Acquire low greenhouse-gas-emitting                                                                             8
                                                                vehicles
                                                                for all light-duty and medium-duty
                                                                passenger vehicles
                              c
Alternative fuel use                                            Increase alternative fuel consumption                                                                          24
                                                                10 percent by October 1, 2015 and for
                                                                each year thereafter, relative to the
                                                                baseline established by Department of
                                                                Energy for 2005
Reduction targets                                               Reduce petroleum consumption                                                                                   21
                                                                20 percent by October 1, 2015 and for
                                                                each year thereafter, relative to the
                                                                baseline established by Department of
                                                                Energy for 2005
                                                                Reduce per-mile greenhouse gas                                                                                 21
                                                                emissions
                                                                by 4 percent in fiscal year 2017, relative to
                                                                a fiscal year 2014 baseline based on the
                                                                volume of fuel consumed in 2014
                                                                                                          d
                                                                (requirement was revoked in May 2018)
Source: Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency reports of the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool (FAST) data. | GAO-19-397
                                                                a
                                                                 Pub. L. No. 102-486, § 303.
                                                                b
                                                                 According to GSA staff, the low number of low greenhouse gas vehicles being reported is most likely
                                                                a result of how the vehicles are identified and reported, and the number reported is lower than the
                                                                number acquired.

                                                                33
                                                                  Neither agencies nor DOE reported directly on the extent to which agencies met the
                                                                requirement to use alternative fuel in dual-fueled vehicles. According to DOE officials, they
                                                                report on the total amount of alternative fuel consumed and estimate the alternative fuel
                                                                consumed by dual-fueled vehicles that have access to fuel. Agencies may self-certify that
                                                                no low greenhouse gas vehicle is available to meet its needs or that the agency is
                                                                reducing its use of petroleum through an alternative measure. According to DOE, once an
                                                                agency self-certifies for one of these exceptions, the acquisition of a non-low greenhouse-
                                                                gas-emitting vehicle does not count against the requirement.




                                                                Page 15                                                                           GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                           c
                             Agencies are also required to use alternative fuel in their dual-fuel use vehicles. Pub. L. No. 109-58,
                           § 701. DOE reports on the total amount of alternative fuel consumed in fleet vehicles and estimated
                           alternative fuel use by dual-fueled vehicles. DOE also processes waiver requests that agencies
                           submit.
                           d
                            This directive was included in the Executive Order, which has been revoked by Executive Order
                           13834. 80 Fed. Reg. 15871 (Mar. 25, 2015); 83 Fed. Reg. 23771 (May 22, 2018).




Acquiring Low Greenhouse   Fleet managers at two of the case study agencies said that acquiring low
Gas and Alternative Fuel   greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles was key to their ability to meet the
Vehicles                   fiscal year 2017 targets for reducing petroleum use or greenhouse gas
                           emissions. For example, although VA reported not meeting the low
                           greenhouse-gas-emitting acquisitions requirement for fiscal year 2017,
                           VA officials said that they did acquire low greenhouse gas vehicles when
                           they could, and that to the extent they acquired such vehicles, it was the
                           primary reason they were able to reduce their per-mile greenhouse gas
                           emissions by 24 percent from fiscal year 2014 to fiscal year 2017. This
                           reported reduction far exceeded the requirement for a 4 percent reduction
                           in per-mile greenhouse gas emissions during this time frame. According
                           to VA officials, VA’s acquisition process requires them to consider low
                           greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles for each acquisition and to select one
                           whenever one is available that will meet the purpose for the vehicle.

                           According to VA officials, the reason VA reported not meeting the low
                           greenhouse-gas-emitting acquisitions requirement for fiscal year 2017
                           was that the agency did not consistently self-certify for exceptions to the
                           requirement in cases where there was no low greenhouse-gas-emitting
                           vehicle available that met their mission needs, an issue we also heard
                           from GSA officials. 34 (As shown in table 2, above, this was the one fleet-
                           energy requirement that was reported as being met by less than a
                           majority of the 29 agencies, with 8 reporting meeting this requirement for
                           fiscal year 2017).

                           Fleet managers at all of our case study agencies emphasized that they
                           sought to acquire low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles whenever one
                           was available that would serve their needs. GSA officials told us agencies
                           are acquiring significant numbers of low greenhouse gas vehicles. By

                           34
                             Agencies are prohibited from acquiring a vehicle that is not a low greenhouse-gas-
                           emitting vehicle unless the agency certifies in writing that: (1) no low greenhouse-gas-
                           emitting vehicle is available to meet the agency’s functional needs, or (2) the agency
                           implemented alternative measures to reduce petroleum use. Pub. L. No. 110-140, § 141.




                           Page 16                                                           GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
their count, of the sedans agencies acquired in fiscal year 2018, 92
percent were low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles; of the light-duty
sport-utility vehicles and trucks agencies acquired, 45 percent were low
greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles. GSA officials stated that according to
their analysis, it is likely that the low number of low greenhouse gas
vehicles being reported is a result of how the vehicles are identified and
reported, and that the number reported is lower than the number
acquired. Vehicles considered to be low greenhouse-gas-emitting
vehicles include selected makes and models of conventionally fueled
vehicles that were identified by EPA as highly efficient, as well as different
types of alternative fuel vehicles, such as selected makes and models of
flex fuel vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electric
vehicles, and all battery electric vehicles. 35 Thus, the costs of vehicles
considered to be low greenhouse-gas-emitting vary widely. We discuss
later in the report the costs of different types of alternative fuel vehicles.

Along with the acquisition of low greenhouse- gas-emitting vehicles
generally, fleet managers at some case study agencies stated that their
acquisition and use of alternative fuel vehicles also helped them to meet
the fiscal year 2017 targets for reducing petroleum and per-mile
greenhouse gas emissions. Fleet managers at two agencies we spoke
with stated or reported that their acquisitions of hybrid vehicles and, to a
lesser extent, small numbers of plug-in hybrid and battery electric
vehicles also helped managers to meet petroleum and greenhouse gas
emissions reduction targets. 36 According to Interior’s fiscal year 2015
Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, over 1,300 hybrids helped the
agency reduce petroleum consumption, increase fuel efficiency, and
reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Within Interior, officials at the National
Park Service told us that they replaced older, inefficient gas vehicles with
more fuel efficient hybrids. EPA officials stated that acquiring hybrid
vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles helped them exceed their
per-mile greenhouse gas emission reduction target for fiscal year 2017 by
just over 9 percent. Furthermore, of the 29 agencies we surveyed, 20

35
  Compliance levels are based on specific carbon dioxide emissions levels. The carbon
dioxide emissions level threshold for any given model year will be determined by
estimating the level needed to designate approximately 25 percent of cars and 25 percent
of light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles as compliant.
36
 According to DOE guidance, agencies’ vehicles’ greenhouse gas emissions are
measured based on emissions generated during driving the vehicles, known as tailpipe
emissions. This calculation does not account for emissions created during the vehicle
manufacturing or fuel production processes.




Page 17                                                GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
identified that a key benefit to acquiring battery-electric or plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles was environmental, particularly in reducing greenhouse
gas emissions.

In addition, some fleet managers emphasized the role that flex-fuel
vehicles fueled with E85 had played in their efforts to meet these targets.
Some agencies told us that they acquired flex-fuel vehicles to meet
alternative fuel vehicle acquisition requirements, and that using E85 in
these vehicles contributed to reducing petroleum use and per-mile
greenhouse gas emissions. 37 For example, DOT’s fleet manager stated
that DOT’s acquisition of flex-fuel vehicles and focus on using E85 to fuel
those vehicles when available helped DOT to meet these targets for fiscal
year 2017. Similarly, in the 2016 Strategic Sustainability Performance
Plan, EPA emphasized that using alternative fuel in flex-fuel vehicles
helped the agency reduce petroleum use. According to DOE officials, for
agencies that met the fiscal year 2017 petroleum reduction target, about
11 percent of their petroleum reduction was due to using alternative fuel.
According to DOE officials, the balance of petroleum reduction for these
agencies was achieved through fuel efficiency improvements and
behavioral changes, including reduction in vehicle miles traveled.

In spite of the emphasis some agencies put on alternative fuel use as part
of their strategy to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions,
alternative fuel use in federal fleets overall has dropped in recent years.
According to data reported in FAST, while alternative fuel use increased
from 4.9-million gasoline gallon equivalents in fiscal year 2005 to 16.2-
million gasoline gallon equivalents in fiscal year 2013, since fiscal year
2013 it declined to 12.1-million gasoline gallon equivalents in fiscal year
2017 (see fig.2). The fleet energy requirement to increase use of
alternative fuel by 10 percent is based on a fiscal year 2005 baseline, and
most agencies reported continuing to meet this requirement. In fact, as a
whole, the federal government could continue to decrease its alternative
fuel use by as much as 6.7 million gasoline gallon equivalents and still
meet the targeted 10 percent increase above the fiscal year 2005
baseline. While E85 was the primary alternative fuel used, according to
DOE data, alternative fuel use per dual-fueled vehicle is also at
comparatively low levels—decreasing between fiscal years 2012 and
2016 from 123 to 90 gasoline gallon equivalents. This decrease was
37
  According to a 2015 DOE study, flex-fuel vehicles have become available in highly
efficient models that even when operated only on gasoline achieve higher mile-per-gallon
ratings than other traditional gasoline only models.




Page 18                                                GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                                          despite DOE’s reporting that the number of dual-fueled alternative fuel
                                          vehicles with access to alternative fuel increased from about 80,000
                                          vehicles to about 112,000 over the same period. DOE officials said
                                          agencies could be using more alternative fuel, but suggested the recent
                                          decline could be due to a general lack of available E85 stations, among
                                          other reasons.

Figure 2: Total Alternative Fuel Use by All Federal Agencies Subject to Requirements to Increase the Use of Alternative Fuel,
from Fiscal Year 2005 to 2017




Improving Fleet Management                Fleet managers from all five case study agencies reported that their
                                          efforts to improve fleet management—even beyond those specifically
                                          related to acquiring alternative fuel vehicles—also helped them to reduce
                                          petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. Officials at several
                                          agencies reported in their Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans or
                                          told us that carrying out required fleet reviews helped them reduce the
                                          number of vehicles and change to more fuel-efficient vehicles, which
                                          directly helped them meet energy requirements. For example, EPA



                                          Page 19                                              GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
officials told us that through reviewing their vehicle usage, they identified
which vehicles to either eliminate or replace with more efficient ones,
moves that resulted in reducing petroleum use. Furthermore, in its 2017
Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, EPA cited that it has reduced
its fleet by 170 vehicles in the past 5 years and that its last study showed
the potential to discontinue use of 80 to 100 vehicles in the next 5 years.
Similarly, DOD reported in its fiscal year 2016 Strategic Sustainability
Performance Plan that Army’s strategy to meet the requirement to reduce
petroleum use was to reduce its fleet size and find the right mix of
vehicles to meet its mission needs—in addition to acquiring fuel-efficient
and alternative fuel vehicles. In this plan, Army reported that between
fiscal year 2011 and fiscal year 2015, it reduced its fleet’s size by 16,400
vehicles.

According to GSA officials, at times, an agency may reduce its petroleum
use and greenhouse gas emissions more by replacing large, inefficient
vehicles (such as older, large trucks) with more efficient vehicles (such as
new small trucks or sedans) even if both are fueled by gasoline—than by
replacing an already highly efficient conventionally fueled small sedan
with an alternative fuel vehicle of the same size. Our review of FAST data
suggests that agencies were more successful in reducing the number and
size of their sedans and size of their sport utility vehicles than in reducing
the number or size of their larger vehicles, such as vans and trucks (see
fig. 3). For example, overall, the number of sedans in federal fleets fell by
4 percent from fiscal year 2013 to fiscal year 2017, with the number of
larger sedans falling by 15 percent and the number of subcompact
sedans increasing by 37 percent, suggesting that agencies moved to
smaller, more efficient sedans. 38 On the other hand, among passenger
vans, there was an increase in heavier, medium-duty passenger vans,
and an overall increase in trucks was fueled by an increase in medium-
duty trucks, while the number of light-duty trucks fell.




38
  For 2018, GSA offered larger sedans such as the Ford Taurus and small sedans such
the Ford Focus. According to GSA officials, the make and model of sedans offered varies
from year to year.




Page 20                                                GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Figure 3: Composition of All Federal Agencies’ Domestic Fleets by Various-Sized Vehicles, Fiscal Years 2013–2017




                                         Note: The number of vehicles excludes low speed electric vehicles, limousines, ambulances, and
                                         buses.
                                         a
                                          The category of sedans refers to sedans/station wagons. Most sedans are considered light-duty;
                                         however, there were 27 medium-duty sedans in 2017 used by agencies subject to the Energy Policy
                                         Act of 1992. For purposes of this analysis, “larger” sedans include compact, midsize and large
                                         vehicles and “smaller” sedans include subcompact vehicles.




                                         In addition to reviewing and changing fleets, fleet managers also reported
                                         that encouraging certain driver behavior helped them to meet energy
                                         goals. According to VA’s, Interior’s, and EPA’s fleet managers, agencies
                                         also reduced greenhouse gas emissions through educating or
                                         encouraging drivers to make behavioral changes such as reducing
                                         vehicle idling and overall miles traveled. For example, according to EPA
                                         fleet managers, certain regional offices have systems in place that
                                         facilitate their combining of motor pools and sharing trips to reduce
                                         petroleum use. As previously indicated, according to DOE officials, 11
                                         percent of the reduction in petroleum use for agencies that met the
                                         petroleum reduction target was due to an increase in alternative fuel use.
                                         According to DOE officials, the balance of petroleum reduction for these
                                         agencies was achieved through fuel efficiency improvements and
                                         behavioral changes, including reduction in vehicle miles traveled.




                                         Page 21                                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Overall Composition of      As a result of agencies’ efforts to meet federal fleet energy requirements,
Federal Fleets Includes     the number of alternative fuel vehicles in federal fleets has grown steadily
                            over the past 10 years, largely due to an increase in flex-fuel vehicles. 39
More Flex-Fuel Vehicles
                            The number of alternative fuel vehicles in federal fleets increased by 65
and Hybrids, and Electric   percent from fiscal year 2008 through fiscal year 2017, according to FAST
Vehicle Numbers Remain      data (see fig. 4). During that same time, the number of conventional
Low                         petroleum-fueled vehicles decreased by 19 percent. As a result, as of
                            fiscal year 2017, alternative fuel vehicles made up about 38 percent of
                            approximately 604,000 total domestic vehicles in the fleet.

                            Most of the alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleets—about 87
                            percent in fiscal year 2017—are flex-fuel vehicles. As previously
                            mentioned, while flex-fuel vehicles can contribute to reducing petroleum
                            consumption when E85 is used, data show that the usage of E85
                            continues to fall (see fig. 2), thus reducing the potential environmental
                            benefits of acquiring these vehicles. While the majority of flex-fuel
                            vehicles offered to federal agencies by GSA in fiscal year 2017 did not
                            cost more for agencies to acquire than equivalent petroleum-fueled
                            vehicles, some flex fuel vehicles did cost more for agencies to acquire,
                            with, for example, a few sport-utility flex-fuel vehicles costing between
                            $4,000 and $7,000 more than comparable vehicles. Within the past
                            decade, the number of hybrid vehicles in federal fleets also increased
                            significantly, from almost 1,800 in fiscal year 2008 to over 25,000 in fiscal
                            year 2017. Hybrids accounted for about 11 percent of all alternative fuel
                            vehicles in fiscal year 2017. Finally, while agencies have acquired some
                            electric vehicles, the number of electric vehicles in federal fleets has
                            remained very small—consisting of just over 1,000 plug-in hybrid electric
                            and battery electric vehicles in fiscal year 2017. 40




                            39
                              FAST has tracked low greenhouse gas vehicles and whether they qualify as alternative
                            fuel acquisitions since they began to be considered as such. However, it only tracks them
                            as acquisitions in a specific year for the purposes of meeting alternative fuel vehicle
                            acquisition requirements. It does not track their numbers within an agency’s entire
                            inventory.
                            40
                              This excludes low-speed electric vehicles. While the make and model of vehicles that
                            GSA offers can vary from year to year, in fiscal year 2017, for battery electric vehicles,
                            GSA offered the Ford Focus, Nissan Leaf, and GM Bolt; for plug-in hybrid electric
                            vehicles, GSA offered the Sonata plug-in hybrid, the Ford Fusion, the Ford C-Max, the GM
                            Volt, and the Pacifica plug-in hybrid; and for hybrid electric vehicles, GSA offered the Ford
                            Fusion, Sonata Hybrid, Ford CMAx, GM Malibu, and one light-duty shuttle.




                            Page 22                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                        Figure 4: Total Numbers of All Domestic Alternative Fuel Vehicles for Federal
                        Agencies Subject to the Energy Policy Act of 1992, by Type, for Fiscal Years 2008
                        through 2017




                        In spite of federal agencies’ reported general success in meeting fleet
Several Challenges      energy requirements, several challenges may hinder agencies’ further
May Limit Further       progress towards the goals of reducing federal fleets’ petroleum use and
                        greenhouse gas emissions. First, although acquiring electric and hybrid
Progress toward Fleet   vehicles could help agencies meet the current fleet energy goals to
Energy Goals            reduce petroleum use and per-mile greenhouse gas emissions in federal
                        fleets, depending on where and how the vehicles are used, costs can be
                        prohibitive. The costs of these vehicles and charging infrastructure make
                        it challenging for agencies to acquire them on a large scale. Second, a
                        lack of fuel and infrastructure availability limits agencies use of alternative
                        fuel, specifically E85. Third, agency officials we interviewed stated that a
                        continuing need for larger vehicles to perform certain tasks limits the




                        Page 23                                             GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                          number of low greenhouse gas vehicles agencies can acquire—and thus
                          the potential to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions.


Higher Costs Pose         Acquiring electric and hybrid vehicles could help agencies meet fleet
Challenges to Acquiring   energy goals, but higher costs pose challenges. As described previously,
                          prior to May 2018, federal agencies were under a directive to acquire
Electric and Hybrid
                          zero-emission (electric) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for 20 percent
Vehicles                  of all new agency passenger vehicle acquisitions by December 31, 2020,
                          and for 50 percent by December 31, 2025. Some of the discussions we
                          had with agency officials about challenges related to acquiring electric
                          vehicles took place while this directive was in effect. 41 In part because
                          guidance on the new Executive Order had not been issued at the time we
                          spoke with them (although it was subsequently issued in April 2019),
                          agency officials we spoke with after this directive was revoked said they
                          were uncertain of the effect of the new Executive Order and would
                          continue to try and meet fleet energy goals until new guidance was
                          issued.

                          Compared to other alternative fuel vehicles available from GSA, battery
                          electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hybrid electric vehicles can offer
                          potential to further general federal goals to reduce petroleum use and
                          tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions. 42 Specifically, battery electric vehicles
                          consume no petroleum and produce zero tailpipe greenhouse gas
                          emissions, while plug-in hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to
                          consume very little gasoline, with a correspondingly small amount of
                          tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions from the gasoline used, and hybrid
                          electric vehicles offer higher fuel economy than many other vehicles. 43
                          According to DOE’s Fleet Management Handbook, replacing a petroleum-
                          41
                            In addition, our survey of federal agencies took place prior to the Executive Order being
                          revoked.
                          42
                            As previously discussed, fleet management can also help reduce petroleum use and
                          greenhouse gas emissions. For example, GSA officials told us agencies can also
                          effectively reduce petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions by replacing their oldest and
                          least efficient vehicles with newer, more efficient models.
                          43
                            Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles can operate in electric-only mode or via gasoline. They
                          produce no tailpipe emissions when in electric-only mode, and, as long as the battery is
                          charged, these vehicles can draw most of their power from electricity during typical urban
                          driving—leading to low consumption of gasoline. In addition, even when operating in
                          hybrid mode and consuming both gasoline and regenerated electricity, the fuel economy
                          of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles is relatively high compared to conventional gasoline
                          powered vehicles.




                          Page 24                                                  GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
fueled vehicle with a battery electric vehicle provides a 100 percent
reduction in that vehicle’s use of petroleum. In addition, according to DOE
officials, for purposes of tracking agencies’ compliance with the now-
revoked Executive Order’s fleet requirements, battery electric vehicles
were considered emissions free, and plug-in hybrids were considered
emissions free when run on electricity.

The now-revoked fleet requirements did not consider emissions
generated during the production of fuel or the manufacturing process. The
Council on Environmental Quality guidance states that emissions
generated from the production of electricity are not counted toward
agencies’ fleet emissions because those emissions are assumed to be
captured in each agency’s facility electricity reporting and their annual
greenhouse gas data report. Counting them as fleet emissions would
result in double counting. Nevertheless, to fully consider the potential
environmental benefits of alternative fuel vehicles, these emissions would
need to be considered and compared to the emissions generated by the
production of fuel and manufacturing process of conventionally fueled
vehicles.

From a full life-cycle perspective, greenhouse gases emitted during the
manufacturing of a vehicle affect a vehicle’s overall emissions. Accurately
determining the amount of greenhouse gas emitted during the
manufacturing of different types of vehicles is complicated, and we found
no federal source that publishes this information. However, a study by the
International Energy Agency found that manufacturing battery electric
vehicles results in higher greenhouse gas emissions than manufacturing
conventional internal combustion engine gasoline-fueled vehicles—but
that over the typical life of an electric vehicle, the elimination of tailpipe
emissions results in these vehicles having lower greenhouse gas
emissions overall than conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles, with the
amount of emissions savings depending on the carbon intensity of power
generation used to charge the vehicles. 44 Another study, by Argonne
National Laboratory, considered mid-size light-duty vehicles. 45 According
to this study, on a life-cycle basis—including emissions related to the

44
 International Energy Agency, Global EV Outlook 2018.
45
  Elgowainy, Amgad, Jeongwoo Hann, Jacob Ward, Fred Joseck, et. al, Cradle-to-grave
Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas
Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030)
Technologies, Argonne National Laboratory (September 2016). Argonne National
Laboratory is a DOE laboratory.




Page 25                                                 GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
manufacture and disposal of the vehicles, the production of the fuel, and
the use of fuel to operate the vehicle—hybrid electric vehicles produced
about 25 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions per mile than
conventionally fueled gasoline vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
produced about 26 to 29 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions per
mile than conventionally fueled gasoline vehicles, and battery electric
vehicles produced about 26 to 34 percent fewer greenhouse gas
emissions per mile. The study also considered the life-cycle greenhouse
gas emissions for flex fuel vehicles run on E85, finding them to produce
about 20 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions per mile than a
conventionally fueled gasoline vehicle.

This study also considered the costs of alternative fuel vehicles in light of
their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It estimated that in
2013 dollars and, based on high volume production, a 15-year vehicle
life-cycle, and a 5 percent discount rate, the greenhouse gas emissions
avoided by using hybrid-electric vehicles compared to a conventional
gasoline fueled vehicle cost $240 per metric ton. For plug-in hybrid
electric vehicles, the cost is between $390 and $860 per metric ton of
greenhouse gas emissions avoided, and for battery electric vehicles the
cost is from $1,090 to $2,600 per metric ton of greenhouse gas emissions
avoided. For flex fuel vehicles, the cost was estimated to be $170 per
metric ton of greenhouse gas emissions saved.

Based on these findings, when an agency replaces a petroleum fueled
vehicle with a battery electric vehicle, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, or a
hybrid electric vehicle, it can reduce its petroleum use and greenhouse
gas emissions, though the extent of its reduction depends on the type of
vehicle the agency acquires, and the type of vehicle it replaces, as well as
many other factors. However, it may currently be paying more for such
vehicles from a life-cycle perspective. In the time since this study was
published, according to DOE, battery costs have continued to fall, and
these vehicles may be cost competitive in the near future.

For battery-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which
must be regularly charged from the electrical grid, one consideration
included in the Argonne National Lab study’s analysis of how much
greenhouse gasses are emitted through the vehicle’s operation is the
level of greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation.
Such emissions affect the extent to which using electricity instead of
gasoline to fuel vehicles reduces the amount of greenhouse gas
emissions generated into the atmosphere—and this varies by location.
While the Argonne National lab study described above based its analysis


Page 26                                           GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
on the average mix of electrical generation in the U.S., the amount of
greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation in the
U.S. actually varies widely depending on the sources used to generate
the electricity. These sources vary depending on the region of the
country where the electricity is produced. 46

For example, the production of electricity from burning coal causes
relatively high greenhouse gas emissions, while the production of
electricity from solar or wind causes little to no greenhouse gas
emissions. As a result, a battery electric vehicle charged in a region with
low coal electricity generation, such as the Northeast—whose electricity
generation mix includes about 2.6 percent coal—will result in greater
greenhouse gas emissions reductions than those charged in regions
where most electricity generation comes from coal, such as the upper
Midwest, which uses about 62.3 percent coal (see fig. 5). 47 These figures
are meant to illustrate the differences in electricity generation, and they
do not account for other factors that may affect vehicles’ efficiency and
thus the extent to which they lead to reductions in emissions. For
example, in extreme weather conditions, the range of battery-electric
vehicles can be reduced, resulting in more frequent charging, and thus
more electricity use. Further, the use of air conditioning or other
components in the vehicle can also impact their fuel efficiency. We
analyzed emissions data on vehicles operating in different parts of the
country and found that when considering both tailpipe and fuel-production
greenhouse gas emissions, electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
produce less greenhouse gas emissions than an equivalent gasoline-only
vehicle in both higher-coal and lower-coal electricity generation regions.
In higher-coal electricity generation regions, however, electric vehicles
can offer less or about an equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions to comparably-sized hybrid electric vehicles, whereas in lower-
coal electricity generation regions, electric vehicles offer the opportunity
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by a greater extent than
comparably-sized hybrid electric vehicles.



46
  According to DOE, the greenhouse gas emissions associated with using gasoline are
generally consistent across the country.
47
  The actual emission-reduction benefits of battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, according to a 2016 National Renewable Energy Laboratory report, are
dependent on multiple factors, such as the electricity generation fuel mix, time of day
charging, and vehicle type.




Page 27                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Figure 5: Estimated Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Tailpipe and Production of
Fuel) of Selected Subcompact Sedans Driven in Regions That Do or Do Not Depend
Heavily on Coal for Electricity Generation




Note: We selected subcompact sedans—specifically, a battery electric, a plug-in hybrid electric, and a
conventional vehicle—designated as low greenhouse-gas-emitting and available to federal agencies
through the General Services Administration’s fiscal year 2017 product guide. The analysis compares
total annual tailpipe and fuel-production emissions assuming each vehicle travels 9,438 miles per
year—the average miles traveled for a federally owned or leased sedan—50 weeks per year for 5
days a week; thus, 37.75 miles per day. This analysis does not include the emissions generated from
the vehicle manufacturing process, and it does not account for variations in electricity production
emissions that can occur from the time of day of fuel use




In 2009, we recommended that DOE develop guidance to help agencies
plan to acquire the right mix of vehicles that can meet requirements while
also taking into account the energy sources used to generate the
electricity used to fuel electric vehicles. In response, DOE issued
guidance that recommended agencies consider, among other things,
whether coal-based electricity is used in an area in order to evaluate the
location and emissions-reduction potential of using such vehicles.
However, of the five case study agencies we spoke to, no agency officials
said that they specifically worked to locate electric vehicles where the
production of electricity was likely to produce fewer greenhouse gases.
Since greenhouse gas emissions due to the production of electricity were
not considered in the now-revoked executive order’s requirements and,
according to the case study agency officials, was not stressed by GSA in
discussions about increasing electric vehicles, they stated that this had
not been a focus of their efforts. Instead, they stated that they focused on
locating electric vehicles where they were able to install electric charging
stations and had a mission need that fit with the use of electric vehicles.

According to some agency officials, the higher acquisition costs
associated with electric vehicles and the costs of installing charging


Page 28                                                        GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
infrastructure have hindered the extent of their integration into federal
fleets. (See app. III for a more detailed discussion of life-cycle costs of
electric vehicles.) As part of an effort to further the overall goal of
reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the now-revoked 2015 Executive
Order called for agencies to increase their acquisition of zero-emission
vehicles (battery-electric vehicles) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles by
2020. 48 While all five case study agencies had acquired small numbers of
electric vehicles and associated charging infrastructure, two fleet
managers said that the cost challenges would have made it difficult to
acquire sufficient numbers of vehicles to meet the Executive Order’s
requirements by 2020, had the Executive Order not been revoked.

To meet the revoked electric-vehicle acquisition requirements, federal
agencies would have had to acquire close to 3,000 battery electric or
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles per year starting in 2020, according to
GSA officials. According to data provided by GSA, in fiscal year 2017,
agencies purchased 373 battery electric or plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles. Just over half of these vehicles were plug-in hybrid electric
minivans, with the rest being sedans. 49 The purchase of these 373 battery
electric or plug in hybrid electric vehicles, plus an additional 4,584 hybrid
electric sedans, made up about 31 percent of the just over 16,000 sedans
and minivans acquired that year—and increased the total amount
agencies spent purchasing sedans and minivans by about $10.5 million
(see table 3)—or about 3 percent of the total of approximately $314
million spent purchasing sedans and minivans overall. 50 Among the
hybrid electric, battery electric, and plug-in hybrid electric sedans and
minivans, federal agencies purchased the largest numbers of hybrid-
electric sedans, which had the smallest additional average per-vehicle
costs as compared to comparably sized gasoline or flex-fueled vehicles.
As a result, agencies spent an average amount of about $2,000 more per

48
  The Executive Order required agencies to acquire zero emission vehicles (battery
electric vehicles) or plug-in hybrid vehicles for 20 percent of all new agency passenger
vehicle acquisitions by fiscal year 2020, and for 50 percent by fiscal year 2025.
49
  All of the battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles GSA offered agencies for
purchase or lease in fiscal year 2017 were either sedans or minivans. Vehicles GSA
acquired to lease to other agencies are included in this purchasing data because GSA
provides leasing services to federal agencies.
50
  The hybrid electric vehicles would not have counted towards the acquisitions
requirement of the revoked executive order, but agencies could have counted them
toward the requirement to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, and they may help agencies to
reduce agencies petroleum use and per-mile tailpipe greenhouse gas emissions.




Page 29                                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                                                                battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hybrid electric vehicle
                                                                acquired, although the average amount per vehicle varied widely by size
                                                                and type of vehicle acquired. As described below, some of the higher
                                                                acquisitions costs of these alternative fuel vehicles will be recovered due
                                                                to lower maintenance and fuel costs of the vehicles over time. However,
                                                                we were unable to get data on federal agencies’ actual lifecycle costs of
                                                                these vehicles because, according to agency officials, agencies had not
                                                                tracked these data consistently.

Table 3: Costs of Selected Passenger Vehicles Purchased by Federal Agencies, Fiscal Year 2017

 Type of vehicle             Vehicle size                       Number of                       Total cost       Average                Average    Total additional
 purchased                                                        vehicles                     (in dollars)      cost per       additional cost costs compared to
                                                                                                                  vehicle           per vehicle   similar gasoline
                                                                                                              (in dollars)             acquired     and flex fueled
                                                                                                                                                                   b
                                                                                                                                  compared to             vehicles
                                                                                                                               similar gasoline         (in dollars)
                                                                                                                                  or flex fueled
                                                                                                                                                a
                                                                                                                                        vehicle
                                                                                                                                    (in dollars)
 Hybrid-electric             Subcompact                                 1,018                  19,999,828         19,646                 5,228             5,322,294
 sedans
                             Compact                                    3,566                  67,620,461         18,963                   122                434,161


 Plug-in hybrid              Subcompact                                     40                   1,117,200        27,930                13,512                540,479
 electric sedans
                             Compact                                        61                   1,682,601        27,584                 8,743                533,312


                             Minivan                                       191                   7,187,542        37,631                15,381             2,937,741
                                                                                                                           c
 Battery electric            Subcompact                                     81                   1,889,153        23,323                 8,905                721,294
 sedans
 Totals                                                                 4,957                  99,496,785         20,072                 2,116            10,489,283
Source: GAO analysis of General Services Administration’s (GSA) vehicle purchase data. | GAO-19-397
                                                                a
                                                                 This column identifies the average cost paid above the average cost for a comparably sized vehicle
                                                                that is gasoline or flex-fueled, according to the same GSA-provided data. The GSA-provided data on
                                                                purchased vehicles did not distinguish between gasoline and flex-fueled vehicles; therefore, we were
                                                                not able to separate out costs of these two types of vehicles.
                                                                b
                                                                 This column identifies the total costs paid above the total costs that agencies would have paid if they
                                                                had purchased same number of comparably sized vehicles at the average price of the gasoline and
                                                                flex-fueled vehicles, according to the same GSA-provided data. The GSA-provided data did not
                                                                distinguish between gasoline and flex-fueled vehicles; therefore, we were not able to separate out the
                                                                costs of these two types of vehicles.
                                                                c
                                                                 In 2017, GSA negotiated a special rate for a Ford Focus battery electric vehicle of $16,160 that
                                                                contributed to this low average price. That year GSA also offered the Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Bolt,
                                                                which sold for $20,076 and $34,811, respectively.




                                                                Page 30                                                             GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Of the 29 agencies we surveyed, 11 identified acquisition costs as a
challenge to acquiring and using electric vehicles. In addition, 20 of the 29
agencies identified charging infrastructure as a key challenge to acquiring
electric vehicles, citing the costs of installation among other challenges.

In discussions with case study agencies, federal officials did not cite the
acquisition costs of flex-fuel vehicles as a challenge to acquiring these
vehicles. Some officials stated that these vehicles’ relatively low costs
compared to other alternative fuel vehicle options was one reason that
agencies have largely met the alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions
requirement through the acquisition of flex fuel vehicles. GSA’s
purchasing data did not provide sufficient detail for us to analyze the
extent to which agencies paid more to purchase flex fuel vehicles.
According to GSA’s leasing data on GSA-leased vehicles, for fiscal year
2017, agencies acquired over 20,600 alternative fuel vehicles, of which
over 14,700 were flex fuel vehicles leased at no additional cost. 51
However, agencies also acquired 1,268 flex fuel vehicles that, on
average, had an additional cost of about $2,300, with the result that
agencies spent a total of about $2.9 million more to acquire these
vehicles to lease than if they had acquired equivalent gasoline-fueled
vehicles.

When agencies choose to lease an alternative-fuel vehicle that is more
expensive than a comparable conventionally fueled vehicle, under law,
GSA must spread that difference in cost—sometimes referred to as the
incremental cost—across the agency’s entire fleet during the year the
alternative fuel vehicle is acquired. 52 According to GSA officials, this
requirement makes it easier for agencies to incorporate higher-priced
alternative fuel vehicles, such as battery-electric or plug-in hybrid electric
vehicles, into their fleets. The difference in cost between acquiring a plug-
in hybrid electric or battery-electric vehicle compared to an equivalently
sized conventionally fueled vehicle can vary depending on the amount
GSA has negotiated with the dealer to pay for a particular vehicle. For
example, GSA’s lease offerings showed that for fiscal year 2019,
agencies would have to pay anywhere from about $5,300 to $19,400
more to acquire a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle than to acquire an
51
 This does not include agency-owned and commercially leased vehicles.
52
  42 U.S.C. § 13212(c). As of fiscal year 2018, about 85 percent of all battery-electric and
plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in federal fleets were leased from GSA. GSA covers
acquisition, maintenance, and fuel costs of its leased vehicles, and is required to recover
all costs it incurs through charges to the agency lessees. See 40 U.S.C. § 605(b).




Page 31                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
equivalently sized conventionally fueled vehicle, and approximately
$16,100 to $18,800 more to acquire a battery electric vehicle that is an
equivalently sized conventionally-fueled vehicle. 53 Officials from two case
study agencies told us that because GSA spreads the additional costs
over an agency’s entire leased fleet, the costs may not affect the
agency’s budget much as long as the agency acquires only a small
number of vehicles. For example, according to a local DOT official, the
acquisition of two battery-electric Ford Focuses added an additional $15
per vehicle to each of its vehicles in its fleet.

While electric vehicles have higher acquisition costs, they generally have
lower fuel and maintenance costs than conventionally fueled vehicles,
and as a result, GSA officials charge agencies lower mileage rates for
these vehicles. GSA also charges agencies lower mileage rates for hybrid
vehicles, based on their higher fuel efficiency. Of the agencies we
surveyed, 14 of the 29 identified lower fuel and maintenance costs as a
key benefit to acquiring battery electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Because of these lower mileage rates, the more miles an agency drives a
leased electric vehicle, the more the overall cost difference to the agency
between an electric vehicle and a conventionally fueled vehicle will shrink.
However, our analysis of GSA’s leasing rates showed that over 5 years—
the typical life of a lease of an electric vehicle—and with average
mileage—these lower mileage costs would not make up for the higher
acquisition costs of these vehicles (see fig. 6). 54 GSA officials and several
fleet managers also told us that in their experiences with leasing electric
vehicles, lower utilization coupled with the lower mileage costs charged
by GSA to agencies had not made up for the significantly higher
acquisition cost over the life of the leases. The GSA lease costs consider
the lifetime costs of the vehicles, including fueling and maintenance and
53
  GSA determines these price differentials based on the price of a similar model in the
same vehicle class that is conventionally fueled—i.e., by gasoline per Energy Policy Act of
2005 implementing guidance. According to GSA, the Alternative Fuel Guide that identifies
available alternative fuel vehicles and their prices is updated throughout the year when
new vehicles become available. We accessed the Alternative Fuel Guide on July 19,
2019.
54
  Electric vehicles generally require less maintenance, in part, because brake wear is
significantly reduced due to regenerative braking and the electrical system (battery, motor,
and associated electronics) typically requires little to no maintenance. Regarding fuel
costs, according to GSA, the cost of the electricity used is paid by the agencies and not
GSA, and therefore, it is not included in the mileage rate GSA charges agencies. This is
typically part of the agencies’ facilities electrical use, and therefore the agency pays for
this as part of the bill for electricity for the facility. However, these costs are generally
lower than the fuel costs than for a similar conventional vehicle.




Page 32                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
eventual disposal of the vehicle through auction. The five case study
agencies we spoke with did not use a life-cycle analysis to compare costs
across various vehicle types when making vehicle procurement decisions.
However, all five case study agencies told us they analyze life-cycle costs
to inform their lease versus purchase decisions. See appendix III for more
discussion on life-cycle costs.




Figure 6: Estimated Costs of Selected Subcompact Vehicles Paid to General
Services Administration over a 5 Year Lease, Fiscal Year 2019




Note: For fiscal year 2019, GSA’s Alternative Fuel Vehicle Guide’s options for subcompact vehicles
included hybrid electric vehicles, battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and
conventionally fueled (gasoline) vehicles. It did not include any subcompact flex-fuel vehicles. As a
result, we did not include a flex-fuel vehicle as part of this analysis.
a
 GSA must spread this difference in cost—sometimes referred to as the incremental cost—across the
agency’s entire fleet during the year the alternative fuel vehicle is acquired.
b
Mileage rate includes the fuel costs for gasoline or E85. It does not include fuel costs of electricity,
which agencies pay for separately, typically through their general facilities electric bill.
c
Estimated total cost assumes the vehicle is driven an average of 9,438 miles per year—the average
miles travelled for a federally owned or leased sedan.
Fleet managers at three of the case study agencies we spoke with before
the Executive Order was revoked told us that they had worked to increase
the number of electric vehicles in their fleets, in spite of the higher costs.
Officials at a few agencies stated that when the budget allowed, they



Page 33                                                            GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
would try to acquire electric vehicles. For example, VA officials told us
that VA budgets for electric vehicles on the local level, and that local staff
decide how much of their budget will go towards funding of electric
vehicles. VA and Interior officials said their acquisitions of electric
vehicles had thus far not greatly affected their budgets, but within Interior,
the fleet managers for Fish and Wildlife Services and the Bureau of Indian
Affairs said cost could become an issue if more electric vehicles were to
be acquired. GSA Office of Governmentwide Policy officials told us that
agencies could fit the higher costs of acquiring electric vehicles into their
budget by reducing their fleet size and acquiring a few of these more
expensive vehicles. Further, GSA has introduced several initiatives to
help agencies finance alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions, including
specific electric vehicle initiatives. For example, in fiscal year 2016,
according to an Army fleet manager, Army acquired electric vehicles
through GSA at a price GSA had negotiated that was equal to the price
for comparably sized petroleum fueled vehicles. However, this pricing
was only offered in 2016 as part of a one-time deal that GSA negotiated
with the vehicle manufacturer.

In addition to the costs of purchasing or leasing electric vehicles,
agencies described challenges balancing the costs of purchasing and
installing charging stations with other competing priorities. 55 Agency
officials told us they generally prefer charging stations, such as Level 2
stations, that can charge a vehicle in a few hours to allow vehicles to be
used multiple times a day. 56 These types of Level 2 charging stations can
cost anywhere from about $400 to $8,000 depending on the model and its
features and do not include installation costs. 57 Generally, the less
expensive models may not include features such as energy monitoring
that tracks electricity use or communication capabilities that enables data
communication that some fleet managers said they view as necessary to

55
  Three charging options typically exist: AC Level 1, AC Level 2, and DC fast charging
station. According to DOE, using a Level 1 charging station provides 2 to 5 miles of range
per hour charged and requires no additional infrastructure. A Level 2 charging station can
provide 10 to 20 miles of range per hour charged and requires the installation of additional
support equipment. A DC Fast Charging station can provide 50 to 70 miles of range in
less than 20 minutes and also requires the installation of additional support equipment.
56
  These agency officials consistently stated that they preferred at least level 2 charging
stations.
57
  The price reflects different features available for the Level 2 charging stations. Such
features include, tracking and reporting on amount of electricity used, advanced display
features, and multiple plugs per charging station.




Page 34                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
manage and track the performance and costs of electric vehicles. 58 We
were unable to determine the total amount that agencies had spent to
acquire existing charging stations to date because data were not
available at a sufficient level of detail.

Installation costs also varied widely, depending, among other things, on
the complexity of the installation, such as the need for trenching or
upgrading the electrical service. For example, officials from VA told us
that sometimes in order to install charging stations, they have had to
trench an entire parking lot to ensure the units have the necessary power
to charge its vehicles—which can be expensive. DOE estimates that to
install a charging station it costs about $100 per foot to trench through
concrete, lay conduit, and refill. As a result, it could cost up to $10,000 to
trench 100 feet. Further, the Veterans Health Administration indicated that
funding for purchasing and installing charging stations at their facilities
had to compete with other priorities. Specifically, the costs for charging
stations came out of the facilities’ capital-planning budget, which also
includes funding for veterans’ care. Similar to determining what agencies
have spent on charging stations, we were also unable to determine what
total installation costs have been to date because of data limitations.

Although many federal facilities are not equipped with fast charging
infrastructure and the number of public charging stations remains limited,
federal agencies had begun taking steps to install more charging
stations. 59 Prior to the 2015 Executive Order being revoked, agencies had
recently begun to install more of these stations as part of their efforts to
prepare for the requirement that 20 percent of light-duty vehicle
acquisitions be zero emission (electric) vehicles or plug-in hybrid vehicles
by 2020. We found 12 out of the 29 agencies we surveyed had installed
more than 20 charging stations, while 14 others had installed at least one
charging station, and only 3 agencies had not installed any charging
stations. According to past Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans,
agencies had started to implement strategies to increase their electric-
vehicle infrastructure. For example, according to EPA’s fiscal year 2016
plan, it planned to conduct a survey of its parking facilities to develop a
charging infrastructure policy and plan, including identifying potential

58
  Army officials stated that electric vehicles with telematics capable of tracking such
information will be available through GSA, and as a result, they did not place a priority on
the ability of charging stations to do so.
59
 Our analysis only considered Level 2 and DC fast-charging stations.




Page 35                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                      locations for charging stations. Similarly, Army officials described taking
                      additional steps, including sending specialized teams to several of its
                      bases to determine the optimal and least costly placement of its charging
                      stations. However, fleet managers also told us they were having
                      difficulties installing electric vehicle infrastructure, in particular at leased
                      facilities. Specifically, several agencies’ fleet managers told us that it was
                      difficult or impossible to install charging stations at leased properties
                      unless their installation was negotiated into the lease from the beginning.
                      In part because guidance on the new Executive Order had not been
                      issued at the time we last spoke with agency officials on this issue, the
                      extent to which the revoking of the directive related to acquiring electric
                      vehicles would affect agencies’ efforts to install charging infrastructure
                      was unclear.


Availability Limits   Fleet managers told us that another challenge that may limit progress
Agencies’ Use of      toward energy goals was a lack of fuel availability—in particular the
                      availability of E85—which made it difficult to fuel flex-fuel vehicles with
Alternative Fuel      alternative fuel. 60 Of the 29 agencies, 20 identified the availability of E85
                      as a challenge to using alternative fuel in flex-fuel vehicles. While some
                      agencies still largely rely on flex-fuel vehicles to meet alternative fuel
                      vehicle acquisition requirements, E85 can only be found at about 2
                      percent of all refueling stations, according to GSA. To help agencies
                      locate alternative fuel stations, such as those with E85, DOE developed
                      an Alternative Fuel Station Locator tool that maps nearby refueling
                      stations. VA and Interior officials said they routinely use the tool to check
                      for accessible alternative fuel stations prior to acquiring an alternative fuel
                      vehicle. 61 However, outside the rural Midwest and Texas, E85 may be
                      difficult to find. In addition, when E85 is available, agency officials from
                      two case study agencies said these locations may be mislabeled, out of
                      service, or too far from the vehicle’s operating location. We reported
                      similar concerns in 2011; specifically, that while agencies acquired
                      primarily flex-fuel vehicles, the low availability of E85 resulted in a
                      majority of flex-fuel vehicles receiving a waiver from the requirement to


                      60
                        GSA also told us that manufacturers are scaling back the flex-fuel offerings, a step that
                      will decrease the availability of vehicles. GSA has already started to see a decrease in the
                      vehicles available for purchase and lease by agencies.
                      61
                        Under DOE guidance, agencies can be granted waivers from using alternative fuel in
                      their dual-fueled vehicles based on the lack of an accessible alternative fuel refueling
                      station within 5 miles and 15 minutes driving from its garage location.




                      Page 36                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                            use alternative fuel, and as a result, agencies refueled their flex-fuel
                            vehicles with petroleum.

                            Another difficulty fleet managers face with regard to increasing the use of
                            E85 is that, even when E85 is available and conveniently accessible,
                            drivers still may refuel with gasoline—even though federal agencies have
                            undertaken a number of efforts to encourage its use. As we mentioned
                            previously, to help agencies track their fleet fuel purchases, DOE
                            developed the FLEETDASH system that can identify opportunities where
                            drivers could have refueled with E85 within 5 miles of their location but,
                            instead, chose not to because they were unaware or unwilling. 62 Some
                            agency officials described using this system to try to increase alternative
                            fuel use. For example, VA officials told us they use FLEETDASH to track
                            and identify opportunities to increase their alternative fuel use. In another
                            example, EPA officials told us that to increase their use of alternative
                            fuels, drivers at one location started to print out maps that identified
                            alternative fuel refueling locations near their routes. DOE recently
                            estimated that if federal agencies refueled flex-fuel vehicles with E85
                            every time they refueled within 5 miles of an E85 station, the use of E85
                            would quadruple, and agencies could decrease their use of petroleum by
                            10 percent and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by a further 9 percent.


Agencies’ Need for Larger   Another challenge that may limit further progress towards energy goals is
Vehicles Limits the         that agencies continue to need larger, less efficient vehicles for many of
                            their mission needs, according to many agency officials. According to
Number of Low
                            FAST data, about 85 percent of agencies’ fleets in fiscal year 2018 was
Greenhouse-Gas-Emitting     comprised of sport-utility vehicles, passenger vans, and trucks (as
Vehicles They Can           illustrated previously in fig. 3). In response to our survey, 26 of 29
Acquire                     agencies indicated that mission or intended use was a very important
                            factor when selecting a vehicle, and officials at some case study agencies
                            told us that they had a significant need for larger vehicles to meet certain
                            missions. For example, Interior operates on large rural Indian
                            reservations where they need pick-up trucks or sport-utility vehicles to
                            navigate the often rugged terrain. In another example, DOT officials
                            stated that to support their national airspace facilities, their vehicles must
                            drive off-road carrying bulky or sensitive tools to go to remote air strips.
                            For these purposes, they look to acquire larger vehicles such as cargo

                            62
                              As of January 2018, 29 agencies used FleetDASH, including Army, EPA, DOT, Interior,
                            and VA.




                            Page 37                                               GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                  vans and enclosed pickup trucks with 4-wheel drive capabilities or 2-
                  wheel-drive sport-utility vehicles that have the ground clearance to meet
                  their needs.

                  GSA and agency officials told us that the vehicles designated as low
                  greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles are typically smaller vehicles and in
                  some cases are not suitable for these mission needs. For example, GSA
                  offered one 4x2 hybrid-electric sport-utility vehicle and one 4x4 plug-in
                  hybrid-electric sport-utility vehicle in fiscal years 2017 and 2018. In fiscal
                  year 2019, additional vehicles have been added. While these options are
                  considered low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles, an agency official told
                  us that they have a variety of other characteristics that may make them
                  less desirable for certain missions—for example, they may cost
                  significantly more than other options to acquire, or, in the case of the
                  plug-in, rely on charging infrastructure that the agency may not have in
                  the location where the vehicle is needed. According to VA staff, there are
                  not enough low greenhouse gas vehicle options to ensure fleet managers
                  can meet mission goals and low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicle
                  acquisition requirements. For example, VA relies on minivans to transport
                  patients and deliver health care services; however, no gasoline or E85-
                  fueled minivans offered by GSA in fiscal year 2017 were designated as
                  low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles. Furthermore, in some cases, when
                  an agency has determined it needs a larger vehicle, fleet managers told
                  us they are likely to choose a flex-fuel vehicle because these vehicles are
                  offered in larger, more rugged models. These vehicles are often not
                  designated as low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles but count towards
                  the alternative fuel vehicle acquisition requirements.

                  In contrast, officials representing four case study agencies stated that
                  when the mission need is suitable for a sedan, the agency seeks to
                  acquire low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles. GSA offers a number of
                  alternative fuel vehicle options for sedans, including hybrid, battery
                  electric, and plug-in electric hybrid vehicles. Further, many GSA offered
                  gasoline-fueled sedans are also designated as low greenhouse-gas-
                  emitting vehicles. Officials at one agency told us, when possible, the
                  agency acquires alternative fuel sedans such as flex-fuel vehicles, hybrid
                  vehicles, or, in a few cases, electric vehicles. Furthermore, officials at this
                  agency stated that when they are acquiring a vehicle where alternative
                  fuel is not readily available, they will sometimes acquire a low
                  greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicle that runs only on gasoline.

                  We provided a draft of this report to Army, DOE, DOT, EPA, GSA,
Agency Comments   Interior, and the VA for their review and comment. In response, Army,


                  Page 38                                          GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
DOE, EPA, GSA, Interior, and VA provided technical comments which
were incorporated as appropriate. Army and DOT reviewed the report but
did not provide any comments.


As agreed with your offices, unless you publicly announce the contents of
this report earlier, we plan no further distribution until 30 days from the
report date. At that time, we will send copies to the Secretaries of the
Departments of Defense, Energy, Interior, and Veterans Affairs, and the
Administrators of GSA and EPA. In addition, the report will be available at
no charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

If you or your staff has any questions about this report, please contact me
at 202-512-2834 or vonaha@gao.gov. Contact points for our Office of
Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be found on the last page
of this report. GAO staff that made major contributions to this report are
listed in appendix IV.




Andrew Von Ah
Director, Physical Infrastructure




Page 39                                        GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
              Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
              Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles



Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles

              In April 2018, we initiated a survey of 29 federal agencies’ fleet
              managers. The questions we asked and the aggregate results of the
              responses to the closed-ended questions are shown below. Our survey
              was comprised of closed- and open-ended questions. We do not provide
              results for the open-ended questions. We received 29 completed survey
              responses—a response rate of 100 percent. 1

              1. What is the process your agency follows when acquiring a new
                 vehicle to replace a vehicle?
              Please list (in numerical order) the sequence of events from deciding to
              acquire a vehicle to actually acquiring it. To the extent that the process is
              different when adding an additional vehicle, please describe that as well.

              (Written responses not included)

              2. At what point in the above process, does your agency consider
                 whether to acquire an alternative fuel vehicle or a petroleum fuel
                 vehicle when replacing a vehicle? To the extent that the process is
                 different when adding an additional a vehicle, please describe that as
                 well.
              3. (Written responses not included)In the process to replace a vehicle
                 described above, does your agency consider vehicle life-cycle cost
                 information as part of a lease versus purchase analysis? 2
              Response                                                              Number of responses
              Yes                                                                                        18
              No                                                                                         11
              No answer/not                                                                               0
              checked




              1
               For our purposes, we studied 29 agencies that were subject to the fleet energy
              requirements. We excluded two agencies subject to the requirements because of one
              agency’s decentralized fleet and the other’s small fleet size.
              2
               We did not define “life-cycle cost” as part of the survey, thus this was left up to the
              interpretation of the respondents.




              Page 40                                                     GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




        3a. If yes, does your agency consider the following factors in their
        vehicle life-cycle cost analysis? Please check one answer for each
        row.
    Response                                     Yes             No          Don’t              No
                                                                             know        answer/not
                                                                                           checked
    Fuel cost                                      17              1              0                    0
    Initial capital cost                           17              1              0                    0
    Maintenance costs                              17              1              0                    0
    Useful life (number of years it                17              1              0                    0
    is expected to be used)
    Annual miles                                   16              2              0                    0
    Fuel or electricity                            16              1              1                    0
    consumption
    Climate                                        14              3              1                    0
    Terrain                                        14              2              1                    0
    Depreciation                                   13              5              0                    0
    Salvage/resale value                           12              6              0                    0
    Driving patterns                               11              6              1                    0
    Accident repair costs                          10              6              1                    0
    Disposal costs                                 10              8              0                    0
    Discounting                                     9              6              2                    1
    Equipment operator cost                         9              8              1                    0
    (In the case of an electric                     6            11               1                    0
    vehicle) Source of electricity
    generated (i.e. coal, wind, etc.)
    Storage cost                                    6            11               1                    0
          a
    Other                                           5              3              2                    8
    Taxes                                           2            13               3                    0

Note: One agency responded “No” to Question 3 and also responded to a sub-question that should
have been skipped. We omitted the agency response to the sub-question from our analysis.
a
 For agencies that indicated there were other factor(s), we provided an open-ended question that
requested a description of the factor(s) and six agencies provided descriptions of other factors not
shown here, including one that had not responded to the “Other” sub-question and one that had
responded “No” to Question 3.




Page 41                                                          GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




4.    In the process to add an additional vehicle, does your agency
     consider vehicle life-cycle cost information as part of a lease versus
     purchase analysis?

Response                                                                Number of responses
Yes                                                                                              20
No                                                                                               9
No answer/not                                                                                    0
checked



     4a. If yes, please describe how, if at all, the above lease versus
     purchase analysis differs in the case of adding an additional vehicle,
     and in particular any differences in the type of life-cycle cost
     information considered in the case of adding a vehicle.
     (Written responses not included)


5.    Excluding the lease versus purchase analysis, does your agency
     conduct any other vehicle life-cycle cost analysis at any other point in
     the vehicle replacement process described in Question 1?

Response                                                                Number of responses
Yes                                                                                              14
No                                                                                               15
No answer/not                                                                                     0
checked



     5a. Does your agency compare the life-cycle costs of multiple vehicle
     types prior to selecting a type of vehicle to acquire?


Response                                                                Number of responses
Yes                                                                                              13
No                                                                                                1
No answer/not                                                                                     0
checked

Note: Three agencies responded “No” to Question 5 and also responded to this sub-question that
should have been skipped. We omitted the responses to this sub-question from our analysis.




Page 42                                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




     5b. Does your agency perform a cost analysis comparing life-cycle
     costs of acquiring a non-electric vehicle to costs of acquiring an
     electric vehicle?


Response                                                                 Number of responses
Yes                                                                                             13
No                                                                                              1
No answer/not                                                                                   0
checked

Note: Five agencies responded “No” to Question 5 and also responded to this sub-question that
should have been skipped. We omitted the responses to this sub-question from our analysis.




     5c. If no, please describe how your agency considers the results of
     this life-cycle cost analysis—excluding the lease versus purchase
     analysis.
     (Written responses not included)
     5d. What factors below does your agency consider in this life-cycle
     cost analysis? Please check one answer for each row.
Response                                  Yes             No      Don’t know     No answer/not
                                                                                      checked
Initial capital cost                        14              0                0                  0
Fuel cost                                   13              0                1                  0
Fuel or electricity                         13              0                1                  0
consumption
Useful life (number of years                13              0                1                  0
it is expected to be used)
Annual miles                                12              1                1                  0
Maintenance costs                           11              2                1                  0
Terrain                                     11              2                1                  0
Climate                                     10              3                1                  0
Driving patterns                            10              3                1                  0
Depreciation                                 8              4                1                  1
Disposal costs                               7              5                1                  1
Salvage/resale value                         7              5                1                  1
Accident repair costs                        6              6                1                  1
Equipment operator cost                      6              5                2                  1
Storage cost                                 6              6                1                  1




Page 43                                                         GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




    Response                                Yes              No      Don’t know     No answer/not
                                                                                         checked
    (In the case of an electric                5               7                1                    1
    vehicle) Source of
    electricity generated (i.e.
    coal, wind, etc.)
            a
    Other                                      5               2                0                    8
    Discounting                                4               5                3                    2
    Taxes                                      1             10                 2                    1

Note: Three agencies responded “No” to Question 5 and also responded to sub-questions that should
have been skipped. We omitted the responses to sub-questions from our analysis.
a
 For agencies that indicated there were other factor(s), we provided an open-ended question that
requested a description of the factor(s) and 5 agencies provided descriptions of other factors not
shown here.




6. In the process to add an additional vehicle, does your agency
   consider vehicle life-cycle cost information at any point outside the
   lease versus purchase analysis?
    Response                                                                  Number of responses
    Yes                                                                                              7
    No                                                                                               22
    No answer/not                                                                                    0
    checked



6a. If yes, please describe how, if at all, any life-cycle cost analysis
described in question 5 differs in the case of adding an additional vehicle,
and in particular any differences in the type of life-cycle cost information
considered in the case of adding a vehicle.

(Written responses not included)




Page 44                                                            GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




7. Has your agency ever determined that an electric vehicle is the most
   appropriate vehicle to meet the agency’s needs?
Response                                                                 Number of responses
Yes                                                                                           23
No                                                                                             6
No answer/not                                                                                  0
checked



     7a. If yes, please provide some examples of those situations and how
     your agency determined the type of electric vehicle (i.e. electric
     vehicle, plug-in electric hybrid vehicle, hybrid electric, etc.).
(Written responses not included)

8. How important are the following factors when determining whether the
   vehicles your agency acquires will be alternative fuel vehicles or
   petroleum fuel vehicles?


Response                    Very Somewhat Considered         Not        No
                        Important Important   but not Considered answer/not
                                            important              checked
Mission (The                     26              0              2               1              0
expected function
or purpose of the
vehicle)
Availability of                  25              2              0               1              0
alternative fuels
Availability of                  23              4              1               1              0
alternative fuel
vehicles
Federal                          23              5              1               0              0
requirements
Vehicle range                    22              5              1               1              0
Cost effectiveness               21              5              1               2              0
Costs                            20              5              2               1              0
Terrain                          15              7              5               2              0
Weather                          10              8              5               6              0
Other (specify in                 2              0              0               3             24
           a
box below)

Note: In two instances, an agency marked more than one response for a sub-question, so we omitted
these responses from our analysis.




Page 45                                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




a
 For agencies that indicated there were other factor(s), we provided an open-ended question that
requested a description of the factor(s) and 3 agencies provided descriptions of other factors not
shown here.


9. What are the benefits, if any, (including any related to costs,
   maintenance, environment, safety, federal requirements, etc.) of
   acquiring and using each of the following types of alternative fuel
   vehicles relative to petroleum fuel vehicles?
     9a. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
     (PHEVs) that use battery power
     (Written responses not included)
     9b. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by an internal
     combustion engine
     (Written responses not included)
     9c. Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) designed to run on E85
     (Written responses not included)
     9d. Other alternative fuel vehicles
     (Written responses not included)


10. What are the challenges, if any, (including any related to costs,
    maintenance, environment, safety, federal requirements, etc.) of
    acquiring and using each of the following types of alternative fuel
    vehicles relative to petroleum fuel vehicles?
     10a. Electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles
     (PHEVs) that use battery power
     (Written responses not included)
     10b. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by an internal
     combustion engine
     (Written responses not included)
     10c. Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) designed to run on E85
     (Written responses not included)
     10d. Other alternative fuel vehicles
     (Written responses not included)




Page 46                                                         GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




11. How many electric charging stations has your agency installed?
Response               None          1-5         6-10       11-20         21 or            No
                                                                          more      answer/not
                                                                                      checked
Number of                  3            5           6            3           12                   0
responses



12. Has your agency encountered any challenges while trying to site and
    install electric charging stations?
Response                                                               Number of responses
Yes                                                                                           18
No                                                                                                7
Not applicable                                                                                    3
No answer/not                                                                                     1
checked

Note: One agency responded “No” and “NA” to Question 12. For the previous question, the agency
responded that it had installed electric charging stations. Thus, we determined that the agency
response to Question 12 was “No.”



     12a. If yes, what were those challenges and how, if at all, have you
     been able to overcome them?
     (Written responses not included)


13. Has your agency encountered any challenges related to acquiring and
    using alternative fuel vehicles and alternative fuel while trying to meet
    federal fleet energy requirements, including Executive Order 13693?
Response                                                               Number of responses
Yes                                                                                           23
No                                                                                                6
No answer/not                                                                                     0
checked



     13a. If yes, what were those challenges and how, if at all, have you
     been able to overcome them?
     (Written responses not included)




Page 47                                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix I: Survey of Federal Agencies on
Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles




14. Has your agency taken steps to prepare for Executive Order 13693’s
    requirement that 20 percent of all new passenger vehicles be zero
    emission vehicles or plug-in hybrids by 2020?
Response                                                 Number of responses
Yes                                                                          25
No                                                                             4
No answer/not                                                                  0
checked



     14a. If yes, please provide some examples of the steps you have
     taken.
     (Written responses not included).


15. Has the availability of alternative fuel vehicles from GSA’s inventory
    ever prevented your agency from acquiring an alternative fuel
    vehicle?
Response                                                 Number of responses
Yes                                                                          14
No                                                                           15
No answer/not                                                                  0
checked



     15a. If yes, please describe what vehicle you were interested in and
     why it was not available.
     (Written responses not included)




Page 48                                         GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
              Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
              Methodology



Methodology

              You asked us to review the costs and challenges related to federal
              agencies’ meeting the different federal energy requirements for vehicle
              fleets. This report addresses: (1) how agencies meet fleet energy
              requirements and how their efforts changed agencies’ fleets and (2)
              challenges federal agencies faced related to furthering fleet energy goals.
              The report also includes information on the extent agencies consider life-
              cycle costs when selecting vehicles.

              To determine the extent to which federal agencies reported meeting fleet
              energy requirements and the composition of federal agencies’ fleets, we
              analyzed data from the Federal Automotive Statistical Tool’s (FAST)
              database on the composition and fuel use of federal agencies’ fleets from
              fiscal years 2008 through 2017, the most current data available at the
              time of our review. Annually federal agencies must submit data on all of
              their non-tactical vehicles to this database, which the General Services
              Administration (GSA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) established in
              2000 and is used to satisfy statutory and regulatory reporting
              requirements. We reviewed the data relative to selected statutory
              requirements and directives that were in effect for fiscal year 2017.
              Specifically, we analyzed these data to identify the total numbers of
              alternative fuel vehicles by fuel type and vehicle size in federal fleets and
              the changes in alternative fuel use during this time period. DOE provided
              us fleet performance data on the extent to which each of the agencies
              subject to these federal requirements met requirements or directives to
              acquire alternative fuel vehicles, use alternative fuel, and reduce
              petroleum use and per-mile greenhouse gas emissions for fiscal year
              2017. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported
              on the extent to which agencies were meeting the requirement to acquire
              low greenhouse-gas-emitting vehicles for fiscal year 2017, based on the
              same database. To assess the reliability of these data, we interviewed
              DOE officials on how the data were checked for accuracy and collected
              written responses from them on how the data were collected, maintained,
              analyzed and presented. This assessment included how DOE flags
              suspicious data, reviews the data, and validates final entries. Based on
              the information collected, we found the data sufficiently reliable for our
              purposes of identifying the number of vehicles by type of vehicle and size,
              and fuel consumed by federal fleets in order to describe how vehicle
              fleets changed over the past decade.

              In May 2018, a new Executive Order was issued that revoked a previous
              Executive Order. The previous Executive Order contained two directives,
              to acquire zero emission (electric) vehicles and reduce per-mile
              greenhouse gas emissions by specific targets and specific years. Thus,


              Page 49                                         GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




while the above statutory requirements for fiscal year 2017 remained in
effect for fiscal year 2018, the directives related to acquisition of zero
emission (electric) vehicles and per-mile greenhouse gas emissions
reductions were no longer in effect after May 2018. To understand the
different federal energy requirements for vehicles fleets and guidance for
agencies to implement them, we reviewed federal statutes, agency rules,
and executive orders, and examined DOE and GSA guidance on the
various statutory and regulatory requirements and executive orders. For
example, we reviewed DOE’s federal fleet management handbook
intended for agencies to select and implement strategies to reduce fleet
greenhouse gas emissions and use of petroleum, and EPA guidance on
how to meet the requirement to acquire low greenhouse-gas-emitting
vehicles, among other documents. In April 2019, CEQ and OMB issued
implementing instructions for the Executive Order. 1 The implementing
instructions emphasized that agencies should follow the statutory
requirements that are still in place and annually identify targets for
petroleum reduction and increases in alternative fuel use as part of
agencies’ Strategic Sustainability Plans.

To broaden our understanding of agencies efforts to meet requirements,
we also identified five case study agencies—Department of the Interior
(Interior), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Department of
Transportation (DOT), the Army, and the EPA. We selected these case
study agencies based on data from the FAST database and their planning
documents to represent different sized fleets, a mix of alternative fuel
vehicle types, including electric vehicles, and missions with varying
vehicle needs. Interior, VA, and Army represented larger fleets, whereas
DOT represented medium and EPA small sized fleets. 2 In part, we also
chose DOT and EPA to learn about their unique vehicle acquisition
processes and plans for acquiring electric vehicles, based on their
responses to the survey we conducted, which is described below. From
these case study agencies and their sub-agencies, we interviewed
agency officials, including fleet managers, to learn their efforts to meet
requirements, how they acquired vehicles, and how they managed their
fleets. We spoke with these agencies before and after the Executive

1
 The Executive Order authorized CEQ to review and where needed, revise existing
guidance.
2
  For our purposes, a large fleet operates 10,000 or more light-duty vehicles; a medium
fleet operates between 3,000 to 10,000 light-duty vehicles; and a small fleet operates less
than 3,000 light-duty vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were the focus of our fleet size criteria
since they have the most alternative fuel vehicle options.




Page 50                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




Order was revoked in May 2018. We also reviewed documents reporting
on the extent to which these agencies met fleet energy requirements. The
results from the case studies cannot be generalized to make inferences
about all agencies. However, we determined that our selection
methodology was appropriate for our design and objectives and that this
methodology would generate valid and reliable evidence to support our
work.

To determine any challenges agencies face related to further meeting
fleet energy goals, we surveyed 29 federal agencies, and asked them to
describe their vehicle acquisition processes, the type of cost analysis
done when acquiring an alternative fuel vehicle, and the benefits and
challenges of using alternative fuel vehicles. We identified and surveyed
agencies that were required to comply with fleet energy requirements and
conducted the survey beginning in April 2018. Overall, 31 federal
agencies were subject to these requirements in fiscal year 2017;
however, as part of our review of Department of Defense (DOD)
documentation, we found that its various military departments operate
independently and decided to survey Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and
Navy separately. We also excluded the Court Services and Offender
Supervision Agency because of the decentralized nature of its fleet and
the Defense Agencies within DOD because it was small relative to other
DOD agencies. To increase the validity and reliability of our survey, we
conducted pretests of the survey with fleet management officials from
three federal agencies: VA, Interior, and the Government Accountability
Office. We received a 100 percent response rate to our survey. (See app.
I for survey results.)

To further learn about the challenges of alternative fuel vehicles as well
as strategies agencies were using to acquire these vehicles, we
interviewed agency officials, including fleet managers, from our five case
study agencies, GSA and DOE. In addition, to understand agencies’
efforts to further fleet energy goals and the challenges they faced, we
reviewed the Fleet Management Plans and Strategic Sustainability
Performance Plans of each agency we surveyed. 3 The strategic
sustainability plan is to prioritize agency actions to support the reduction

3
 Section 14 of Executive Order 13693 requires that each agency develop and annually
update a Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan that includes how the agency will
achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets, among other goals. Fleet Management
Plans establish an agency’s strategy for achieving its full compliance with current fleet
management and sustainability mandates, among other purposes.




Page 51                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




of greenhouse gas emission and other agency wide targets. The fleet
management plan is to specifically address how an agency’s fleet will
meet its greenhouse gas reduction targets, petroleum reduction targets,
and other relevant fleet requirements. We also focused our analysis only
on selected types of alternative fuel vehicles. Specifically, we included
flex-fuel vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
and battery electric vehicles because these represent the most numerous
in federal fleets or those with specific acquisition requirements. 4

We obtained vehicle cost information from GSA’s Alternative Fuel Vehicle
Guide that lists the costs and specifications of each alternative fuel
vehicle GSA offers, and analyzed cost differences based on fuel type. For
the purposes of our analysis, we focused on lease costs, not the costs of
purchasing a vehicle from GSA, because in fiscal year 2017, 70 percent
of agencies battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were
leased. To analyze and compare petroleum consumption and greenhouse
gas emissions, we judgmentally selected a sample of vehicles from
GSA’s Alternative Fuel Vehicle Guide and first estimated their annual fuel
using DOE’s Vehicle Cost Calculator. 5 We then entered their estimated
fuel use into Argonne National Laboratory’s Alternative Fuel Life-Cycle
Environmental and Economic Transportation (AFLEET) tool to estimate
well to wheel greenhouse gas emissions. 6 To assess the reliability of
these tools, we interviewed and collected written responses from DOE
officials regarding the source of the data and the values and assumptions
used in its calculations. Based on the information collected, we found that
they were sufficiently reliable to estimate petroleum consumption and
greenhouse gas emissions.



4
 In 2019, GSA offers other types of alternative fuel vehicles, including: bio-diesel capable
vehicles, compressed natural gas vehicles, propane vehicles, liquefied natural gas
vehicles, and low speed electric vehicles.
5
 DOE’s Vehicle Cost Calculator can estimate annual fuel costs based on miles driven and
the vehicle’s city and highway fuel economy, among other variables. For the purposes of
our analysis, we used the average miles driven for a federal sedan or sport-utility vehicle
obtained from GSA’s report on FAST data.
6
 DOE developed the AFLEET tool to enable users to estimate a vehicle’s petroleum use,
greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutant emissions, and cost of ownership based on the
vehicle type, fuel type, and various assumptions such as miles driven. For our purposes,
we assumed the vehicles were operating in the northeast or the upper Midwest of the
United States—the regions with the least and highest percentage of power generated from
coal, respectively.




Page 52                                                   GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix II: Objectives, Scope, and
Methodology




We conducted this performance audit from November 2017 to July 2019
in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards.
Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain
sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that
the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and
conclusions based on our audit objectives.




Page 53                                      GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix III: Agencies’ Consideration of
               Appendix III: Agencies’ Consideration of Costs
               in Selecting Electric Vehicles



Costs in Selecting Electric Vehicles

               Until May 2018—during the time when the previous administration’s
               Executive Order was in effect—our case study agencies acquired limited
               numbers of battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with a
               general understanding that, when the mission need was compatible,
               acquiring such vehicles was supported by the Executive Order’s
               requirements in spite of their higher costs compared to a conventional
               vehicle. As of February 2019, the last time we spoke with agency officials
               on this issue, agency officials stated that they were uncertain of the effect
               of the new executive order and would continue to try and meet fleet
               energy goals until new guidance was issued. This guidance was
               subsequently issued in April 2019, and emphasized that agencies should
               focus on the statutory requirements while increasing efficiency, optimizing
               performance, and reducing waste and costs.

               •   Until May 2018, when the previous Executive Order was revoked,
                   agencies were expected to increase their acquisition of battery electric
                   or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Specifically, agencies were to
                   acquire “zero-emission” or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for 20
                   percent of all new agency passenger vehicle acquisitions by
                   December 31, 2020—and for 50 percent of all new agency passenger
                   vehicle acquisitions by December 31, 2025—in addition to meeting
                   the other various federal fleet requirements. According to Department
                   of Energy guidance on this Executive Order, the targets phased in
                   over time to account for the expected future market availability and
                   cost competitiveness of these vehicles. However, as of fiscal year
                   2017, GSA officials and several fleet managers also told us that in
                   their experiences leasing electric vehicles, the lower mileage costs of
                   these vehicles had not made up for the significantly higher acquisition
                   cost over the life of the leases, a situation that they described as a
                   challenge to significantly increasing the numbers of such vehicles in
                   their fleets. Three case study agencies described acquiring battery
                   electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles—despite the higher
                   costs—largely because of the Executive Order’s requirement.
                   Similarly, 10 of the 29 agencies we surveyed identified “meeting
                   federal requirements” as a key benefit to acquiring electric vehicles.
               •   All five case study agencies had acquired small numbers of electric
                   vehicles in light of the Executive Order’s requirements. Agency
                   officials described acquiring these vehicles when their mission and
                   budgets allowed for it. For example, a case study agency with a larger
                   fleet told us that mission needs drove its vehicle acquisitions, and
                   there were limited instances in which an electric sedan would have
                   met the agency’s mission needs. However, when the agency acquired
                   a vehicle for a mission that could be met with an electric vehicle—



               Page 54                                          GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix III: Agencies’ Consideration of Costs
in Selecting Electric Vehicles




    such as to ferry officials to and from different offices in an area where
    charging stations were easily accessible—it would have been likely to
    select an electric vehicle, in part, to help the agency take steps
    towards meeting the Executive Order’s acquisition goals.
•   Agency officials at four of the five case study agencies said once they
    had identified an opportunity to acquire an electric vehicle—generally
    at a location where the mission aligned with the capabilities of an
    electric vehicle, recharging infrastructure was available, and there
    were sufficient funds in the budget—they would conduct a lease
    versus purchase analysis to determine whether leasing or purchasing
    the vehicle would be most the cost effective option, a key aspect of a
    life-cycle cost analysis. We have previously reported that a life-cycle
    cost analysis, which considers vehicle costs from the beginning to the
    end of vehicle ownership, can help agencies make cost-effective
    decisions. 1 Officials at the fifth case study agency, Army, stated that
    the agency had conducted an agency-wide analysis that had
    determined that leasing was always a better option than purchasing
    for non-tactical vehicles, and so it no longer conducted this analysis
    on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis.
    Officials at our case study agencies stated they did not conduct life-
    cycle cost analysis to compare and contrast different types of vehicles
    during the acquisitions process because they considered mission and
    federal fleet energy requirements to be the key drivers of which type
    of vehicle to select. However, about half of the agencies that
    responded to our survey stated that they did do so. Specifically, 14 of
    29 agencies indicated they conduct a life-cycle costs analysis outside
    of a lease-versus-buy analysis when replacing a vehicle, and 13 of
    these agencies responded that they did such an analysis to compare
    the costs of an electric vehicle to a non-electric vehicle. Almost all of
    these agencies responded that they considered initial acquisition cost,
    fuel cost, electricity consumption, useful life, maintenance costs, and
    annual miles, with fewer agencies checking that they considered other
    costs, such as depreciation and disposal costs.


As of February 2019, the last time we spoke with agency officials on this
issue, agency officials stated that they were unsure of how the revoking of
the previous Executive Order and implementation of the new Executive

1
 GAO, Federal Vehicle Fleets: Adopting Leading Practices Could Improve Management,
GAO-13-659 (Washington, D.C.: July 31, 2013.)




Page 55                                             GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix III: Agencies’ Consideration of Costs
in Selecting Electric Vehicles




Order would affect the extent to which they acquired electric vehicles in
the future. Officials at one case agency stated that with the uncertainty
surrounding the requirement to acquire more of these vehicles in the
future, it was likely that they would not acquire electric vehicles due to
their higher costs. Another case study agency said that although the
Executive Order had been revoked, the agency may continue to acquire a
limited number of these vehicles in locations where it had already
invested funds for electric vehicle infrastructure.




Page 56                                          GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                  Acknowledgments



Acknowledgments


                  Andrew Von Ah, (202) 512-2834 or vonaha@gao.gov
GAO Contact
                  In addition to the individual named above, Alwynne Wilbur (Assistant
Staff             Director); Eric Hudson (Analyst-in-Charge); Ross Gauthier; Bonnie Ho;
Acknowledgments   Malika Rice; Amy Rosewarne; Kelly Rubin; Andrew Stavisky; and Crystal
                  Wesco made key contributions to this report.




(102450)
                  Page 57                                    GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                         Appendix IV: GAO Contact and Staff
                         Acknowledgments




                         The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation, and investigative
GAO’s Mission            arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional
                         responsibilities and to help improve the performance and accountability of the
                         federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public
                         funds; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses,
                         recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed
                         oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO’s commitment to good government
                         is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.

                         The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is
Obtaining Copies of      through GAO’s website (https://www.gao.gov). Each weekday afternoon, GAO
GAO Reports and          posts on its website newly released reports, testimony, and correspondence. To
                         have GAO e-mail you a list of newly posted products, go to https://www.gao.gov
Testimony                and select “E-mail Updates.”

Order by Phone           The price of each GAO publication reflects GAO’s actual cost of production and
                         distribution and depends on the number of pages in the publication and whether
                         the publication is printed in color or black and white. Pricing and ordering
                         information is posted on GAO’s website, https://www.gao.gov/ordering.htm.
                         Place orders by calling (202) 512-6000, toll free (866) 801-7077, or
                         TDD (202) 512-2537.
                         Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card, MasterCard,
                         Visa, check, or money order. Call for additional information.

                         Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube.
Connect with GAO         Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts.
                         Visit GAO on the web at https://www.gao.gov.

                         Contact FraudNet:
To Report Fraud,
                         Website: https://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm
Waste, and Abuse in
                         Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7700
Federal Programs
                         Orice Williams Brown, Managing Director, WilliamsO@gao.gov, (202) 512-4400,
Congressional            U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7125,
Relations                Washington, DC 20548

                         Chuck Young, Managing Director, youngc1@gao.gov, (202) 512-4800
Public Affairs           U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149
                         Washington, DC 20548

                         James-Christian Blockwood, Managing Director, spel@gao.gov, (202) 512-4707
Strategic Planning and   U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7814,
External Liaison         Washington, DC 20548




                         Page 58                                            GAO-19-397 Federal Fleet Vehicles
                            Please Print on Recycled Paper.