oversight

Priority Open Recommendations: Department of State

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2019-04-12.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

441 G St. N.W.                                                                              Comptroller General
Washington, DC 20548                                                                        of the United States


April 5, 2019



The Honorable Michael R. Pompeo
Secretary of State
U.S. Department of State
2201 C Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20520

Priority Open Recommendations: Department of State

Dear Secretary Pompeo:

The purpose of this letter is to provide an update on the overall status of the Department of
State’s (State) implementation of GAO’s recommendations and to call your personal attention to
open recommendations that should be given high priority. 1 In November 2018, we reported on a
government-wide basis that 77 percent of our recommendations made in fiscal year 2014 had
been closed as implemented. 2 State’s recommendation implementation rate for the same time
frame was 91 percent. As of March 2019, State had 101 open recommendations. 3 Fully
implementing these open recommendations could significantly improve State’s operations.

Since our February 2018 letter, State has implemented 10 of our 20 open priority
recommendations. We believe these efforts have improved the security and safety of diplomatic
personnel and facilities overseas, improved State’s ability to track Antiterrorism Assistance
trainees’ return to home countries and their use of delivered training, and mitigated the risk of
staff fraud by employees of refugee resettlement support centers.

State has 10 open priority recommendations remaining from those we identified in our February
2018 letter. We ask your continued attention on these remaining recommendations. We are
adding eight new recommendations as priorities this year related to data quality, the
administration of hardship pay, and embassy construction. This brings the total number of open
priority recommendations to 18. (See the enclosure for details on each.)

State’s 18 open priority recommendations fall into the following six major areas.




1
 Priority recommendations are those that GAO believes warrant priority attention from heads of key departments or
agencies. They are highlighted because, upon implementation, they may significantly improve government
operations, for example, by realizing large dollar savings; eliminating mismanagement, fraud, and abuse; or making
progress toward addressing a high-risk or fragmentation, overlap, or duplication issue.
2
 GAO, Performance and Accountability Report: Fiscal Year 2018, GAO-19-1SP (Washington, D.C.: November
2018).
3
Sensitive and classified recommendations are tracked separately.
Security of Overseas Personnel and Facilities: Of the 18 open priority recommendations,
eight are related to the security and safety of personnel serving overseas. State concurred with
these eight recommendations and reported some steps taken to address them.

Fully implementing our two priority recommendations on personnel security could help ensure
State personnel are prepared to operate in dangerous situations. In March 2014, we
recommended that State take steps to ensure that U.S. civilian personnel are in compliance with
the Foreign Affairs Counter Threat (FACT) training requirements. State has taken action to
clarify agency responsibilities and plans to verify FACT compliance. To fully implement these
recommendations, State needs to complete and carry out its plans to monitor and verify
compliance with the FACT training requirement for permanent and temporary personnel.

Fully implementing our three priority recommendations on physical security at overseas posts
could improve the safety and security of personnel serving overseas, particularly in high-threat
locations. For example, in July 2015, we recommended that State take steps to clarify existing
standards and security-related guidance for diplomatic residences. Although State has
conducted a review of existing security standards for diplomatic residences, State needs to
complete its efforts to update these standards and take several additional actions to improve its
ability to identify and mitigate risks and enhance security policies.

Fully implementing our three recommendations related to transportation security, such as those
related to armored vehicles, could improve State’s efforts to manage transportation-related
security risks overseas. In October 2016, we recommended that State take steps to enhance its
efforts to manage such security risks, including by improving its related guidance and
developing monitoring procedures. Although State implemented a shared site for reporting and
monitoring each post’s armored vehicle fleet, State needs to create consolidated guidance that
specifies transportation security requirements to ensure that posts comply with State’s armored
vehicle policy.

Security Assistance: Every year the United States provides billions of dollars in assistance to
other nations in the form of security equipment and technical assistance. In April 2016, we
recommended that State develop time frames for establishing policies and procedures to help
the U.S. government provide a more reasonable level of assurance that equipment is not
transferred to foreign security forces when there is credible information that a unit has
committed a gross violation of human rights. State concurred with this recommendation and
reported that it drafted standard operating procedures for conducting equipment vetting globally.
To fully implement this recommendation, State needs to finalize its revised guidance for
overseas posts that are responsible for vetting foreign security forces prior to transferring
equipment to them.

Information Technology: One open priority recommendation, if fully implemented, could
improve information technology at State. In May 2016, we found that State spent approximately
80 percent of its information technology budget on operating and maintaining older systems. For
example, three of State’s visa systems were more than 20 years old. The software for one of
these systems was no longer supported by the vendor, creating challenges related to
information security. We recommended that State identify and plan to modernize or replace
legacy systems. State concurred with the recommendation. According to State, it is developing
a plan for modernizing and migrating each eligible system to the cloud by the end of fiscal year
2019.




Page 2                                              GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Data Quality: By fully implementing three priority recommendations we are adding this year,
State could improve the quality of foreign assistance data, including data on democracy
assistance, and ensure consistency in published information.

In August 2016, we found that the data on ForeignAssistance.gov were incomplete and did not
report over $10 billion in disbursements and about $6 billion in obligations provided by the 10
reporting agencies. We made two recommendations that State undertake a review of efforts to
ensure data quality and develop additional guidance for agencies updating
ForeignAssistance.gov with verified data. State concurred with these recommendations and is
working with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to consolidate data
collection efforts and discuss data quality and reporting requirements. State needs to continue
its coordination with USAID and OMB to (1) determine next steps for consolidating processes
and data collection efforts to maximize efficiencies and (2) develop additional guidance that
considers current challenges to updating ForeignAssistance.gov with verified data.

By fully implementing the third data-related priority recommendation, State could improve the
ability of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) to reliably
report democracy assistance data to Congress. In December 2017, we found that democracy
assistance data from this bureau were miscoded or incomplete in some cases. State concurred
with this recommendation. Although State reported that INL enhanced the accounting system of
record and established new processes to improve data reliability, State needs to demonstrate
that INL’s enhanced accounting system addresses data reliability issues, such as miscoding
and missing data.

Administration of Hardship Pay: When fully implemented, two priority recommendations could
improve State’s administration of hardship pay and its ability to identify and recover improper
payments related to hardship pay. In September 2017, we recommended that State assess the
cost-effectiveness of its policies and procedures for stopping and starting hardship pay and
analyze available data to identify posts at risk of improper payments for hardship pay, among
other things. State concurred with the recommendations and reported that it is working to
identify changes in policy that would result in greater efficiencies and is planning to utilize the
Overseas Personnel System to centrally collect and analyze arrival and departure data. To fully
address these recommendations, State needs to provide documentation that the efforts are
complete and that the actions have enabled the department to more easily identify and prevent
improper payments.

Embassy Construction: By fully implementing three priority recommendations, State could
improve budgetary decision-making as well as better align Bureau of Overseas Buildings
Operations (OBO) staffing levels and capacity with workforce needs for its Capital Security
Construction Program (CSCP). In September 2018, we recommended that State determine the
estimated effects of cost inflation on planned CSCP embassy construction capacity and time
frames and update this information for stakeholders on a regular basis, such as through the
annual budgeting process. We also recommended State provide an analysis for stakeholders
identifying those embassies that still need to be replaced to meet State’s security standards and
estimating total CSCP costs and projected time frames needed to complete those projects. In
addition, we recommended State conduct an OBO-wide workforce analysis to assess staffing
levels and workload capacity needed to carry out the full range of OBO’s mission goals, to
include the CSCP. State concurred with the recommendations and described several actions
planned or under way to address these issues. To fully implement these recommendations,
State needs to provide documentation that it has completed these efforts.




Page 3                                               GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
                                                      - - - - -

In March, we also issued our biennial update to our high-risk program, which identifies
government operations with greater vulnerability to fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement or
the need for transformation to address economy, efficiency, or effectiveness challenges. 4 Our
high-risk program has served to identify and help resolve serious weaknesses in areas that
involve substantial resources and provide critical service to the public.

Several government-wide high-risk areas have direct implications for State and its operations,
including (1) enhancing the government-wide security clearance process, (2) ensuring the
cybersecurity of the nation, (3) improving management of information technology acquisitions
and operations, and (4) better managing federal real property. We urge your attention to the
government-wide high-risk issues as they relate to State. Progress on high-risk issues has been
possible through the concerted actions and efforts of Congress, the Office of Management and
Budget (OMB), and the leadership and staff in agencies, including within State.

Copies of this report are being sent to the Director of OMB and appropriate congressional
committees; the Committees on Appropriations, the Budget, and Homeland Security and
Governmental Affairs, United States Senate; and the Committees on Appropriations, the
Budget, and Oversight Reform, House of Representatives. In addition, the report will be
available at no charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.

I appreciate State’s continued commitment to these important issues. If you have any questions
or would like to discuss any of the issues outlined in this letter, please do not hesitate to contact
me or Jason Bair, Acting Director, International Affairs and Trade, at bairj@gao.gov or (202)
512-6881. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional Relations and Public Affairs may be
found on the last page of this report. Our teams will continue to coordinate with your staff on all
of the 101 open recommendations. Thank you for your attention to these matters.

Sincerely yours,




Gene L. Dodaro
Comptroller General
of the United States

Enclosure

cc: Michael T. Evanoff, Assistant Secretary of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security
    Karen E. Mummaw, Acting Chief Information Officer, Bureau of Information Resource
    Management
    Kirsten D. Madison, Assistant Secretary, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law
    Enforcement Affairs

4
 GAO, High-Risk Series: Substantial Efforts Needed to Achieve Greater Progress on High-Risk Areas, GAO-19-
157SP (Washington, D.C.: March 2019).



Page 4                                                     GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
    William E. Todd, Acting Under Secretary for Management and Deputy Under Secretary for
    Management
    Christopher H. Flaggs, Comptroller, Bureau of the Comptroller and Global Financial
    Services
    Addison Davis IV, Director, Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations




Page 5                                          GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Enclosure

                Priority Open Recommendations to the Department of State


Security of Overseas Personnel and Facilities

Countering Overseas Threats: Gaps in State Department Management of Security Training
May Increase Risk to U.S. Personnel. GAO-14-360. Washington, D.C.: March 10, 2014.

Recommendation: To strengthen State's ability to ensure that U.S. civilian personnel are in
compliance with the Foreign Affairs Counter Threat (FACT) training requirement, the Secretary
of State should take steps to ensure that management personnel responsible for assigning
personnel to designated high-threat countries consistently verify that all assigned U.S. civilian
personnel under chief-of-mission authority who are required to complete FACT training have
completed it before arrival in the designated high-threat countries.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. Despite some action to clarify
agency responsibilities, to fully implement this recommendation, State still needs to take steps
to ensure that U.S. civilian personnel under chief-of-mission authority who are required to
complete FACT training have completed it before arrival in designated high-threat countries.


Recommendation: To strengthen State's ability to ensure that U.S. civilian personnel are in
compliance with the FACT training requirement, the Secretary of State should monitor or
evaluate overall levels of compliance with the FACT training requirement among U.S. civilian
personnel under chief-of-mission authority who are subject to the requirement.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. In November 2017, officials
indicated that State planned to monitor and evaluate overall levels of compliance with the FACT
training requirement by generating an annual report to verify assigned personnel’s compliance
with the requirement. However, State has yet to generate and review such a report.

Acting Director: Jason Bair
Contact information: bairj@gao.gov or (202) 512-6881


Diplomatic Security: State Department Should Better Manage Risks to Residences and
Other Soft Targets Overseas. GAO-15-700. Washington, D.C.: July 9, 2015.

Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage risks to residences, schools, and
other soft targets overseas, the Secretary of State should direct the Bureau of Diplomatic
Security (DS) to institute procedures to improve posts' compliance with requirements for
conducting residential security surveys.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State is developing a global
standardized residential survey program that, according to officials, will give DS officials at State
headquarters and security officers at posts the ability to access and audit security surveys for all
residential holdings. To fully implement this recommendation, DS needs to finalize and start
using the global standardized residential survey program.



Page 6                                                GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage risks to residences, schools, and
other soft targets overseas, the Secretary of State should direct DS to take steps to clarify
existing standards and security-related guidance for residences. For example, DS could conduct
a comprehensive review of its various standards and security-related guidance for residences
and take steps to identify and eliminate gaps and inconsistencies.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. To fully implement this
recommendation, State needs to complete the process of updating the standards and guidance
to address identified gaps and inconsistencies.


Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage risks to residences, schools, and
other soft targets overseas, the Secretary of State should direct DS to develop procedures for
ensuring that all residences at posts overseas either meet applicable standards or have
required exceptions on file.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State is developing (1) a global
standardized residential survey program that, according to officials, will give DS officials at State
headquarters and security officers at posts the ability to access and audit security surveys for all
residential holdings and (2) a system to track exception requests and approvals. To fully
implement the recommendation, State needs to complete these two systems and start using
them.

Acting Director: Jason Bair
Contact information: bairj@gao.gov or (202) 512-6881


Diplomatic Security: State Should Enhance Its Management of Transportation-Related
Risks to Overseas U.S. Personnel. GAO-17-124. Washington, D.C.: October 4, 2016.

Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage transportation-related security risks
overseas, the Secretary of State should direct DS to clarify whether or not the Foreign Affairs
Handbook’s (FAH) armored vehicle policy for overseas posts is that every post must have
sufficient armored vehicles, and if DS determines that the policy does not apply to all posts,
articulate the conditions under which it does not apply.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State is currently revising this
policy and expects to publish the updated version in the FAH by the end of 2019.


Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage transportation-related security risks
overseas, the Secretary of State should direct DS to develop monitoring procedures to ensure
that all posts comply with the FAH’s armored vehicle policy for overseas posts once the policy is
clarified.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State reported in April 2017 that it
implemented a shared site for reporting and monitoring information about each post’s armored
vehicle fleet. Once State’s armored vehicle policy for overseas posts is clarified, State can use
this reporting system to ensure that all posts comply with the armored vehicle policy
requirements.



Page 7                                                GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Recommendation: To enhance State's efforts to manage transportation-related security risks
overseas, the Secretary of State should direct DS to improve guidance for Regional Security
Officers, in coordination with other relevant State offices and non-State agencies as appropriate,
on how to promote timely communication of threat information to post personnel and timely
receipt of such information by post personnel.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State is currently developing a
communications system to share emergency and threat information with all post personnel.
State expects the system to be deployed to all posts by the end of 2019.

Acting Director: Jason Bair
Contact information: bairj@gao.gov or (202) 512-6881


Security Assistance

Security Assistance: U.S. Government Should Strengthen End-Use Monitoring and Human
Rights Vetting for Egypt. GAO-16-435. Washington, D.C.: April 12, 2016.

Recommendation: To strengthen compliance with the Leahy laws and implementation of
State's human rights vetting process and to help ensure that U.S. funded assistance is not
provided to Egyptian security forces that have committed gross violations of human rights, as
State works to implement a revised version of the International Vetting and Security Tracking
system (INVEST) that is expected to help facilitate equipment vetting, the Secretary of State
should develop time frames for establishing corresponding policies and procedures to
implement a vetting process to help enable the U.S. government to provide a more reasonable
level of assurance that equipment is not transferred to foreign security forces, including those in
Egypt, when there is credible information that a unit has committed a gross violation of human
rights.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. In response, State provided
revised guidance for equipment vetting in Egypt and developed draft standard operating
procedures for conducting equipment vetting globally. In September 2018, State reported that
the operating procedures were being reviewed internally and were expected to be finalized in
early 2019. To fully implement this recommendation, State needs to finalize and share these
operating procedures with all U.S. missions overseas.

Acting Director: Brian Mazanec
Contact information: mazanecb@gao.gov or (202) 512-5130


Information Technology

Information Technology: Federal Agencies Need to Address Aging Legacy Systems. GAO-
16-468. Washington, D.C.: May 25, 2016.

Recommendation: To address obsolete information technology investments in need of
modernization or replacement, the Secretary of State should direct the Chief Information Officer
to identify and plan to modernize or replace legacy systems as needed and consistent with the
Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) draft guidance, including time frames, activities to
be performed, and functions to be replaced or enhanced.


Page 8                                               GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation and stated that it planned to work
with OMB upon the publication of OMB's guidance to identify opportunities for modernization. In
February 2019, State said that the department would approve a plan for modernizing and
migrating each eligible system to the cloud by the end of fiscal year 2019. State cannot fully
implement this recommendation until it finalizes such a plan.

High-Risk Area: Ensuring the Cybersecurity of the Nation.

Director: Carol Harris
Contact information: harriscc@gao.gov or (202) 512-4456


Data Quality

Foreign Assistance: Actions Needed to Improve Transparency and Quality of Data on
ForeignAssistance.gov. GAO-16-768. Washington, D.C.: August 24, 2016.

Recommendation: To improve the quality of the data published on ForeignAssistance.gov and
help ensure consistency in published information, the Secretary of State should, in consultation
with the Director of OMB and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Administrator, undertake a review of the efforts to date on ensuring data quality.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. In response, State met with
USAID and completed a joint report in 2018 on efforts to consolidate processes and data
collection efforts to maximize efficiencies. OMB is currently reviewing this report. However, to
fully implement this recommendation, State will need to finalize the review process and ensure
that the quality of the data published on ForeignAssistance.gov has improved.


Recommendation: To improve the quality of the data published on ForeignAssistance.gov and
help ensure consistency in published information, the Secretary of State should, in consultation
with the Director of OMB and the USAID Administrator, develop additional guidance that takes
into consideration current challenges to updating ForeignAssistance.gov with verified data.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State co-hosted an interagency
meeting with OMB and USAID in 2017 to discuss data quality and reporting requirements.
However, to fully implement this recommendation, State needs to develop additional guidance
that would take into consideration current challenges to updating ForeignAssistance.gov with
verified data.

Director: David B. Gootnick
Contact information: gootnickd@gao.gov or (202) 512-3149

Democracy Assistance: State Should Improve Accountability Over Funding; USAID Should
Assess Whether New Processes Have Improved Award Documentation. GAO-18-136.
Washington, D.C.: December 14, 2017.

Recommendation: The Secretary of State should direct the Bureau of International Narcotics
and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) to identify and address factors that affect the reliability of its
democracy assistance data, such as miscoded or missing data.



Page 9                                                GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation, and in response, reported that
INL enhanced the accounting system of record and established new processes to improve data
reliability. To fully implement the recommendation, State needs to demonstrate that INL’s
enhanced accounting system addresses data reliability issues, such as miscoding and missing
data.

Director: David B. Gootnick
Contact information: gootnickd@gao.gov or (202) 512-3149


Administration of Hardship Pay

Overseas Allowances: State Should Assess the Cost-Effectiveness of Its Hardship Pay
Policies. GAO-17-715. Washington, D.C.: September 13, 2017.

Recommendation: The Undersecretary of Management should assess the cost-effectiveness
of State's policies and procedures for stopping and starting hardship pay for employees who
temporarily leave their assigned overseas posts.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation, and reported that the department
is assessing the cost-effectiveness of the current policy and working to identify changes in
policy or execution that would result in greater efficiencies. To fully implement the
recommendation, State needs to provide documentation that it has completed this effort.


Recommendation: The department's Comptroller should analyze available diplomatic cable
data from overseas posts to identify posts at risk of improper payments for hardship pay, identify
any improper payments, and take steps to recover and prevent them.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. According to State, it continues
to identify and seek repayment of improper payments and communicate the importance of
timely actions to the regional bureaus and posts to ensure improper payments do not occur. In
addition, the Bureau of the Comptroller and Global Financial Services (CGFS) supports the roll
out of the Overseas Personnel System, which will centralize the collection of arrival and
departure data for the calculation of improper payment notification and risk analysis. To fully
implement the recommendation, the Bureau of Human Resources needs to finalize the roll out
of the Overseas Personnel System, and CGFS needs to provide documentation that the system
allows it to more easily identify and prevent improper payments.

Acting Director: Jason Bair
Contact information: bairj@gao.gov or (202) 512-6881


Embassy Construction

Embassy Construction: Pace Is Slower Than Projected, and State Could Make Program
Improvements. GAO-18-653. Washington, D.C.: September 25, 2018.

Recommendation: The Secretary of State should determine the estimated effects of cost
inflation on planned Capital Security Construction Program (CSCP) embassy construction



Page 10                                             GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
capacity and time frames and update this information for stakeholders on a regular basis, such
as through the annual budgeting process.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. State reported in December 2018
that it is developing an estimate and that it plans to update this information through the annual
budgeting process. To fully implement the recommendation, State needs to provide
documentation that it has completed this effort.


Recommendation: The Secretary of State should provide an analysis for stakeholders
identifying those embassies that still need to be replaced to meet State's security standards and
estimating total CSCP costs and projected time frames needed to complete those projects.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. In December 2018, State reported
that it is planning to develop a cost estimate and projected timeline for constructing the
remaining 161 facilities that do not have a new embassy or consulate compound. To fully
implement the recommendation, State needs to provide documentation that it has completed
this effort.


Recommendation: The Secretary of State should ensure that the Director of the Bureau of
Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO) conducts an OBO-wide workforce analysis to assess
staffing levels and workload capacity needed to carry out the full range of OBO's mission goals,
to include the CSCP. Such an assessment could provide a basis for broader stakeholder
discussion of OBO's human capital needs and potential prioritization of activities.

Actions Needed: State concurred with this recommendation. In December 2018, State reported
that it is developing a statement of work and determining available contracting options to
conduct an OBO-wide workforce analysis to address GAO’s recommendation. To fully
implement the recommendation, State needs to provide documentation that it has completed
this effort.

Acting Director: Brian M. Mazanec
Contact information: mazanecb@gao.gov or (202) 512-5130




(103217)




Page 11                                             GAO-19-420SP State Priority Recommendations
This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the
United States. The published product may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety
without further permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain
copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be
necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately.
                         The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation, and investigative
GAO’s Mission            arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional
                         responsibilities and to help improve the performance and accountability of the
                         federal government for the American people. GAO examines the use of public
                         funds; evaluates federal programs and policies; and provides analyses,
                         recommendations, and other assistance to help Congress make informed
                         oversight, policy, and funding decisions. GAO’s commitment to good government
                         is reflected in its core values of accountability, integrity, and reliability.

                         The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no cost is
Obtaining Copies of      through GAO’s website (https://www.gao.gov). Each weekday afternoon, GAO
GAO Reports and          posts on its website newly released reports, testimony, and correspondence. To
                         have GAO e-mail you a list of newly posted products, go to https://www.gao.gov
Testimony                and select “E-mail Updates.”

Order by Phone           The price of each GAO publication reflects GAO’s actual cost of production and
                         distribution and depends on the number of pages in the publication and whether
                         the publication is printed in color or black and white. Pricing and ordering
                         information is posted on GAO’s website, https://www.gao.gov/ordering.htm.
                         Place orders by calling (202) 512-6000, toll free (866) 801-7077, or
                         TDD (202) 512-2537.
                         Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card, MasterCard,
                         Visa, check, or money order. Call for additional information.

                         Connect with GAO on Facebook, Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube.
Connect with GAO         Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts.
                         Visit GAO on the web at https://www.gao.gov.

                         Contact FraudNet:
To Report Fraud,
                         Website: https://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm
Waste, and Abuse in
                         Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7700
Federal Programs
                         Orice Williams Brown, Managing Director, WilliamsO@gao.gov, (202) 512-4400,
Congressional            U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7125,
Relations                Washington, DC 20548

                         Chuck Young, Managing Director, youngc1@gao.gov, (202) 512-4800
Public Affairs           U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7149
                         Washington, DC 20548

                         James-Christian Blockwood, Managing Director, spel@gao.gov, (202) 512-4707
Strategic Planning and   U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street NW, Room 7814,
External Liaison         Washington, DC 20548




                            Please Print on Recycled Paper.