oversight

Military and Veteran Support: Detailed Inventory of Federal Programs to Help Servicemembers Achieve Civilian Employment

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 2019-01-17.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

441 G St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20548


January 17, 2019

The Honorable James M. Inhofe
Chairman
The Honorable Jack Reed
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
United States Senate

The Honorable Adam Smith
Chairman
The Honorable Mac Thornberry
Ranking Member
Committee on Armed Services
House of Representatives

Military and Veteran Support: Detailed Inventory of Federal Programs to Help
Servicemembers Achieve Civilian Employment

The federal government’s commitment to those serving in the military includes assisting them in
pursuing education and employment skills to help them succeed in the civilian workforce. In
turn, this helps attract, develop, and sustain the nation’s all-volunteer military force. This
investment in servicemembers continues after they leave military service and includes members
of their families whose lives are also affected by their loved-one’s transition to the civilian
workforce. Multiple federal agencies administer the programs, both independently and together,
to provide education and employment assistance, including help with self-employment, to
servicemembers, veterans, and their families.
The federal government assists servicemembers, veterans, and their families through federal
programs and tax expenditures. Federal funding and benefits provided to individuals, such as
veterans and their families, can be administered in a number of different ways (e.g., programs
administered directly by federal agencies or grants). A tax expenditure can include tax
deductions, credits, exclusions and other provisions that reduce a taxpayers’ tax liabilities.
Several agencies play key roles in administering programs that help servicemembers transition
to civilian employment, particularly the Departments of Defense (DOD), Veterans Affairs (VA),
and Labor (DOL). As GAO has previously reported, these agencies are engaged in many efforts
designed to facilitate the transition to civilian life, including into the civilian workforce. 1 Further,
these agencies also participate in interagency and advisory groups focused on veterans’
employment. For example, the Secretaries of Labor and Veterans Affairs co-chair the Council
on Veteran’s Employment, which includes representatives from 24 federal agencies and works



1
 See GAO, Military and Veteran Support: DOD and VA Programs That Address the Effects of Combat and Transition
to Civilian Life, GAO-15-24 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 7, 2014); Transitioning Veterans: DOD Needs to Improve
Performance Reporting and Monitoring for the Transition Assistance Program, GAO-18-23 (Washington, D.C.: Nov.
8, 2017); and Transitioning Veterans: Coast Guard Needs to Improve Data Quality and Monitoring of Its Transition
Assistance Program, GAO-18-135 (Washington, D.C.: Apr. 19, 2018).



Page 1                                                     GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
with the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to develop strategic plans for government-
wide recruitment of veterans for job openings and employment opportunities for veterans. 2

Until now, no inventory of these programs and benefits has been gathered to provide a
complete picture of the federal government’s activity in this area. As a result, it is difficult to
assess the extent of the federal investment in supporting the civilian employment of transitioning
servicemembers, veterans, and their families. Additionally, as we have reported previously, the
lack of such an inventory of the government’s activity in particular areas of interest limits the
ability of decision-makers to determine where action is needed to make government more
effective and efficient. 3
The conference report accompanying a bill for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
Year 2018 included a provision for GAO “to assess the panoply of benefits and programs
available government-wide to separating servicemembers intended to provide the skills and
education necessary for such members to achieve meaningful and fulfilling employment in their
civilian lives.” 4 This report provides a comprehensive inventory of the federal programs GAO
identified as providing such assistance to servicemembers, veterans, and their families—
including information from the administering agencies on who is eligible to receive services, the
programs’ objectives, and the available services.

To address our objective, we developed a definition of a program and established criteria for
including and excluding programs; identified potential programs by analyzing previous GAO
reports and systematically searching publicly available listings of relevant federal programs;
surveyed the 11 federal agencies we identified that administer programs within our scope and
achieved a 100 percent response rate; analyzed survey results; and interviewed agency
officials. 5 For the purposes of this report, we defined a program as a federally funded, organized
set of activities directed toward specific purposes or goals and administered by federal agencies
in fiscal year 2017. Our criteria for programs to include in this report were twofold. First, we
included programs whose primary purpose is to offer education and employment services that
servicemembers, veterans, and their families may use to achieve civilian employment. 6 Second,
we included only those programs that serve only these beneficiaries. Thus, some large federal
programs that servicemembers, veterans, and their families can use, but which also serve a
broader group of beneficiaries—such as those under the Workforce Investment Opportunity
Act—or programs that only give veterans preference, fell outside our scope. The inventory
presented here does not include programs administered by individual branches of the military
with the exception of the Coast Guard. All program information contained in this report was


2
  For more information on the Council on Veteran’s Employment please visit https://www.opm.gov/policy-data-
oversight/veterans-services/council-on-veterans-employment/. The following 24 federal agencies were named
members of the council: the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human
Services, Homeland Security, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Justice, Labor, State, Transportation,
Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Environmental Protection Agency; the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration; the Agency for International Development; the General Services Administration; the National Science
Foundation; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Office of Personnel Management; the Small Business
Administration; and the Social Security Administration.
3
  GAO, Federal Programs: Information Architecture Offers a Potential Approach for Development of an Inventory,
GAO-17-739 (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 28, 2017).
4
  See H.R. Rep. No. 115-404, at 880-881 (2017).
5
  In addition to the 11 federal agencies we identified as administering programs within our scope, we identified one tax
expenditure administered by the Department of the Treasury, bringing the total number of agencies administering
relevant programs or tax expenditures to 12.
6
  See enclosure I for more detailed information on criteria for including programs in GAO’s review.



Page 2                                                          GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
provided directly by agency officials. We did not independently verify this information. See
enclosure I for more information on our scope and methodology.
We conducted this performance audit from February 2018 to January 2019 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and
perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained
provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives.
Results in Brief
In summary, we identified 45 federal programs and one tax expenditure with the primary
purpose of providing education, employment, or self-employment services to servicemembers,
veterans, or their families to help them achieve civilian employment (see fig. 1). Eleven federal
agencies administer these programs, usually independently of one another. A few programs are
administered primarily by a single agency with assistance from another federal agency. For
example, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administers the Vocational Rehabilitation and
Employment program, but the Department of Labor (DOL) plays an integral role in delivering
services and the two agencies coordinate training and outreach efforts, according to agency
officials. Four of the 45 programs we identified are jointly administered by multiple agencies,
including the DOD and Coast Guard Transition Assistance Programs and the All-Volunteer
Force Educational Assistance Selected Reserve program. This product contains no
recommendations.




Page 3                                              GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Figure 1: Federal Programs and Tax Expenditures Whose Primary Purpose is to Provide Education,
Employment, or Self-Employment Assistance to Servicemembers, Veterans, or Their Families




Notes: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it. For more
detailed information on program descriptions, beneficiaries, and eligibility requirements, see enclosure II.
a
    The All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance—Selected Reserve program is jointly administered by VA, DOD, and DHS.
b
    Coast Guard TAP is jointly administered by the U.S. Coast Guard representing DHS, DOD, VA, DOL, Education, and SBA.
c
 DOL officials said that TAP is an interagency program administered by several agencies, including DOD, VA, DOL, SBA, OPM,
Education, and DHS-Coast Guard and that the portion of TAP administered by DOD is not generally considered a separate program
than the portion administered by DHS-Coast Guard. GAO has previously reported that both DOD and DHS-Coast Guard participate
in the TAP interagency governance structure responsible for the TAP curriculum. However, for the purposes of this report we list
DOD TAP and Coast Guard TAP as separate programs because DOD provides TAP oversight and governance for the military
services (Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines), while DHS-Coast Guard administers TAP for the Coast Guard. Moreover, the
agencies do not use the same regulations in administering the programs. GAO has previously reported separately on DOD TAP and
Coast Guard TAP. See GAO-18-23 and GAO-18-135.
d
    DOD TAP is jointly administered by DOD, VA, DOL, Education, OPM, SBA, and the U.S. Coast Guard representing DHS.
e
 VA administers Tuition Assistance Top Up in conjunction with DOD. Tuition Assistance benefits are administered by each branch of
service (each branch determines their own award amounts, eligibility, restrictions, and application process) and are typically earned
based on service.




Page 4                                                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Various Federal Programs Are Available To Help Servicemembers, Veterans, and Their
Families Achieve Civilian Employment

More Than Half of the Programs Identified Serve Veterans, While Many Serve Servicemembers
and a Few Serve Spouses and Dependent Children
Of the 45 programs we identified, 32 serve veterans while another 29 programs serve
servicemembers (see fig. 2). In addition, 22 programs serve servicemembers’ or veterans’
spouses and another 19 programs serve their dependent children. One for dependent children
is the Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant program, which provides increased federal student
aid to undergraduates whose parent or guardian died as a result of their service in Iraq or
Afghanistan. This count of programs does not equal 45 because some programs serve more
than one type of beneficiary. For example, Jobs for Veterans State Grants, a DOL-administered
program, provides employment services to servicemembers, veterans, and their spouses and
dependent children. 7

Figure 2: Number of Federal Programs Whose Primary Purpose Is to Provide Education, Employment, or
Self-Employment Assistance to Servicemembers, Veterans, or Their Families, by Type of Beneficiary Served




Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it.
We identified 45 programs whose primary purpose is to provide education, employment, or self-employment assistance to
servicemembers, veterans, or their families. The number of programs does not equal 45 because some programs serve more than
one type of beneficiary.


Most Programs Identified Offer Multiple Types of Services
Of the 45 programs we identified, 30 provide multiple types of services, such as the DOD
Transition Assistance Program, which provides all three categories of services we analyzed:
education, employment, and self-employment assistance. We identified 35 programs that
provide education services. Additionally, 32 provide employment services, such as the Troops
to Teachers grant program, which provides job referrals and referrals to additional services (see
fig. 3).




7
 Jobs for Veterans State Grants are used to fund the Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program and the Local Veterans
Employment Representative Program, which had been counted as separate programs in other GAO reports. See
GAO, Multiple Employment and Training Programs: Providing Information and Colocating Services and Consolidating
Administrative Structures Could Promote Efficiencies, GAO-11-92 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 13, 2011).



Page 5                                                            GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Figure 3: Number of Federal Programs Whose Primary Purpose Is to Provide Education, Employment, or
Self-Employment Assistance to Servicemembers, Veterans, or Their Families, by Type of Service Provided




Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it. GAO identified
45 programs whose primary purpose is to provide education, employment, or self-employment assistance to servicemembers,
veterans, or their families. The number of programs does not equal 45 because some programs provide more than one type of
service.


        Programs Providing Education Services

Thirty-five programs provided education services (see table 1). For example, the DOD
Discretionary Certification and Licensure program—otherwise known as the Military Services’
Credentialing Opportunities Online (COOL) programs—provides a number of education
opportunities and benefits, including covering three kinds of certification and licensure fees—
those for preparation, attainment, and maintenance or renewal to obtain and stay current on
certifications and licenses. We identified one tax expenditure related to education. Specifically,
GI Bill benefits are exempt from federal taxation.




Page 6                                                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Table 1: Federal Programs and Tax Expenditure Providing Education Services to Servicemembers, Veterans,
and Their Families
                     Program name                          Services provided
     Programs that provide funding and benefits

1.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
      Montgomery GI Bill)                                  🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
2.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
      Montgomery GI Bill)—Selected Reserve                 🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
3.    Centers of Excellence for Veteran Student Success
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —
4.    Coast Guard Retiree Services Program
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
5.    Coast Guard Spouse Employment Assistance
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
6.    Coast Guard Transition Assistance Program (Coast
      Guard TAP)                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —       Legend:

7.    Coast Guard Tuition Assistance
                                                           🎓🎓 — — 🎓🎓 Education services
8.    Compensated Work Therapy
                                                           🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪 💼💼 Employment services
9.    Dependents Educational Assistance Program (or
      Survivors’ and Dependents’ Educational Assistance)   🎓🎓 💼💼 — 🏪🏪 Self-Employment assistance
10. DOD Discretionary Certification & Licensure (or the
    Military Services’ COOL programs)                      🎓🎓   — —
11. DOD Education and Employment Initiative
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
12. DOD Operation Warfighter Program
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —
13. DOD Transition Assistance Program (DOD TAP)
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
14. DOD Tuition Assistance
                                                           🎓🎓   —    —
15. DOE Scholars Program for Veterans, the Federal
    Energy Management Program                              🎓🎓   💼💼   —
16. Educational and Vocational Counseling (or Chapter
    36)                                                    🎓🎓   💼💼 —
17. Enhancing Agricultural Opportunities for Military
    Veterans Competitive Grants Program                    🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
18. Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —
19. Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant Program
                                                           🎓🎓   —    —
20. Job Training, Employment Skills Training,
    Apprenticeships, and Internships (or SkillBridge)      🎓🎓   💼💼   —
21. Military OneSource Spouse Career Center
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
22. Post-9/11 GI Bill
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
23. Reserve Educational Assistance Program
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —
24. Service-Disabled Veteran Entrepreneurship Training
    Program                                                🎓🎓   — 🏪🏪
25. Spouse Education and Career Opportunities
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 🏪🏪
26. The Veterans Integration to Academic Leadership
                                                           🎓🎓   💼💼 —

Page 7                                                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                         Program name                                  Services provided
  27. Troops to Teachers Grant Program
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪
  28. Tuition Assistance Top Up
                                                                       🎓🎓     —     —
  29. United Services Military Apprenticeship Program
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼     —
  30. Veterans' Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing
      Program                                                          🎓🎓    💼💼     —
  31. Veterans Upward Bound
                                                                       🎓🎓     — —
  32. VetSuccess on Campus
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼 —
  33. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪
  34. Warrior Training Advancement Course
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼 —
  35. Warriors to Workforce Program
                                                                       🎓🎓    💼💼 —
     Tax expenditure

    1.    Tax exclusion for GI Bill benefits
                                                                       🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
Source: GAO analysis of survey data | GAO-19-97R

Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently it. For detailed
information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries, and eligibility requirements see enclosure II,
organized by administering agency and program name.


For detailed information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries,
and eligibility requirements see enclosure II, organized by administering agency and program
name.

          Programs Providing Employment Services

Thirty-two federal programs provide employment services and one tax expenditure supports
employment (see table 2). For example, to assist in reintegrating homeless veterans into
meaningful employment within the labor force, the Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration program
provides job search assistance, job readiness training, job referrals, and on-the-job training,
among other employment services.

Table 2: Federal Programs and Tax Expenditure Providing Employment Services to Servicemembers,
Veterans, and Their Families
                             Program name                                     Services provided

     Programs that provide funding and benefits

    1.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
          Montgomery GI Bill)                                                 💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
     2.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
           Montgomery GI Bill)—Selected Reserve                               💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
     3.    Centers of Excellence for Veteran Student Success
                                                                              💼💼 🎓🎓       —
     4.    Coast Guard Retiree Services Program
                                                                              💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
     5.    Coast Guard Spouse Employment Assistance Program
                                                                              💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
     6.    Coast Guard Transition Assistance Program (Coast
           Guard TAP)                                                         💼💼 🎓🎓 —


Page 8                                                                  GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                              Program name                         Services provided

      7.   Compensated Work Therapy
                                                                   💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      8.   Dependents Educational Assistance Program (or
           Survivors’ and Dependents’ Educational Assistance)      💼💼 🎓🎓 —
      9.   DOD Education and Employment Initiative
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      10. DOD Operation Warfighter Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      11. DOD Transition Assistance Program (DOD TAP)
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      12. DOE Scholars Program for Veterans, The Federal
          Energy Management Program                                💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      13. Educational and Vocational Counseling (or Chapter 36)
                                                                   💼💼 🎓🎓     —
                                                                                       Legend:
      14. Enhancing Agricultural Opportunities for Military
          Veterans Competitive Grants Program                      💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      15. Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓   —         💼💼   Employment
                                                                                            services
      16. Jobs for Veterans State Grants Program
                                                                   💼💼   —    —
      17. Job Training, Employment Skills Training,
          Apprenticeships, and Internships (or SkillBridge)        💼💼   🎓🎓 —           🎓🎓 Education
                                                                                            services
      18. Military OneSource Spouse Career Center
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      19. Post-9/11 GI Bill
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪          🏪🏪 Self-Employment
                                                                                            assistance
      20. Reserve Educational Assistance Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      21. Spouse Education and Career Opportunities
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      22. Transition Assistance Advisors
                                                                   💼💼   — —
      23. Troops to Teachers Grant Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      24. United Services Military Apprenticeship Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      25. Veterans’ Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing
          Program                                                  💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      26. Veterans Innovation Partnership
                                                                   💼💼   — 🏪🏪
      27. Veterans Integration to Academic Leadership
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      28. Vets to Feds Career Development Program
                                                                   💼💼   — —
      29. VetSuccess on Campus
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      30. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 🏪🏪
      31. Warrior Training Advancement Course
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
      32. Warriors to Workforce Program
                                                                   💼💼   🎓🎓 —
 Tax expenditure

 1.         Tax exclusion for GI Bill benefits
                                                                   💼💼 🎓🎓 🏪🏪
Source: GAO analysis of survey data | GAO-19-97R




Page 9                                                          GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it. For detailed
information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries, and eligibility requirements see enclosure II,
organized by administering agency and program name.


For detailed information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries,
and eligibility requirements see enclosure II, organized by administering agency and program
name.

        Programs Providing Self-Employment Assistance

Nineteen programs provide self-employment assistance and one tax expenditure provides self-
employment services (see table 3). For example, the Boots to Business Reboot program
provides veterans and spouses and dependent children self-employment services such as
training in business fundamentals and developing a business plan.

Table 3: Federal Programs and Tax Expenditure Providing Self-Employment Assistance to Servicemembers,
Veterans, and Their Families
                       Program name                                  Services provided

       Programs that provide funding and benefits

                                                                                          Legend:
  1.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
        Montgomery GI Bill)                                          🏪🏪 💼💼 🎓🎓
  2.    All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
        Montgomery GI Bill)—Selected Reserve                         🏪🏪 💼💼 🎓🎓             🏪🏪 Self-Employment         assistance

  3.    Boots to Business Reboot
                                                                     🏪🏪    — —            💼💼 Employment services
  4.    Coast Guard Retiree Services Program
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓          🎓🎓 Education services
  5.    Coast Guard Spouse Employment Assistance
        Program                                                      🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  6.    Compensated Work Therapy
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  7.    DOD Education and Employment Initiative
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  8.    DOD Transition Assistance Program (DOD TAP)
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  9.  Enhancing Agricultural Opportunities for Military
      Veterans Competitive Grants Program                            🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  10. Military OneSource Spouse Career Center
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  11. Post-9/11 GI Bill
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  12. Service-Disabled Veteran Entrepreneurship
      Training Program                                               🏪🏪    — 🎓🎓
  13. Spouse Education and Career Opportunities
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  14. Troops to Teachers Grant Program
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓
  15. Veteran Federal Procurement Entrepreneurship
      Training Program                                               🏪🏪    —      —
  16. Veterans Business Outreach Center
                                                                     🏪🏪     —     —
  17. Veterans Innovation Partnership
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 —
  18. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
                                                                     🏪🏪    💼💼 🎓🎓


Page 10                                                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                        Program name                                 Services provided

   19. Women Veteran Entrepreneurship Training
       Program                                                       🏪🏪    —     —
Tax expenditure

    1.     Tax exclusion for GI Bill benefits
                                                                     🏪🏪 💼💼 🎓🎓
Source: GAO analysis of survey data | GAO-19-97R
Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it. For detailed
information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries, and eligibility requirements see enclosure II,
organized by administering agency and program name.

For detailed information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries,
and eligibility requirements see enclosure II, organized by administering agency and program
name.

          Programs Providing Multiple Types of Services

Thirty programs and one tax expenditure provide a combination of education, employment,
and/or self-employment assistance (see table 4). For example, DOD’s Transition Assistance
Program (DOD TAP) provides education, employment, and self-employment services to
servicemembers preparing to transition to civilian life. In particular, as part of DOD TAP,
servicemembers can elect to attend a 2-day Accessing Higher Education class that, among
other things, teaches participants how to use publicly available resources to make more
informed decisions about selecting a college. In addition, most separating and retiring
servicemembers are required to attend a DOL Employment Workshop as part of DOD TAP.
This class teaches servicemembers how to craft a resume, search for jobs, and interview for
positions. Finally, for self-employment assistance, servicemembers participating in TAP can
elect to enroll in SBA’s 2-day Boots to Business class, which helps servicemembers assess
whether to start their own business.

Table 4: Federal Programs Providing a Combination of Education, Employment, and/or Self-Employment
Assistance to Servicemembers, Veterans, and Their Families
                        Program name                                 Services provided

         Programs that provide funding and benefits

   1.     All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
          Montgomery GI Bill )                                       🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
                                                                                          Legend:
   2.     All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
          Montgomery GI Bill—Selected Reserve                        🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
   3.     Centers of Excellence for Veteran Student Success
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 —           🎓🎓 Education services
   4.     Coast Guard Retiree Services Program
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪          💼💼 Employment services
   5.     Coast Guard Spouse Employment Assistance
          Program                                                    🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪          🏪🏪 Self-Employment assistance
   6.     Coast Guard Transition Assistance Program (Coast
          Guard TAP)                                                 🎓🎓    💼💼 —
   7.     Compensated Work Therapy
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪
   8.     Dependents Educational Assistance Program
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 —


Page 11                                                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                        Program name                                 Services provided

     9.   DOD Education and Employment Initiative
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪
     10. DOD Operation Warfighter Program
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 —
     11. DOD Transition Assistance Program (DOD TAP)
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼 🏪🏪
     12. DOE Scholars Program for Veterans, The Federal
         Energy Management Program                                   🎓🎓    💼💼 —
     13. Educational and Vocational Counseling (or Chapter
         36)                                                         🎓🎓 💼💼        —
     14. Enhancing Agricultural Opportunities for Military
         Veterans Competitive Grants Program                         🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
     15. Homeless Veterans' Reintegration Program
                                                                     🎓🎓 💼💼        —
     16. Job Training, Employment Skills Training,
         Apprenticeships, and Internships (or SkillBridge)           🎓🎓 💼💼        —

     17. Military OneSource Spouse Career Center
                                                                     🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
     18. Post-9/11 GI Bill
                                                                     🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
     19. Reserve Educational Assistance Program
                                                                     🎓🎓 💼💼 —
     20. Service-Disabled Veteran Entrepreneurship
         Training Program                                            🎓🎓 — 🏪🏪
     21. Spouse Education and Career Opportunities
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼    🏪🏪
     22. Troops to Teachers Grant Program
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼    🏪🏪
     23. United Services Military Apprenticeship Program
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
     24. Veterans' Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing
         Program                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
     25. Veterans Innovation Partnership
                                                                     —     💼💼    🏪🏪
     26. Veterans Integration to Academic Leadership
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
     27. VetSuccess on Campus
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
     28. Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼    🏪🏪
     29. Warrior Training Advancement Course
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
     30. Warriors to Workforce
                                                                     🎓🎓    💼💼     —
Tax Expenditure

1.         Tax exclusion for GI Bill benefits
                                                                     🎓🎓 💼💼 🏪🏪
Source: GAO analysis of survey data | GAO-19-97R
Note: The program information in this figure was provided by agency officials and we did not independently verify it. For detailed
information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries, and eligibility requirements see enclosure II,
organized by administering agency and program name.




Page 12                                                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
For detailed information on these programs, including descriptions of services, beneficiaries,
and eligibility requirements see enclosure II, organized by administering agency and program
name.

Agency Comments

We provided copies of this draft report to the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education,
Energy, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, Labor, State, Treasury, and Veterans
Affairs as well as the Internal Revenue Service, Office of Personnel Management and the Small
Business Administration, for review and comment. We received technical comments from the
Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Homeland Security, Labor, and Veterans Affairs and the
Office of Personnel Management, which we incorporated as appropriate. The Departments of
Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, State, and Treasury, and the Small Business
Administration and the Internal Revenue Service told us that they had no comments on the draft
report.
We are sending copies of this report to appropriate congressional committees and the
Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human
Services, Homeland Security, Labor, State, Treasury, and Veterans Affairs as well as the Acting
Director of the Office of Personnel Management, the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue
Service, and the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. In addition, the report is
available at no charge on the GAO website at http://www.gao.gov.


If you or your staff have any questions about this correspondence please contact me at (202)
512-7215 or brownbarnesc@gao.gov. Contact points for our Offices of Congressional Relations
and Public Affairs may be found on the last page of this report. GAO staff who made key
contributions to this report are listed in enclosure III.




Cindy S. Brown Barnes
Director
Education, Workforce, and Income Security
Enclosures – 3




Page 13                                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Enclosure I: Scope and Methodology

This enclosure summarizes our work to identify federal programs that help servicemembers,
veterans, and their families obtain education and skills for civilian employment and to describe
these programs' characteristics. To address this objective, we (1) developed criteria for defining
and identifying programs; (2) identified applicable tax expenditures; and (3) developed and
administered a survey to gather program information from federal agencies. We also
interviewed officials from federal agencies who oversee these programs, and reviewed relevant
federal laws, regulations, policies, and past GAO reports. The information presented in this
report about programs was provided by agency officials. We did not independently verify
program information.

Identifying Federal Agency Programs

To address our objective, we identified federal programs through the following four-step
process:
         Step 1
We established a definition for “programs” to clarify the types of federal programs and activities
to be included in our list because no universal definition for “program” exists. Past GAO work
and OMB have defined “program” in broad terms. 8 Therefore, we used the definition we
previously developed for a similar review. 9 Due to the differing contexts of our reviews, we
modified our definition to make it pertinent to the types of services included in this review. 10
For the purposes of this report, we established the following definitions.
Definition of Terms

    •    Program: Federally funded organized set of activities directed toward a specific purpose
         or goal administered by a federal agency in fiscal year 2017. These activities may
         include assistance in attaining credentials, pursuing higher education, seeking
         employment, and achieving on-the-job training and can be administered in a number of
         different ways such as programs administered directly by federal agencies or grants.
    •    Active-duty servicemembers: Those who are currently serving on active duty in the
         United States Armed Forces: this includes activated members of the National Guard and
         Reserve under Title 10 (full-time duty in the armed forces) or Title 32 (duty performed for
         which National Guard receives pay from federal government)
    •    DHS: Department of Homeland Security
    •    DOD: Department of Defense
    •    DOE: Department of Energy
    •    DOL: Department of Labor

8
  GAO, A Glossary of Terms Used in the Federal Budget Process, GAO-05-734SP (Washington, D.C.: September
2005); OMB, Circular No. A-11, Preparation, Submission, and Execution of the Budget (July 2017).
9
  GAO, Military and Veteran Support: DOD and VA Programs That Address the Effects of Combat and Transition to
Civilian Life, GAO-15-24 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 7, 2014).
10
   GAO-15-24 examined DOD and VA programs that address the effects of combat─including physical, mental or
social health─on post-9/11 active-duty servicemembers or their spouses or dependents. In contrast, this review
focuses on programs primarily designed to help servicemembers, veterans, and their families obtain the skills and
education they need for civilian employment. Consequently, the types of services included in our program definition
differ from those cited in GAO-15-24.



Page 14                                                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
    •   Education: Department of Education
    •   Family: the spouse and dependent child(ren) of servicemembers or veterans
    •   HHS: Department of Health and Human Services
    •   IRS: Internal Revenue Service
    •   Military connected individuals: Active-duty servicemembers, veterans, and their
        spouses and dependent children
    •   Military services: Departments of the Army; Air Force, and Navy (including the Marine
        Corps); the Coast Guard; and the reserve components for each of the military services,
        including the National Guard
    •   OPM: Office of Personnel Management
    •   Primary purpose: Key reason for which the program or activity was designed or created
        (or one of its main missions or objectives) as stated in the agency’s description of the
        program or activity
    •   Public: The broader civilian community in the United States, including citizens, public
        and private employers, police, and court systems
    •   SBA: Small Business Administration
    •   State: Department of State
    •   Treasury: Department of Treasury
    •   USDA: Department of Agriculture
    •   VA: Department of Veterans Affairs
    •   Veteran: A person who served in the military, naval, or air service and who was
        discharged or released under conditions other than dishonorable (this includes active
        Guard and reserve components that have deployed but are still serving in the reserve
        component)

IA. Criteria for including programs in our review

We included programs with the primary purpose of offering education, employment, or self-
employment services that servicemembers, veterans, and their families may use to achieve
civilian employment. We included programs that offer one or more of the following:
•   Education Assistance: Programs were included that provide assistance, support, or benefits
    in obtaining a general education or education and vocational training toward degrees or
    certifications: includes educational counseling or assessments to help servicemembers,
    veterans, their spouses, or children decide what type of education to pursue, develop a plan
    for financing their education, and select a school and includes assistance, support, or
    benefits in obtaining certifications, professional licenses, or other credentials.
•   Employment Assistance: Programs were included that provide assistance, support, or
    benefits in preparing for and obtaining skills for civilian employment: includes
    apprenticeships, on-the-job training experiences, career counseling and supports to help
    servicemembers, veterans or their families identify what career to pursue, and programs that
    link individuals with prospective employers.
•   Self-Employment Assistance: Programs were included that provide assistance, support, or
    benefits in considering, preparing for, or obtaining skills for self-employment (does not
    include loan programs because such programs do not impart skills that military-connected
    individuals may use to prepare for civilian employment or self-employment).



Page 15                                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
•   We also included programs whose primary purpose meets our criteria above, but which
    provide the education, employment, or self-employment assistance to one or more sub-
    populations of military connected-individuals, such as those who have been wounded, have
    a disability, or are experiencing homelessness.

IB. Criteria for excluding programs from our review

The following were excluded:
   • Programs that serve individuals without a current or prior connection to military service
        (for instance, programs that are available to the general public are not included even if
        these programs give preference to servicemembers, veterans, or their families);
    •   Programs that serve target populations other than military-connected individuals;
    •   Programs for which post-9/11 Iraq and Afghanistan servicemembers, veterans, or their
        families are not eligible, such as efforts aimed only at veterans of conflicts or wars prior
        to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn;
    •   Programs that provide informational services, such as web-based or printed materials
        involving a passive, one-way transmittal of information (e.g., National Resource
        Directory);
    •   Programs developed and administered by individual military installations or VA hospitals
        specifically for the populations they serve at those locations;
    •   Programs administered by the military service branches, specifically the Departments of
        the Army, Air Force, and Navy (including the Marine Corps) or the reserve components
        for military services, including the National Guard, unless they are offered DOD-wide
        and have an overarching DOD policy (for example, Army specific programs are
        excluded). However, we do not exclude Coast Guard programs governed by Coast-
        Guard specific policies or regulations because the Coast Guard is overseen by DHS.
        Thus, Coast Guard programs may be administered differently than similar DOD
        programs administered by the Air Force, Army, or Navy that are governed by an
        overarching DOD policy.
    •   Programs that are pilots or demonstrations;
    •   Programs conducted for research; and
    •   Programs that may have been created or revised to meet our inclusion criteria after
        fiscal year 2017.

        Step 2

We identified publicly available sources of information that contain lists of relevant federal
programs. We identified these sources based on our previously published work, discussions
with our internal experts on research methods, and online searches. For example, we searched
the National Resource Directory—a website that connects wounded warriors, servicemembers,
veterans, their families and their caregivers to programs and services that support them. We
also searched the official websites of the 24 federal agencies required to participate in the
Veterans Employment Initiative by Executive Order 13518: Employment of Veterans in the




Page 16                                               GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Federal Government such as the Department of the Treasury. 11 Table 1 below provides the
name and description of each source we used. We searched these sources for the following key
terms: “veteran” or “veterans” or “service person” or “service persons” or “service member” or
“service members” or “serviceperson” or “servicepersons” or “servicemember” or
“servicemembers” or “reservist” or “reservists” or “reserve component” or “reserve components.”
Two analysts independently reviewed the sources for these terms and determined whether each
use of the term identified a program that met our criteria for inclusion. The two analysts then
reconciled any differences they may have had in their determinations.

Table 1: Sources GAO Used to Identify Federal Programs That Provide Education, Employment, or Self-
Employment Services to Servicemembers, Veterans, or Their Families
Source                          Description
Caregiver Resource              The CRD provides information in a manner that is intended to enable caregivers to
Directory (CRD)                 quickly identify many of the available government and nonprofit resources that address
                                their particular needs and requirements.
Catalog of Federal              The CFDA is a General Services Administration database of federal programs, projects,
Domestic Assistance             services, and activities that provide assistance or benefits to the American public. It
(CFDA)                          contains financial and nonfinancial assistance programs administered by all agencies of
                                the federal government. The primary purpose of the CFDA is to assist users in identifying
                                programs that meet specific objectives of potential applicants and to provide general
                                information on federal programs.
Federal agency                  The official websites of the 24 federal agencies required to participate in the Veterans
websites                        Employment Initiative by Executive Order 13518: Employment of Veterans in the Federal
                                Government.
GAO-11-92                       Among other things, this report identified federal programs that provide employment and
                                training services for a broad population of job seekers that also included veterans.
GAO-15-24                       Among other things, this report identified federal programs that offered multiple types of
                                services to help transitioning servicemembers and their families’ transition and readjust
                                to civilian life in fiscal year 2014.
Military OneSource              Military OneSource is a DOD-funded program that provides information and referral to
                                services for military servicemembers and their families through a website as well as
                                counseling. Information provided includes, but is not limited to, information related to
                                deployment, reunion, relationships, grief, spouse employment and education, parenting
                                and childhood.
National Resource               The NRD is a partnership among DOD, VA, and the DOL that seeks to connect wounded
Directory (NRD)                 and other servicemembers, veterans, their families, and caregivers to programs and
                                services that support them. Information contained within the NRD website is from federal,
                                state, and local government agencies; veteran and military service organizations; non-
                                profit and community-based organizations; and academic institutions and professional
                                associations that provide assistance to wounded warriors and their families.
Source: GAO analysis of publicly available sources identified during the course of our audit work. | GAO-19-97R
Note: To identify tax expenditures (credits, deductions, deferrals, or preferential tax rates), we reviewed the list of tax expenditures
contained in the Office of Management and Budget’s Fiscal Year 2019 Analytical Perspectives as well as the Joint Committee on
Taxation’s Estimates of Federal Tax Expenditures for Fiscal Years 2017-2021.

           Step 3
We used the definitions and sources from steps 1 and 2 to develop a preliminary list of the
relevant programs. In addition, three GAO analysts independently reviewed all of the sources
and documented a judgment about whether the programs identified conformed to the definitions
we developed in step 1, and reconciled any differences as needed.
11
  Executive Order 13518 created the Veterans Employment Initiative to boost employment of military veterans,
especially from Iraq and Afghanistan, in the federal government. Exec. Order No. 13,518, 74 Fed. Reg. 58,533 (Nov.
9, 2009).



Page 17                                                                         GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
        Step 4
For each program on our preliminary list, we sent two surveys to the federal agency primarily
responsible for administering that program, and also requested that agency officials complete
the same survey for any additional programs they thought should be included in our catalog.
According to agency officials, some programs we had initially identified were not active in fiscal
year 2017 so we removed these programs from our list.
This four-step process identified 44 separate programs. In carrying out this four-step process,
we did not conduct an independent legal analysis of the statutory or regulatory basis or
requirements for any of the programs we identified. Based on agency comments on our draft
report, we added one more program to our inventory, bringing the total number of programs
identified to 45.
To help convey our findings, we developed categories to group the types of service provided by
the programs. The categories include (1) education assistance, (2) employment assistance, and
(3) self-employment assistance. Because some programs offer more than one type of service,
programs can fall into more than one category or service type. For example, VA’s Vocational
Rehabilitation and Employment program provides education, employment, and self-employment
services to eligible veterans with service-connected disability ratings. Although a service may be
provided by many programs or activities, the service may or may not be commonly used by
servicemembers or veterans. For example, the services provided through the TAP program are
widespread because all eligible, transitioning servicemembers are generally required to
participate in the program and their needs may vary significantly.
Finally, our scope was limited to identifying federal programs based on the types of service
provided to servicemembers, veterans, spouses, and children; we did not analyze these
programs to identify instances of fragmentation, overlap, duplication, or gaps in benefits or
services. In addition, the programs included in our review were accurate and up to date when
we received the responses from the agency in the summer of 2018. However, some may
change over time. For example, OPM, HHS, and VA told us of a new jointly-administered
program to help veterans enter the cyber-security field called Cyber Vets. However, because
the program was not operational in fiscal year 2017, it was not included in our list.

Identifying Tax Expenditures of Selected Programs

The federal government provides assistance to servicemembers, veterans, and their families
through programs and tax expenditures. Tax expenditures result in forgone revenue to the
federal government, such as by excluding certain program benefits from an individual’s taxable
income. We identified tax expenditures that relate to programs through which the federal
government supports military-connected individuals in pursuing education or acquiring skills for
civilian employment and, to the extent possible, reported estimates for these expenditures for
fiscal year 2017.
To identify relevant tax expenditures, we analyzed three government publications that contain
tax expenditure estimates for fiscal year 2017. 12 The following three documents were searched:

1. Joint Committee on Taxation, Estimates of Federal Tax Expenditures for Fiscal Years 2017–
   2021;

12
  We used the same search terms when conducting the search of programs within the Catalog of Federal Domestic
Assistance (CFDA). These search terms are: “veteran” or “veterans” or “service person” or “service persons” or
“service member” or “service members” or “serviceperson” or “servicepersons” or “servicemember” or
“servicemembers” or “reservist” or “reservists” or “reserve component” or “reserve components.”



Page 18                                                     GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
2. Congressional Research Service, Tax Expenditure Compendium, December 2016; and
3. OMB’s Analytical Perspectives, FY 2019 Table 13 Tax Expenditures.

Specifically, we conducted an automated key word search on the three documents and
recorded which pages contained the key words. Two GAO analysts independently reviewed the
key word results, interpreted the underlying context, and identified tax expenditures they
determined should be included in our review. The two analysts then reconciled any
discrepancies between their determinations.

Survey of Agencies with Education, Employment, or Self-Employment Programs

To gather information on each of the programs we identified, we developed a questionnaire that
asked agencies to provide information on each program they administer, such as program
purpose, beneficiary eligibility, and beneficiaries served. We then conducted a survey of the
federal agencies that administer each program. We pre-tested a draft of the questionnaire with
agency officials at VA and DOD. We interviewed these officials and solicited their feedback to
ensure that (1) the questions were clear and unambiguous, (2) terminology was used correctly,
(3) the survey did not place an undue burden on agency officials, (4) the information could
feasibly be obtained, and (5) the survey was comprehensive and unbiased. We revised the
survey, included separating it into two questionnaires, based on feedback by agency officials.
The first questionnaire focused on collecting qualitative information such as program name,
objectives, and services provided. The second questionnaire focused on collecting quantitative
data such as program funding and numbers served.
We sent two questionnaires per program to the agencies that administer that program by email
in an attached spreadsheet that respondents could complete and return electronically after
entering responses from pull-down menus or into open answer boxes. We sent the form to
agency points of contact on June 14, 2018, and provided two separate deadlines for their
completion. We reached a 100 percent response for the first questionnaire, on which this report
is based, in August 2018. At the time of this review we were still collecting survey responses for
the second survey, which may inform future work. We edited agency responses for consistency
and readability and noted any responses by the agency that seemed contradictory or unclear.
We then sent each agency the portion of the report that contained the programs administered
by that agency for a final review to ensure that all changes we made were accurate, and all
issues had been clarified.
Because this was not a sample survey, it has no sampling errors. However, the practical
difficulties of conducting any survey may introduce errors, commonly referred to as nonsampling
errors. For example, difficulties in interpreting a particular question, variable sources of
information available to respondents, or errors entering data into a database or analyzing them
can introduce unwanted variability into the survey results. In developing the questionnaires and
collecting and analyzing the data, we took steps to minimize nonsampling error. For example, to
minimize difficulties interpreting a particular question we incorporated the suggestions from an
independent reviewer to add explicit instructions to use the pull-down menus and consistently
phrased requests for information in the questionnaires. To minimize manual data entry errors of
collected survey data, we utilized a software program to automate the file transfer process and
performed a line-by-line verification of the program code.
We conducted this performance audit from February 2018 to January 2019 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and
perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our




Page 19                                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained
provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives.




Page 20                                           GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Enclosure II: Detailed Inventory of Federal Programs to Help
                                                 Servicemembers, Veterans, or Their Families Achieve Civilian
                                                 Employment, by Agency and Program Name



                                                 Enhancing Agricultural Opportunities for
                                                 Military Veterans Competitive Grants Program
Federal Administering
Agency
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
                                                 Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Program Description
                                                 Nonprofit organizations are expected to use grant funds to benefit
Provides grants to nonprofit                     veterans interested in farming and ranching opportunities. Specifically,
organizations. These grants support              grant funds are available to offer programs and services to establish and
programs and services to help                    enhance farming and ranching opportunities for military veterans.
establish and enhance farming and
ranching opportunities for military              Education Services Provided
veterans.
                                                 1) Tuition for vocational or technical education courses (includes courses
Type of Beneficiary Served                       taken as part of a non-college degree program and non-degree or
                                                 technical courses offered at community colleges), 2) certification and
Servicemembers and veterans
                                                 licensure preparation (e.g., college and community college courses and
Source: USDA responses to GAO survey. GAO        degrees if required, study materials, or non-college degree training), 3)
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 living stipend or housing allowance, 4) referrals to additional services, 5)
                                                 apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
                                                 provided as part of an apprenticeship), and 6) remedial or refresher
                                                 coursework
                                                 Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) job development, 3) job readiness training,
                                                 4) job referrals, 5) job-search or job placement activities, 6) occupational
                                                 or vocational training (taken outside of a degree program), 7) on-the-job
                                                 training, 8) apprenticeship training (paid work component), 9) non-paid
                                                 work experience, 10) resume assistance, 11) supportive technology for
                                                 individuals with disabilities to support employment, 12) living stipend, 13)
                                                 housing allowance, and 14) referrals to additional services
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
                                                 concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
                                                 accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) referrals to
                                                 additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
                                                 resource partners), 7) mentoring, 8) training to select a business structure
                                                 (sole proprietor, LLC, corporation, etc.), and 9) training on commercial
                                                 supply chain opportunities




                                                 Page 21                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 DOD Discretionary Certification & Licensure
                                                 (the Military Services’ Credentialing
                                                 Opportunities Online (COOL) programs)

Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Members of the armed forces. Specific eligibility criteria vary by military
Department of Defense (DOD)                      service. 13

Program Description                              Education Services Provided
Enables servicemembers to obtain                 1) Books and materials allowance, 2) tuition for postsecondary courses as
professional credentials related to              part of a degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
military training and skills that they           professional degree program), 3) tuition for vocational or technical
acquired during their military                   education courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college
service and helps them translate                 degree program and non-degree or technical courses offered at
them into civilian occupations.                  community colleges), 4) certification and licensure preparation (e.g.,
The program allows payment for                   college and community college courses and degrees if required, study
the following expenses: 1)                       materials, or non-college degree training), 5) certification and licensure
professional accreditation, 2)                   attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the certification agency application and
federal occupational licenses, 3)                exam fees), 6) certification and licensure maintenance and renewal costs
state-imposed and professional                   includes activities surrounding maintaining continuing education units,
licenses, 4) professional                        annual maintenance fees, recertification fees, and re-examination fees.
certification, and 5) related                    Employment Services Provided
expenses.
                                                 None
Type of Beneficiary Served
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
Servicemembers
                                                 None
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 13
                                                    For example, the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy Credentialing Opportunities Online
                                                 (COOL) programs provide financial assistance for their respective enlisted personnel to participate in
                                                 credentialing opportunities. However, the military services have different program eligibilities for
                                                 officers. The Army COOL program provides financial assistance for officers, while the Navy, Marine
                                                 Corps, and Air Force COOL programs exclude financial assistance for officers.

                                                 Page 22                                 GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 DOD Education and Employment Initiative




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Active-duty servicemembers assigned to a military service Wounded
Department of Defense (DOD)                      Warrior Program or referred to the Disability Evaluation System must
                                                 obtain command approval to participate and be medically cleared by a
Program Description                              member of their recovery team and/or a physician involved in their
Provides educational assistance,                 ongoing treatment. Ideally, the recovering servicemember should have
career planning, and employment                  more than 180 days remaining on active duty before they separate.
support to assist recovering                     Education Services Provided
servicemembers to improve their
education, career, and/or                        1) Educational/ vocational counseling and assessment, 2) college fairs
vocational readiness prior to                    (including "industry days" that combine both college and job fairs), 3)
transition to civilian life.                     individualized case management and career plan development to
                                                 determine career goals or educational, vocational, or personal goals and
Type of Beneficiary Served                       interests, 4) assistance with seeking traditional and non-traditional
Servicemembers                                   educational and trade school opportunities, and 5) licensure and
                                                 certification testing
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.   Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) job readiness and training activities, 3)
                                                 employment referrals, 4) employment search and/ or on-the-job training
                                                 placement services, such as internships or apprenticeships, as authorized
                                                 by law, 5) resume assistance, 6) interview skills development, 7) job fairs,
                                                 8) referrals to additional services, and 9) assistance with employment or
                                                 educational goals by linking servicemembers to appropriate resources
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners)




                                                 Page 23                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 DOD Operation Warfighter Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Active-duty servicemembers assigned to a military service Wounded
Department of Defense (DOD)                      Warrior Program or referred to the Disability Evaluation System.
                                                 Servicemembers must obtain command approval to participate and be
Program Description                              medically cleared by a member of their recovery team and/or a physician
Provides eligible recovering                     involved in their ongoing treatment.
servicemembers with non-paid                     Education Services Provided
internship opportunities within the
federal government. Allows                       1) Educational counseling, 2) case-management (e.g., designated staff
recovering servicemembers to                     member assigned to provide hands-on support and assistance with
explore employment interests and                 managing internship opportunities), and 3) referrals to additional services
enhance overall career readiness                 Employment Services Provided
through resume building, job skills
development, and valuable work                   1) Employment counseling, 2) job readiness training, 3) interview skills
experience.                                      development, 4) resume development assistance, 5) employment
                                                 application preparation, assistance, and coordination, 6) internship
Type of Beneficiary Served                       enrollment, monitoring, and other administrative support, as needed, 7)
Servicemembers                                   non-paid work experience, 8) referrals to additional services, and 9) job
                                                 fairs
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.   Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 Mentoring




                                                 Page 24                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 DOD Tuition Assistance




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Members of the military services on active duty and members of the
Department of Defense (DOD)                      Selected Reserve are eligible to participate.

Program Description
                                                 Education Services Provided
Provides servicemembers with
financial assistance to enhance                  1) Educational counseling, 2) case management (e.g., designated staff
their academic achievement (i.e.,                member assigned to provide hands-on support to help participant
earn a degree or certificate) during             manage benefits), 3) tuition for postsecondary courses as part of a
their off-duty time. This in turn can            degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
improve job performance,                         professional degree program), 4) tuition for vocational or technical
promotion potential, self-                       education courses (includes vocational and technical courses offered at
development, and personal quality                community colleges for college credit), and 5) certification and licensure
of life. Currently, tuition assistance           preparation (e.g., college and community college courses and degrees)
can be used to pay for college                   Employment Services Provided
courses, degrees, or certificates in
any discipline desired. It can also              None
be tailored to meet the individual               Self-Employment Services Provided
needs of each servicemember.
                                                 None
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 25                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve
                                                 (ESGR)



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Employers, veterans, and uniformed servicemembers, with a focus on
Department of Defense (DOD)                      reserve component members.

Program Description                              Education Services Provided
Develops and promotes supportive                 1) Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve is a DOD program that
work environments for                            develops and promotes supportive work environments for
servicemembers in the reserve                    servicemembers in the reserve components through outreach,
component through outreach,                      recognition, and educational opportunities that increase awareness of
recognition, and educational                     applicable laws. The program also seeks to resolve employment conflicts
opportunities. The program aims to               between servicemembers and their employers.
increase awareness of applicable                 Employment Services Provided
laws and resolve employment
conflicts between servicemembers                 None
and their employers. The program                 Self-Employment Services Provided
encourages employers in the
United States and territories to                 None
support and value the employment
of members of the National Guard
and Reserves. In turn, this
increases the readiness of the
reserve components.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers and veterans
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 26                     GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Job Training, Employment Skills Training,
                                                 Apprenticeships, and Internships (or
                                                 SkillBridge)

Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Eligible servicemembers must have completed at least 180 continuous
Department of Defense (DOD)                      days on active duty and be within six months of their expected discharge
                                                 or release from active duty. Additionally, servicemembers must initiate
Program Description                              their participation and obtain approval from their chain of command.
Allows servicemembers with                       Education Services Provided
certain qualifications to participate
in civilian job and employment                   Apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
training starting up to six months               provided as part of an apprenticeship)
before they separate from military               Employment Services Provided
service and transition to the civilian
work force. Such training can                    The DOD SkillBridge program facilitates participation in employment and
include job training, employment                 training activities including employment counseling, employment
skills training, apprenticeships, and            assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or values assessment),
internships.                                     job development, job readiness training, job referrals, job-search or job
                                                 placement activities, occupational or vocational training (taken outside of
Type of Beneficiary Served                       a degree program), on-the-job training, apprenticeship training (paid work
Servicemembers                                   component), resume assistance, interview skills development, and
                                                 referrals to additional services. No employment or training services are
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO         provided directly by DOD.
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 None




                                                 Page 27                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Military OneSource Spouse Career Center




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           All military spouses, regardless of component or pay grade of
Department of Defense (DOD)                      servicemember are eligible for career center services. Military spouses of
                                                 servicemembers who have retired or separated from the military are
Program Description                              eligible for up to 365 days after separation. The career center uses the
Provides military spouses with                   same eligibility criteria as Military OneSource.
education and career counseling                  Education Services Provided
services through a virtual platform.
The Military OneSource Spouse                    1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
Career Center is an initiative under             values assessments), 2) educational counseling, and 3) referrals to
the DoD's broader Spouse                         additional services
Education and Career                             Employment Services Provided
Opportunities program.
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
Type of Beneficiary Served                       interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job referrals, 4) job-
Spouses                                          search or job placement activities, 5) resume assistance, 6) interview
                                                 skills development, 7) referrals to additional services, and 8) job fairs
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.   Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners), 2) mentoring, and 3) robust, ongoing
                                                 engagement between military spouses and career coaches around
                                                 entrepreneurism including access to the Entrepreneurial Edge
                                                 Assessment, as well as development of action plans and regular check-
                                                 ins to assess obstacles to completing milestones




                                                 Page 28                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Spouse Education and Career Opportunities
                                                 (SECO)



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           All military spouses up to 365 days after separation.
Department of Defense (DOD)                      Education Services Provided
Program Description                              1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
Provides tools, information, and                 values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
resources to help military spouses               (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
reach their educational and career               help participant manage benefits), 4) tuition for postsecondary courses as
goals.                                           part of a degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
                                                 professional degree program), 5) tuition for vocational or technical
Type of Beneficiary Served                       education courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college
Spouses                                          degree program and non-degree or technical courses offered at
                                                 community colleges), 6) certification and licensure preparation (e.g.,
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO         college and community college courses and degrees if required, study
did not independently verify this information.   materials, or non-college degree training), 7) certification and licensure
                                                 attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the certification agency application and
                                                 exam fees), and 8) certification and licensure maintenance and renewal
                                                 costs (including activities to maintain continuing education units, annual
                                                 maintenance fees, recertification fees, and re-examination fees)
                                                 Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                                 interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
                                                 referrals, 5) job-search or job placement activities, 6) resume assistance,
                                                 7) interview skills development, 8) referrals to additional services, and 9)
                                                 job fairs
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners), 2) mentoring, and 3) robust
                                                 entrepreneurship package designed to lead spouses to resources outside
                                                 of DOD




                                                 Page 29                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Transition Assistance Advisors




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Reserve component members transitioning between reserve status and
Department of Defense (DOD)                      active status and their families. Specifically, eligible reserve component
                                                 members include those transitioning from a reserve status (Title 10 or 32
Program Description                              drilling) to an active status (Title 10 active duty) and those transitioning
Assists eligible members of the                  back to a reserve status (Title 10 or 32 drilling).
reserve components with                          Education Services Provided
accessing benefits and health care
furnished under laws administered                Referrals to additional services
by the Secretary of Defense and                  Employment Services Provided
benefits and health care furnished
under laws administered by the                   1) Job referrals and 2) referrals to additional services
Secretary of Veterans Affairs and                Self-Employment Services Provided
other federal, state and local
agencies.                                        Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or Small Business Administration (SBA) resource partners)
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers, veterans,
spouses, and dependent children
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 30                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Troops to Teachers Grant Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Beneficiaries of the program are eligible members of the armed forces, as
Department of Defense (DOD)                      specified in 10 U.S.C. § 1154.

Program Description                              Education Services Provided
Helps eligible military personnel                1) Educational counseling and 2) referrals to additional services
begin new careers as teachers in                 Employment Services Provided
public schools. Provides
counseling, assessment, and                      1) Employment counseling, 2) job referrals, 3) job-search or job
referral to facilitate employment of             placement activities, 4) referrals to additional services, and 5) mentoring
eligible members of the armed                    Self-Employment Services Provided
forces as teachers in public
elementary or secondary schools                  None
identified in 10 U.S.C. § 1154.
The program benefits transitioning
servicemembers and veterans by
helping them become teachers,
especially in high-need schools
and in critical subject areas
(science, mathematics, foreign
language, or special education).
The program leverages the
knowledge and skills members of
the armed forces honed while in
the military, such as leadership
and managing several people at
once. Participants apply these
skills in the classroom.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers and veterans
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 31                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 United Services Military Apprenticeship
                                                 Program (USMAP)



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Eligible servicemembers must meet the following four criteria:
Department of Defense (DOD)                          1. Be at least 17 years of age.

Program Description                                  2. Be on active duty. 14
Allows servicemembers to                             3. Have earned a high school diploma, General Educational
participate in a formal military                        Development (GED) equivalency, or other high school
training program to improve their                       equivalency credential.
job skills and complete civilian
apprenticeship requirements while                    4. Be physically capable of performing the essential functions of the
on active duty. Upon program                            apprenticeship program.
completion, DOL provides a
nationally recognized "Certificate               Education Services Provided
of Completion."                                  1) Case-management (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide
Type of Beneficiary Served                       hands-on support to help participant manage benefits), and 2)
                                                 apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
Servicemembers                                   provided as part of an apprenticeship)
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.   Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                                 program), 2) on-the-job training, and 3) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                                 component)
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 None




                                                 14
                                                    Active duty includes servicemembers who are either on permanent active duty or who
                                                 are members of the Selected Reserve recalled to active duty for at least 12 months.

                                                 Page 32                           GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                             Centers of Excellence for Veteran Student
                                             Success



Federal Administering                        Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                       Institutions of higher education are eligible to apply for the Centers of
Department of Education                      Excellence for Veteran Student Success program, which serves all
(Education)                                  veterans attending the institution of higher education.

Program Description                          Education Services Provided
Encourages institutions of higher            1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
education to develop model                   values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
programs to support veteran                  (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
student success in postsecondary             help participant manage benefits), 4) referrals to additional services, 5)
education. The program                       supportive technology for individuals with disabilities to support education,
coordinates services to address              6) remedial or refresher coursework, and 7) specific services through
the academic, financial, physical,           institutions of higher education that are awarded a grant for a Centers of
and social needs of veteran                  Excellence for Veteran Student Success program: admissions,
students.                                    registration, financial aid, academic advising, student health, personal or
                                             mental health counseling, career advising, and disabilities services to
Type of Beneficiary Served                   support veteran students on campus
Veterans                                     Employment Services Provided
Source: Education responses to GAO survey.   1) Employment counseling, 2) job readiness training, 3) job referrals, 4)
GAO did not independently verify this
information.                                 job-search or job placement activities, 5) resume assistance, 6) interview
                                             skills development, 7) supportive technology for individuals with
                                             disabilities to support employment, and 8) referrals to additional services
                                             Self-Employment Services Provided
                                             None




                                             Page 33                        GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                       Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant




Federal Administering                  Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                     Undergraduate students and students pursuing a teaching certificate who
Department of Education                    are a dependent child of a veteran who died as a result of U.S. military
(Education)                                service in Iraq or Afghanistan after September 11, 2001. Participants
                                           must be U.S. citizens or eligible noncitizens. There are two different
Program Description                        provisions for eligible students, depending on whether the student has an
Provides federal student aid to            expected family contribution that falls within the range for Pell Grant
students whose parent or guardian eligibility.
died as a result of U.S. military          Education Services Provided
service in Iraq or Afghanistan after
September 11, 2001 if eligibility          1) Books and materials allowance, 2) tuition for postsecondary courses as
criteria are met.                          part of a degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
                                           professional degree program), 3) tuition for vocational or technical
Type of Beneficiary Served                 education courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college
Dependent children                         degree program and non-degree or technical courses offered at
                                           community colleges), 4) certification and licensure preparation (e.g.,
Source: Education responses to GAO survey. college and community college courses and degrees if required, study
GAO did not independently verify this
information.                               materials, or non-college degree training), 5) certification and licensure
                                           attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the certification agency application and
                                           exam fees), 6) living stipend or housing allowance, 7) supportive
                                           technology for individuals with disabilities to support education, and 8)
                                           remedial or refresher coursework
                                       Employment Services Provided
                                       None
                                       Self-Employment Services Provided
                                       None




                                       Page 34                         GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                             Veterans Upward Bound




Federal Administering                        Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                       An individual is eligible to participate in a Veterans Upward Bound
Department of Education                      Program if the individual meets the following three requirements:
(Education)                                       1. Is a citizen or national of the United States or meets other
                                                      residency criteria. 15
Program Description                               2. Is a potential first-generation college student, low-income
Prepares, motivates, and assists                      individual, or an individual who has a high risk for academic
military veterans in developing                       failure.
academic and other skills                         3. Is a person who needs academic support, as determined by the
necessary for acceptance into and                     grantee, in order to successfully pursue a program of education
success in a program of                               beyond high school.
postsecondary education. The
specific performance measure is              Education Services Provided
the percentage of participants who           1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
enroll in and complete                       values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) entrance tests (e.g.,
postsecondary education.                     SAT, LSAT, GRE, ACT, GMAT), 4) high school or general education
                                             development (GED) completion, 5) tutoring fees, 6) books and materials
Type of Beneficiary Served
                                             allowance, 7) referrals to additional services, 8) college fairs (including
Veterans                                     "industry days" that combine both college and job fairs), 9) remedial or
                                             refresher coursework, 10) advice and assistance in secondary and
Source: Education responses to GAO survey.
GAO did not independently verify this        postsecondary course selection, 11) assistance in preparing for college
information.                                 entrance examinations and completing college admission applications,
                                             12) information on the full range of federal student financial aid programs
                                             and benefits and resources for locating public and private scholarships,
                                             13) assistance in completing financial aid applications, including the Free
                                             Application for Federal Student Aid, 14) guidance on and assistance in
                                             entry into GED programs or entry into postsecondary education, 15)
                                             education or counseling services designed to improve the financial and
                                             economic literacy of students, including financial planning for
                                             postsecondary education, 16) instruction in mathematics through pre-
                                             calculus, laboratory science, foreign language, composition, and
                                             literature, 17) intensive basic skills development in those academic
                                             subjects required for successful completion of a high school equivalency
                                             program and for admission to postsecondary education programs, 18)
                                             short-term remedial or refresher courses for veterans who are high school
                                             graduates but who have delayed pursuing post-secondary education, 19)
                                             assistance to veterans in securing support services from other locally
                                             available resources such as Veterans Administration, state veterans
                                             agencies, veterans associations, and other state and local agencies that
                                             serve veterans, and 20) special services, including mathematics and

                                             15
                                               In addition to citizens, eligible individuals include those who are permanent residents of
                                             the United States; are in the United States for a non-temporary purpose and provide
                                             evidence from the U.S Citizenship and Immigration Service of his or her intent to become
                                             a permanent resident; are a permanent resident of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands,
                                             or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands; or are a resident of the Freely Associated
                                             States—the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, or the
                                             Republic of Palau.
                                             Page 35                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
science preparation, to enable veterans to make the transition to
postsecondary education
Employment Services Provided
None
Self-Employment Services Provided
None




Page 36                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 DOE Scholars Program for Veterans, the
                                                 Federal Energy Management Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Applicants must be U.S. veterans and citizens and have earned an
Department of Energy (DOE)                       undergraduate, graduate or post-graduate degree from an accredited
                                                 institution of higher education.
Program Description
                                                 Education Services Provided
Introduces students or recent
college graduates to DOE's                       Living stipend or housing allowance
mission and operations as well as                Employment Services Provided
other federal agencies' mission
and operations. Under the DOE                    1) Resume assistance, 2) interview skills development, 3) living stipend,
Scholars Program for Veterans,                   and 4) housing allowance
veterans are given preference and                Self-Employment Services Provided
are placed at federal agencies in
the Washington, D.C. area.                       None
Participants engage in various
educational experiences within a
paid 10-week internship. In
addition, the participants interact
daily with federal energy
managers, learn about the various
types of research and projects that
federal agencies and national
laboratories conduct, learn about
energy technology, and gain an
understanding of federal agencies’
structure while utilizing their
education, talents, abilities and
skills. The broader DOE Scholars
Program is administered for DOE
by the Oak Ridge Institute for
Science and Education (ORISE),
which also administers this special
DOE Scholars Program
exclusively for veterans.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Veterans
Source: DOE responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 37                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Veterans' Bachelor of Science Degree in
                                                 Nursing Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           HHS does not make awards directly to individual veterans; it makes
Department of Health and Human                   awards to schools of nursing. Eligible applicants are accredited schools of
Services (HHS)                                   nursing, health care facilities, or a partnership of health care facilities and
                                                 an accredited school of nursing. A health care facility may include an
Program Description                              Indian Health Service health center, Native Hawaiian health center,
Supports the development and                     hospital, federally-qualified health center, rural health clinic, nursing
implementation of innovative                     home, home health agency, hospice program, public health clinic, state or
practice models that enable                      local department of public health, skilled nursing facility, ambulatory
veterans to earn nursing degrees,                surgical center, or any other facility designated by the Secretary. All
expands employment                               applicant schools of nursing that provide nursing education for program
opportunities, and prepares                      participants must be accredited for the purpose of conferring
veterans to transition from their                baccalaureate nursing degrees by a national nurse education accrediting
military role to that of a civilian              agency or State approval agency recognized by the Secretary of the U.S.
professional nurse. The program                  Department of Education. Program participants must be honorably or
was designed to increase                         generally discharged servicemember reservists, or National Guard
enrollment, progression, and                     members with prior (formal or informal) medical training, who have not yet
graduation of veterans from                      earned Bachelor of Science in Nursing degrees. Colleges have also
nursing programs and to prepare                  accepted soon-to-be-separating servicemembers and active duty
veterans to transition from their                servicemembers who wish to become officers with approval from their
military role to that of a civilian              commanding officers. In addition to being veterans, eligible program
professional nurse. Specifically,                participants must be U.S. citizens, non-citizen-nationals, or foreign
schools provide enhanced support                 nationals who possess visas permitting permanent residence in the
services to veterans enabling their              United States. Individuals on temporary student visas are not eligible.
enrollment, retention, graduation,               Education Services Provided
and successful passage of the
National Council Licensure                       1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
Examination for Registered                       values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
Nurses. Awarding academic credit                 (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
is also a focus to save veterans                 help participant manage benefits), 4) tests for academic credit (e.g.,
time and maximizes their GI Bill                 Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level Examination
benefits and personal resources.                 Program (CLEP), 5) other educational testing (e.g., GED, Praxis), 6)
The program’s aim is to strengthen               tutoring fees, 7) certification and licensure preparation (e.g., college and
the quality of care and expand the               community college courses and degrees if required, study materials, or
nursing workforce through                        non-college degree training), 8) referrals to additional services, 9)
increased enrollment of veterans                 remedial or refresher coursework, and 10) mental and behavioral health
in baccalaureate nursing                         counseling, Joint Services Transcripts Reviews, GI Bill guidance, career
programs.                                        path planning, mentors, time management skills, and stress reduction
                                                 techniques
Type of Beneficiary Served
                                                 Employment Services Provided
Veterans
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
Source: HHS responses to GAO survey. GAO         interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
                                                 activities, 7) resume assistance, 8) interview skills development, 9)
                                                 referrals to additional services, and 10) job fairs


                                                 Page 38                        GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Self-Employment Services Provided
None




Page 39               GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Coast Guard Retiree Services Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           The program supports Coast Guard active duty members transitioning to
Department of Homeland Security                  retirement and Coast Guard military retirees, annuitants, and survivors.
(DHS): Coast Guard                               Education Services Provided
Program Description                              1) Educational counseling and 2) referrals to transition assistance and
The program provides, supports,                  retiree services
and strengthens Coast Guard                      Employment Services Provided
military retiree communications,
information services, and other                  1) Employment counseling, 2) resume assistance, 3) interview skills
retiree services. The program also               development, and 4) referrals to additional services
supports the lifelong connection                 Self-Employment Services Provided
and mutually beneficial
relationship between the Coast                   1) Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
Guard and its military retiree                   Centers or SBA resource partners) and 2) mentoring
community—the Long Blue Line.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers, veterans,
spouses, and dependent children
Source: DHS responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 40                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Coast Guard Spouse Employment Assistance
                                                 Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           All active military spouses or dependents, and retired members and
Department of Homeland Security                  eligible dependents. 16
(DHS): Coast Guard                               Education Services Provided
Program Description                 1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
Assists spouses with career and     values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
employment information and helps credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level
military family members learn how Examination Program (CLEP), 4) referrals to additional services, 5)
to get a job and maintain a career college fairs (including "industry days" that combine both college and job
they enjoy. It is not an employment fairs), and 6) active-duty spouses apply for CLEP and GSST testing.
office or placement center.         Additionally, the Coast Guard provides tutoring at tutor.com

Type of Beneficiary Served                       Employment Services Provided
All military department                          1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
servicemembers, spouses,                         interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job referrals, 4) job-
veterans who retired from military               search or job placement activities, 5) resume assistance, 6) interview
service, and dependent children                  skills development, 7) referrals to additional services, and 8) job fairs
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
Source: DHS responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.   1) Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners), 2) spouses are eligible to attend the
                                                 Boots to Business 2-day classes offered by all services as part of the
                                                 Transition Assistance Program




                                                 16
                                                    Data on eligible dependents must be included in the Defense Enrollment Eligibility
                                                 Reporting System.

                                                 Page 41                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Coast Guard Tuition Assistance (Voluntary
                                                 Education)



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Tuition assistance is authorized for active-duty military members who
Department of Homeland Security                  were on active duty or were a reservist on long-term orders greater than
(DHS): Coast Guard                               180 days. Back-to-back short-term orders adding up to more than 180
                                                 continuous days does not apply and tuition assistance will not be
                                                 authorized.
Program Description
                                                 Education Services Provided
The Coast Guard voluntary                        1) Educational needs assessment (e.g. aptitude, interest, personality, or
education program is designed to                 values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
assist Coast Guard personnel in                  (e.g. designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
broadening academic or technical                 help participant manage benefits), 4) tests for academic credit (e.g.,
background by providing funding                  Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level Examination
for off-duty independent education               Program (CLEP), 5) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE, ACT, GMAT),
and to provide transcript services,              6) tuition for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate
as well as and other educational                 program (e.g. undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program),
resources to streamline the                      7) tuition for vocational or technical education courses (includes courses
attainment of an professional                    taken as part of a non-college degree program and non-degree or
degree.                                          technical courses offered at community colleges), 8) certification and
                                                 licensure preparation (e.g. college and community college courses and
                                                 degrees if required, study materials, or non-college degree training), 9)
                                                 referrals to additional services, and 10) college fairs (including "industry
Type of Beneficiary Served                       days" that combine both college and job fairs)
Servicemembers and veterans                      Employment Services Provided
Source: DHS responses to GAO survey. GAO         None
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 None




                                                 Page 42                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           The Homeless Veterans’ Reintegration Program (HVRP) serves two
Department of Labor (DOL)                        populations: 1) homeless veterans, and 2) incarcerated veterans.

Program Description                              Education Services Provided
Provides services to assist in                   1) Educational needs assessment, (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
reintegrating homeless veterans                  values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
into meaningful employment within                (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
the labor force and to stimulate the             help participant manage benefits), 4) tests for academic credit (e.g.,
development of effective service                 Global General Service Test (GSST)) and College-Level Examination
delivery systems to address the                  Program (CLEP), 5) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE, ACT, GMAT),
complex problems facing                          6) other educational testing (e.g., GED, Praxis), 7) high school or GED
homeless veterans.                               completion, 8) tutoring fees, 9) books and materials allowance,10) tuition
                                                 for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate program (e.g.,
Type of Beneficiary Served                       undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program), 11) tuition for
Veterans                                         vocational or technical education courses (includes courses taken as part
                                                 of a non-college degree program and non-degree or technical courses
Source: DOL responses to GAO survey. GAO         offered at community colleges), 12) certification and licensure preparation
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 (e.g., college and community college courses and degrees if required,
                                                 study materials, or non-college degree training), 13) certification and
                                                 licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the certification agency
                                                 application and exam fees), 14) certification and licensure maintenance
                                                 and renewal costs (includes activities to maintain continuing education
                                                 units, annual maintenance fees, recertification fees, and re-examination
                                                 fees,) 15) living stipend or housing allowance, 16) referrals to additional
                                                 services, 17) supportive technology for individuals with disabilities to
                                                 support education, 18) apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or
                                                 other direct instruction provided as part of an apprenticeship), 19)
                                                 remedial or refresher coursework, and 20) other employment and
                                                 supportive services
                                                 Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                                 interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
                                                 readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
                                                 activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                                 program), 8) on-the-job training, 9) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                                 component), 10) non-paid work experience, 11) resume assistance, 12)
                                                 interview skills development, 13) supportive technology for individuals
                                                 with disabilities to support employment, 14) housing allowance, and 15)
                                                 referrals to additional services
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 None




                                                 Page 43                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Jobs for Veterans State Grants Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           Priority is to veterans with service-connected disabilities, other disabled
Department of Labor (DOL)                        veterans, economically or educationally disadvantaged veterans,
                                                 homeless veterans and veterans with other significant barriers to
Program Description                              employment. Other eligible participants include:
Provides individualized career                   • veterans ages 18-24;
services to meet the employment                  •   eligible transitioning servicemembers, specifically:
needs of disabled and other
eligible veterans identified by the                     o   transitioning members of the armed forces who have been
Secretary of Labor. The program                             identified as in need of intensive services (now referred to as
funds Disabled Veterans’ Outreach                           Individualized Career Services);
Program (DVOP) positions to                             o   members of the armed forces who are wounded, ill, or injured
support this objective. Another                             and receiving treatment in military treatment facilities or warrior
objective is to conduct outreach to                         transition units; and
employers. This outreach includes
conducting employer seminars and                 •   spouses or other family caregivers of wounded, ill, or injured
job search workshops, and                            members.
establishing job finding clubs. The              Education Services Provided
staff providing these services is
called Local Veterans’                           None
Employment Representatives and                   Employment Services Provided
their positions are funded through
the program’s grant funds. The                   1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
Jobs for Veterans State Grants                   interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
program facilitates employment,                  readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
training, and placement services                 activities, 7) resume assistance, 8) interview skills development, 9)
furnished to veterans under states’              referrals to additional services, 10) job fairs, and 11) individualized career
employment service or One-Stop                   services as defined by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and
Career Center delivery system.                   its regulations. DVOP specialist activities include developing an individual
The program’s overarching                        employment plan, identifying employment goals and appropriate
purpose is to help veterans gain                 achievement objectives, and providing labor market information and an
and retain employment.                           appropriate combination of services for the participant to achieve his or
                                                 her employment goals including providing a list of, and information about,
Type of Beneficiary Served                       eligible training providers
Servicemembers, veterans,                        Self-Employment Services Provided
spouses, and dependent children
                                                 Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
Source: DOL responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners)




                                                 Page 44                         GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Veterans Innovation Partnership




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           The program is open to U.S. Armed Forces veterans and transitioning
Department of State (State)                      U.S. military who have completed a master’s degree or higher in the
                                                 preferred fields of international business, international relations or affairs,
Program Description                              public policy, public administration, or a related field. Eligible veterans
Builds and deploys strategic                     must apply within two years of completing their graduate degree, except
partnerships between the                         when precluded from doing so because of their U.S. military service
government and private sector to                 obligation. 17 U.S. Armed Forces reservists and National Guard members
mobilize resources and networks                  are eligible, provided they have completed a minimum of two years of
to promote foreign affairs and                   service.
program analyst career                           Education Services Provided
opportunities for veterans. State
provides 12-month, full-time                     Referrals to additional services
appointments and developmental                   Employment Services Provided
opportunities to participants in the
program.                                         1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                                 interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
Type of Beneficiary Served                       readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
Servicemembers and veterans                      activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                                 program), 8) on-the-job training, 9) resume assistance, 10) supportive
Source: State responses to GAO survey. GAO       technology for individuals with disabilities to support employment, 11)
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 referrals to additional services, and 12) rotational opportunities within the
                                                 State Department
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Referrals to additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach
                                                 Centers or SBA resource partners) and 2) mentoring




                                                 17
                                                      Such individuals have up to six years after degree completion to apply.

                                                 Page 45                                GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
                                              Montgomery GI Bill)



Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        All program participants must have earned a high school diploma or
Department of Veterans Affairs                equivalency certificate and have received an honorable discharge unless
(VA)                                          the individual is currently on active duty. 20 Individuals must also meet
                                              additional criteria depending on when they entered military service.
Program Description                                   • Individuals who entered military service on or after July 1,
Provides educational benefits                             1985 may be eligible unless they specifically elect not to
towards college degree programs,                          participate. Servicemembers can use the benefits after
vocational and technical courses,                         completing two years of consecutive service. Veterans whose
and other education and training.                         initial obligation was three years or more may use their
                                                          benefits after completing three years of consecutive active
Type of Beneficiary Served                                duty. 21 Those whose initial obligation was less than three
Servicemembers, veterans,                                 years may use the benefits after serving two years of active
spouses, 18 and dependent                                 duty. 22 Any period of active duty may be used to meet these
children 19                                               requirements, but generally periods of active duty cannot be
                                                          combined.
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did           • Individuals who were eligible for the Vietnam-era GI Bill
not independently verify this information.
                                                          benefits as of December 31, 1989 who served on continuous
                                                          active duty for three years after June 30, 1985, may be eligible
                                                          for the program.
                                                      • Individuals who were involuntarily separated for certain
                                                          reasons may be eligible. Likewise, persons who received
                                                          voluntary separation incentives may also be eligible.
                                                      • Individuals who converted from the Veterans Educational
                                                          Assistance Program during open seasons between October 9,
                                                          1996 and July 8, 1997, or November 1, 2000 to October 31,
                                                          2001, may be eligible. Likewise, certain individuals who served
                                                          full-time under Title 32 in the National Guard during the period
                                                          from July 1, 1985 to November 28, 1989 with no previous
                                                          active duty and who elected the Montgomery GI Bill during the
                                                          open season from October 9, 1996 through July 8, 1997, may
                                                          be eligible. 23




                                              18
                                                 This category includes spouses of both servicemembers and veterans.
                                              19
                                                 This category includes dependent children of both servicemembers and veterans.
                                              Members of the National Guard and Reserve are also eligible to participate.
                                              20
                                                 The veteran must have received an honorable discharge for the qualifying period of
                                              service.
                                              21
                                                 Those discharged early for an acceptable reason may be able to use their benefits in
                                              less time.
                                              22
                                                 Those discharged early for an acceptable reason or who signed up for four years in the
                                              Selected Reserve may be able to use their benefits in less time.
                                              23
                                                 In addition, in very limited circumstances, dependents of a veteran or servicemember
                                              may be eligible for the program if the veteran or servicemember transferred entitlement to
                                              those dependents.

                                              Page 46                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Education Services Provided
1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
values assessments), 24 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level
Examination Program (CLEP), 4) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE,
ACT, GMAT), 5) tutoring fees, 6) postsecondary courses as part of a
degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
professional degree program), 7) vocational or technical education
courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college degree program
and non-degree or technical courses offered at community colleges), 8)
certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the
certification agency application and exam fees), 9) certification and
licensure maintenance and renewal costs (includes activities surrounding
maintaining continuing education units, annual maintenance fees,
recertification fees, and re-examination fees,) 10) apprenticeship
instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction provided as part
of an apprenticeship), and 11) remedial or refresher coursework
Employment Services Provided
1) Occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
program), 2) on-the-job training, and 3) apprenticeship training (paid work
component)
Self-Employment Services Provided
1) Training in developing a business plan, 2) training on federal
contracting opportunities and certification programs, and 3) free business
consulting and low-cost training by Small Business Development Center
advisors who provide aspiring and current small business owners a
variety of services including: business plan development, manufacturing
assistance, financial packaging and lending assistance, exporting and
importing support, disaster recovery assistance, procurement and
contracting aid, market research help, business development program
support, and healthcare guidance




24
   The Montgomery GI Bill provides funding for educational needs assessments and
educational counseling in addition to the payment of benefits. 38 U.S.C. § 3697A.

Page 47                           GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Compensated Work Therapy




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        Eligible patients have occupational dysfunctions resulting from their
Department of Veterans Affairs                mental health or physical conditions, or have been unsuccessful at
(VA)                                          obtaining or maintaining stable employment patterns due to mental
                                              illnesses or physical impairments, or psychosocial barriers such as legal
Program Description                           background or homelessness. Veterans are not required to have a
Provides support to veterans                  service-connected disability to be eligible for services. To be considered
whose mental illness or physical              for participation, a veteran must qualify for Compensated Work Therapy
impairment presents a barrier to              as part of their VA healthcare eligibility, want to return to competitive
employment, so that they can                  employment, and have barriers to obtaining or retaining employment that
secure and maintain community                 require intensive support services.
based competitive employment. In              Education Services Provided
particular, this program provides
therapeutic work and rehabilitative           1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
services, including therapeutic               values assessments), 2) educational counseling, and 3) referrals to
transitional work experience and              additional services
supported employment services to              Employment Services Provided
eligible patients who are veterans.
Compensated Work Therapy is a                 1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
Veterans Health Administration                interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
clinical vocational rehabilitation            readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
program offered at every VA                   activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
medical center.                               program), 8) on-the-job training, 9) resume assistance, 10) interview skills
                                              development, 11) referrals to additional services, 12) job fairs, 13) special
Type of Beneficiary Served                    employer incentives (i.e. tax credits, wage off-sets, assistance with
Veterans                                      disability accommodations, etc.), 14) evidence-based supported
                                              employment, 15) follow along supports for job retention, and 16) career
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   development
not independently verify this information.
                                              Self-Employment Services Provided
                                              1) Supported self-employment services provided at limited locations, and
                                              2) referrals to additional resources




                                              Page 48                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Dependents Educational Assistance Program
                                              (or Survivors’ and Dependents’ Educational
                                              Assistance)

Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                Spouses, surviving spouses, and children (including stepchildren or
Department of Veterans Affairs        adopted children) between ages 18 and 26 of veterans: 25
(VA)                                     1. who died from service-connected disabilities;
                                         2. whose service-connected disabilities are considered permanently
Program Description                         and totally disabling;
Provides education and training          3. who died from any cause while such service-connected disabilities
opportunities to eligible                   were in existence;
dependents of veterans who are           4. who   have been listed as missing in action or as prisoners of war
permanently and totally disabled            for more   than 90 days; and
due to a service-related condition       5. who   VA  determines    to have a service-connected, permanent, and
or who died either on active duty           total disability. At the time of this determination, such individuals
or as the result of a service-related       must   be members     of the armed forces who have been
condition.                                  hospitalized or are receiving outpatient medical care, services, or
                                            treatment. VA must also determine that the servicemember is
Type of Beneficiary Served                  likely to be discharged or released from service due to the service-
Spouses and dependent children              connected disability.

Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   Education Services Provided
not independently verify this information.
                                              1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                              values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
                                              credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level
                                              Examination Program (CLEP)), 4) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE,
                                              ACT, GMAT), 5) high school or GED completion, 6) tutoring fees, 7)
                                              postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate program (e.g.,
                                              undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program), 8) vocational
                                              or technical education courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-
                                              college degree program and non-degree or technical courses offered at
                                              community colleges), 9) certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g.,
                                              fees paid to the certification agency application and exam fees), 10)
                                              certification and licensure maintenance and renewal costs (includes
                                              activities surrounding maintaining continuing education units, annual
                                              maintenance fees, recertification fees, and re-examination fees,) 11)
                                              supportive technology for individuals with disabilities to support education,
                                              12) apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct
                                              instruction provided as part of an apprenticeship), 13) remedial or
                                              refresher coursework, 14) specialized restorative training, and 15)
                                              specialized vocational training
                                              Employment Services Provided
                                              1) Occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                              program), 2) on-the-job training, and 3) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                              component)

                                              25
                                               Children under the age of 18 may be eligible under special circumstances.



                                              Page 49                           GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Self-Employment Services Provided
None




Page 50               GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Educational and Vocational Counseling (or
                                              Chapter 36)



Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                              Servicemembers not expecting a dishonorable discharge may request
Department of Veterans Affairs      educational or employment services within 180 days of projected
(VA)                                discharge or release from active duty. Veterans must be within one year
                                    from the date of discharge or release from active duty. For
Program Description                 servicemembers, the projected discharge or release from active duty
Provides professional,              must be under conditions other than dishonorable. For veterans, the
educational, vocational, and        discharge or release from active duty must have been under conditions
career counseling via vocational    other than dishonorable. This counseling is also available to individuals
interest, aptitude and ability      who are eligible for VA educational assistance including: Chapter 30—All-
testing; exploration of vocational  Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program; Chapter 31—
career opportunities; assistance    Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment; Chapter 32—Post-Vietnam
selecting an appropriate vocational Era Veterans' Educational Assistance; Chapter 33—Post-9/11
goal; and related objectives.       Educational Assistance; Chapter 35—Survivors' and Dependents'
                                    Educational Assistance; Chapter 1606—Educational Assistance for
Type of Beneficiary Served          Members of the Selective Service; and Chapter 1607—Reserve
Servicemembers, veterans,           Educational Assistance Program.
spouses, and dependent children     Education Services Provided
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
not independently verify this information.
                                              values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) referrals to additional
                                              services, and 4) benefits coaching and adjustment counseling
                                              Employment Services Provided
                                              1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                              interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job referrals, 4) job-
                                              search or job placement activities, 5) resume assistance, 6) interview
                                              skills development, and 7) referrals to additional services
                                              Self-Employment Services Provided
                                              None




                                              Page 51                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Post-9/11 GI Bill




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        Individuals who entered active duty after September 10, 2001 may be
Department of Veterans Affairs                eligible for the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Individuals can use the Post-9/11 GI Bill
(VA)                                          after serving 90 aggregate days on active duty (excluding entry level and
                                              skill training), or upon discharge if separated due to a service-connected
Program Description                           disability after 30 continuous days of service. Periods of active duty under
Provides post-secondary                       qualifying sections of Title 10 and Title 32 may be used to establish
education benefits for individuals            eligibility for the Post-9/11 GI Bill. A high school diploma or equivalency
with active-duty service after                certificate is always required for eligibility. Individuals who are eligible for
September 10, 2001 or individuals             the Montgomery GI Bill—Active Duty (Chapter 30), the Montgomery GI
discharged with a service-                    Bill—Selected Reserve (Chapter 1606), or the Reserve Educational
connected disability after 30 days.           Assistance Program (REAP) must make an irrevocable election to
Benefits can be used for a range              relinquish eligibility under one of those benefit programs to establish
of learning programs including                eligibility under the Post-9/11 GI Bill. The spouse or children of a person
undergraduate and graduate                    who died in the line of duty while serving as a member of the armed
degrees, non-college degree                   forces may be eligible to use benefits under the Fry Scholarship provision
programs, and apprenticeship and              of the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Eligibility to transfer entitlement to dependents is
on-the-job training. 26 Some                  determined by DOD.
servicemembers can transfer their             Education Services Provided
benefits to spouses and
dependents.                                   1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                              values assessments), 27 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
Type of Beneficiary Served                    credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level
Servicemembers, veterans,                     Examination Program (CLEP), 4) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE,
spouses, and dependent children               ACT, GMAT), 5) tutoring fees, 6) books and materials allowance, 7)
                                              tuition for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program),
not independently verify this information.
                                              8) certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the
                                              certification agency application and exam fees), 9) certification and
                                              licensure maintenance and renewal costs (includes activities surrounding
                                              maintaining continuing education units, annual maintenance fees,
                                              recertification fees, and re-examination fees,) 10) living stipend or
                                              housing allowance, 11) apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or
                                              other direct instruction provided as part of an apprenticeship), and 12)
                                              remedial or refresher coursework.
                                              Employment Services Provided
                                              1) Occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                              program), 2) on-the-job training, 3) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                              component), and 4) housing allowance


                                               For more information about the use of Post-9/11 GI Bill benefits for on-the-job training
                                              26

                                              and apprenticeship see: GAO, VA Benefits: Increasing Outreach and Measuring
                                              Outcomes Would Improve the Post-9/11 GI Bill On-the-Job Training and Apprenticeship
                                              Programs. GAO-16-51 (Washington, D.C.: Nov. 12, 2015).
                                               The Post-9/11 GI Bill provides funding for educational needs assessments and
                                              27

                                              educational counseling in addition to the payment of benefits. 38 U.S.C. § 3697A.

                                              Page 52                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Self-Employment Services Provided
1) Training in developing a business plan, 2) training on federal
contracting opportunities and certification programs, and 3) free business
consulting and low-cost training by Small Business Development Center
advisors who provide aspiring and current small business owners a
variety of services including: business plan development, manufacturing
assistance, financial packaging and lending assistance, exporting and
importing support, disaster recovery assistance, procurement and
contracting aid, market research help, program support, and healthcare
guidance




Page 53                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                        Reserve Educational Assistance Program
                                        (REAP)



Federal Administering                   Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                      To qualify for benefits participants must generally meet the following
Department of Veterans Affairs              criteria:
(VA)                                                 1. Have served at least 90 consecutive days on active duty as a
                                                        result of a call or order to active duty from a reserve
Program Description                                     component in response to a war or national emergency
Provides educational assistance to                      declared by the president or Congress.
certain members of the reserve                       2. Have a 6-year obligation to serve in the Selected Reserve
components who have been called                         signed after June 30, 1985. Officers must have agreed to
to active duty for at least 90 days.                    serve six years in addition to their original obligation. For some
                                                        types of training, it is necessary to have a 6-year commitment
Type of Beneficiary Served                              that begins after September 30, 1990.
Servicemembers and veterans                          3. Have completed initial training for active duty.
                                                     4. Have received a high school diploma or equivalency certificate
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did             before completing their initial active duty for training.
not independently verify this information.
                                                     5. Remain in good standing while serving in an active Selected
                                                        Reserve unit.
                                                     6. Must have been receiving benefits on, or during the term
                                                        immediately preceding, November 24, 2015. 28
                                        Education Services Provided
                                        1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                        values assessments), 29 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
                                        credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST)) and College-Level
                                        Examination Program (CLEP), 4) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE,
                                        ACT, GMAT), 5) tutoring fees, 6) postsecondary courses as part of a
                                        degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
                                        professional degree program), 7) tuition for vocational or technical
                                        education courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college
                                        degree program and non-degree or technical courses offered at
                                        community colleges), 8) certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g.,
                                        fees paid to the certification agency application and exam fees), 9)
                                        certification and licensure maintenance and renewal costs (includes
                                        activities surrounding maintaining continuing education units, annual
                                        maintenance fees, recertification fees, and re-examination fees,) 10)
                                        apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
                                        provided as part of an apprenticeship), and 11) remedial or refresher
                                        coursework




                                        28
                                           The Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP) will end on November 25, 2019.
                                        Individuals who established eligibility for REAP benefits but were not receiving benefits on,
                                        or during the term immediately preceding, November 24, 2015, may be eligible for the
                                        Post-9/11 GI Bill.
                                        29
                                           The Reserve Educational Assistance Program provides funding for optional educational
                                        and vocational counseling to eligible beneficiaries. 38 U.S.C. § 3697A.

                                        Page 54                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Employment Services Provided
1) Occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
program), 2) on-the-job training, and 3) apprenticeship training (paid work
component)
Self-Employment Services Provided
None




Page 55                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              VA Work-study Program




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        Beneficiaries must be eligible for VA education benefits and attend school
Department of Veterans Affairs                three-quarter time or more.
(VA)                                          Education Services Provided
Program Description                           None
The Work-study program offers an              Employment Services Provided
additional allowance to students in
return for participation in VA-               None
related activities. As a                      Self-Employment Services Provided
supplemental educational benefit,
the VA work-study allowance can               None
often serve as a special increment
that makes a program of education
or training feasible. In this way,
work-study benefits may provide
the educationally disadvantaged or
unemployed student with an
opportunity, the value of which can
greatly exceed the actual
monetary amount of the allowance
itself.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Veterans, spouses, and
dependent children

Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did
not independently verify this information.




                                              Page 56                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              The Veterans Integration to Academic
                                              Leadership (VITAL)



Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        Servicemembers, veterans, spouses, and dependent children 31
Department of Veterans Affairs                Education Services Provided
(VA)
                                     1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
Program Description                  values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) referrals to additional
Provides mental health support       services, 4) college fairs (including "industry days" that combine both
and healthcare to veterans to        college and job fairs), and 5) clinical mental health counseling, outreach,
support their successful integration facilitation of VHA enrollment, care coordination, training of faculty and
into college and university          staff
campuses. It meets this program      Employment Services Provided
objective through the following
means:                               1) Referrals to additional services, and 2) job fairs
• provides access to VA              Self-Employment Services Provided
    healthcare services, on-
    campus clinical counseling,      None
    and community education and
    training services;
• provides outreach, care
    coordination and clinical
    mental health services to
    student veterans on college
    and university campuses to
    support them in reaching their
    educational goals; and
• provides education and
    training to college and
    university faculty and staff to
    raise awareness of issues that
    might be affecting veterans on
    campus and to provide options
    for addressing those issues. 30

Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers, veterans,
spouses, and dependent children

Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did
not independently verify this information.
                                              30
                                                 VITAL is not a grant to a college or university. It is part of the healthcare program
                                              provided to servicemembers and veterans but is only available in select locations.
                                              31
                                                 VITAL serves all servicemembers, veterans, and family members enrolled in a higher
                                              education institution. However, the level of service provided is based on the individual’s
                                              Veterans Health Administration (VHA) eligibility and an assessment of his or her needs.
                                              For example, the program provides spouses and dependent children information,
                                              outreach, and care coordination and refers them to outside providers, such as campus or
                                              community providers, for clinical services. Similarly, the program provides
                                              servicemembers or veterans information, outreach, and care coordination, and refers
                                              them to Vet Centers or outside providers for clinical services.

                                              Page 57                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Vet Success on Campus




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        Services may be accessed by:
Department of Veterans Affairs                       • servicemembers and veterans eligible for any of VA’s
(VA)                                                    educational programs, including the Post-9/11 GI Bill and
                                                        Montgomery GI Bill;
Program Description                                  • servicemembers and veterans attending training through VA’s
Provides on-campus educational                          Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment program;
and vocational counseling                            • eligible dependents of veterans who receive VA education
(Chapter 36) and case                                   benefits, including spouses who are attending school through
management to veterans,                                 the Post-9/11 GI Bill and eligible children; and
spouses, and dependent children                      • servicemembers and veterans who attend the selected
in college degree programs, with                        participating institutions while accessing other VA benefits.
the aim of helping them complete
                                              Education Services Provided
their studies and find jobs.
Vocational rehabilitation                     1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
counselors, called VetSuccess on              values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
Campus (VSOC) Counselors, are                 (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
based at participating institutions.          help participant manage benefits), 4) referrals to additional services, 5)
                                              college fairs (including "industry days" that combine both college and job
Type of Beneficiary Served                    fairs), and 6) adjustment counseling and outreach for students on
Servicemembers, veterans,                     academic probation or at risk of dropping out.
spouses, and dependent children
                                              Employment Services Provided
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did
not independently verify this information.    1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                              interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
                                              readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
                                              activities, 7) resume assistance, 8) interview skills development, 9)
                                              referrals to additional services, 10) holding job fairs, and 11) special
                                              employer incentives (i.e. tax credits, wage off-sets, assistance with
                                              disability accommodations, etc.)
                                              Self-Employment Services Provided
                                              None




                                              Page 58                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                        Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment
                                        (VR&E)



Federal Administering                   Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                      A servicemember may apply for VR&E services six months prior to
The Department of Veterans                  discharge if he or she has a disability rating of at least 20 percent.
Affairs (VA)                                Veterans with service-connected disability ratings of 10 percent or higher
                                            are eligible to apply. Veterans with a service-connected disability rating of
Program Description                         20 percent or higher must be determined to have an employment
Provides services to                        handicap to be entitled to services. Veterans with service-connected
servicemembers and veterans with disability ratings of 10 percent must be determined to have a serious
service-connected disabilities to           employment handicap to be entitled. Under the National Defense
help them prepare for, obtain, and Authorization Act (NDAA) of 2008, servicemembers with a serious illness
maintain suitable employment or             or injury may be automatically entitled to VR&E services. A
achieve independence in daily               memorandum rating, indicating that a service-connected disability rating
living. Services may include                of 20 percent or more is anticipated can be provided six months before
education or training and a                 servicemembers are discharged or within 12 months of when veterans
subsistence allowance.                      separate from military service to allow them to apply for VR&E services.
This program provides individual            Education Services Provided
comprehensive evaluations for
program applicants to determine             1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
entitlement and the type of                 values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
services that are the most                  (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
appropriate. The five tracks of             help participant manage benefits), 4) tests for academic credit (e.g.,
services provided are:                      Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level Examination
reemployment, rapid access to               Program (CLEP), 5) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE, ACT, GMAT),
employment, employment through 6) other educational testing (e.g., GED, Praxis), 7) high school or GED
long-term services, self-                   completion, 8) tutoring fees, 9) books and materials allowance, 10) tuition
employment and independent-                 for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate program (e.g.,
living assistance.                          undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program), 11) tuition for
                                            vocational or technical education courses (includes courses taken as part
Type of Beneficiary Served                  of a non-college degree program and non-degree or technical courses
Servicemembers and veterans                 offered at community colleges), 12) certification and licensure preparation
                                            (e.g., college and community college courses and degrees if required,
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did study materials, or non-college degree training), 13) certification and
not independently verify this information.
                                            licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the certification agency
                                            application and exam fees), 14) certification and licensure maintenance
                                            and renewal fees may be provided, if included in the rehabilitation plan,
                                            15) subsistence allowance or housing allowance, 16) referrals to
                                            additional services, 17) assistive technology for individuals with
                                            disabilities to support education, 18) apprenticeship instruction
                                            (classroom learning or other direct instruction provided as part of an
                                            apprenticeship), and 19) remedial or refresher coursework
                                        Employment Services Provided
                                        1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                        interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
                                        readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
                                        activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                        program), 8) on-the-job training, 9) apprenticeship training (paid work

                                        Page 59                         GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
component), 10) non-paid work experience, 11) resume assistance, 12)
interview skills development, 13) assistive technology for individuals with
disabilities to support employment, 14) subsistence allowance or housing
allowance, 15) referrals to additional services, and 16) special employer
incentives (i.e. wage off-sets, assistance with disability accommodations,
etc.)
Self-Employment Services Provided
1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
resource partners), 8) mentoring, 9) training in website development and
social media, 10) assistance with feasibility analysis of the business
concept and business plan, and 11) training to select a business structure
(sole proprietor, LLC, corporation, etc.)




Page 60                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Warrior Training Advancement Course




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        This program is open to all active-duty Wounded Warrior and non-
Department of Veterans Affairs                disabled transitioning servicemembers who will be on active-duty status
(VA)                                          the entire duration of the class, and who can start working for VA within
                                              75 days of graduation.
Program Description
                                              Education Services Provided
Helps trainees begin processing
claims from the first day they are            Supportive technology for individuals with disabilities to support education
hired at a VBA Regional Benefits              Employment Services Provided
Office. An entry level skill-bridge
education and employment                      1) Employment counseling, 2) job development, 3) job readiness training,
opportunity for Wounded Warriors              4) job referrals, 5) job-search or job placement activities, 6) on-the-job
and transitioning servicemembers              training, 7) non-paid work experience, 8) resume assistance, 9) interview
to complete a national-level                  skills development, 10) supportive technology for individuals with
Veterans Benefits Administration              disabilities to support employment, and 11) referrals to additional services
(VBA) training program while still            Self-Employment Services Provided
on active duty. This training
program is taught in-person only              None
on military installations.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did
not independently verify this information.




                                              Page 61                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Warriors to Workforce Program




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                        The program seeks veterans who are eligible for hiring using the
Department of Veterans Affairs                veterans’ recruitment appointment and who have little to no higher
(VA)                                          education, have not completed their Bachelor's Degree, or do not have 24
                                              business credits.
Program Description
                                              Education Services Provided
Provides training and on-the-job
training assignments to veterans              1) Educational counseling, 2) case-management (e.g., designated staff
who have not completed a                      member assigned to provide hands-on support to help participant
bachelor’s degree to achieve                  manage benefits, 3) tutoring fees, 4) books and materials allowance, 5)
Federal Acquisition Certification in          tuition for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate
Contracting Certification Levels I &          program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program),
II. Veterans are then integrated              6) tuition for vocational or technical education courses (includes courses
into VA and Other Government                  taken as part of a non-college degree program and non-degree or
Agency (OGA) Acquisition Offices              technical courses offered at community colleges), 7) certification and
around the country to serve the               licensure preparation (e.g., college and community college courses and
federal government. This program              degrees if required, study materials, or non-college degree training), 8)
hires veterans who have not                   certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the
completed a Bachelor's degree. It             certification agency application and exam fees), 9) living stipend or
uses the Veterans’ Recruitment                housing allowance, 10) referrals to additional services, 11) supportive
Appointment to transition                     technology for individuals with disabilities to support education, 12)
individuals to a professional career          apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
as contract specialists.                      provided as part of an apprenticeship), 13) federal employment with
                                              benefits and professional development training, peak performance
Type of Beneficiary Served                    training, and leadership training, and 14) provision of a vocational
Veterans                                      rehabilitation counselor, academic counselor, and telehealth counselor

Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   Employment Services Provided
not independently verify this information.
                                              1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                              interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
                                              readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
                                              activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
                                              program), 8) on-the-job training, 9) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                              component), 10) resume assistance, 11) interview skills development, 12)
                                              supportive technology for individuals with disabilities to support
                                              employment, 13) living stipend, 14) referrals to additional services, 15)
                                              coaching and mentoring to guide transition into the workforce, which may
                                              include academic tuition, subsistence allowance, and a vocational
                                              rehabilitation counselor through a partnership with the Vocational
                                              Rehabilitation and Employment program
                                              Self-Employment Services Provided
                                              None




                                              Page 62                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Vets to Feds Career Development Program




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           To be eligible for the 2018 Vets to Feds Career Development Program,
The Office of Personnel                          individuals must be eligible for and qualify under the Veterans
Management (OPM) administers                     Recruitment Appointment or the Pathways Recent Graduate Program at
the program with assistance from                 the General Schedule 7, 9, or 11 grade levels.
the following federal agencies: the              Education Services Provided
Departments of Defense,
Homeland Security, Interior,                     Training and educational assistance tailored to individual need.
Health and Human Services, and                   Employment Services Provided
Treasury; the National Regulatory
Commission; and the Social                       1) Job development, 2) on-the-job training, and 3) mentoring
Security Administration.                         Self-Employment Services Provided
Program Description                              None
Provides career development
opportunities for veterans, but also
assists agencies in filling mission
critical positions. Agencies identify
key occupations to target veteran
candidates and provide training to
better enable veterans to meet
agency staffing needs. In 2018,
the program will target Veterans
for Information Technology
Cybersecurity positions.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Veterans

Source: OPM responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 Page 63                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Boots to Business Reboot




Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           The Boots to Business Reboot program is open to veterans of all eras,
Small Business Administration                    National Guard and Reserve members, and their military spouses and
(SBA)                                            caregivers.
Program Description                              Education Services Provided
Provides 2-day Boots to Business                 Referrals to additional services
curriculum —which is offered to
                                                 Employment Services Provided
transitioning and retiring
servicemembers and their spouses                 None
on installations as part of the
Transition Assistance Program                    Self-employment Services Provided
(TAP)—in off-installation locations              1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
within communities. This extends                 concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
access to veterans of all eras,                  accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
National Guard and reserve                       contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
members, and military spouses.                   additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
During the class, participants are
                                                 resource partners), 8) training to conduct feasibility analysis and customer
introduced to the skills, knowledge,
                                                 research, 9) training to select a business structure (sole proprietor, LLC,
and resources they need to launch a
business.
                                                 corporation, etc.), and 10) training on commercial supply chain
                                                 opportunities
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers, veterans,
spouses, and dependent children 32
Source: SBA responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.




                                                 32
                                                    Dependent children are allowed to participate in the program on a space-available basis,
                                                 according to agency officials.

                                                 Page 64                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Service-Disabled Veteran Entrepreneurship
                                                 Training Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           To be eligible for this funding opportunity, applicants must meet the
Small Business Administration                    following criteria:
(SBA)                                                 1. Be a non-profit organization, local or state agency or an institution
                                                         of higher learning.
Program Description                                   2. Demonstrate a history of providing quality entrepreneurship or
Provides grants to eligible                              business management training to aspiring or existing veterans,
organizations and institutions of                        service-disabled veteran small business owners and reserve
higher learning may apply to SBA.                        component members that results in new business starts, business
Grant funds are used to market                           expansions or diversifications, as well as jobs created and/or
and deliver existing service-                            retained.
disabled veteran entrepreneurial                 Eligible organizations and institutions of higher learning may submit only
training programs to veterans,                   one proposal.
service-disabled veterans, and
reserve component members who                    Education Services Provided
intend to start new businesses or                1) Case-management (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide
expand or diversify existing small               hands-on support to help participant manage benefits), 2) referrals to
businesses.                                      additional services, and 3) college fairs (including "industry days" that
                                                 combine both college and job fairs)
Type of Beneficiary Served
Servicemembers, veterans,                        Employment Services Provided
spouses, and dependent children                  Referrals to additional services
Source: SBA responses to GAO survey. GAO         Self-Employment Services Provided
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
                                                 concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
                                                 accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
                                                 contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
                                                 additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
                                                 resource partners), 8) mentoring, 9) training in website development and
                                                 social media,10) training to conduct feasibility analysis and customer
                                                 research, 11) training to select a business structure (sole proprietor, LLC,
                                                 corporation, etc.), and 12) training on commercial supply chain
                                                 opportunities




                                                 Page 65                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Veteran Federal Procurement
                                                 Entrepreneurship Training Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           This funding opportunity is open to Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned
Small Business Administration                    Small Businesses and Veteran-Owned Small Businesses applicants from
(SBA)                                            all U.S. states and territories that meet the following criteria:
                                                      • be a non-profit organization or private sector firm;
Program Description                                   • demonstrate a history of providing quality entrepreneurship or
Provides grants to deliver and                            business management training for Service-Disabled Veteran-
scale existing veteran federal                            Owned Small Businesses and Veteran-Owned Small Businesses
procurement entrepreneurial                               that intend to pursue, or are already engaged in, federal
training programs to Service-                             procurement. The quality of a program can be demonstrated by
Disabled Veteran-Owned Small                              new business expansions or diversifications, jobs created or
Businesses and Veteran-Owned                              retained, increases in revenue, federal contracts obtained, and
Small Businesses that intend to                           connections to other resources such as SBA resource partners;
pursue, or are already engaged in,                        and
federal procurement.                                  • provide metrics from their existing program that demonstrate
                                                          participant outcomes such as new business expansions or
Type of Beneficiary Served                                diversifications, jobs created or retained, revenue increases, and
Servicemembers and veterans                               federal contracts obtained.
Source: SBA responses to GAO survey. GAO
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 Education Services Provided
                                                 None
                                                 Employment Services Provided
                                                 None
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
                                                 concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
                                                 accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
                                                 contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
                                                 additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
                                                 resource partners), 8) mentoring, 9) training in website development and
                                                 social media, 10) training to conduct feasibility analysis and customer
                                                 research, 11) training to select a business structure (sole proprietor, LLC,
                                                 corporation, etc.), and 12) training on commercial supply chain
                                                 opportunities




                                                 Page 66                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                               Veterans Business Outreach Center




Federal Administering Agency Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Small Business Administration      To be eligible for this funding opportunity an applicant must meet the
(SBA)                              following criteria:
                                        • Be a nonprofit organization, local or state agency, private sector
Program Description                        firm, or institute of higher learning;
Provides entrepreneurial                • Demonstrate a history of providing quality entrepreneurship or
development services such as               business management training to aspiring entrepreneurs or
business training, counseling and          existing small business owners that are members of the following
resource partner referrals to              populations: veterans, service-disabled veterans, reserve
transitioning                              component members or members of the National Guard,
servicemembers, veterans, National         transitioning servicemembers, spouses of servicemembers or
Guard and reserve members and              veterans, and other beneficiaries interested in starting or growing
military spouses interested in             a small enterprise. 33
starting or growing a small
business. The SBA                  Education Services Provided
has 22 organizations participating None
in this cooperative agreement that
serve as Veterans Business         Employment Services Provided
Outreach Centers.                  None
Type of Beneficiary Served                     Self-Employment Services Provided
Servicemembers, veterans,                      1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
spouses, and dependent children                concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
Source: SBA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
not independently verify this information.     contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
                                               additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
                                               resource partners), 8) mentoring, 9) training in website development and
                                               social media, 10) training to conduct feasibility analysis and customer
                                               research, 11) training to select a business structure (sole proprietor, LLC,
                                               corporation, etc.), 12) training on commercial supply chain opportunities,
                                               and 13) lead grantee in regard to delivery of the Boots to Business
                                               Program




                                               33
                                                  The quality of a program can be demonstrated by new business starts, business
                                               expansions or diversifications, number of contracts awarded and loans approved, as well
                                               as jobs created and/or retained, and connection to other programs such as SBA resource
                                               partners.


                                               Page 67                           GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Women Veteran Entrepreneurship Training
                                                 Program



Federal Administering                            Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                           To be eligible for this funding opportunity an applicant must meet the
Small Business Administration                    following criteria:
(SBA)                                                    1. Be a nonprofit organization, local or state agency, private
                                                             sector firm, or an institution of higher learning.
Program Description                                      2. Demonstrate a history of providing quality entrepreneurship or
Provides entrepreneurship training                           business management training for women who are aspiring or
to women veterans, women                                     existing small business owners and members of one the
servicemembers, women who are                                following populations: veterans, service-disabled veterans,
the spouses of servicemembers,                               members of the National Guard or reserve component, active-
and women veterans who are                                   duty servicemembers, or women spouses of servicemembers
interested in starting, growing and                          or veterans. The quality of a program can be demonstrated by
diversifying new and established                             new business starts, business expansions or diversifications,
small businesses.                                            as well as jobs created or retained and connection to other
                                                             resources such as SBA resource partners.
Type of Beneficiary Served
Women servicemembers, women                      Education Services Provided
veterans, servicemembers' or
veterans' spouses who are women                  None

Source: SBA responses to GAO survey. GAO         Employment Services Provided
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 None
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
                                                 concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
                                                 accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) training on federal
                                                 contracting opportunities and certification programs, 7) referrals to
                                                 additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
                                                 resource partners,) 8) mentoring, 9) training in website development and
                                                 social media, 10) training in how to conduct feasibility analysis and
                                                 customer research, 11) training in how to select a business structure
                                                 (sole proprietor, LLC, corporation, etc.), and 12) training on commercial
                                                 supply chain opportunities




                                                 Page 68                       GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              All-Volunteer Force Educational Assistance (or
                                              Montgomery GI Bill)–Selected Reserve



Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                             To meet basic eligibility criteria a person must meet the following
Department of Veterans Affairs     requirements:
(VA) administers the program in           1. Term of service:
conjunction with the Department of           • For enlisted personnel: enlisted, reenlisted, or extended an
Defense and Department of                        enlistment in the Selected Reserve after June 30, 1985, so
Homeland Security.                               that the reservist has an obligation to serve for a period of
                                                 not less than six years from the enlistment date.
Program Description                          • For officers: agreed to serve in the Selected Reserve for a
Provides educational benefits to                 period of not less than six years after June 30, 1985, in
active-duty reservists and                       addition to any other period of obligated Selected Reserve
veterans. Benefits may be used for               service.
college degree programs,                  2. Earned a secondary school diploma (or equivalency
vocational and technical courses,            certificate) before applying for VA benefits.
and other education and training.         3. Completed Individual Advanced Training.
                                          4. Did not elect to have his or her service in the Selected
Type of Beneficiary Served                   Reserve credited toward establishing eligibility under Chapter
Veterans                                     30, U.S Code Title 38.
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did   Education Services Provided
not independently verify this information.
                                              1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                              values assessments), 34 2) educational counseling, 3) tests for academic
                                              credit (e.g., Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level
                                              Examination Program (CLEP), 4) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE,
                                              ACT, GMAT), 5) tutoring fees, 6) postsecondary courses as part of a
                                              degree or certificate program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or
                                              professional degree program), 7) vocational or technical education
                                              courses (includes courses taken as part of a non-college degree program
                                              and non-degree or technical courses offered at community colleges), 8)
                                              certification and licensure attainment fees (e.g., fees paid to the
                                              certification agency application and exam fees), 9) certification and
                                              licensure maintenance and renewal costs (includes activities surrounding
                                              maintaining continuing education units, annual maintenance fees,
                                              recertification fees, and reexamination fees,) 10) apprenticeship
                                              instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction provided as part
                                              of an apprenticeship), and 11) remedial or refresher coursework
                                              Employment Services Provided
                                              1) On-the-job training and 2) apprenticeship training (paid work
                                              component)




                                              34
                                                The Montgomery GI Bill—Selected Reserve provides funding for educational needs
                                              assessments and educational counseling in addition to the payment of benefits. 38 U.S.C.
                                              § 3697A.

                                              Page 69                            GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Self-Employment Services Provided
1) Training in developing a business plan, 2) training on federal
contracting opportunities and certification programs, and 3) free business
consulting and low-cost training services provided by Small Business
Development Center advisors including: business plan development,
manufacturing assistance, financial packaging and lending assistance,
exporting and importing support, disaster recovery assistance,
procurement and contracting aid, market research help, business
development program support, and healthcare guidance




Page 70                      GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                                 Coast Guard Transition Assistance Program
                                                 (Coast Guard TAP) 35



Agency                                           Beneficiary Eligibility
Department of Homeland Security                  Coast Guard servicemembers who have served 180 days of continuous
(DHS): Coast Guard administers                   active-duty service are generally required to participate in this program
the program in partnership with the              before they separate or retire. Coast Guard commands must allow
Departments of Defense, Labor,                   separating servicemembers to begin TAP at least 90 days before they are
and Veterans Affairs; the Small                  discharged, retire, or are otherwise released from active duty.
Business Administration; and other               Education Services Provided
partnering agencies through a
Memorandum of Understanding.                     1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                                 values assessments), 2) educational counseling, 3) case-management
Program Description                              (e.g., designated staff member assigned to provide hands-on support to
Prepares servicemembers                          help participant manage benefits), 4) tests for academic credit (e.g.,
separating or retiring from the                  Global General Service Test (GSST) and College-Level Examination
Coast Guard for their transition to              Program (CLEP), 5) entrance tests (e.g., SAT, LSAT, GRE, ACT, GMAT),
civilian life. All eligible                      6) referrals to additional services, 7) college fairs (including "industry
servicemembers are required to                   days" that combine both college and job fairs), and 8) DOD provides
complete the standardized                        transitioning servicemembers with on-line assessments for higher
components of TAP. Spouses are                   education through the DOD Joint Knowledge Online website or in-person
encouraged to attend.                            at applicable DOD installations.
Type of Beneficiary Served                       Employment Services Provided
Veterans and spouses                             1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
                                                 interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job-search or job
Source: DHS responses to GAO survey. GAO         placement activities, 4) resume assistance, 5) interview skills
did not independently verify this information.
                                                 development, 6) housing allowance, 7) referrals to additional services, 8)
                                                 job fairs, and 9) DOL is responsible for administering the TAP
                                                 employment workshop. DOD provides career exploration and planning
                                                 through the DOD Joint Knowledge Online website or in-person at
                                                 applicable DOD installations.
                                                 Self-Employment Services Provided
                                                 The Coast Guard does not directly provide self-employment services as
                                                 part of TAP. Some servicemembers may choose to attend an optional 2-
                                                 day entrepreneurship “Boots to Business” class as part of the program.
                                                 However, as noted in GAO-18-135, the Coast Guard relies on online

                                                 35
                                                   DOL officials said that TAP is an interagency program administered by several agencies,
                                                 including DOD, VA, DOL, SBA, OPM, Education, and DHS-Coast Guard and that the
                                                 portion of TAP administered by DOD is not generally considered a separate program than
                                                 the portion administered by DHS-Coast Guard. GAO has previously reported that both
                                                 DOD and DHS-Coast Guard participate in the TAP interagency governance structure that
                                                 oversees the TAP curriculum and performance measures. However, for the purposes of
                                                 this report we list DOD TAP and Coast Guard TAP as separate programs because DOD
                                                 administers TAP for the Army, Air Force, Marines, and Navy and DHS-Coast Guard
                                                 administers TAP for the Coast Guard. Moreover, while DOD has promulgated regulations
                                                 and developed issuances which require that servicemembers complete the component
                                                 parts of the TAP program, Coast Guard has not promulgated any regulations to implement
                                                 TAP. GAO has previously reported separately on DOD TAP and Coast Guard TAP. See
                                                 GAO-18-23 and GAO-18-135.

                                                 Page 71                            GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
delivery of TAP information—including 2-day classes such as the
entrepreneurship class—because it lacks the resources for them to attend
in person. Coast Guard servicemembers may attend the course at a DOD
facility if space is available or online if in-person attendance is not
feasible. Travel funds are generally not available. DOD provides
entrepreneurship information through the DOD Joint Knowledge Online
website or in person at applicable DOD installations.




Page 72                     GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                         DOD Transition Assistance Program (DOD
                                         TAP)36



Federal Administering                    Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                                   Military members who have served 180 days of continuous active-duty
Department of Defense (DOD)              service on Title 10 orders are generally required to participate in this
administers the program in               program before they separate or retire from military service.
conjunction with the Departments         Servicemembers with anticipated separation dates are expected to begin
of Veterans Affairs (VA), Labor,         as soon as possible during the 12-month period preceding that date, but
Homeland Security, and                   not later than 90 days before separation. Similarly, those with anticipated
Education; the Small Business            retirement dates are expected to begin TAP as soon as possible during
Administration, and the Office of        the 24-month period preceding that date, but not later than 90 days
Personnel Management.                    before retirement. Servicemembers with unanticipated separations—
                                         those who learn they will leave the military in less than 90 days—are
Program Description                      expected to begin TAP as soon as possible. With regard to completing
Provides departing                       the program, servicemembers are generally expected to complete the
servicemembers with a number of          entire TAP process no later than 90 days before their anticipated date of
services to help them transition to      separation or retirement. TAP-eligible members of the National Guard
civilian life. Such services include     and Reserve who are being demobilized or deactivated from active duty
employment assistance and                under circumstances in which operational requirements make the 90-day
information on VA benefits. 37           requirement unfeasible must begin TAP as soon as possible within the
                                         remaining period of service while on active duty.
Type of Beneficiary Served
                                         Education Services Provided
Servicemembers, veterans,
spouses, and dependent children 38 1) Educational needs assessment (e.g., aptitude, interest, personality, or
                                               values assessments), 2) case-management (e.g., designated staff
Source: DOD responses to GAO survey. GAO       member assigned to provide hands-on support to help participant
did not independently verify this information. manage benefits), 3) certification and licensure preparation (e.g., college
                                               and community college courses and degrees if required, study materials,
                                               or non-college degree training), 4) referrals to additional services, 5)
                                               apprenticeship instruction (classroom learning or other direct instruction
                                               provided as part of an apprenticeship), 6) remedial or refresher
                                               coursework, 7) additional program services include additional 2-day
                                               classes including: Accessing Higher Education, Career Exploration and


                                         36
                                            DOL officials said that TAP is an interagency program administered by several agencies,
                                         including DOD, VA, DOL, SBA, OPM, Education, and DHS-Coast Guard and that the
                                         portion of TAP administered by DOD is not generally considered a separate program than
                                         the portion administered by DHS-Coast Guard. GAO has previously reported that both
                                         DOD and DHS-Coast Guard participate in the TAP interagency governance structure that
                                         oversees the TAP curriculum and performance measures. However, for the purposes of
                                         this report we list DOD TAP and Coast Guard TAP as separate programs because DOD
                                         administers TAP for the Army, Air Force, Marines, and Navy and DHS-Coast Guard
                                         administers TAP for the Coast Guard. Moreover, while DOD has promulgated regulations
                                         and developed issuances which require that servicemembers complete the component
                                         parts of the TAP program, Coast Guard has not promulgated any regulations to implement
                                         TAP. GAO has previously reported separately on DOD TAP and Coast Guard TAP. See
                                         GAO-18-23 and GAO-18-135.
                                         37
                                            For more information on the DOD TAP program, see GAO-18-23. For information on the
                                         Coast Guard TAP program, see GAO-18-135.
                                         38
                                            Dependent children can attend the additional 2-day Accessing Higher Education class
                                         with their servicemember parent if space is available, according to agency officials.

                                         Page 73                            GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Planning, and the Boots to Business Entrepreneurship class. 39 Special
curricula have been developed that is geared to wounded, ill and injured
servicemembers, and 8) DOD provides transitioning servicemembers with
an assessment for higher education
Employment Services Provided
1) Employment counseling, 2) employment assessment (e.g., aptitude,
interest, personality, or values assessments), 3) job development, 4) job
readiness training, 5) job referrals, 6) job-search or job placement
activities, 7) occupational or vocational training (taken outside of a degree
program), 8) resume assistance, 9) interview skills development, 10)
referrals to additional services, 11) information and referral from TAP to
the DoD Skillbridge program that also provides on-the-job training,
apprenticeship, and non-paid work experience to eligible
servicemembers, and 12) DOL is responsible for administering the TAP
employment workshop, which includes a discussion on career exploration
and planning and the Career Exploration and Planning Track, an optional
course of the Transition Assistance Program
Self-Employment Services Provided
1) Training in business fundamentals, 2) training in evaluating business
concepts, 3) training in developing a business plan, 4) training on
accessing capital, 5) training on revenue readiness, 6) referrals to
additional resources (e.g., Veterans Business Outreach Centers or SBA
resource partners), 7) mentoring, 8) training in website development and
social media, 9) training to select a business structure (Sole proprietor,
LLC, Corporation, etc.), and 10) SBA provides transitioning
servicemembers information on entrepreneurship




39
     This 2-day class was previously known as the Career Technical Training Track (CTTT).

Page 74                              GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
                                              Tuition Assistance Top Up




Federal Administering                         Beneficiary or Grantee Eligibility
Agency                             Claimants receiving Montgomery GI Bill–Active Duty benefits or claimants
Department of Veterans Affairs     using their Post-9/11 GI Bill Benefits. 40, 41 National Guard or Reserve
(VA) administers the program in    members are also eligible to use Tuition Assistance Top Up benefits
                                                                  42
conjunction with the Department of under certain circumstances.
Defense (DOD)                      Education Services Provided
Program Description                           1) Tuition for postsecondary courses as part of a degree or certificate
Provides education benefits to                program (e.g., undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree program),
active-duty servicemembers.                   and 2) tuition for vocational or technical courses offered in community
                                              colleges for college credit 43
Type of Beneficiary Served
                                              Employment Services Provided
Servicemembers and veterans
                                              None
Source: VA responses to GAO survey. GAO did
not independently verify this information.    Self-Employment Services Provided
                                              None




                                              40
                                                 These benefits are referred to as “Chapter 30” benefits.
                                              41
                                                 Servicemembers may use tuition assistance in combination with Post-9/11 GI Bill
                                              benefits. However, the amount of tuition assistance is subtracted from the amount of
                                              tuition and fees reported by the school. Post-9/11 GI Bill benefits would then be applied to
                                              any remaining tuition and fee charges.
                                              42
                                                 DOD sets the criteria and administers the Tuition Assistance Top Up program for
                                              National Guard and Reserve members. DOD pays the applicable portion of tuition and
                                              fees and then VA serves as the final payer.
                                              43
                                                 Tuition Assistance Top Up does not reimburse beneficiaries for certification or licensure
                                              preparation.

                                              Page 75                             GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
Enclosure III: GAO Contact and Staff Acknowledgments

GAO Contact             Cindy S. Brown Barnes, (202) 512-7215 or brownbarnesc@gao.gov
Staff Acknowledgements In addition to the contact named above,
                       Meeta Engle (Assistant Director), Amy E. MacDonald (Analyst-in-
                       Charge), Lucas Alvarez, Randy De Leon, Jean McSween, Benjamin
                       Sinoff, Almeta Spencer, and John Yee made significant
                       contributions to this report.

                         Also contributing to this report were:
                         Amy Anderson, Vincent Balloon, Sheranda S. Campbell, William
                         Colvin, Justin Gordinas, Marshall L. Hamlett, Benjamin T. Licht,
                         Mimi Nguyen, Jessica Orr, Rachel Pittenger, Carl Ramirez, Martin
                         Scire, MaryLynn Sergent, Sarah Veale, and James Whitcomb




(102589)

                             Page 76              GAO-19-97R Achieving Civilian Employment
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