oversight

Olympic Games: Preliminary Information on Federal Funding and Support

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1999-12-21.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO             Report to Congressional Requesters




December 1999

                OLYMPIC GAMES
                Preliminary
                Information on
                Federal Funding and
                Support




GAO/GGD-00-44
United States General Accounting Office                                                          General Government Division
Washington, D.C. 20548




                                    B-284275
                                    December 21, 1999

                                    The Honorable John D. Dingell
                                    Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Commerce
                                    House of Representatives

                                    The Honorable John McCain
                                    Chairman, Committee on Commerce,
                                      Science and Transportation
                                    United States Senate

                                    Concerned about the rising costs of federal funding and support of the
                                    Olympic Games over the years and the appropriateness of funding for
                                    certain projects, you requested information on federal funding and
                                            1
                                    support of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games held in Los Angeles, CA; the
                                    1996 Summer Olympic Games held in Atlanta, GA; and the planned 2002
                                                                                   2
                                    Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, UT. You requested that we
                                    answer four questions: (1) What was the amount of federal funding and
                                    support provided to the 1984 Olympic Games held in Los Angeles and the
                                    1996 Olympic Games held in Atlanta, and the planned amount for the 2002
                                    Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City? (2) What types of Olympic-
                                    related projects and activities received federal funding and support? (3)
                                    What are the federal policies and legislative authorizations for providing
                                    federal funding and support? (4) What procedures exist to ensure that
                                    federal funding and support were properly awarded and used?

                                    Specifically, this preliminary report responds, in part, to the first two
                                    questions. It provides information on the amount of federal funding and
                                    support agencies reported as being related to the Olympic Games held in
                                    Los Angeles and Atlanta, and currently planned for Salt Lake City. It also
                                    identifies the types of projects and activities each of the federal agencies
                                    reported as being Olympic-related. More detailed information about the
                                    projects and activities themselves, as well as information addressing
                                    questions three and four above, will be provided in our final report to be
                                    issued next year.
                                    1
                                     Federal funding is typically provided to such entities as the city, state, and Olympic organizing
                                    committees through such mechanisms as agency memorandums of agreement, grant awards, and
                                    government contracts. Federal support is generally provided in the form of in-kind contributions, such
                                    as personnel, equipment, and other resources.
                                    2
                                     The 1996 Olympic Games and the planned 2002 Winter Olympic Games also include the Paralympic
                                    Games. The Paralympic Games were not a part of the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.




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                   B-284275




                   Because there is no systematic or central accounting for federal funding
                   and support provided to the Los Angeles and Atlanta Summer Olympic
                   Games, and planned for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games, we
                   made a governmentwide inquiry by contacting the Office of Management
                   and Budget (OMB) and 29 other federal organizations regarding federal
                   support and funding of the Olympic Games. To supplement the
                   information we received, we researched legislative databases dating back
                   to 1979 to identify federal funding and support of the Olympic Games held
                   in Los Angeles and Atlanta, and planned for Salt Lake City. We also
                   reviewed numerous reports and interviewed appropriate federal, state, and
                   local government officials and representatives of several private
                   organizations to document and discuss the federal government’s
                   involvement with the Olympic Games. We conducted our review from
                   April 1999 to December 1999 in accordance with generally accepted
                   government auditing standards. A more detailed description of our scope
                   and methodology is included in the appendix.

                   Three points need to be considered in connection with the data on federal
                   funding and support of the Olympic Games contained in this report. First,
                   it was not possible to precisely calculate the total amount of federal
                   funding and support for the Olympic Games because there is no
                   requirement that federal agencies determine or account for this
                   information in a systematic manner. Second, we are still in the process of
                   quantifying the total amount of federal funding and support as well as
                   trying to determine from the agencies how much of the federal funding and
                   support would have been provided or planned for the Olympic host city
                   regardless of whether the Olympic Games were held there versus the
                   amount of federal funding and support that would have been provided or
                   planned solely for the planning and staging of the Games. Third, most of
                   the federal funding and support reported for the 2002 Winter Olympic
                   Games is planned and could change between now and 2002. Ultimately, it
                   may not be possible to obtain a definitive determination from all agencies
                   concerning whether federal funding for some projects would have been
                   provided if Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Salt Lake City were not the host cities
                   for the Olympic Games.

                   At least 24 federal organizations reported providing or planning to provide
Results in Brief                                                         3
                   a combined total of about $2.1 billion in 1999 dollars for Olympic-related
                   projects and activities for the Los Angeles and Atlanta Summer Olympic

                   3
                    Unless otherwise noted in this report, all dollars are reported in 1999 dollars. In addition, our
                   conversion to 1999 dollars is less than precise because the yearly data were not always available. Also,
                   in some cases, the numbers may not total because of rounding.




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Games and the planned Salt Lake City Winter Olympic Games. Of the
estimated $2.1 billion, approximately $530 million was reported to have
been provided or planned for projects and activities solely related to the
planning and staging of the Olympic Games. These projects included or
plan to include such activities as safety- and security-related services and
transportation services. The remaining estimated $1.6 billion was spent or
is planned for projects, such as highway construction, transit system
development, and other capital projects, that the host cities of Atlanta and
Salt Lake City wanted to have completed in time for the Olympic Games.
According to federal and state officials, they identified these projects as
Olympic-related because their completion was generally accelerated to
improve transportation services and avoid construction during the
Olympic Games. These officials said that most of the federal funding for
these projects would have been eventually provided to the host city
regardless of the Olympic Games.

Concerning the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, federal funding and
support totaled about $75 million and involved 11 federal organizations.
The majority of the federal funding and support, about $68 million, was for
safety- and security-related services provided during the planning and
staging of the Olympic Games. Unlike the federal funding and support for
the later Olympic Games, the federal organizations reported little funding
and support for capital projects related to preparing Los Angeles for the
1984 Summer Olympic Games.

The majority of the federal funding and support agencies reported
providing to the 1996 Summer Olympic Games held in Atlanta and planned
for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games is reported to be for infrastructure
projects to prepare the host city for the Olympic Games—projects that will
also benefit the host city and state after the Games are held. However,
although the completion of these projects was generally accelerated
because of the Olympic Games, most of the funding for these activities
probably would have eventually been provided to the host city regardless
of the Games, according to federal and state officials. For example, federal
funding and support for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta
totaled about $605 million and involved 24 federal organizations. Of this
amount, about $184 million was spent on activities provided during the
planning and staging of the Olympic Games, including about $92 million
for safety- and security-related services, which would not have been used
for this purpose if the Games had not been hosted there. About $421
million was spent for highway, transit, public housing, and other capital
projects related to preparing Atlanta for the Games. According to federal




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                                             and state officials, most of the $421 million would eventually have been
                                             provided to Georgia, regardless of the Olympic Games.

                                             About $1.4 billion in federal funding and support is planned or has been
                                             provided for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City and involves
                                             18 federal organizations. Of this amount, about $272 million is planned or
                                             has been provided for activities during the planning and staging of the
                                             Olympic Games, including about $200 million for safety- and security-
                                             related services, which would not have been used for this purpose if the
                                             Games were not being hosted there. About $1.1 billion is planned or has
                                             been provided for highway, transit, and other capital improvement projects
                                             that appear to be related to preparing the host city for the Olympic Games.
                                             According to federal and state officials, most of the $1.1 billion would have
                                             been eventually provided to Utah, regardless of the Olympic Games.

                                             Eleven federal organizations reported providing about $75 million in
Federal Funding and                          funding and support for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles.
Support for the 1984                         Most of this funding and support, about $68 million, was for safety- and
Summer Olympic                               security-related services provided during the planning and staging of the
                                             Olympic Games by the Departments of Defense, Justice, Transportation,
Games in Los Angeles                         and the Treasury, and thus would not have been provided if Los Angeles
                                             had not hosted the Olympic Games. Unlike the federal funding and support
                                             for the later Olympic Games, the federal organizations reported little
                                             funding and support for capital projects that would have benefited Los
                                             Angeles after the Olympic Games were held.


Table 1: Federal Funding and Support for the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, CA
Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                         a
                                                                                                            Expenditures
Federal organization                           Project or activity                                     As reported    1999 dollars
Department of Agriculture                                                                                     $160           $234
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service     Quarantine of animals used in Olympics                          160            234
Department of Commerce                                                                                         262            382
Economic Development Administration            Economic development grants: public works                       100            146
National Oceanic and Atmospheric               Weather forecasting services                                    162            236
Administration
Department of Defense                          Logistical support, personnel, equipment, other              32,001           46,703
                                               services for safety and security related services
Department of Health and Human Services        Safety and security related services                            212              309
Department of Justice                                                                                        6,787            9,905
Drug Enforcement Administration                Safety- and security-related services                           284              414
Federal Bureau of Investigation                Safety- and security-related services                         5,164            7,536
Immigration and Naturalization Service         Safety, security, and increased agency services               1,334            1,947
                      b
U.S. Marshals Service                          Safety- and security-related services                             0                0




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Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                                   a
                                                                                                                  Expenditures
Federal organization                          Project or activity                                            As reported    1999 dollars
Interpol                                      Safety- and security-related services                                    5               7
Department of State                           Increased agency services                                            1,963          2,865
Department of Transportation                                                                                       2,709          3,954
U.S. Coast Guard                              Safety- and security-related services                                1,851          2,701
Federal Aviation Administration               Safety, security, and increased agency services                        858          1,252
Department of the Treasury                                                                                         4,989          7,281
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms       Safety- and security-related services                                1,880          2,744
U.S. Secret Service                           Safety- and security-related services                                1,621          2,366
U.S. Customs Service                          Safety- and security-related services                                1,488          2,172
Department of Veterans Affairs                Not available                                                          392            572
Federal Communications Commission             Communication systems improvements                                     181            264
U.S. Information Agency                       Increased public information services                                1,498          2,186
Total                                                                                                            $51,154        $74,656
                                          a
                                           Personnel costs are generally not included in these amounts, with the exception of the Department of
                                          Justice figures.
                                          b
                                           The U.S. Marshals Service reported that it provided $206,000, or $300,642 in 1999 dollars; however,
                                          the Department of State reimbursed it. As such, we have included this amount in the Department of
                                          State’s figure.
                                          Source: OMB.


                                          Twenty-four federal organizations reported providing about $605 million in
Federal Funding and                       funding and support for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta. This
Support for the 1996                      included about $184 million for activities that solely related to the planning
Summer Olympic                            and staging of the Olympic Games, including about $92 million for safety
                                          and security activities, provided by the Departments of Agriculture,
Games in Atlanta                          Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, Justice, Transportation, the
                                          Treasury, and Veterans Affairs, as well as the Corporation for National and
                                          Community Services, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the
                                          Federal Executive Board. In addition, about $421 million was provided for
                                          highway, transit, and other capital improvement projects related to
                                          preparing the host city for the Olympic Games.

                                          According to Transportation and other agency officials, most of the federal
                                          funding for highway, transit, and other capital improvement projects
                                          would eventually have been provided regardless of whether Atlanta was
                                          selected as the host city for the 1996 Olympic Games. However, these
                                          officials identified these specific projects as Olympic-related because their
                                          completion generally had to be accelerated in order for Atlanta to
                                          successfully host the Games.




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                                          On the other hand, Transportation officials stated that the $17 million
                                                                                       4
                                          spent on the Olympic Transportation System would not have been funded
                                          had it not been for the Olympic Games. In addition, funding provided for
                                          the construction of the Olympic Whitewater venue also appears to fall into
                                          this category.


Table 2: Federal Funding and Support for the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, GA
Dollars in thousands
                                                                                      a                                                  b
                                                                         Expenditures                       Designated by Congress
Federal organization          Project or activity                   As reported 1999 dollars                     Actual 1999 dollars
Department of Agriculture                                               $20,690         $21,588                    $500          $522
 Animal and Plant Health      Quarantine horses and increased               488             509                       0             0
Inspection Service            agency services
U.S. Forest Service           Urban Reforestation                         1,973           2,059                        500               522
                              Whitewater Olympic Venue                   16,534          17,252                      5,992             6,252
                              Construction
                              Safety- and security-related services       1,378           1,438                           0                   0
Natural Conservation Resource Native plants (flowers/grass) planted         317             331                           0                   0
Service                       at Olympic venues and city parks
Department of Commerce                                                    9,088           9,482                           0                   0
Economic Development          Public works projects including sewer       8,037           8,386                           0                   0
Administration                construction and street improvements
National Oceanic and          Weather forecasting services                1,051           1,097                           0                   0
Atmospheric Administration
                         c
Department of Defense                                                    37,161          38,774                    34,800             36,311
Office of Special Events      Safety- and security-related services      18,600          19,407                    18,600             19,407
Army Forces Command           Safety- and security-related services      16,200          16,903                    16,200             16,903
Corps of Engineers            Savannah River Walk construction            2,083           2,173                         0                  0
                              Campground improvements                       250             261                         0                  0
                              Temporary rangers                              28              29                         0                  0
Department of Education       Paralympic Organizing Committee             7,110           7,419                     7,000              7,304
Department of Energy                                                      4,491           4,686                         0                  0
                              Safety- and security-related services       1,141           1,191                         0                  0
                              Efficiency renewable energy projects        3,350           3,495                         0                  0
Department of Health and                                                    882             920                         0                  0
Human Services
Centers for Disease Control   Safety- and security-related services         150             157                           0                   0
and Prevention
Environmental Health          Safety- and security-related services         732             764                          0                 0
Social Security               Videotaping Paralympic ceremonies           1,500           1,565                      1,500             1,565
Administration
Department of Housing and     Community planning development             16,992          17,730                           0                   0
Urban Development             improvements
Department of the Interior                                               12,477          13,019                    12,500             13,043

                                          4
                                           For the 1996 Olympic Games, the Olympic Transportation System refers to the city buses that were
                                          borrowed from other cities and were used to transport spectators to venues during the Olympic
                                          Games. These buses were returned to the respective cities after the Games were completed.




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Dollars in thousands
                                                                                            a                                   b
                                                                                 Expenditures             Designated by Congress
Federal organization              Project or activity                       As reported 1999 dollars           Actual 1999 dollars
National Park Service             Martin Luther King, Jr. historical site        12,477       13,019           12,500        13,043
                                  development and increased park
                                  services
Department of Justice                                                           22,340           23,310         4,000         4,174
Community Relations Service       Mitigation of racial conflicts                    29               30             0             0
Drug Enforcement                  300 agents for safety- and security-           3,412            3,560             0             0
Administration                    related services
Federal Bureau of Investigation   1,200 staff for safety- and security-         11,047           11,527             0                0
                                  related services
Immigration and Naturalization    130 additional staff to assist with            1,471            1,535             0                0
Service                           processing international passengers
Civil Rights Division             Americans with Disabilities Act                  147              153             0             0
Office of Justice Programs        Grant for Atlanta police overtime              4,000            4,174         4,000         4,174
                                  costs
                                  Safety and security study                      1,300            1,356             0                0
Executive Office of U.S.          Additional equipment and four                    575              600             0                0
Attorneys                         attorneys
U.S. Marshals Service             150 Marshals for safety and security             359             375              0                0
                                  services
Department of Labor               Employment and training services               2,910            3,036         2,500         2,609
Department of State               Increased agency services                      1,001            1,044             0             0
Department of                                                                  376,675          393,025        16,058        16,755
Transportation
Federal Highway                   Accelerated road and bridge projects         247,597          258,344            58               61
Administration
Federal Transit Administration  Accelerated Transit improvements               108,800          113,523             0             0
                                Olympic Transportation System                   16,000           16,694        16,000        16,694
Federal Aviation Administration Facilities, Services, and Planning               1,551            1,618             0             0
Federal Railroad                Public safety and security                          37               39             0             0
Administration
U.S. Coast Guard                Public safety and security                       2,690            2,807             0             0
Department of the Treasury                                                       6,787            7,082         5,478         5,716
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco      100 agents for safety and security               2,374            2,477         2,200         2,295
and Firearms                    services
Internal Revenue Service        100 agents for safety and security                 222             232              0                0
                                services
U.S. Secret Service             Safety and security services                     3,400            3,548         3,278         3,420
U.S. Customs Service            150 inspectors for increased services              791              825             0             0
Department of Veterans                                                           1,645            1,716             0             0
Affairs
                                Safety, security, and medical supplies           1,550            1,617             0                0
                                Donated excess supplies for                         95               99             0                0
                                Paralympics
Corporation for National and Public safety and security, mostly for              3,000            3,130             0                0
Community Services              the Paralympics Games
Environmental Protection                                                         7,868            8,210         7,000         7,304
Agency
                                Sewer construction                               6,498            6,780         7,000         7,304




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Dollars in thousands
                                                                                               a                                           b
                                                                              Expenditures                   Designated by Congress
Federal organization         Project or activity                         As reported 1999 dollars                 Actual 1999 dollars
                             Bike path construction                              300         313                       0            0
                             Increased services                                1,070       1,116                       0            0
Federal                      Communication systems                                37           39                      0            0
Communications               improvements
Commission
Federal Emergency            Safety- and security-related services              10,954             11,429                  0                   0
Management Agency
Federal Executive Board      Federal employee volunteers salary                  1,745              1,821                  0                   0
                             for safety- and security-related
                             service
General Services             Paralympic Organizing Committee                     1,999              2,086             2,000              2087
Administration               administrative costs
Tennessee Valley Authority   Whitewater venue construction and                   4,905              5,119                  0                   0
                             water release for sporting event
U.S. Information Agency      Olympic information programs                       7,237             7,551                  0                 0
U.S. Postal Service                                                            19,859            20,721                  0                 0
                             Building improvements                             15,745            16,428                  0                 0
                             Increased services                                 4,114             4,293                  0                 0
Total                                                                        $579,354          $604,501            $99,723          $104,052
                                          a
                                          Personnel costs are generally not included in these amounts, with the exception of the U.S. Forest
                                          Service figure.
                                          b
                                          ”Designated by Congress” refers to funds that were specifically designated for an Olympic-related
                                          purpose in appropriations acts or committee reports accompanying those acts.
                                          c
                                          According to Department of Defense officials, the Defense Department spent about $35 million of the
                                          $50 million designated by Congress for the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. The remaining $15 million
                                          was maintained by the Defense Department for future athletic events.
                                          Source: OMB and various federal agency officials.


                                          As of December 1999, total federal funding and support planned for or
Planned and Provided                      provided to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City was
Federal Funding and                       estimated to be about $1.4 billion. Of this amount, about $188 million was
Support for the 2002                      spent by the 18 federal organizations identified to date. Of the estimated
                                          $1.4 billion, approximately $272 million appears to have been planned or
Winter Olympic Games                      provided for the activities solely related to the planning and staging of the
in Salt Lake City                         Olympic Games and, thus, would not be provided if Salt Lake City was not
                                          hosting the Games. Of this amount, about $200 million is planned or has
                                          been provided for safety and security activities by the Departments of
                                          Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services, the Interior, Justice, the
                                          Treasury, and Veterans Affairs as well as the Environmental Protection
                                          Agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the General
                                          Services Administration. About $1.1 billion is planned or has been
                                          provided for highways, bridges, light rail, and bus systems that appear to
                                          be related to preparing the host city for the Games. According to federal




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                                           and state officials, most of the $1.1 billion would eventually have been
                                           provided regardless of the Olympic Games.

                                           Moreover, Transportation officials said that most of the $1.1 billion
                                           planned for the highway and transit projects for Salt Lake City is for
                                           projects that were recognized by Utah as needing improvements prior to
                                           Salt Lake City receiving the bid to host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games.
                                           However, they identified them as Olympic-related projects because their
                                           completion generally had to be accelerated to improve transportation
                                           services and avoid construction during the Olympic Games. In their
                                           opinion, most of these projects would eventually have been funded,
                                           regardless of whether the Olympic Games were held in Salt Lake City.

                                           On the other hand, as in Atlanta’s case, some projects are planned that are
                                           solely related to the planning and staging of the Olympic Games. For
                                           example, as listed in table 3, about $47 million is planned for the Olympic
                                                                    5
                                           Transportation System, which is being designed and developed solely for
                                           transporting people to and from Olympic venues. It appears that these
                                           funds would not be provided to Utah if Salt Lake City was not hosting the
                                           2002 Winter Olympic Games.


Table 3: Federal Funding and Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, UT
Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                                     Designated by
                                                                                                                                 a                b
                                                                                   Planned                       Expenditure            Congress
Federal organization             Project or activity                       As reported   1999 dollars             as reported              (Actual)
Department of Agriculture                                                      $18,809       $17,130                   $8,843                   $0

U.S. Forest Service              Olympic planning and increase                     7,648               7,242               3,063                    0
                                 services
                                 Forest improvements                              10,441               8,887               5,780              4,801
Department of Commerce                                                               216                 205                   0                 97
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Increased weather forecasting                       216                 205                   0                 97
Administration                   services
Department of Defense            Safety- and security-related                     26,074              24,691                  48                  48
                                 services
Department of Energy             Safety- and security-related                      1,470               1,392                 N/A                    0
                                 services
Department of Health and                                                           2,228               2,110                    0                   0
Human Services


                                           5
                                            For the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, Olympic Transportation System refers to the temporary parking
                                           lots that are scheduled to be built and the buses, drivers, and mechanics that are to be borrowed from
                                           other cities. Transportation officials pointed out that Salt Lake City is requesting $151 million for this
                                           system; however, the Department of Transportation plans to provide $50 million at this time.




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Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                        Designated by
                                                                                                                    a                b
                                                                                    Planned              Expenditure       Congress
Federal organization                 Project or activity                    As reported   1999 dollars    as reported         (Actual)
Centers for Disease Control and      Safety- and security-related                 2,228         2,110               0               0
Prevention                           services
Department of Housing and                                                          400            379              0                0
                    c
Urban Development
                                     New construction rental housing               400            379              0                0
                                     project
Department of the Interior                                                         249            236              0                0
National Park Service                Increased park services                       230            218              0                0
Bureau of Land Management            Increased services                              5              5              0                0
                                     Safety- and security-related                   14             13              0                0
                                     services
Department of Justice                                                            39,636        37,534         13,795            9,899
Federal Bureau of Investigation      Safety- and security-related                24,704        23,394            810                0
                                     services
Immigration and Naturalization       Safety- and security-related                 1,410         1,335           3,000               0
Service                              services
Office of Community Oriented         Grants for security-related                  6,000         6,000           6,000           6,000
Policing                             communications
Office of Justice Programs           Grants to state and local law                3,899         3,692           2,925           3,899
                                     enforcement agencies
Executive Office of U.S. Attorneys   Safety- and security-related                 1,085         1,027             86                0
                                     services
U. S. Marshals Service               Safety- and security-related                 2,538         2,403              0                0
                                     services
Department of State                  Increased services                             700            663             3                0
Department of Transportation                                                  1,248,537      1,182,328       164,984          251,728
Federal Highway Administration       Accelerated projects: roads,               699,080        662,008       121,547           26,200
                                     bridges
                                     Traffic management system                   97,010        91,866         19,000            5,000
                                     Olympic Planning                            10,490         9,934            300            6,000
Federal Transit Administration       Light rail: North South Line               241,400       228,598         20,537          170,928
                                     Light rail: University Corridor Line        75,000        71,023            248            5,000
                                     Infrastructure improvements                 22,995        21,776          2,349           18,600
                                     Olympic Transportation System               50,000        47,348              0            5,500
                                     Regular city bus purchases                  34,248        32,432          1,003           14,500
Federal Aviation Administration      Temporary facilities                         2,579         2,442              0                0
                                     Facility upgrades                           12,435        11,776              0                0
                                     Land acquisition                             3,300         3,125              0                0
Department of the Treasury                                                      123,839       117,272             75                0
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and       Safety- and security-related                 9,304         8,811            N/A                0
Firearms                             services
Internal Revenue Service             Safety- and security-related                 1,605         1,520              0                0
                                     services
U.S. Secret Service                  Safety- and security-related                19,426        18,396             49
                                     services
U.S. Customs Service                 Safety- and security-related                77,307        73,207             22                0
                                     services



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Dollars in thousands
                                                                                                                                  Designated by
                                                                                                                              a                b
                                                                                  Planned                      Expenditure           Congress
Federal organization              Project or activity                     As reported   1999 dollars            as reported             (Actual)
Wireless Program                  Safety- and security-related                 16,141        15,285                       0                   0
                                  services
Office of Enforcement             Safety- and security-related                        56                 53                  4                   0
                                  services
Department of Veterans Affairs    Safety and security upgrades                    4,643              4,397                   1                  0
Environmental Protection                                                          3,128              2,962                  74              2,200
Agency
                                Sewer construction                                2,200              2,083                   0              2,200
                                Planning, increase services                         500                473                   0                  0
                                Security                                            428                405                   0                  0
Federal Communications          Communication systems                               145                137                   0                  0
Commission                      improvements
Federal Emergency               Safety- and security-related                     10,837             10,262                   0                   0
Management Agency               services
General Services Administration Safety- and security-related                      1,554              1,472                   0                   0
                                services
U.S. Information Agency         Education, cultural affairs                         85                 80                  0                  0
U.S. Postal Service                                                              6,935              6,567                  0                  0
                                Facilities improvements                          4,935              4,673                  0                  0
                                Increase services                                2,000              1,894                  0                  0
Total                                                                       $1,486,765         $1,407,921           $187,749           $263,924
                                           Legend: N/A = not available
                                           a
                                           Personnel costs are generally not included in these amounts, with the exception of U.S. Forest
                                           Service.
                                           b”
                                            Designated by Congress” refers to funds that were specifically designated for an Olympic-related
                                           purpose in appropriations acts or committee reports accompanying those acts. We are in the process
                                           of collecting information on additional projects that have been specifically designated by Congress for
                                           an Olympic-related purpose as part of the fiscal year 2000 appropriations process.
                                           c
                                            The Department of Housing and Urban Development reported a total of about $39 million for various
                                           housing and community and economic development activities to OMB in April 1999 as being indirectly
                                           related to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. We are in the process of collecting additional information
                                           on the amount of federal funding and support the Department of Housing and Urban Development
                                           has planned or provided to the 2002 Winter Olympic Games.
                                           Source: OMB and various federal agency officials.


                                           Late in 1999, Congress made additional funding designations for Olympic-
                                           related projects in fiscal year 2000 appropriations acts or committee
                                           reports accompanying the acts. Designations included such items as
                                           highways, light rail, transportation planning, the Olympic Transportation
                                           System, and the Paralympics. Because we did not have time to determine
                                           the extent to which all these designated funds were already included in the
                                           total amounts agencies reported as planned for the Salt Lake City Games,
                                           we did not include all of them in the “designated by Congress” column in
                                           table 3. We plan to include additional information on the fiscal year 2000
                                           funding for Olympic-related projects in our final report.



                                           Page 11                                      GAO/GGD-00-44 Federal Funding of Olympic Games
                      B-284275




                      Finally, according to a Salt Lake City Organizing Committee official, it is
                      not yet clear how much federal funding and support will be provided for
                      the Paralympics. We plan to include information on this in our final report.

                      In December 1999, we received oral and written technical comments on
Agency Comments and   the amounts and in some cases on the categorization of the Olympic
Our Evaluation        projects and activities in a draft of this report from program officials at
                      OMB and most of the other federal organizations included in our review.
                      We modified this report to reflect the comments we received, as
                      appropriate.

                      We also received oral comments from the Vice President of Federal
                      Government Relations for the Atlanta Committee for Olympic Games and
                      the Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games
                      regarding (1) the categorization of the Olympic projects and activities in
                      this report and (2) the amount of federal funding and support designated
                      by Congress. We modified this report to reflect comments regarding the
                      first point and are in the process of collecting information on additional
                      projects that have been specifically designated for an Olympic-related
                      purpose as part of the fiscal year 2000 appropriations process. We plan to
                      include this latter information in our final report next year.

                      OMB, various agency program officials, and the Salt Lake and Atlanta
                      organizing committees emphasized the importance of recognizing that
                      most of the federal funds used for the Atlanta Games and planned for Salt
                      Lake City Games were or are for capital projects that would likely have
                      been eventually provided regardless of the Games. Our report specifically
                      addresses this issue. OMB also provided additional information on federal
                      funding and support provided during the planning and staging of the
                      Olympic Games. We are currently verifying this information and will
                      incorporate it in our final report, as appropriate.

                      We are sending copies of this report to Senator Ernest Hollings, Ranking
                      Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and
                      Transportation and Chairman Tom Bliley of the House Committee on
                      Commerce. We are also sending copies of this report to Senators Orrin
                      Hatch and Robert Bennett and Representatives James Hansen, Merrill
                      Cook, and Chris Cannon of Utah. Copies of this report will also be made
                      available to the Director of OMB; the Secretaries of the Departments of
                      Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human
                      Services, the Interior, Housing and Urban Development, Labor, State,
                      Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; and the Attorney
                      General. We are also sending copies to the heads of the Corporation for



                      Page 12                           GAO/GGD-00-44 Federal Funding of Olympic Games
B-284275




National and Community Services, Environmental Protection Agency,
Federal Communications Commission, Federal Emergency Management
Agency, General Services Administration, Tennessee Valley Authority, and
U. S. Information Agency, and the Postmaster General. We will make
copies available to others upon request.

Major contributors to this report included Tammy R. Conquest, Michael
Rives, John Parulis, and David Bennett. If you have any questions, please
contact me at (202) 512-8387 or ungarb.ggd.@ gao.gov.




Bernard L. Ungar
Director, Government Business
  Operations Issues




Page 13                          GAO/GGD-00-44 Federal Funding of Olympic Games
Appendix

Scope and Methodology


                To (1) determine the amount of federal funding and support that was
                provided to the 1984 Olympic Games held in Los Angeles, the 1996
                Olympic Games held in Atlanta, and the 2002 Winter Olympic Games
                planned for Salt Lake City and (2) describe the types of projects and
                activities that received or are designated to receive the federal funding and
                support, we relied upon a number of sources because there was no
                requirement for systematic or central accounting of this information.

                We started with information from OMB, which in the past had made
                occasional requests to federal agencies asking for information relating to
                federal funding and support of various Olympic Games held in the United
                States. OMB compiled this information in June 1985 after the 1984 Olympic
                Games, in May 1996 prior to the 1996 Olympic Games, and, most recently,
                in April 1999 for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. We subsequently
                interviewed cognizant OMB officials regarding this information and
                followed up with each of the federal organizations identified in OMB data
                and the U.S. Postal Service, at both headquarters and field offices, as
                appropriate.

                The federal organizations that reported some federal funding and support
                of the Olympic Games included the

            •   Department of Agriculture,
            •   Department of Commerce,
            •   Department of Defense,
            •   Department of Education,
            •   Department of Energy,
            •   Department of Health and Human Services,
            •   Department of Housing and Urban Development,
            •   Department of the Interior,
            •   Department of Justice,
            •   Department of Labor,
            •   Department of State,
            •   Department of Transportation,
            •   Department of the Treasury,
            •   Department of Veterans Affairs,
            •   Corporation for National and Community Services,
            •   Environmental Protection Agency,
            •   Federal Communications Commission,
            •   Federal Emergency Management Agency,
            •   Federal Executive Board,
            •   General Services Administration,



                Page 14                           GAO/GGD-00-44 Federal Funding of Olympic Games
    Appendix
    Scope and Methodology




•   Social Security Administration,
•   Tennessee Valley Authority,
•   U. S. Information Agency, and
•   U. S. Postal Service.

    At each agency, we obtained, to the extent possible, supporting
    information for the agency’s planned, approved, and actual funding and
    expenditures as shown in such agency records as budget allocations, grant
    applications and awards, contracts, and corresponding expenditure
    reports, to document and describe its federally funded or supported
    Olympic-related projects or activities. In addition, to ensure the accuracy
    and completeness of our information, we requested agency program
    officials to review and comment on our summarization of their data.

    We also interviewed officials from the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los
    Angeles, the Atlanta Committee for Olympic Games, the Salt Lake
    Organizing Committee, and the United States Olympic Committee
    regarding any information that they maintained on federal funding and
    support of the Los Angeles, Atlanta, and Salt Lake City Olympic Games. At
    your request, we also contacted Congressional Research Service staff who
                                          1
    had previously issued several reports on federal funding and support of
    the Olympic Games. We expanded upon the information reported by the
    Congressional Research Service by obtaining additional details and
    updating the information.

    As previously described, our verification of the information provided by
    the agencies was limited to collecting and reviewing available supporting
    documentation. However, in some cases, such documentation was not
    available. For example, in the case of the 1984 Olympic Games, OMB data
    were generally the only information available at the time of our review. In
    addition, the majority of the information on federal funding and support
    for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games is preliminary data, based on the
    agencies’ best estimates to date and are therefore subject to change. We
    conducted our review from April 1999 to December 1999 in accordance
    with generally accepted government auditing standards.




    1
     For example, CRS Report for Congress: Federal Financing of the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic
    Games, September 22, 1998.




    Page 15                                   GAO/GGD-00-44 Federal Funding of Olympic Games
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