GAO May 1!)!I0 D.C. GOVERNMENT Information on the Police Recruit Training Program 141502 United States GAO General Accounting Office Washington, D.C. 20548 General Government Division B-237061.2 May 24,199O The Honorable Dean A. Gallo Ranking Minority Member Subcommittee on the District of Columbia Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives Dear Mr. Gallo: Your March 24, 1989, letter asked us for information concerning the Dis- trict of Columbia’s police recruit qualifications and training program. In an earlier report, we addressed four questions concerning the entry-level police examination, changes in recruit qualifications, and examination scoring.’ On October 4, 1989, we briefed your office on the status of our work on the remaining questions. At that time, we agreed to provide you with a written report covering the questions discussed at that briefing. This fact sheet addresses the remaining issues. The material in this report reflects the program’s operations between August 1982 and early 1990. In addition, we are providing the specific information you originally requested about changes made to and the results of the police entry- level qualification test administered by McCann Associates, Inc. The McCann test is the entry-level police examination used by the District of Columbia Office of Personnel for selecting potential recruits for the Met- ropolitan Police Department (MPD). We addressed your specific questions as follows: Results in Brief 1. Have there been changes in the police academy course of study and academic requirements? Frequent changes have occurred in the academy course of study and academic requirements, such as the number of hours of instruction and the number of examinations recruits are required to pass. Some of these changes have been documented, but we found that the academy did not ‘DC. Government: Interim Report on Changes in Police Qualifications (GAO/GGD-90-OGFS, Oct. 3, 1989). Page 1 GAO/GGDBO88F’S Police Recruit Training Program B-237051.2 generally keep records accounting for all changes in recruit training and performance standards. (See app. I.) 2. How many recruit termination recommendations have been over- turned by officials above the Director of Training level? The absence of academy documentation regarding termination actions against recruits prevented us from independently determining the num- ber of such actions disapproved by MPD officials above the Director of Training level. According to the former Director of Training, a termina- tion recommendation can be disapproved by the Administrative Services Officer prior to any action by the Chief of Police. Former and current Administrative Services Officers said they had not rejected any aca- demic termination recommendations. Academy officials and MPD records confirmed that in September 1988 the former Chief of Police disap- proved five termination recommendations by the Director of Training. We were unable to determine the basis for the former Chief’s decision because we could not find any documentation and he declined to discuss the rationale for his decision. (See app. 11.) 3. How does the police academy select and train its instructors? Academy instructors are selected through a formal selection process and receive both classroom and on-the-job training. The formal training con- sists of a 40-hour Instructor Developmental course. New instructors also observe more experienced instructors for 3 to 6 weeks prior to teaching. In addition academy officials are developing an instructor certification program. (See app. III.) 4. How could the Metropolitan Police Department proceed to acquire accreditation? The five-phase accreditation process begins with a law enforcement agency’s application to the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. Once declared eligible, the agency submits a profile questionnaire describing its organization and management. The agency then provides documentation confirming its compliance with accreditation standards, and the Commission does an on-site assessment to verify agency compliance. On the basis of the assessment team’s report and recommendation, the Commission either awards or defers accreditation. Officials from accredited police departments we visited described many benefits to being accredited, including the containment Page 2 GAO/GGD-9068FS Police Recruit Training Program B-237051.2 of liability insurance costs, improved management resulting from docu- menting all policies and procedures, and the deterrence of litigation against the departments. (See app. IV.) Besides addressing your specific questions, we also compared the McCann tests across years, as administered to each group of applicants, to identify changes to the test questions since 1981. We identified six changes to the test from the original 1981 version to the present. We consider these changes minor in that they were made to correct spelling or to reword phrases for clarity. For example, “moustache” was changed to “mustache” and “assume not a one-way street” was changed to “assume is a two-way street.” More detailed information on each question is in appendixes I through IV. Specific information on McCann test results is presented in appendix V. Our objectives were to (1) answer the questions concerning police recruit Objective, Scope,and training, (2) describe the nature of changes to the McCann test, (3) pro- Methodology vide information on how the MPD could proceed to obtain accreditation, and (4) provide statistics on the qualifications of recruits since 1982. As agreed with you, we focused on the period since August 19,1982, because Title I of the District of Columbia Appropriations Act, 1989 (Public Law 100-462) requires that the District maintain police qualifi- cations equal to those in effect at that date. Most of our work was done at the MPD academy and at headquarters in Washington, DC. To find any changes in the course of study and gradu- ation requirements, we interviewed the training staff at the academy and reviewed course syllabi, grade sheets, and Recruit Officer Hand- books. We could not document all changes because personnel at the time of our review were not always aware of past changes, nor could acad- emy personnel provide us with records of the changes. To research the accreditation process, we visited the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc., in Fairfax, Virginia, and three police departments- the Houston, Texas, Police Department; the Connecticut State Police Department; and the Glastonbury, Connecti- cut, Police Department. We selected the Connecticut departments because one is approximately the size of MPD while, in contrast, the other Page 3 GAO/GGD904%FS Police Recruit Training Program B-237051.2 is a very small department, and both were among the first to be accred- ited. We selected the Houston Police Department because it is approxi- mately the same size as the MPD and is one of the two major city departments to have been accredited. At your request, we also visited the New Jersey State Police Training Academy. To verify what changes were made to the McCann Examination ESV- 100, we visited McCann Associates, Inc., in Langhorne, Pennsylvania. In the presence of the president of the company, we compared the original examination with each succeeding examination. Our work was done between October 1989 and March 1990 using gener- ally accepted government auditing standards. Agency Comments and Our In commenting on the draft report, the Chief of Police found that a num- Analysi .S ber of our findings parallel his independent review of the recruit train- ing program. He particularly agreed with our concern about the past lack of documentation in recruit training. He also listed a series of actions MPD has initiated to improve the recruit training program. However, in regard to accreditation, the Chief said that while the report accurately outlines one way a municipal police agency might acquire accreditation, he emphasized that this is not the only way. He also set forth other initiatives he intends to pursue to improve the quality of MPD and its members including establishing a police officer standards and training certification progrgm; establishing certification programs in specialized skills, such as recruit training instruction; giving college credit for completion of the recruit training program; improving entry- level standards; and improving the education level of current employees. These initiatives may prove beneficial to MPD operations if properly implemented. As agreed with the Subcommittee, the scope of our review was limited to describing the steps in the accreditation process and did not include identifying and doing a comparative evaluation of alterna- tive methods. We did not intend to imply that accreditation is the only way that the quality of a police department can be improved. The Chief also said we had been incorrect when we said the official MPD position regarding the comprehensive final examinations for recruits is that they are not necessary. In the absence of a written policy statement providing the rationale for discontinuing the comprehensive examina- tion, our statement was based on a November 21, 1989, letter to you in Page 4 GAO/GGD90&WS Police Recruit Training Program -~. - .~- .-. B-237051.2 which the Chief wrote that because of “refinements to our training pro- gram we believe that a comprehensive examination is not necessary.” However, in commenting on the draft report, the Chief said that pending further evaluation, MPD has not determined whether these examinations are necessary. The District of Columbia’s response is printed in appen- dix VI. As arranged with the Subcommittee, unless you publicly announce its contents earlier, we plan no further distribution of this fact sheet until 30 days from the date of this letter. At that time, we will make copies available to others upon request. The major contributors to this fact sheet are listed in appendix VI. If you have any questions, please contact me on 275-8387. Sincerely yours, ‘J. William Gadsby Director, Federal Management Issues Page 5 GAO/GGD9043F’S Police Recruit Training Program Contents Letter Appendix I 10 Have There Been The Current Recruit Training Program 10 Changes in Recruit Training Are Not Fully Documented 11 Changes in the Police Hours of Instruction Have Changed 12 Academy Course of Recruit Examination Requirements Have Changed 14 Study and Academic Explanation for Changes in Recruit Training 17 Requirements? Appendix II 20 How Many Recruit Limited Documentation Exists on Termination Actions MPD Reports Five Termination Recommendations Were 20 20 Termination Overturned Recommendations Have Been Overturned by Officials Above the Director of Training Level? Appendix III 22 How Does the Police Instructor Selection Instructor Training 22 24 Academy Select and Instructor Certification 24 Train Its Instructors? Appendix IV 26 How Could the The Accreditation Process Police Agency Experience With Accreditation 26 28 Metropolitan Police Department Proceed to Acquire Accreditation? Y Page 6 GAO/GGD9088F’S Police Recruit Training Program Contents Appendix V 29 Have There Been Additional Changes in the Qualifications of Police Candidates Since 1982? Appendix VI 34 Agency Comments Appendix VII 41 Major Contributors to This Fact Sheet Table Table IV. 1: Phases of Police Department Accreditation 26 Figures Figure I. 1: Hours of Instruction for Police Academy 12 Recruits, 1982-89 Figure 1.2: Number of Hours of Police Academy Training 14 by Type of Instruction Figure 1.3: Minimum, Maximum, and Modal Number of 15 Examinations for Training Cycles, 1982-89 Figure 1.4: Number of Examination Failures That May 16 Result in a Recommendation of Termination From the Police Academy Figure 1.5: Percentage of Police Academy Recruits Passing 17 and Failing the Comprehensive Examination on the First Attempt Figure III. 1: Educational Attainment of Instructors 23 Assigned to the Academy as of September 1989 Figure 111.2:Years of Police Experience of Instructors 24 Assigned to the Academy as of September 1989 Figure V. 1: Percentage of Candidates Who Passed and 30 Failed the McCann Test Figure V.2: Number of Candidates by Race Who Passed/ 31 Failed the McCann Test Since 1982 Page 7 GAO/GGD4068Fs Police Recruit Training Program Contents Figure V.3: Number of Candidates by Sex Who Passed the 32 McCann Test Since 1982 Figure V-4: Percentage of Recruits Graduating/Not 33 Graduating by Year Abbreviations Y CI'R cardiopulmonary resuscitation MPD Metropolitan Police Department Page 8 GA0/GGD90&3F’S Police Recruit Training Program Page 9 GAO/GGD-fJO48FS Police Recruit Training Program Have There Been Changesin the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? Frequent changes have occurred in the academy’s course of study and performance standards since August 1982. The hours of instruction recruits receive have ranged from 294 to 880, and the subjects of class- room training, while seemingly consistent over time, have been reorga- nized continually. According to the Director of Training, additional changes have occurred in the number of examinations for academic sub- jects, the policies on comprehensive examinations, and the number of examination failures permitted prior to a recommendation for termina- tion from the program. According to the Director of Training, numerous changes in recruit training and performance standards have occurred, but MPD cannot fully document them. Key records needed to account for all changes and to provide the rationale for the changes have not been retained. One academy official attributed the changes to changing Metropolitan Police Department (MPD) priorities, the broad discretion available to class instructors prior to early 1989 to modify the pace of instruction, the periodic interpretation of recruits’ on-the-street training events, such as demonstrations, and the discretion the Director of Training-the top academy official-has to change the program. The training program’s objective is to provide recruit officers with the The Current Recruit job-related knowledge and skills necessary for service in MPD. The course Training Program of instruction and the recruit performance standards applicable to a given class are communicated in a handbook and syllabus covering that class. The Recruit Officer Handbook communicates the policies and some general rules of MPD. The syllabus presents the course content of the recruit training program. These documents are subject to revision before each class by decisions made by the Director of Training in consultation with his top officers. The current program duration is 653 hours and includes both specialized and academic classroom instruction. The specialized segment of recruit training covers blocks of instruction, such as physical training and self- defense, use of firearms and vehicles, and administering cardiopulmo- nary resuscitation (CPR). Recruits must physically demonstrate their proficiency in these areas. The academic training covers such blocks of instruction as the D.C. Code; laws of arrest, search, and seizure; municipal regulations; han- dling property; and report writing. Recruits must demonstrate their Page 10 GAO/GGD-90-68F-S Police Recruit Training Program Appendtx I Have There Been Chaugea in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Raquirementa? mental proficiency through 14 examinations. Recruits are expected to maintain a cumulative 70-percent average on the 14 tests, not fail more than 2 original tests, and not fail more than 1 remedial test for any origi- nal exam. Failure to meet these academic requirements may lead to a recommendation for termination from the Director of Training. The academy has not maintained the records necessary to account for Changesin Recruit all changes in the recruit training program since August 1982. A com- Training Are Not Fully 1t p e e accounting would require a review of all course syllabi and recruit Documented handbooks for each class. However, we were able to obtain only 7 syl- labi and 4 handbooks for the 46 recruit classes held during this period. We found no handbooks or syllabi dated earlier than December 1985. The academy also has long recognized the serious nature of its problems in documenting changes in recruit performance standards. In an April 16,1986, memorandum through the then MPD Administrative Services Officer, the Director of Training at that time stated that: “The Recruit Officer Training Program Academic Performance Standards employed by the Training Division since 1981 have unofficially changed with the printing of each Recruit Officer Handbook. The inconsistency with which we have employed such standards has led to operational confusion and places the department in an indefensible position should we be called upon to defend our practices.” Because the academic performance standards in effect for each class were not always approved by the Chief of Police and thus made official, confusion over qualification requirements arose. For example, on April 16, 1986, the conflict between official and unofficial academic perform- ance standards led the Director to conclude that he had no alternative but to graduate two recruit officers who had failed three examinations. These recruits would have been recommended for termination under the unofficial standards in effect for their class, but they were within the official standard of four failures, which had not been changed since 1981. Despite the lack of complete records of changes in the academy pro- gram, we used available records and discussions with the former Direc- tor to develop information describing the nature of the changes in the recruit training program. Page 11 GAO/GGD90-68FS Police. Recruit Training Program Appendix I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? Information provided by MPD based on weekly classroom schedules Hours of Instruction maintained by the academy shows continual fluctuation in the hours of Have Changed instruction recruits received. They ranged from 294 to 880, as shown in figure I. 1. However, we could find little documentation to explain the changes. The Chief of Police said in written comments that the hours of instruction ranged as high as 960 hours (24 weeks). Figure 1.1: Hours of Instruction for Police Academy Recruits, 1982-89 900 Numkr of Hours 840 780 720 se0 600 640 480 420 990 900 240 180 120 90 0 1982 1983 1994 YOM El Shortest Training Claw In a Year Lor~est Training Class In a Year Mean Hours for all Training Claasea in a Year Note: Four to eight training classes occurred each year varying in the number of instruction hours per class. We did find documentation for a portion of one recent reduction in the instructional hours in the training program. Between July 16, 1987, and March 22, 1988, 224 instructional hours were eliminated (from 817 to 593). The elimination of on-duty remedial training and field trips to the D.C. Corporation Counsel Office, U.S. Attorney, and D.C. City Council Page 12 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix I Have There. Been Change8 In the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? led to a reduction of 138 hours. These changes occurred because infor- mal recruit feedback indicated they were not useful. Another nine class- room hours were eliminated by making the recruit responsible for covering some subjects, such as metropolitan transit police and tow crane operations, in home study. Home study subjects were still subject to testing. To obtain a more detailed understanding of changes in the recruit course of study, we compared the syllabi for four recruit classes from Decem- ber 16,1985, to February 10,1989. Our comparison showed that the number of hours devoted to academic and specialized training varied among recruit classes. (See fig. 1.2.) Academy officials offered their opinion that the changes in the instruc- tional hours represented no substantive change in recruit training. While our review of the four syllabi showed a general consistency in the sub- ject titles covered, we were unable to determine whether the content of the courses, as indicated by the subject titles, represented a substantive change in recruit training. The frequency of changes in the course presentation and hours devoted to over 100 courses of instruction make any definitive comparison between classes difficult. For example, a course entitled “Preliminary Investigation Skills Lab” did not appear on the December 16, 1985, syl- labus but was allotted 24 hours in the July 1987 syllabus and 12 hours in the March 1988 and February 1989 syllabi. Page 13 GAO/GGD9088F’S Police Recruit Training Program Appendix I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? Figure 1.2: Number of Hours of Police Academy Training by Type of Instruction Number of Houm 525 770 715 550 595 539 495 449 355 339 275 220 165 110 33 Syllrbw Datr I 1 Miscellaneous Specialized Training Academic Subjects Orienmtton Note 1:“Orientation” consists of subjects such as ‘Personal Appearance’ and ‘Overview of DC Govern- ment’ and City Geography. Note 2:“Academic subjects” consist of subjects such as ‘Rules of Evidence’ and ‘Affidavits and Warrants’. Note 3:“Speciaked training” consists of subjects as ‘Firearms Training’ and ‘CPR Training’. Note 4:“Miscellaneous” consists of field trips to places such as Police Headquarters and DC. Superior Court. The number of examinations administered to cover classroom instruc- Recruit Examination tion has changed greatly over time. From 1982 through 1989 the number Requirements Have has ranged from 5 to 21. (See fig, 1.3.) Changed Page 14 GAO/GGD90&3F% Police Recruit Training Program Appendix I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? Figure 1.3: Mlnimum, Maximum, and Modal Number of Examinations for Training Cycles, 1982-89 22 Numkr ot Euma 1992 Yur Mlnlmum Number of Exams Maximum Number of Exams Modal Number of Exams Note 1: Data on number of examinations were not available for all training cycles in 1982, 1983, and 1984. Data were available for only one training cycle in 1983. Note 2: The modal number of examinations is the most frequently occurring number of exams in a given year. As the number of examinations changed, so did the number of examina- tion failures permitted before recommending termination. Before May 1989, the academy examination requirements included an examination at the conclusion of each unit of study, for example “DC. Code,” and remedial examinations for each examination failed. However, the acad- emy has consistently placed limits on the number of permitted failures of both original and remedial examinations. Since 1982, from two to six examination failures-including remedial examinations-have been grounds for recommending termination. These variations are presented in figure 1.4. Page 15 GAO/GGD-9068PS Police Recruit ‘hduiug Program Appcndlx I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? Figure 1.4: Number of Examinatlon Failures That May Result in a Numbsr of Fallsd Examlnatlonm Recommendation of Termination From I the Police Academy 4 Data That Standards Wet-a Otflclally Implomonted Note 1: The January 1981 and October 1989 standards refer to original examinations only. Note 2: The May 1985 and November 1985 standards include both original examinations and remedial examinations. Since August 1982, the academy also has followed different practices regarding the use of comprehensive examinations at the end of the recruit class. Comprehensive examinations were intended to measure what the recruit retained from the academic program. According to the Director of Training, the comprehensive examination was introduced, on a trial basis, in 1984. From September 1985 through March 1988, com- prehensive examinations were administered to recruits and counted toward their academic records, The former Director discontinued the use of the comprehensive examination in October 1988. We found no written policy statement providing the rationale for discon- tinuing the comprehensive examination. We did, however, find a Novem- ber 1989 letter signed by the Chief of Police stating that a comprehensive examination was not necessary in light of efforts to Page 16 GAO/GGD-9048FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Cwree of Study and Academic Requirements? shorten the recruits program and integrate various subjects to give stu- dents a more systematic approach to training. Subsequently, in com- menting on our draft report, the Chief of Police said that pending further evaluation, MPD has not determined whether these examinations are necessary. Our analysis of recruit performance on the comprehen- sive examination showed that a much larger percentage of recruits failed the test in their first attempt in 1988 (39 percent) than in prior years. (See fig. 1.5.) Figure 1.5: Percentage of Police Academy Recruits Passing and Failing Psrcsnl of Cad& the Comprehensive Examination on the ,oo First Attempt w 50 70 50 50 40 30 20 10 0 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Calsndar Ysar Failed Exam Passed Exam Note 1: The comprehensive examination was initially given to recruits in 1984. Note 2: The comprehensive examination was last administered to recruits of training cycle 2 in 1988. In the absence of academy documentation for changes in the recruit Explanation for training program, the former Director of Training offered an explana- Changes in Recruit tion of the factors that influence the program. He said the course of Training study is subject to continual change to encompass such routine events as revisions in the DC. Code and new court decisions. Changes also arise v from suggestions from the academy staff on how best to present subject matter. Page 17 GAO/GGD-9088FS Police Recruit Training Program Appcndlx I Have There Been Changes in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? In addition, the former Director offered four other reasons for changes since 1982. These were (1) changing priorities within the MPD; (2) the decentralized instructional system in place from 1981 until March 1989, which gave considerable discretion to class instructors to modify the pace of instruction; (3) the need to use recruits to respond to external events, such as demonstrations; and (4) the discretion of the Director to make changes. The history of changes in the recruit course of instruction is an example of how changing priorities influence the course of study. According to the former Director of Training, the Chief of Police desired to get officers on the street as quickly as possible to respond to crime emergen- cies. In response, the former Director initiated a review of the recruit curriculum shortly after assuming command in January 1988. The review objective was to eliminate material not essential to preparing recruits to serve as police officers. As a result, recruit training was reduced by 226 hours. Such activities as field trips and classroom reme- dial training time were eliminated and home study was emphasized. The second factor contributing to the changes was the decentralized teaching method employed by the academy from February 1981 until March 1989. During this period, a sergeant and two officers were responsible for guiding a class through the academy, including teaching all academic subject matter. The Director said that the instructors had considerable discretion in the pace they set in moving recruits through the academy. For example, the pace at which certain subject matter was taught could be affected by both instructor familiarity with the topic and ability of the class to master the subject. A third factor affecting the hours of class instruction was the require- ment that recruits respond to external events. Academy recruits are used as a reserve to help deal with a wide range of events, such as dem- onstrations, crime emergencies, or needs for security during visits by dignitaries. Time spent in such efforts is considered practical training and is recorded in the total number of hours of instruction. Finally, the Director has discretion to initiate change in the recruit train- ing program. For example, the former Director recommended discontinu- ing the comprehensive examination and modifying the teaching approach. After a review of the academy’s teaching methods, the former Director also instituted a team-teaching approach. Since March 1989, instructors specialize in certain subjects, such as the D.C. Code or crimi- nal procedure. The objective is to ensure greater mastery of the subject Page 18 GAO/GGD90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Have There Been Changelr in the Police Academy Course of Study and Academic Requirements? matter by the instructor than was possible when the sergeant and two officers were responsible for teaching all academic subjects. The new teaching approach is also intended to reduce the variation in how sub- jects are presented to classes and how long the presentations take. As part of this effort, the former Director established a schedule for com- pleting recruit training. The former Director received formal approval by the Chief of Police for the various major changes he initiated in the recruit course of study. The former Director added, however, that such approval has not always been obtained, as indicated by the concerns raised in 1985 by the then Director of Training about the absence of Chief of Police approval of some academic standards. Page 19 GAO/GGD9988Fs Police Recruit Training Program Appendix II I How Many Recruit Termination RecommendationsHave Been Overturned by Officials Above the Director of Training Level? Before September 1988, the academy generally did not maintain records in its personnel files of proposed or actual adverse actions against recruits. However, through discussions with academy officials and a review of the correspondence files at the MPD, we learned that the Chief of Police disapproved five recommendations for termination in Septem- ber 1988. A recruit can be recommended for immediate termination from the academy for such actions as academic failure; any act of dis- honesty, such as theft, making false statements to or for the use of a superior officer, or cheating on any examination; and the illicit or unprescribed use of a narcotic or dangerous drug. Instructors initiate recommendations for termination. The recommendations then proceed through the Director of Training to the Chief of Police, who makes the final decision on whether to accept the recommendation. According to the Director of Training, the academy does not have a writ- Limited ten policy on what documentation must be retained on each recruit’s Documentation Exists training experience. According to the Director of Training, the academy on Termination practice before September 1988 was not to maintain records on adverse actions against recruits. A recruit faced with a recommendation for ter- Actions mination was allowed to resign without a record being kept in the file of the reason for the resignation. Further, the academy kept no records on disciplinary actions, test results, or records of tutoring at the academy after each recruit graduated or resigned the academy. The former Direc- tor said that the rationale for this was to give the terminated recruit a fresh start. However, the former Director said that the academy policy has been to retain all recruit training documentation since January 1989 so that there will be a clear audit trail. Because of limited documentation, we formally requested the MPD to MPD Reports Five report to us on the number of recruit termination actions disapproved Termination by the Chief of Police since August 1982. We focused our inquiry on Recommendations actions by the Chief because the Director of Training said the former and current Administrative Services Officers have not rejected any ter- Were Overturned mination recommendations. The former Director, in a letter dated July 20, 1989, reported that the former Chief of Police disapproved five ter- mination recommendations for academic failure made by the former Director in September 1988. The letter stated no rationale for the Chief’s action. We contacted the former Chief, but he declined to discuss his rationale. Page 20 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix II How Many Reeruit Termination Recommend&one Have Been Overturned by ofplciale Above the Director of Training Level? We reviewed the personnel files of the five recruits and determined that the recommendations for termination were based upon failure to meet academic standards. The recruits recommended for termination were retested in areas they had failed, passed the remedial tests, graduated from the academy, completed their probationary period, and are now serving as certified MPD officers. Page 2 1 GAO/GGD-!MJ&WS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix III How Does the Police Academy Select and Tra& Its Instruc-brs? Since April 1988, the MPD has used a formal review process to select instructors in which applicants are screened on a variety of factors. After being selected, new instructors receive both formal and on-the-job training. The formal training consists of a 40-hour Instructor Develop- mental course. New instructors also observe more experienced instruc- tors for 3 to 6 weeks prior to teaching. In addition, academy officials are developing an instructor certification program. The former Director of Training began using a new process in April 1988 Instructor Selection to select instructors for the police academy. According to the former Director of Training, the new process arose from the former Chief of Police’s concern about the lack of a formal instructor selection process at a time when more instructors were needed to train up to 260 recruits at a time. Records were not available to document, nor could MPD offi- cials tell us, what formal selection procedures were used before April 1988. The current selection process begins with the posting of a vacancy announcement for instructors. Applicants are required to submit a writ- ten lesson plan on a predetermined topic; give a lo-minute oral presenta- tion; and answer 10 general questions about their police careers, personal interests, and reasons for seeking an instructor position. The current process calls for a selection committee chosen by the Direc- tor of Training to rank applicants on such dimensions as their ability to determine training needs and to plan and prepare courses and/or blocks of instruction to meet those needs; and their ability to conduct research, evaluate information, formulate valid and objective conclusions, and present findings in an organized and effective manner. However, the Director of the academy can also independently conduct interviews and select applicants, Instructors were selected from two vacancy announcements in April 1988. Selections were by a committee for the first announcement, and the Director independently selected for the second vacancy announce- ment. All instructors were detailed to the academy rather than perma- nently assigned because this approach facilitates reassigning instructors if they do not perform well. Recruit instructors are required to have 3 years’ service on the force. The police department profile data on the 55 instructors assigned to the academy in September 1989 show that 71 percent received at least some Page 22 GAO/GGDsQ68Fs Police Recruit Training Program Appendix III How Does the Police Academy Select and Train It8 IIl&ll~ra? higher education, and 78 percent had more than 10 years’ experience with the MPD. Figures III.1 and 111.2show instructor profile data. Flgure 111.1:Educational Attainment of Instructors Assigned to the Academy as of September 1999 Number of Instructors 27 24 21 15 12 9 3 1860 I l-3 L L L Y Page 23 GAO/GGD90&3F!S Police Recruit Training Progran~ Appendix III How Does the Police Academy Select and TrainkfJhStNCtWS? Instructors Assigned to the Academy as 36 Numb of Intiructam of September 1989 33 30 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 3 0 610 11.15 16+ Elm Yearn Yam Yam Yearn of Pollca Swvlco Experlonce Instructors receive both formal and on-the-job training. Formal training Instructor Training consists of a 40-hour course on impromptu presentation, communica- tion, principles of learning, training needs assessment, behavioral task analysis, and instructional objectives. New instructors will usually spend 3 to 6 weeks at the academy preparing to teach a class. This includes observing experienced instructors present course material. The former Director said that the last four new instructors also were tested on the material they were to teach to demonstrate that they had mas- tered it. Instructor performance is evaluated periodically through observation by a management team composed of the Deputy Director, the Assistant Chief of Police, and four lieutenants, or by any one member of the team. After such observation, the instructor is counseled on his/her perform- ance. Failure to improve any deficiencies could lead to reassignment. According to the former Director of Training, the academy is developing Instructor a certification program for instructors in conjunction with the Univer- Certification sity of the District of Columbia. Plans are nearing completion for a pro- u gram for certifying physical training instructors. Plans for the Page 24 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program . Appentltx HI How Doea the Police Academy Select and ~ainkBhiJtNC!tD~? certification program for academic instructors include six seminars deal- ing with such topics as teaching adults, testing and evaluation, research, and curriculum development. Page 26 GAO/GGD-9O-t38Fs Police Recruit Training Program Appendix IV 1 How Could the Metropolitan Police Depaxtxnent Proceed to Acquire Accreditation? Accreditation is a certification granted to law enforcement agencies at the state and local levels that have demonstrated voluntarily that they meet professional standards. The process necessary to acquire accredi- tation is undertaken under the auspices of the Commission on Accredita- tion for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc. The Commission was formed in 1979 through the combined efforts of four major law enforcement mem- bership associations. These associations are the International Associa- tion of Chiefs of Police, National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives, National Sheriffs’ Association, and the Police Executive Research Forum. In the accreditation process, an agency is judged against a set of law enforcement standards in such areas as law enforcement roles, responsibilities, and relationships; organization, man- agement, and administration; the personnel structure and processes; and law enforcement operations. Accreditation involves five phases, which can take about 5 years to The Accreditation complete depending on the size and condition of the agency. The accredi- Process tation phases are listed in table IV. 1. Table IV.l: Phases of Police Department Accreditation Phase Activity ----.. I . ~-~-- Application II Agency profile questionnaire III ____Agency self-assessment IV Commission’s on-site assessment -. V Commission grants or defers full accreditation According to the Commission guidance in Standards For Law Enforce- ment Agencies: The Standards Manual of the Law Enforcement Agency Accreditation Program, the accreditation process begins with an appli- cation to the Commission from the law enforcement agency’s chief exec- utive officer and from the agency’s chief civil authority, where required by local laws or policies. The Commission determines from the applica- tion whether the agency meets eligibility standards. Eligible law enforcement agencies are defined as (1) legal government entities that are responsible for enforcing laws and have personnel with general or special law enforcement powers and (2) agencies providing law enforce- ment services whose eligibility is verified by the Commission. Once eligi- bility has been established, the agency and the Commission sign an accreditation agreement that identifies what is expected of each party. Page 26 GAO/GGIMMMSFS Police Recruit Training Program How Could the Metropolitan Police Department Proceed to Acquire Accreditation? During phase II, the agency completes an agency profile questionnaire providing information about its size, responsibilities, functions, organi- zation, and management. This information helps the Commission decide which standards are applicable to the agency. Phase III is the agency’s self-assessment process in which it is to describe how it complies with all applicable accreditation standards. The agency is to assemble documentation to show its compliance with the standards and to facilitate the Commission’s on-site assessment. The Commission estimates that it takes an agency from 12 to 18 months to complete the self-assessment phase. Phase IV is the Commission’s on-site assessment, which begins after the agency notifies the Commission that it complies with all applicable stan- dards. This assessment determines whether the agency complies with all applicable standards. To conduct the assessment the Commission assem- bles a team of assessors, to the extent possible drawing officers from police agencies of similar size and type to the agency under review. To avoid potential conflict of interest, individuals are not to be assigned to assessment teams within their own states, and the agency under review is permitted to review the team make-up and can object to including cer- tain individuals. In phase V, the assessment team is required to submit a report to the Commission and the Commission is to grant or defer full accreditation. If the Commission defers accreditation, it provides the agency an outline of the steps necessary to correct deficiencies and gain full accreditation. During this period, the agency reverts to the self-assessment phase until it again complies with applicable standards. The Commission encourages the agency to correct deficiencies as rapidly as possible. When the agency reports that it has corrected the deficiencies, it is to be rein- spected in the deficient areas. At any point in the accreditation process, the agency can question any decisions by the Commission, its staff, and its assessors. Accreditation is granted for 5 years. To maintain accreditation, agencies must remain in compliance with the standards under which accredita- tion was granted. Agencies must apply for reaccreditation before the end of the fifth year. An on-site assessment is required as part of the reaccreditation process. The reaccreditation review focuses on how poli- cies are implemented, in contrast with the initial review, which focuses on whether the formal procedures exist. Page 27 GAO/GGD9088FS Police Recruit Training Program How Could the Metropolitan Police Department Proceed to Acquire Accredit&ion? To get some practical perspectives on the accreditation process, we vis- Police Agency ited three accredited police departments: the Houston Police Depart- Experience W ith ment; the Connecticut State Police Department; and the Glastonbury, Accreditation Connecticut, Police Department. Officials from all three departments were positive about the value of accreditation. Benefits they cited included deterrence of litigation against the police departments, the con- tainment of liability insurance costs, and improved department manage- ment resulting from documentation of all policies and procedures. According to each department, a potential problem was that the Com- mission might impose arbitrary standards that were not appropriate for their jurisdictions. However, experience had shown that this was not a problem. The Commission permitted each department flexibility to iden- tify standards applicable to their jurisdiction and to request a waiver of the inappropriate standards. Department officials could not think of a current viable option to accreditation as a recognized symbol of the quality of a police organiza- tion. However, all said that they were looking at state accreditation as an option for the future. The attraction of state accreditation is the expectation that the state, rather than the local government, would pay for the costs. Page 28 GAO/GGD9058PS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix V Have There Been Additional Changesin the Qualifications of Police Candidates Since 1982? Since we issued our earlier report,’ we have developed additional infor- mation you requested concerning the qualifications of police candidates since 1982. The new information includes the percentage of candidates who passed and failed the McCann test (see fig. V.1); number of candidates by race who passed/failed the McCann test since 1982 (see fig. V.2); number of candidates by sex who passed the McCann test since 1982 (see fig. V.3); and percentage of recruits graduating and not graduating, by year, from the academy (see fig. V.4). Y ‘DC. Government: Interim Report on Changes in Police Qualifications (GAO/GGD-90-OGFS, Oct. 3, 1989). Page 29 GAO/GGD-9088FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix V Have There Been Additional Changes In the Qualifications of Poke Candidates Since 19821 Figure V.1: Percentage of Candidates Who Pamed and Failed the McCann Teat P.mtig. ,,, CandlLtm 1QQ 90 80 70 60 30 40 30 20 1882 1983 lQ85 IQ66 1887 lQ8a 1989 YoarofTosting I-J Pawed: 60-l 00 Correct Paased:50-59Co1~ect Falled Note 1: The passing score for the McCann Test administered in 1982 was 60 correct out of 100. Data are unavailable for how many of those who had scores below 60 (failed) scored between 50-59. Note 2: The McCann Test was not administered in 1984 Note 3: The passing score for the McCann Test was changed to 50 out of 100 beginning with the first examination in 1983. Page 30 GAO/GGB90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix V Have There Been Additional Changes fn the Qnallflcations of Police Candidates Since 19827 Figure V.2: Number of Candidate, by Race Who Pasred/Falled the McCann 7000 Numkr of Cendldatw Test Since 1982 owe woo Moo woo 4500 4ooa 3300 3ooo 2300 2ooo 16QO Llvllib 1000 300 0 Blsck Whit. Hlspnic olhsr Unkncwn l&s of Candldatr 1 1 Passed Failed Note: Candidates who left the “Race” question blank are listed as “Unknown.” Page 31 GAO/GGD-904WFS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix V Have There Been Additional Changes in the Qualtftcatione of Police Candidate9 Since 19821 Figure V.3: Number of Candidates by Sex Who Passed the McCann Test Since Number of Candidatea 1982 5500 s?oo 43001 I 4400 4ooo 3300 3200 2300 2400 2ooo lso0 1200 ooo 400 0 . 9 J&J P Gender of Candidatea Note: Candidates who left the “Gender” question blank are listed as “Not Reported.” Page 32 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix V Have There Been Additional Changes in the Qualifications of Poke Candidates Since 19827 Flgure V.4: Percentage of Recruits C3raduating/Not Graduating by Year Porcontago of Rso~lls 199 90 60 70 60 50 40 30 20 1932 Year I Did Not Graduate Graduated Note 1: Data were not available for all training cycles in 1982, 1983, and 1984. Data were available for only one training cycle in 1983. Note 2: “Drd not graduate” includes those who resigned from the academy, were terminated for aca- demic failure or disciplinary reasons, or for any other reason did not finish the training cycle. Page 33 GAO/GGD90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix VI Agency Comments GOVERNMENT OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA EXECUTIVE OFFICE OFFICE OF THE CITY ADMINISTRATOR CAROL B. THOMPSON DEPUTY MAYOR FOR OPERATIONS CITY ADMINISTRATOR DEPUTY MAYOR FOR OPERATIONS 1350 PENNSYLVANIA AVE., N.W.. RM. 507 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20004 MAY I 6 1990 Richaxd L. Fogel Assistant Comptroller General U.S. General Accounting Office 441 G Street, NW Rm. 3860 Washington, D.C. 20548 Dear Mr. Fogel: Tn reply to your letter dated April 11, 1990, please find enclosed the comments of the District government to your draft report titled, "DC Government: Information on the Police Recruit Training Program". Please direct further inquiries regarding this matter to Marc D. Loud of my staff at 727-6053. City-Administrator/Deputy Mayor for Operations Page34 Appendix VI Agency Comments D.C. 44 labmary 191 Memorandum a Government of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department TO: Mayor Marion Barry, Jr. Department. Office of the Agency. Office: Chief of Police TWRU: Carol B. City Administra for Operations PROM: Chief of Police Date: MAY 4 Igso SUBJECT: Comments Concerning the U.S. General Accounting Office Draft Report on the Police Recruit Training Program The following are my comments concerning the draft report on the Police Recruit Training Program prepared by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) for the U.S. House of Representative's Subcommittee on the District of Columbia. While I take exception to several of the specific comments made by GAO concerning our Police Recruit Training Program, as outlined in my comments, a number of their findings parallel my Independent review of this program. I particularly agree with the GAO concern about the past lack of documentation in recruit training. APFENDIX I: Have there been changes in the Police Academy course of study and acadlaic requiremente? There have been a number of changes and improvements in the Police Academy course of study and academic requirements since August 1982. According to the charts provided by GAO, there were periods in 1982 end 1983 when recruit training classes received minimum periods of training near the 294 hour range cited in the report as the minimum training during the period. Since that time, however, minimum training periods have significantly increased. The Police Academy currently provides 654 hours (a little over 16 weeks) of recruit training to new officers. This training cycle is down from its previous high of 960 hours (24 weeks). This was accomplished by eliminating non-essential training and three weeks of “administrative duties” from the curriculum. Page 35 GAO/GGD-9068FS Police Recruit Training Program AppendixVI Agency Comments -2- Ae might be expected, changes in the recruit training curriculum have tracked changes in the service demands on the department, laws and regulations, and court decisions. Additionally, the department has made fundamental changes In the way in which recruit officers are trained. As is noted in the GAOreport, the decentralized instructional system in place until March 1989 was replaced with a “tesm teaching” system. Among other benefits, this change significantly reduced individual instructor discretion In course content. GAO reported that the department has long recognized the serious nature of its problems in documenting changes in recruit performance standards. While the department has made improvements in recent years, more work remains to be done in this area. Several issues concerning the number of examinations administered to recruit officer classes were discussed in GAO’s report. As might be expected, as the hours of instruction increased (or decreased), so did the number of examinations administered to recruit officers. Additionally, as the number of examinations changed, so did the number of examination failures permitted before recommending termination. Except for problems associated with documentation, none of this is remarkable. Concerning the issue of a comprehensive, final examlnatlon for recruit officers, GAO reports that the official position of the department Is that such an examination “is not necessary.” GAO is incorrect; that is not our policy. Comprehensive examinations were developed, Indiscriminately administered, and then discontinued without sanction from the Chief of Police. Pending further evaluation, the department has not determined whether these examinations are necessary. APPENDIX II: Eow many recruit termination ret-ndationa have been disapproved by officials above the Director of Training level? Again, as I have previously noted in other areas involved in recruit training, improvement is needed in the documentation associated with the termination of recruit officers. Although there were five termination recommendations disapproved by the former Chief of Police in September 1988, as was noted, there have been no recommendations for academic terminations disapproved since that time. In one case last fall, the Administrative Services Officer disapproved a termination recommendation based on physical standards (running a given distance within a specified time period). Upon further review of the basis for the standard, the Director of Training withdrew the recommendation. Page36 GAO/GGD-9088FSPoUceRecruitTrainingPro~~ . AppendixVl AgencyComments -3- %esumnaryprcvidedintbG?Qrepxtaccuratelyreflectsthe sektionandlxainingofM.lce&ademyinstn&ors. IWdtiy notethatthis~sispatternedafterthssystemuserlbythe F.B.I. in its training of naw Lnstructors. Ime~~acwatelyoutlinesonewayinwhichamunicipalpolice agencymightacguke accreditation; thatis,thraqhaprocessun&r theauspioesofthecomnissiollanAccreditationforLawmforcement Agmnoies, Inc. (camA). Tl-ieGPDrqortoutlin8stheCRIEAprccess aprectlyjllOWWBr, 1diSagr~thZltth.b iSti0d.y approachtotbs matter. W wb9 established in 1979 snd involves doamgltation of approxdmtely 900 standards whkhcovervktuallyeveryaspctofa police department's opraticu~ It is but me of a numbr of programs thatarceefranthem ovementto improve theprofessionalismof police officersthralghoutthisccuntry. other programs inolude an increased q$asis cnhigher education, both for current~oyees and future elnplcyees;policeofficerstandards andk&Li.ng(KST)certification for individual officers; higher standards of police corrbct; snd higher entry-level standards. There are appraxlmately 17,000 police agencies nationwide; most of tkese police agencies are staffed with fewer than 100 employees. Department23of that sizehave difficulty prcMd.inga full range Of police service tc their -ties. ixMitionally,thesedeparkk&~s baditimlly havehad greatdifficultylndevelopingmeaningful Written policies anAproc&ures toguide their enqloyees. These difficulties experiencedbyvery smallplicf~agenciesareger~3JAy not shared by large municipal police departments; co nsequently, the CiUE&accreditationpxcessisnu~chrmxebeneficial tothesevery wrall agencies than to a large municipal police deparbnsnt. Despitea stronglobbyingeffortby CAL& there is considerable disagreement within the lawenforcement~ty --especiallyarrnng largenunicipald~ts -- caxerningits efficacy. While small police departments, in need of significant ~~WVWIM toftheir written policies and prccedures, have bearne involved in the CALEA accreditation prccess, fewmajor citydepartm~&s have taken this approach. (?Ioustmandhicago axe theonly notable exceptions, as farasIkncf4.) Page 37 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix VI Agency Comments -4- caLEA's~10~cdl~~appearsto~~tby~~g a aeparboent’s written pollcles and p.-ocsdurei3, Its management mn be Lnptoved. 'Ihis is illustratedbytheway fnwhlchC%LEAaccreditsa policedqartmmt. lhe firstcycleof accredltationarlydetmmlnes whr&herthedsg;irtmenthasadequatewrittenpmcedurestomeet~ standards. Itfsnotuntilthe~cyclethattheinqplwnentaticll ofwrittenproceduresisassessadintarmsofthewayinwhichthe @artmnt actually operates. Inspiteofthe~lems~ichhavebeencutllnedwithdoarmentaticn ofourrecmittE&lngpt7cgmm, this de-t has an extensive policiesandpr~esnlanual,whichwecallalr "Generalorders." My ccfarn about our policies and procedures is not Tent$n&in lnostinstances;thatwehaveinvol~.Mycalcern degreetowhichaur~~membarsarecqFizantofourproceduresand follow tkll In their applicaticn in %treet?' situations. we need to inprove the application of our policies and procedures; CXEA wculd not asslst us in the nmaeurementofthatprocessformanyyears. %3G?Qreportoutl.lnes visits tothreepoliceagencies whichhave sw#lt CzALEaaczcr~tatlon. Representativesfranthesedeparhawts cited three lxnefits: (1) deterrsncefranlitigatlonagainstthe Police dewrfmmt, (2) an lL&lmmtof liability insurance costs, and (3)impraveddepartmantmanagementresultCngfrcmdoclmnenta~olofall policies and procedures. While these may have keen benefits to those depadmmts, Idonot feel that they will benefit this depxtmmt: (1) much of the litigation against this departmentarises franallegations that established policies and praz&ures were not follawed; (2) this police depwbnmt isrlotpriwe3lyirlsured; and (3) our maMgwmntFoblminthisarea ralate totbsapplicationof establishedpoliciesandprccedures,mt their absence. C!ALEAwas desigred to wove policies and prccedures for police depxtmmts with significant deficits in these areas. It is a labor- intensive -ng, andmstpolice clepdmats must identify a cadreof stafftodevote totheprccess. cbnsideredinthecontextof all of the deparhmt's efforts to develcp a Ccmamity Elqmemmt Pdicing male1 desigmd to address the specific needs of this mmnmity, to stem the tideofdmgs andviolence, toimprwe the quaLltyofaustaffandmanagement,andtoensure~deliveryofa high-qualitybaslc pcJ.i.ce semice,undergoing theCALEAaccreditat.ion process is mtinthe bestinterestof thisdeparhnentorthe ccfmlldty it serves. Finally, I shouldnotethatC?UA (aswasnoted inthaGAOrepart)willnotexamineour~~ttrainingf~~onin iscilation -theappar~tfocusoftheGkOrepart. Page 38 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix VI Agency Comments -5- Aswasc4ltlinsd, c!Nmisbutoneofssoleral -tsto~ove police professioMus4n. There are other ways in which tb qlaauty of tbede~anditsmenlberscanbeimpeoved,andIint~topuFsueJ tsevwal initiatives in this regard: (1) SeektoeaQU.ish a District of ColumbiaW.iceOffioer Stanaarclsandrraining(POST)certifica~~programwhCch wouldbslmd&3dafterotherstate-levalpospprclgrams(such as in California). Uherthanfocusingcmtheagency,a FC6Tprogramfocuses ontheindlvidualofficertoeklsure thattheofficerhastherquisitelevelofkaining, skills,aIldknawledge. SuchaprogramwU.lbedevel~in conjunctionwlthlocaluniversities a&/or thecbnsmtiumof Universities. 3dditkmally,Iintmdtoexplorearegiaxal #)sTcwtificationprogramino~njunctiontiththe MetrqpolitZUl wa&n#al-1ofGcrvernmants. (2) Seek out professional organizations that Offer cf?rtification in specific, specialized skills (such as recruit training irlstrllCti~) so that lneders can bealm cerLifiedinspeci.alizedareas. (3) Seekanagrementwith a local universltytograntcollege creditforampletimof thePolice Academy. Forthose wlthoutacollegedqree,thiswcxlldenaxragerecmit offfcerstopursue a callegedegree. (4) Seektoimprcnreentry-levelstandards. ASIshC4lldoUtline latEcinthese currents, theTestEevel~tOfficewil1 wqAore this issue. (5) Seektoimprovetheeducati.cnlevelof current emplayees, especially new employees. 'rhe skills and insights associatedwithacollege&3zationare increasingly irqmdant, especially for future police managers, as the envimnmentinwhichp6liceopxatebeames more ccmiplmc. WhFlethedepaWmnthasmdelmprcwemm tsinaurrecruittraining laograminrecentyears,~eareseveralareaswhich~are currentlyqivlng significantattention: (2) Changes in the recruittraininqcurriculmarebeingketter documented, as is the case with perscxIne lactionstaken durinqtherecnlittrainFng~ocess. Page 39 GAO/GGD9088FS Police Recruit Training Program Appendix VI Agency Comments -6- (3) llmpoliciesandproc&uresforrmxuit~gareinthe processafb&lgincludedincnrrGenaral~systeOo (4) Aneffortisbeingmadeto identi.fyinstnl~s forth BAiceAcademywhohaveafonnslcoll~backgraFnd. (5) A lasardisl~vldeo system is goinq to be tested for Use In recruit training. I;ywayofSample, recruitafficC3wlll watch a "shoot don't &cot'* samario unfold on a ncc&tor andthen alls&questions~wd.lat-seen. !ms systenwillalscbeusedforin-semlcetraining. (6) Ad crcca@uternetwarkhasbeen~whichwillgatmit tk2l!minlngpcadeanytoautaaatetheentiretrainFng aperation. Many functlals that are ax-rently performsd maumlly, suchas ?33axdsmnagelnlmtandtest aLmnistzatiCrl,willbeautanrated. In additlcn to these endeavors, a Test Develwt OffiCe is being created. pcls office will be staffed by ixlividuals with admnced degrees tiarehighly skilladarn3mperiencad lnmasuremntand statistics,programevaluation,andeducatianaltrainingandresearch. Tl3r3staffWilllncludeapsychcmtrician. 2beprlmryfocus of thisofficx3willbe tovalidate andintegrate tlm dep?lrtmm~strainingaudevaluaticnsyste4ns. mepoliceentry-level CSaminaticxlanderllclry-level z3tan&&willbeeva1uatedt0identify thedegreetonhichtheyFeedictsuccessinrecnrittraining,later successanritenureinthafiald,andultLmatesuccessinthe de-t's career ladder. Similarly, theafficetillvalidatethe recruitofficar acadf3miccurriculumandphysical sklllstrabing,as -well as de- gthedegreetowhichtheypredictlatarsuccesscn 42~13cIqa&mnt. This office will also be responsible for develwnent andadmWLstrat.ianof theprancUonalprocess andothar selecticn procedures, suchas thesel.ectknofGradeOmDetectiveS. I have taken affirmative steps to achieve these impr ovenwts,andwFll forward areportwithin 60days cancarning axrprcqressinthisarea. Mditionally, I amtaklnq steps to improve OuT Fn-service training for officers, and supervisory and manaqewnt traininq for officials. Page 40 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Tra.ining Program Appendix VII Major Contributors to This Fact Sheet General Government Tyrone D. Mason, Evaluator-in-Charge Division, Washington, Lillie Collins, Staff Evaluator D.C. Nelson S. Payne, Jr., Staff Evaluator Gregory H. Wilmoth, Senior Social Science Analyst Marsha A. Matthews, Secretary (4268033 Page 41 GAO/GGD-90-68FS Police Recruit Training Program First-<:lass Mail Postagr~ & Ftws Paid :, GAO
D.C. Government: Information on the Police Recruit Training Program
Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-05-24.
Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)