Government Civilian Aircraft: Use of Government Aircraft by the Attorney General and FBI Director

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-06-15.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

r GAO   United States
        General Accounting Office
        Wasliington, D.C. 20548

        Generai Government Division


        June 15,1990

        The Honorable Bob Wise
        Chairman, Subcommittee on Govemment Information,
          Justice and Agriculture
        Conunittee on Govemment Operations
        House of Representatives

        Dear Mr. Chairman:

        This report responds to your request that we review travel on govenunent aircraftl^^
        Attorney (jeneral and the IMrector, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBO-We preso^
        infonnation about their travel as well as certain actions the Departntont of Justice stioiiild
        tate to better manage use of its aircraft for eiKcutive transportation.

        As airanged with the Subcommittee, vaA&s you publicly announce the contents eartie^ we
        plan no fuitiier distribution of this report until 30 d ^ s ftom the^^^
        tinue, we will send coines to the Attorney General, the IMrector of the F«, and o t h ^
        interested'ii^uities.                                                               SillSS

        Mayor contnbutors to this report are listed in appendix IV. Please contact me on 27&I089 if
        you have any questions concerning the report.                                    Isil>i

        Sincerely yours,

        Lowell Dodge
        Director, Administration
          of Justice Issues


                 EJxecutive Summary

                                            To enhance security and increase flexibility, the Attomey General and
                 Purpose                    the Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), primarily used FBI
                                            aircraft for their travel.

                                            The Chairman of the Subcommittee on Govemment Inf ormation, Justice
                                            and Agriculture, House Committee on Govemment Operations, was con-
                                            cemed about the extent of the executives' travel and the absence of a
                                            Department of Justice policy goveming that travel. Accordingly, he
                                            requested that GAO review tiie Attomey General's and FBI Director's
                                            travel on government aircraft. He also asked that GAO detennine
                                            whether Justice and the FBI complied with govemmentwide aiii^ internal
                                            Justice policies on using govemment aircraft to transport execiitivies.

                                            The FBI generally used three planes for executive transportation out of
                 Background                 its fleet of 84 aircraft. These planes were also used for investigative*
                                            related missions, including undercover operations and transportation of
                                            equipment and evidence.

                                            Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-76 and A-126 estab-
                                            lish executive branch policy for owning, managir^, {mdiusing sujn^^
                                            OMB requires that agenda initially detennine whether/sdra^            air-
                                            craft-related services can be obtained less expensively £nmjc^^
                                            sources and reevaluate the findings every 5 years. Circular A^^6^^^
                                            that the govemment's general policy is to use commeralM n ^ ^
                                            govemment sources to supply products and services (iiu^uc&ii^
                                            and aircraft services) when it is more economicsd to do s»o, Hoyi^yer,
                                            functions that are "inherently govemmental" may not l>e jdoiiii^^
                                            out. For example, criminal investigations or intelhgenob biierations are
                                            cited as inherently govemmental and as such cannotbecbhtiradtedout.
                                            Circular A-126 establishes policies for acquiring, numagiing, uisii^^
                                            accounting for the costs of govemment aircraft. Both ciircijdars r ^
                                            agencies to issue directives or instmctions to implementtheir ':':

                                            To document the Attomey General's and FBI Director's trips bet^ween
                                            August 1988 and July 1989, GAO reviewed flight reports, itiherimes^
                                            travel vouchers, and related documents. T6 determine cbtn|>Uiwce%ith
                                            OMB policy and Justice guidance, GAO reviewed apphiciEibliel instiniictibns,
                                            interviewed officials in Justice an(| OMB, and reviewed dodimiihtaiiion.
                                            (See pp. 16-19.)



Y'l .•••/•1;5:

                           --.,yyy:.^..mm          -.:.ay..yy^^.--.
                         Executive Sununary

                         Justice permits the Attomey General to use agency aircraft to ensure
      Results in Brief   his security. Officials said security is required due to numerous thteats
                         against his life. Transportation for the FBI Director was provided for
                         similar reasons. As of May 2,1990, Justice was developing a ppU(i|r,to
                         manage its aircraft and the use of these aircraft for executive txan|ipor-
                         tation. In November 1989, Justice issued a specific poUcy in respoiraiie to
                         GAO's review providing guidance on when reimbursement is required
                         from nonagency passengers.

                         During the period GAO reviewed, the Attomey General andFBi Director
                         took 75 trips involving travel on govemment aircraft Moot of th(|ir trips
                         were to give speeches, attend meetings, or visit field loi|»tions. ;
                         Although Justice did not have apolicy describing howiwuAwhmi^^
IS                       bursements were to be made,tiiieAttomey Gen£»^ xeilntniroi^^;^
                         emment the commercial fare itor the three trips iny<rii^jng]|c9^^
                         travel by him and his fainily menibers. He also reiiMtwi^^
                         wife took with him in CQiuiectipii with his official biuaq^^
                         preferred to exerdise caution until ambiguity r^gaidiing t k i ^ ^ ^
                         spouses was clarified. AU but a portion of one of the DbniEklcn^
                         wife's trips were related to official business. When GAdiditc^^
                         a portion of one trip was persdnial, the Director reimbimJed t ^
                         ment for the travel for his wife and himself.

                         Justice said that its aircraft were used for inherentJy g^^v^^
                         functions and, therefore, it did not need to do cost comjpiioim^
                         mine whether commerced sourpes would have been nune ei^^
                         According vn OMB Circular A76, hiiherently govcstunentl^^
                         indude activities that require eittier "the exmtdseof (ffisoetiflNr^
                         applying govermnent authority or the use of valiie judg^in^^
                         dedsions for the Govemment." Thus, GAO believies^th^ivi^dte^pn^^
                         for executives'security may be ah inherently govermoue^^
                         transporting them on Justice airoraft is not
                         Justice considered using regulair commerdal airline sq:yioe|s;fid^
                         Attomey GeneraTs transportation and rejected the aiptioidtia
ig                       sons as the need to provide for his personal security a n d p i e i i ^ ^ of
                         commerdal aircraft to provide secure communications^ a ^ ^
%y.                      indicates that private lease or rental aircraft services d ^ ^
                         security and securityrelated requirements bettn-tiianri^iidaa^SM^^
                         uled airlines.                                            . \yyiyiyM-

 wy                      Pages                                  QAO/aeiD«MtCmmamiiBiaMiaAtiinn

                             Executive Summary

                             Although OMB Circular A-126 requires agendes to maintain accounting
                             systems that accumulate required aircraft costs, the FBI did not have
                             complete cost data for its aircraft, including the three planes commonly
                             used to transport the Attomey General and the Director. Without such
                             cost data. Justice could not be sure that it was making cost-effective
                             decisions on aircraft use.

    Principal Findings

    Attorney General's and   The Attomey General took 39 trips using government airduftf^
    FBI Director's Use of    August 1988 through July 1989. Twenty of these ;w«sre^^^
                             Twenty-six roiuid-trips were dom^tic flights on Fmaunpiift.^^^
    Govemment Aircraft       he was accompanied by at least one member of hisi st»Cf w ^
                             security detail. His wife accompanied him on eight txJiA;^|^i^p^:^^
                             The FBI Director took 36 trips during this periodv of yi^hl^
                             round-trips on FBI aircraft. Ten of the 36 were Irday^tir^^^^^
                             was accompanied by an FBI security detail, but l^^^em^ilj^ ti^^
                             without an immediate staff member. His wife accbinqKuiicM^
                             trips. (See pp. 21-22.)                          -'•'^-;^^MSy&^^:
                             The Attomey General reimbursed a total of $1,032 ficiii|!tui^^
                             fsmuly members fbr three personal trips on JustiCMei s o ^ ^
                             reimbursed a total of $1,371 for trips his wife tobk in:O0«^^
                             his offidal business. After GAO discussed the sdtiu^tioii^wi^
                             the FBI Director reimbursed a total of $280 for th^perafu^            por-
                             tion of one trip he and his wife took on FBI aircraft. CS^pi>|24^$G)0

l l Justice Has Not          OMB Circular A-76 requires agencies to compare the 6ps|:t>f dbiilgl^
i | Considered Private       merdal activity in-house to contracting fbr it. Ciradiar|^i|6    s^^
   k Aircraft Services for   cally requires that this comparison be done to ji^ti^ t^i^iujiqi^^ and
                             continuing need for aircraft.                              'kyy''!Wil!y^^
     Transportation          Justice had not compared its costs for the Attorn^r Gcaieirad'^
                             Director's transportation on govemment aircraft to tiwiiex^^
                             commercial services. Justice did not consider privkteiajrcraft
                             because Justice maintains that its aircraft are iisedi fbiN li^^
                             emmental functions. However, O&IB dassifies air tranipqr|^^                    .
                             sonnel as a commercial-type activity. Thus, GAO beli^Ki^l^

                             Page 4                                GAO/Gra>M:S4 Gdwernmrat a ^ ^

                                              Executive Summary

                                              Justice aircraft for the executives' transportation is not an inherently
                                              govemmental function and is subject to OMB'S requirements to compare
                                              its costs to those of commercial altematives.
                                              GAO ^rees with Justice that the security requironentsi for the execu-
                                              tives' travel may not be effectively met by regularly scheduled a ^ ^
                                              However, GAO'S analysis also indicates that private suniralt iwi^^
                                              meet tlie executives' requirements better than regiiii^^ sc^^
                                              lines. Thus, Justice officials responsible for the exeoitiy^'sei^^
                                              should detemune whether such services are satisfactory. If the^^Kre^
                                              private aircraft services should be used according to A-76lJahd^l26 if
                                              they are less expensive than lisihg govemment aircraft
                                              The Assistant Attomey General for Administration aEad;tihatpriyi§ air-
                                              craft services should be used it they meet security and^o|NNiitraK^
                                              needs at a reasonable cost. (See pp. 28-35.)              ;:; S ISA
                                              If private aircraft services can be used for transportatfam^ ttu^
                                              have the opportunity to mate ihdreased use of tJhetiil^
                                              investigative purposes. Should the FBI not need th&iilkpit^^
                                              for mission support, it would have the (q[)portumty^it6 m^
                                              informed decision regarding the need to retain onebrttEU^
                                              three aircraft.                                    - ''-''ytW-yMy&i

               Complete Cost Data Not         Contrary to OMB Circular A-126 requirements, the F%(fid^hcri^
                                              plete cost data for its aircraft. For ecample, the rai^^dMlub^
               Accumulated                    depredation costs or personnel costs associated ^tiith^^k^t^
                                              taining each aircraft.                                    ^ • • V:?:v^S

                                              The FBI lacked complete cost data in part because Ji^oe^e^Rn^
                                              its aircraft operations as inherentiy govemmental tuul t l u i s : ! ^
                                              to OMB's requirement to compare its aircraft costst&oixB^^
                                              The FBI should collect appropriate cost data i r r e s p e c t i v e | ^ t h ^ ^
                                              ment to make this comparison. Without such dats^thelra^CBir^^
                                              itself that it is most effectively managing its 84airaRaft;i^|e^

               Recommendations                In order to comply with OMB polides, the Attomey GeheiMi^buld'
                                              instmct the FBI Director to
                                                                                                                                                                                 •-•••'••; [-yy'y^yj;-:-!:        -y

                                                                                                                                                                                  '-•'"-' -'yyyy                 yy
                                        • develop aircraft cost data and
                                                                                                                                                                                 •     •" '. • • v^ls-ifi^   •     yi

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i     •''•••'•"•

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my                                            Pages                                                               OAO/OODgOM OoTO

    p. .
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                                                                                         ymyyM   ^^"^•;V'-^;'.   .:•-••-•••   '•'/'•''-'-. '-•.:•: .-i   j-^'^ir^^Liio^i^;:^-^
                            Rxecutive Summary

                            determine whether private aircraft services can effectively meet the
                            security needs and other considerations of the Attomey General,
                            Director, and other executives; and, if so, further determine if such pri-
                            vate services could provide this transportation more cost effectiyeiy
                            than FBI or other Justice aircraft (See p. 48.)

 A 0 a n o \ T PrkmrnpntQ   ^^^ ^^ ^°'^ obtain offidal comments on this report. However, GAd dis-
i^^tsiw^y \juuiiiKii\»      ^j^gg^ ^ g ^^^^ ^ ^ Justice amd OMB officials and incorpcHifed
                            views where appropriate. Jusitice considered the nuiterjbBd to^^fc^^
                            but did not believe OMB'S cost accounting and cost opihpiuimR i ^
                            ments were practical for thdr aircraft (^erataons. J y ^ ^
                            that some consideration had bem given to the cost loKf iiidbr^
                            craft and they had ocmcluded intuitively that usii^
                            would be cheaper. An official also said that once OMDisiii^
                            streandined cost comparison guidance for aird^^
                            comparison under the required procedures. (Seep. 31.)

                            Pages                                  CAO/GfflM0««<

     Executive Summary                                                                                   2

     Chapter 1                                                                                          10
     Introduction               Backgroimd
                                Executive Branch Guidance on Aircraft
                                Justice Polides Conceming Executive Transportation and                  14
                                    Aircraft Management
                                Objectives, Scope, and Methodology                                      16

     Chapter 2                                                                                          20
     Attomey General's          Attomey General's Use of Govemment Aircraft
                                FBI Director's Use of (Government Aircraft
     and J^'BI Director's Use   Reimbursements for Personal and Nongovernment Travd                     22
     of Government              Conclusions                                                             26
     Chapter 3                                                                                          28
     Justice Should             Justice Has Not Considered Private Aircraft Services for                28
                                    the Executives' Transportation
     Consider Private           Ck>mplete Cost Data Were Not Accumulated                                35
     Aircraft Services and      Potential Benefits of Leasing Aircraft                                  41
     Accumulate Cost Data       Conclusions                                                             46
                                Recommendations                                                         48

     Chapter 4                                                                                          48
     Modification of an         Need for Additional Surveillance Aircraft Identified
                                Responsibility for Aircraft Modification Undear
     Aircraft for               Condusions                                                              63
     Surveillance Was
     Appendixes                 Appendix I: Lost of Attorney (Seneral Trips on                          66
                                   Govemment Aircraft (August 11,1988. to July 31,
                                Appendix II: List of FBI Director Trips on Gk>vemmait                   61
                                   Aircraft (August 11,1988, to July 31,1989)
                                Appendix HT: Seized Aircraft Used Without Justice                       66
                                Appendix IV: Miuoi* Contributors to This Report                         66

                                Pages                                GAO/GraM0«4 Goimiiiait CMiiaii Aiicnft

                                                                                            imsii       '^':w&fes

            Tables             Table 3.1: Total Work Load of the Three Aircraft             42
                                   (Commonly Used for Executive Transportation
                                   (August 11,1988, to July 31,1989)

            Figures            Figure 3.1: Total Work Load of the Sabreliner Jet Aircraft   43
                               Figure 3.2: Total Work Load of the Seven-Passenger           44
                                   Turboprop Aircraft
                               Figure 3.3: Total Work Load of the Five-Passenger            45
                                   Turboprop Aircraft


                               DEA        Drug Enforcement Administration
                               FBI        Federal Bureau of bivestigation
                               GSA        (Seneral Services .^Jministration
                               JMD        Justice Management Division
                               OMB        Office of Management and Budget
                               USMS       United States Marshals Service

                               Pages                                GAO/GGM0S4 GtWOB^^
      Myy             ^few^'
       Chapter I

                      Since 1981, the Attomey (xeneral and the Director of the Federu Bureau
                      of Investigation (FBO have used govemment aircraft fbr sKntiueto^
                      transportation. (Government aircraft were used because D^paMiment of
                      Jiistice officials judged that the executives' persons^ s e o u ^ ^
                      security-related needs (e.g., access to secure oommuhibatidrl eqiup^
                      were better satisfied by sudi aircraft, especially FBiadra^^thi^ by
                      regularly scheduled commerdal airlines.                          ?S 1 0
                      The Chairman of the House Gfovemment C)i>erations 0|nniidttie^
                      committee on GovernmentlnJEormation, Justice and^^A^§Hk|iy^^
                      concerned about the extent of the executives' traydfaiib j ^            of
                      a Department of Justice policy governing that tih^^^                   he
                      requested that we review trstvel by the AtficKrh^^Gte^^
                      Director on government airdrjaft £rom thetimietlie Atbt^^
                      took office on August 11,1988, through July 31^ ]|389^ W^
                      mined whether Justice suaud jtbb FBI complied yritit^oi^^^             and
                      intemal guidance on t^e Use of govemment aiicristft^^t^^
                      executives.                "'•                     y'''''k'y!\'yyyyyyi

       Background     In 1980, the FBI began to retain some airplanesi t l ^ i i t ^ h a d i d ^                                                                                      of
                      September 30,1989, the FBi^luui a fleet of 84 sdrct^
                      operated by FBI headquarteis in the Washihgttm^llXC^f^j^uei^
                      At the same tame the Fra began acquiring airplanc^y|it iaUi^                                                                                           more
                      involved with protecting the A t t o m ^ (Senei^lun^^
                      According to the chief of the sectirity unit th^!prt>teds t | ^
                      tives, the FBI has provided smne security fi»* ipK|e^;|ktpt^^
I-                    the FBI Director since the eaurly 1970s. In 1979;;iJuitiii»                                                                                           an
I;';                  offidal executive protection pKdicy. The pciUcy;|n]^^
                      General and the head of any Department of Juisl|o^bu^^
                      employees to protect them or their employees wheiiii^^
                      existed.                                                '-.-^''y'Wyy'yyy^^
f{S;                  According to the FBI security luiit chief, the FBilialsproiiHde^
                      security detail for Attorneys General since Jar^^
                      then-AttomQr (General fcninaliy requested fiiiU|^^^
                      tion for the FBI Diredor evx»hred over time ftxiiif|one^^|^^      a
                      full-time protective-detail." ""           . • '.;. 'T-yWlmM'Byyy
                      According to Justice officials, security forthe Ati^in^ (^^                                                                                                 FBI
                      Director remains a smotis concem. In a Febiiiaity^
                      the A^istant Attomey deneral for Administration s ^

                      Page 10                                     GAO/0(H)«M4;G(iva|Biaeoi;

 lii                                                            ••••"•• ' ,   '..•-•.-.   -   i\;.-   • •'• . . . M . i ' L iiL.-"-.-.'-,.-',^   :|.J   ••Aixi^H'-y-J-v.tLj • •   .

                                          Attomey (General had been the subject of at least 13 threads tp'lus per-
                                          sonal safety in the approximately 6 months he had bie^ in^^fioei! The
                                          FBI's security unit chief said that during the faU of l$i9l^^
                                          security threat wasfiromC/okunbian drug cartels; "nieInliiil
                                          various reports that the Attoarney (General had :b(eeii|ti^
                                          bian "hit" squads. The FBI offidal responsible fimdn^
                                          recommended that these thrrats be taken seriouay^
                                          Cfdombian governmem extiiwlited dnig cartel ih^^
                                          States. The FBI believes that^ IKiector's security ne|di^^
                                          the same as those of the Attorney General.       ''^''l^y-h'''yMs&

          Air Transportation               "^^ onhance security and provide flexibiUty in adtied^tt^
                                           the FBI has provided an incR»sing p ( N l ^
                                           the FU Director's air transq[>iGHi1^^
                                           time, the FBI b^an to use its aircraft for sdra^
                                           domestic travd. According tb an FBI offidal wJiw
                                           pn^ram, the use of FBI idanes for the travd o f ^
                                           increased in 1984 whan the FBI acquired by sdsnmtie a S ^ i ^ ^
                                           designed for passenger tranaiKnrtation. Durin{{1^
                                           11,1988, through July 31,1M9, the FBI was tl^i'piit|M^^
                                           tranq[)ortation for the Attorxiey (General and tib n ^ l ] i ^ ^

                                           The three FBI aircraft principally used by the Att(^^
                                           FBI Director were aU seized and forfeited in ccihim^^^
                                           investigathms. About 53 pmd»t of the total flij^
                                           craft during the period we reviewed was for truiiii^^^
                                           Gleneral, FBI Director, and other executives, "httibig^^

                                         • the seven-passenger 1966 mo(telSabrdinarapquued;m!^^
                                           the only jet aircraft in the FBI's inventory;
                                         • a seven-passenger turb(q[irop airoraft acquired in F e | ^ ^
                                         . a five-passenger tuilNq[>r(q[» aircraft acquired in F ^ ^

                                           Although the Attorney (General and the FBI DirectoripBe^^^         for
                                           most of their domestic travd, transporting e»iicuiii^^
                                           part of the FBI's total aviation program. The Fmiin^^
                                           1988 that 553 flight hours (1.4 percent of its tojli 3$iS^
                                           were fbr esfficutive transportation. The m^jo^^
                                           single-engine planes used primarily for suiydlli^^

piw;                                        'Tltesew^-andflve-pMaengertirtwynyairplaws'ldeaiMeiM^^

                                           Page 11                                    GA0/GGa>a6MGoi«^^

                       Chapter 1

                       The three plan^ commonly used for executive transportation are suit-
                       able fw a variety of Fm missions. They travd at relatively hij^er alti-
                       tudes, greater speeds, and longer ranges than most FBI avo^j^WWi
                       the FBI sought appr"—^* to retain or restore them, offidal^dt^jtheir
                       value to perform c . ^ *«Ly of operational missions, sudi aiisitraiisporting
                       hostage rescue team meiid)ers, vdtnesses, and hazardous iinuib^        The
                       two turboprop aircraft were retained after the FBI adppt»d;i^
                       stating that property would be retained for use ih undeahbo^^
                       tions; surveiUance; and wlien FBI headquarters deteininines^
                       stantial law enforcement purpose, such as use in traiiUiig new
                       can be served by retaining the property. The Sabrelinw ^««ais|rie^^
                       before these guidelines were adopted.

                       Two Office of Management and Budget (OHB) circulars, iA^^ai[ul^l26,
Executive Branch       establish executive branch policies for owning, muui|^inigj|a^^
Guidance on Aircraft   craft. Each agency is to develop its own polides and proce<i^^
                       implement these circulars.

                       Circular A-76, "Perfonnance of Commercial Activities,*' aSire^^ on
                       August 4,1983, states that the government's generadpo^^
                       commercial sources to supply products and serviced (iiiiduduing^|^^
                       and aircraft services) when it is more economicsd to dpisi^^O^^
                       governmental ftmctions---'those requiring the exerai^t^
                       applying govemment authority or the use of value ju^dgiani^tin^^h^^
                       decisions for the Govemment"—maynotbecontrab^top^
                       dors. For example, criminal investigations or ihtetiigdice o p ^ ^  are
                       inherently governmental and as such may not be coittiac^
                       Once an agency determines that a paiUcular ftmction i^ ikvronun^^
                       activity as opposed to an inherently governmental fuiMslkth
                       requires the agency to rely on commercially availabte scnii^^
                       the product or service unless one of four exceptions ap|dJe& !pte]^^
                       sets out procedures that agencies must follow to estabiiiili tih^fme of
                       the exceptions applies.
                       Only two exceptions could apply to executive tranqwrtatioft^l) no
                       satisf9u:tory commercial source is available or (2) tte(l^g^^
                       form the activity at a lower cost than a qualified poimneit^ isbi^^ To
                       establish that no satisfactory commercial source is ayaiiibiie; the <^^
                       cular requires agendes to document either that no du^^
                       capable of providing the service or that i^ oqpable, tte usie^of ^%immer-
                       dal service would cause unacceptable delay or disruptkt^^

                        Page 12                              GAO/QSDWM               dvUbmAircndk^
Chapter 1

program. To document its ability to perform a service at a lower dxst
than a qualified commerdal source, the circular requires agendcis to
complete a cost comparison ih accordance with guidelines desiicribfed in
the circular, OMB officials said they are planning to issue a snppldifeent to
Circular A-76 that will streamline the process for ag»nu:deStb|pU^
when comparing the cost of using govemment aircraft veimui ibonu^
cial sources.

(Mrcular A-126, "Improving the Management and UwMGils^^
Aircraft," prescribes spedficptdides executive ag^noi^                   in
acquiring, managing, using, aiud accounting for tlie cosita^g^
aircraft configured to cany im^sengers or cargo. ThcicH^^
lishes criteria for the use of government aircra^ a m ^ ^
agendes must follow to ddcunmit comi^ance witltiUtose^^^
cally, it requires agencies tojustify (1) the contihii|ng i k l i ^ l ^
ment aircraft and the cost effectiveness of inrhuoiuieimcc^^
and (2) the use of govemment aircraft for admkilbsb^
passenger transportation or other administrative.siipport pi^^          OMB
requires that agendes initially determine whether a i r a ^
 related services can be obtained less expensive^ fram;(p^^
sources and reevaluate the findings eveiy 5 years; •:^':'x!;;m-yyyy

OMBfirstissued Circular A-126 in August 1983 in re^^ioap^ tb^^^^^
tions by us and several Inspectors (General that dpdiunii
inappropriate and ineffidehtruse of governmehtnomiiiil
passengers aiid cargo when less expensive comrnue^^
available.^ Agency Inspectors (General and we cohtiiruiled t^
misuse of govemment aircraft,^ and, on January 18, MS9,6im issued a
revised Circular A-126 to eliminate ambiguities and strengthen the

Among other things, the 1989 version of Circular A-126

requires that agendes provide OMB and the General: Services Administra-
tion (GSA) with copies of their A-76 studies justifying the dontinuing
need for govemment aircraft and the cost effectiveness of in-house air-
craft operations;

 ^Federal CivUian Aaendes Can Betta-Manage Their Alnraft and Belated Sgvices (GAO/
 I>LRD^3^,JuneS4,lM3).                                             ~-
 ^Daeof Civilian Aaendes' Aircraft for PasaeroterTrm8poitaticm(GAO/T4SGD-88-62. Sent. 28,1988)
 and a subsequent aimmaiy report Oovenmieittaylllm^Mrcr^
 Etacouraging But Require Erten^vegwaaitftt fGAO/GGI>S»8ft Sept 29.1SS6f).

 Page 18                                        C>AO/0GIMIM4GOT«iunaitCMIiaBAiicntft

                                     Chapter 1

                                     defines aircraft mission requirements as activities otiuT thaii t i r a ^
                                     porting passengers or cargo that must be acconqdislM^^to
                                     agency's statutory responsibilities; and
                                     contains cost-accounting guidance and standard airoraft pr^^g^^ cost
                                     elements for agendes tb iise in complying witli the jiiitifiii^oh i ^ cost-
i-t.-                                effectiveness requirements of OMB Circulars Ar7%l aitd%^l^.^> $ ^

        Justice Policies             Although required to d<»sdi by OMB, as of Mi^ 2^1990^ Jui|UiJ|hld
                                     issued a Department polu^ governing the liuseii^
        Odnoeming Executive          tive transiwrtattoh (NT innpl^^                  idipraftr^^
        Transportation and           Circular A-126i. I f o w e ^ , .his^^ ofiSdalaf »aid;^hili^^
        Aircrafll; Miinageiiient     order to in|q;>lanridi^ Oft^         A-li^. FVuHth^
                                     general travel pbljkyf^^                 wiere i^indiiclf^l^^
                                     tive trahspbrtatioh^ i ( ^ ^           ainaratFti^^9l)!iiile|i^^
                                     cess of finalizing its overaU
                                     the FBI, Uhitectstaties MiuR^I^^ Service (tJSii^^i^
                                     Administration (bEA>—-have poUcies ^ o v e ^ ^                                         m

        Justice Policy for Attomey   According to Justioe Managennent Diviskn^ioffida^                                     •••fy
        General's and Director's     regarding travd on j^v^ntimdnt aircraft l^jr?i^                                       •^<ya

        Use of Aircraft              tained in two memoramdixms;; Justice o ^ ^
                                     development of this ppUcy before the Atlwnuy <Q(^|^^                                  il
                                     August 11,1988, iahdtKie^Attc^^
                                     continued. A Fd^jiiiarlj^l          memooraaidijtetiy;^^
                                     Attomey (jenfflradifior^A^dmunistraticm                                       yiyjM
                                     encourage thei^toriiieyiGreht^^ to usie Justice a i r ^ ^                    leased
                                     aircraft rather thamregulai^ scheduled OA^^
                                     a June 1, l989;mannoraiuh^ the Aasii^taiUii^^
                                     Legal Counsel, sisdd thatlJtue Attorhe^;(G^                                           :::m
                                     travel on govdrnihentaiirdiaft. Both m d ^ i s u ^ ^
                                     ment aircraft w o u M p r a v ^ better secuiritythw^pi^^
                                     They also dted access to secure oommuhidBttii^
 :i^;                                using govemment aircraft for the At^>rnl^i<G€«eral's^
                                     Justioe had not issued a policy on use of jgoverm^^
                                     Director or similar bffidals.."'            ''yy^Myyyyyyyy

        Justice Developing           Justice officials iuid Justioe ^l^^ deydopbilg^a pbU^^
        Additional Policies          aircraft as of May 2^ i9{K). Tlie poliiy wise tb^ be i ^ ^
                                     order providing Justiix^^wide poUcy t b i ^ ^
    I                                                                                                   :;?t<v5
 \k'.                                Page 14                                 GAO/QGiMOM              CMlbdi'AliuaftP^''^'

   i:                                                                     •^ir^^Ka'-iiajiaKJiliS^^

                                           and guidance on executives' use of aircraft In addition, Justice's travel
                                           poUcy, which covers aU of its employees' transportation, was being
                                           revised and was to indude one poUcy related to use of Justioe aircraft
                                           According to the official devdoping the order on aircraft use, the order
                                           wiU state that Attomey (General travel on Justice aircraft is ah ongoing
                                           mission requironent due to Ids security and other requiremepts. For
                                           other executives, induding the FBI IMrector, the Attorn^ Generaliwould
                                           be responsible for determining if theu- transportation presoits'iinigue
                                           security, acoessibiUty, and opcaational requiremmts that cannot be met
                                           by commercial aircraft If so determined, the Attom^ Generaj^'^ould
wy                                         approve any offidal's use of govemment aircraft for a sp^dfied^tiine

wiy                                        According to a Justioe Management Division offidal. Justice's gowral
                                           travel poUcy also wiU contain one provisiqn related to ^ecutiye tinvd.
lil                                        Executives, induding the FBI Director, wiU need approval'from j^ugr
m                                          immediate supervisors for aU travd, induding that on Justioe'tairdaft.
                                           Only the Attom^ Gofieral wUI be authorized to approve his dtfxnn'ifiravel.
                                           Previously, travel by the heads of Justioe components was aipprjaived by
                                           their deputies.
Wy jp|j^\ircit^                            The FBI's aircraft poUdes are contained In its Manual of investijgaitive
                                           Operations and a 1985 memcnrandum. According to the manil^ tlCe FBI
                                           aviation program's mission is "to provide aircraft siq>p(»t |or ^ fpoets
                                           of FBI investigative activitiesi and fen- eiqiedited transportatioiiiiii^^-
Hi                                         ority matters...." These investigative activities indude sudiiiriimions
                                           as survdUanoe, undercover work, and transpwting the advice 1 ^ of
                                           the hostage rescue team. The 1985 memorandum statestitotq^e^onal
Wy                                         flights in support of investigative missions always (Fxa en9hasis);have'
                                           priority over transportaticm flights.
                                           An FBI offidal explained that when the Attomey (General pr FBI Director
                                           wants to use an FBI plane, their offioes notify the chief of their seoirity
                                           detaU, who; in tum, contacts the FBI's aviation unit staff. After arrange-
                                           ments are made by tdephone, a flight request form is drcida^d tlirough
 ^^^v.y- -
                                           FBI headquarters alerting managers that the flight has been scht^Med. .
                                           The form provides for initialing by top managers to approve the. ropiest,
                                           thereby documenting that the transportation does not oonfli^ Wu^ a
                                           mission use of the aircraft However, managers do not ^ways'in^il the
                                           forms. FBI offidals said that in these instances, approvers woiUd'iiive
                                           been obtained oraUy.

                                            Page IB                              GAO/GaMM4 OwiieuiaMiut CtoOiaBiAiicnft

                                                                                           .   .. u -. ; •'-/^i'-:',^y    ^-.yt
     ia»ii;§M:!jig:sg!i3;   &M&M(^0SM^^MS^:M-
                                         Chatter 1

                                         Although investigative milraibh flights always have priority over execu-
                                         tive transportatkm^ Uj»^:<(^ iaircraft, a manager in the aviation unit
                                         said that, in pr^a|cti(»;i^         a request to transport the Attorn^
                                         (General or the F^ Direct          not be satisfied. When the FBI cannot
                                         transport the j^^tori^           an assistant to the Attomey'(3eneral
                                         requests an ieura^^                     If a govemment plane is not avaU-
                                         able, a regiUiv cbnm^^               a rental aircraft msy be used.

                                         The FBI's policy ohJiuw of !i^          as stated in the Manual'of Investi-
i                                        gative OpehaAiohs^ ihoMn^^            firom         the 1983 versionof OMB
                                         (TirculiEa- A-126. Accprding to ah FBI offidal, the FBI is awaiting.i^nuoice
                                         of Justice's           OTdc^            January 1989 update of Arl26
                                         befbi« reyiding lis p p ^ ^

| | JUSMS and DEA Guidance               USMS said DG^hs^                       policies and procedures on idrcraft
                                         operations, ihcludu^                 passenger transportatioii^ intjc^^their
                                         operatioris mJBflriU^                   Aviation Manual f<Mr ASnat^
                                         ()peratiohs; irevlsca ia Augi^        requires advance authorizajt^for
0^:                                      passenger thmsporiiittoho^^^^^^        The manual states that sudtiose
                                         ''must be justified on tt^bas^                economy andeffiqen^ to
                                         ensure prudent ahd i^ffcx^                     resources." ISA's d r ^
                                         Aviation 0ip<Mrati<msMa^^            July 1989, states thafaOl 1 ^ ^ and
                                         poUcy reqqirew^                      use of an offidal vehide ^piiy
                                         equally to thie u%:p:fi6ffi«^

                                         The C^hairmai^ Hcwus^p^                 (Government Operations^ Sidtptmir
                Objectives, Scope, and   mitiK^ on (Gpyenunent litf^            Justice and Agriculture, r^uj^sted
                Methodology              that we reviiew ti^yel b^                 (General on govenunehtairipraft
                                         during thei periolifiromA            1988, through July 31,iM9LfMore
                                         spedficaJly, we wire to |^^       a list of trips taken by the Attoni^
                                         (General on gbyennnimt i ^ ^      induding information oh when a|id
                                         where the travd odnirred,^^^^                    aircraft were used, each
                                         trip's purpose, and wh(Oi^^

                                         During a briefiiig Mdth^j^^^^          on our initial analysis of the
                                         Attomey (Gieihei^'s travisi;'w^^^     other issues relatedlito-use^of
ill'iv-'-'.'"                            govemmdit iaircraft Accordingly, we agreed to indude the FBI Director's

msy                                       Page IS                               GAO/GGD«0«4 GovoBflMttCMIIaBiUicraft

                                                                                                                          ! • •

                  i^i^vi^^ib^?iyyf^^                                                     .C'l   . r f yj-,.''^

                              • review Justice's and the Fn'sinmipliance with government^
                                 internal guidance on the use of government aurraft fbr tra^^
                                 eirecutives;                                                      '1;;?H--IS
                              • review the instanora in whkhtto Attorn^ (Gtii^^
                                 reimbursed the (^pvcnm
                                 members;::-.."                                        '-ys:-i-'^:y'yiiy?iM$
                              • determine t t e uhcnuit of ti^^^e^
                                 port the Attqvntc^ G d ^ ^
                                 tation, p t l ^ <e^Bdxti^
                                 aviation siipj^^                      mamtenia^^
                              •      deternidni^theiopatdftxi^^
                                 onJUatioB'fflircrs^                          • ryy'iyy7MM0^
fy                            • provide unjfohnation
                                 onuhehdedtiuntthe A ^ ^
                                 m€9rt^aircraft;'iHM;v'.L                      .-;"•••'7 i^^ if'iilslisS
                              • review the ndat^
'^yy                               aircr^-.ihdits;:uM:fOT^«aDe^^
III;                             We did our yitiric {K^
                                 alsp met with jdffiqa^             GSA tP pbtaln;infiarntiaia^
                                 mentwide {^Uidahp^^f^
 m                               utives/We met wjitiiit^^              pf a priviajiie^'avb^^
                                  recomnieiudtedtbuslij^              to gain an vuniil^^
                                  services and iseciu^                might inovUks u ^ ^
                                  transport'gpyisnm^^                                '''y-ry^'MM^B'My
 0M-                                 '^Pi^«l>areiLUstotii^pii^
 if i                            on goveriuiiaat iai^^
 '^^M                            we reviewed tlwin^yidh^
 | | :|                          trips. These dodimehtss^^
 ||fi                tions;             brief di^cr^pt^kms^^^
  H^ i:                          passenger listangs.Whehindi^^
 i l I:                          we obtained iiificniha^^
                                 ()perations System, the datdt)^
                                 reports is recorded:'                              '        '''-''^'ty-fy^y$^
  yy^i                           We also obtained the Attorhi^ General's andraiDurc^toHF^
                                 vouchers aikl trip i t i h i e ^ ^
                                 showed dates pftriqjpe^                the puzpo8es:<rf^the:#i^
                                 passengers t i u v e i i n g w ^           (GenehEll|ar^^
                                 cro8S<A)ed«fd tlue diM:afiriodiitiiediffdnent ismw^^
    §i-:y                        incondsteiu^^^oHKdsfdbiia^j^
                                 pffidate and <d)taihed additioiail documentatidn^
    g i •'-.'. 7";

Chapter I

ToreviewJustice's and FBI's compUance with govemmentwide and
intemal guidance on the use of govemment aircraft for transporting
executives, we obtained appUcable guidance from OMB. Justice, and the
FBI, and we talked with GSA officials who help agendes comply with the
OMB guidance. We concentrated our work on the FBI'S compUance with
guidance because the FBI provided about 90 percent of the Attomey
(General's transportation and aU of the FBI Duector's transportation that
occurred on Justice aircraft. We interviewed Justice and FBI offidals and
reviewed documentation on their procedures for complying with govem-
mentwide guidance and theu* intemal poUd^ on use of governmeht air-
craft by executives. We obtained simUar informationfiromusaisand^DEA,
the two other Justice components that provided the Attomey (Geiier^
with air transportation, but we did not do a detaUed review of their
compUance. For example, we did not interview ufflns and DEA offidsib to
obtam infonnation on specific procedure they foUow to comply with
We obtained mformation about the Attomey (General's and FBI IMrector's
reimbursements for personal travel or family members' travd on gpy-
emment aircraft by asking their offices to provide information ohfthdr
reimbursement poUdes and documentation of any reimbursements
made. We alsoreviewedappUcable Justice travel poUdes.
For each FBI aircraft that was commonly used to transport the Attorney
(General and the FBI Director, we obtained aU individual flight reports
filed by FBI pUots for trips on these three planes. We then determined
the amount of time each aircraft was used to transport the executives
and for other purposesrelatedto the FBI's inv^tigative mission. We
crosschecked theseflightreportsagainst a printout from an FBI
database that Usted aU flights of the three plan^ diuing the period of
 ourreview.When individual flightreportscould not be located, we
 reUed on information about the flights from the database. We revievred
 the use of the three planes over the period from August 11,1988,
 through July 31,1989.
 To determine the cost of transporting the Attomey (General and the FBI
 Director on Justice aircraft, we asked offidals at the FBI, USMS, and DEA
 to provide us with estimates of theur costs per hour of fUght time for
 each plane used. We also asked that they identify the dements, such as
 fud, maintenance, and crew, that are considered in determining flight-
 hour costs. We noted that FBI cost estimates varied, and we interviewed
 offidals about thereasonsfor the differing estimates. We also reviewed
 a November 1989 intemal Justice memorandumreportingon the results

 Page 18                             GAO/GGaMMM4GovennnentCMllan Aiicnft
Chapter 1

of an intemal examination ofthe billing practices by Justice components
for executives' use of their aircraft.
To obtain information on why the Attomey (General and FBI Director
traveled on govemment aircraft, wereviewedJustice and FBI memoran-
dums on this subject. We also interviewed various Justice offidsils and
the managers of the FBI's security and aviation units.

Toreviewtherelationshipbetween the proposed modifications to, an FBI
aircraft and its use for executive transportation, we interyiewdl offi-
cials knowledgeable about the proposed modification and executive
transportation and obtained andreviewedappUcable dodimehts;

We did our work between July 1989 and February 1990 ustag gehiohBlly
accepted govemment auditing standards. As requested^ we didiipt
obtain written comments from Justice. We did, however, di«:tis8 tiie
facts with Justice, FBI, and OMB offidals and mcorporated their views
where appropriate. Justice offidals considered the material td be a<>^
rate but did not beUeve OMB'S cost accounting and cost comparison
requirements were practical for their aircraft operations. Jiistto^^toifi-
dals said that some consideration had been given to the xxist of ^^usjhng
leased aircraft and they had intuitively conduded that usuig^dveni-
ment aircraft would be cheaper. An official said that once biiQ ii^<# its
new streamlined cost comparison guidance for aircraft, Juatibe w i ^
make a comparison under the required procedures.

Page 19                              GAO/GODMMGawennnenta^liahAlRxaft
Chapter 2

Attorney General's and FBI Director's Use of
Govemment Aircraft

                     The Attomey (General and FBI Director reUed mainly on Justice aircraft
                     for their air travel. They took 75 trips involving travel on govemment
                     aircraft from August 11,1988, through July 31,1989. The FBI provided
                     most of this transportation. However, both executives also traveled on
                     miUtary aircraft, and on one occasion, the Attomey General used a
                     rental aircraft pUoted by an FBI agent. The Attomey General also trav-
                     eled several times on USMS and DEA aircraft.

                     The executives scheduled most of their trips to give speeches, attend
                     meetings, or visit field locations. Both were accompanied on some trips
                     by other govemment—primarily Justice—officials and by their wives.
                     In several instances, private persons, including news reporters, traveled
                     with the Attomey (General.

                     The Attomey General reimbursed the govemment $1,032 for himself
                     and famUy members for the three personal trips he or famUy members
                     took using FBI aircraft. He alsoreimbursed$ 1,371 for trips his wife took
                     in connection with his official business. After we determhied that a por-
                     tion of one of his trips was for personal business, the FBI Director reim-
                     bursed the govemment $280 for himself and tus wife.

                     For the period from August 11,1988, when he took office, until July 31,
Attorney General's   1989, the Attomey (General took 39 trips involving at least some travel
Use of Govemment     on govemment aucraft. Of these, 26round-tripswere domestic flights
Aircraft             on FBI aircraft.' For four trips, only part of the trip involved transporta-
                     tion on FBI aircraft with theremainingtravel completed by automobUe
                     or on miUtary, USMS, or commercial aircraft. On the other nine trips
                     involving govemment air travel, the Attomey General traveled on USMS,
                     DEA, and miUtary aircraft, or on a rented plane flown by an FBI agent

                     The Attomey (General's trips induded speaking engagements, meetings
                     or visits to Justice field locations, and personal trips. For exampte, the
                     Attomey General spoke before several judidal conferences, and he met
                     with foreign law enforcement officials, United Nations and State Depart-
                     ment officials, and U.S. Attomeys. On other trips, he addressed a con-
                     ference of FBI and DEA supervisory special agents and graduaties of the
                     FBI and DEA Training Academies. He also travded twice on govemment
                     aircraft for personal business.

                     'For our punxisea, aroundmipconstitutes a departure trom and return to Waahington. O.C. TWps
                     ranged in lengthfirom1 day to mullidty travel lasting more than 2 weeks.

                     Pagei                                          6A0/PGIMMA Govcnment avman Alicmft
                        Chapter 2
                        Attomey Gennal'a aad FBI Director-a Use of
                        Govenuneat Aiiciaft

                        GeneraUy, the Attomey General was accompanied on his travels by at
                        least one member of his staff and an FBI security detaU. The Attomey
                        (General's wife accompanied him on eight trips, twotimesfor personal
                        travd and six times to partidpate in an offidal function with tiie
                        Attomey (General. His son accompanied him on one trip. (Govdiunent
                        offidals from both within and outside of Justice accompanied hini about
                        one-third of thetime.The private persons outside of the Attorney Gen-
                        eral's immediate famUy who travded on govemment aircraft with him
                        were newsreporters—^presenton three trips—a. Justioe consultsuit, and
                        an FBI offidal's wife. Six of the Attom^ (Gena:al's trips, inchiding aU
                        four of his international trips, were presidontial missicmsfor,C«vs^^
                        panying, the President.
                        The Attorney General's longest trip lasted 16 days and indudediapresi-
                        dential mission to Europe and offidal travd to two U& iPcatipils^b^in-
                        ning in November and ending in December 1%8. Twenty of histiipshad
                        same^iay departures and returns to Washington, D.C., and did nJpKJ:
                        involve overnight travel. The average length of the Attorney (Genoral's
                        trips on govemmoit aircraft was about 2-1/2 days.
                        During the periodfiiomhis August 11,1988, confirmation to Deodnber
                        1988, the Attomey (General used a mix of commercial and FBI amrbi^aft
                        According to an Assistant to the Attomey General, he did so pdiding
                        advice by Justice's ()ffice of l«gal ()ounsd on his authority toi^
                        emment aircraft. He began using govemment aircraft alihost exi^-
                        sively for his travd m December 1988. According tb the Assist|kn^
                        did so after several instances in which offidals could not (roiimux^
                        with him on pressing matters whUe he was on oommerdkl airmtft and
                        one potential security problem involving a p^son who b«iNUd<il 1 ^
                        flight to obtain access to the Attomey GeneraL The FBI haid sdbp1id»m-
                        mended in an August 1988 intemal memorandum that theT^H^niey
                        General travel on govemment aircraft for security reasmis andfteid-
                        biUty in traveL
                        The dates of these trips, aircraft used, itineraries, trip purposes, and
                        passengers accompanying the Attomey General are shown in aiiijppidix
                        I.                                                             '-•y

FBI Director's Use of   The FBI Director took 36round-tripsinvolving travel on goveriiiiidit air-
                        craft from August 11,1988. through July 31,1989. Of these, 29 round-
Govemment Aircraft      trips were domestic flights iSkt FBI aircraft and 1 was a domestic round-
                        trip on a miUtary plane. In addition, the Director took two <me-way

                        Page 21                                      GAO/GCaMM4
                     Chapter 2
                     Attomey General's and FBI Dlrectoi's Use of
                     Govemment Aircraft

                     domestic trips on FBI aircraft, with returns by automobUe or commerdal
                     aircraft. He also took four trips on FBI aircraft as the domestic legs of
                     trips involving intemational travel on commerdal airlines.
                     The FBI Director generaUy traveled to fulfiU speaking engagements or to
                     visit employees at FBIfieldlocations. For example, he spoke to several
                     law school and coUege audiences and addressed several judidal confer-
                     ences. He visited FBI employees in locations that induded Fort S^th,
                     Arkansas; New York, New York; and New Orleans, Louisiana. Domestic
                     trips that did not indude speeches or visits to fidd locations were to
                     attend a funeral for a DEA agent, an executive conferenceretntait,and a
                     U.S. Navy Fleet Week dinner. A portion of one trip was for pdrsKml
                     busintss. The Director's intemational trips were to partidpate ihjinter-
                     national law enforcement meetings.

                     The FBI Director was always accompanied by a security detaU during his
                     travel, but, unlike the Attomey (General, he ^neraUy traveled without a
                     member of his immediate staff. The Director's wife accompanied him on
                     17 trips, aU of which an FBI offidal said involved offidal functions, such
                     as the Director's speaking engagements, or intemal office functions,
                     such as visits to field offices. Justice or FBI officials accompanied him on
                     some trips. In addition to his wife, the Director was accompanied by
                     only two other nongovernment passengers. Both were wives of govem-
                     ment offidals traveling with their husbands.

                     His longest trip was for 19 days to ThaUand, AiutraUa, Hong Kdng, and
                     several U.S. dties in November 1988. Ten of Ids trips had same-day
                     departures and returns to Washington, D.C. The average len^bh&f the
                     Director's trips on govemment aircraft was a Uttie over 3 days;
                     The dates of these trips, aircraft used, itineraries, trip puippses, and
                     passengers accompanying the Director are shown in appendix II.

                     Justice had issued one poUcy statement and was developing otiiers to
Reimbursements for   address who may travel on Justice aircraft, whether they wUlibe
Personal and         required to reimburse Justice, and if so, how much.

                      Page 22                                      GAO/GGIMM4 OovcnnnentCavlliaiiAfMnft
                           Chapter 2
                           Attomey General's and FBI Director's Use of
                           Govemment Aircraft

Justice and FBI Policies   During the period from August 1988 through July 1989, Justice did not
                           have a written department poUcy specifying when reimbursements
                           woiUd be requested for the Attomey (General's or FBI Director's personal
                           travel aboard Justice aircrait. It also did not have a poUcy stating when
                           their spouses, family members, or other nonoffidal passengers oould
                           accompany them and when and how much these passengers should
                           reimburse the govemment for their transportation.
                           According to an FBI offidal, the FBI did not have a poUcy specific to using
                           FBI aircraft to transport famUy members. Instead, the FBI used the same
                           policy it used conceming non-FBi passengers in vehides in general:
                           "Transportation for other than FBI employees is to be restricted to individu^ and
                           their families, or aides accompanying them, who are traveling to attend FBI spon-
                           sored or FBI participating functions or have other direct business to transiact with
                           FBI officials and/or officials of the Department of Justice traveling on offidiid

                           This poUcy does not specify whenreimbursementswould be appropriate
                           or how any amount to be reimbursed would be determined.
                           Staff in the offices of both executives said that in practice the Attomey
                           (General and FBI Director wouldreimburseJustice for any perspnsd
                           travel by themselves or their famUies on the basis of standisurd ppnm
                           cial fares. In addition. Justice offidals said that when the Attoriiey Gen-
                           eral's or Director's wives travel with them to offidal functions aiidi
                           participate m some capacity in the event, reimbursement is not
                           An official in the Office of the Attomey General eiqplained that the ded-
                            sion about whether the Attomey (General's wife should accomps^iy him
                           if made by his staff. In making the decision, stafffirstdetermine
                           whether space is avaUable on the aircraft. If so, staff deterihihe whether
                           an opportunity exists for the Attomey General's wife to partidpiatei in
                           an offidal function. If the sponsors of the event have invited her tp
                           attend the function, her participation is automaticaUy expected. yiJlien
                           the invitation does not specificaUy indude her, staff determine whether
                           the sponsors are interested in having her attend and how she wpiUd

                           An FBI official said that the Director determines whether his wifewiU
                           accompany him on govemment aircraft. When she has been invitdl to

                            Page 28                                      OAO/GG1MM4 Gevmuaent avQIaa Aircraft
                           Chapter 2
                           Attomey General's and FBI Director's Use of
                           Govemment Aircraft

                           non-FBI functions, such as the Director's speeches, her attendance is con-
                           sidered to be in an official capacity. The invitations are usuaUy reoeiyed
                           by telephone and are handled directly between an FBI fidd pffi(% laid the
                           Director's staff. According to an FBI official, when the Director's traVel
                           includes only activities involving FBI offices or functions, his yirife pE^
                           ipates in an official capadty by attending and partidpating hi limch-^
                           eons, meetings with fidd office personnd, and simUar activities.^'

New Policies Issued or     Justice offidals said that new poUdes have been issued or are bbiinig-
Being Developed            developed that address who ma^ travd on Justice aircraft, i)(^^^d^a|
                           they WiU be required toreimburseJustice, and if so, how-miic^

                           Accordmg to a Justice official, due to our inquiries about reimbursem
                           poUcies and on the basis of guidance received fhmi the A t t p ^ ^
                           eral's office, Justice issued a new policy in Novembd; 1980 t p r o ^ ^
                           reimbursementfixminongovernment persons traveling cm | i ^ ^
                           craft when their presence does not assist in accon^pUstiing 1it|I^^
                           sion. Justice would not provide us a copy of its drsrfti^alncraft^^^^
                           management order, which Justi(» offidals said containsi i^ue^n^^
                           ment poUcy, because it was suttjed to change. The hiewdrder             to
                           indude guidance on how to deteiinine the amount tolx^reimit^^
                           when appropriate. Although this proposed provisiditi yi^uld^h^
                           caUy address travd by spousqs, it would do so intUrectlyb^^
                           spouses are nongovemmental passengers. The officii aibtb^^
                           new order wiU state Justice pc^ii^ regarding whai tib Attrain^
                           and other offidals who use Justice aircraft would be reigiiUi^
                           burse for personal travel on the aircraft, and how mudU; ' ^^^

Personal and Nonofficial   The Attomey (General reimbursed the govemment $l,(]^2|^liipself
Travel on Govemment        and family members for three personal trips on govdiun^^
                           reimbursed the govemment $240 for a March 17,1989^13^^ Iro^
Aircraft                   ington, D.C, to Boston, Ma^achusetts; $396 for himself cA^lus'vn^^^
                           an AprU 28 to May 1,1989, trip from Washington, DX;>.y 1»|!iiw E t e ^ ^
                           Massachusetts, and retum; and $396 for his wife and his skm;^
                           18 to 22,1989, trip to Portland, Maine, and New Fbiuid Cik§^N^|g
                           Hampshire, and retum. The Attomey (General travded diiji^i^^^
                           ness on the latter trip to address the National District Attbml^'slAss^^
                           ation summer conference.                                       ilS||5

                           On April 9,1990, the Attomey General reimbursed a total pf $2028!^ for
                           eight trips by his wife on government aircraft. His paymdit;ih||iuded^

                           Page 24                                       GAO/GQIMNM4 Govanuaent CivlUan'Aiienft
                                 Chapter 2
                                 Attomey General's and FBI Director's Use of
                                 Government Aircraft

                                 $1,371 for the six trips that she took with the Attomey General in con-
                                 nection with his official business during the period we reviewed, Justioe
                                 did not require suchreimbursement.However, the Attomey (General's
                                 wife explained that untU ambiguity regarding travel by sppus^k dari-
                                 fied, she preferred to reimburse in an exercise of caution and tplprotect
                                 against unfair pubUdty.

                                 In addition, after our initial inquiry, in December 1^39 Justice a i ^ ^ the
                                 news reporters who had accompanied the Attomey Gdididixmii^ to
                                 reimburse for their transportation. This was pursuant tbJi^tipe's
                                 November 1989 policy regahling travel by nongovernment peip^axs
                                 aboard its aircraft. As of May 1990, three of the four reponrt^refltid
fy                               reimbursed a total of $1,439.

                                 The FBI Director had not reimbursed the government for suny^
iSK                              during the period of our review. A member of his s t a ^ s a ^ t j ^ ^
                                 Duector had not had personal travd on governmentlgdrdna^
                                 wife had accompanied him pidy in connecticm with hk^pf|^^
                                 For instance, the official saklthe Durector's wife acobii^i>w^         when
                                 he gave various speeches or visited FBI field offiices. v

                                 However, our review of the Director's travel repprds;s|M>w^
                                 extended one trip for a personal day in San Antonioi^|;T^xas^j|^          tus
                                 wife took a flight of about 45 miles on an FBI aircraft f » t F ^ ^
                                 1989, from San Marcos to San Antonio, Texas. Aftc»rjire | u i ^ ^
                                 situation wkh FBI offidals, the Director reimburisdl a t o ^ l d f ^ i ^ for
                                 himsdf and his wife.

        GAO Position on          We have previously recommended that OMB devdop deaurexMiitiVe
                                 branch poUcy on the transportation of spouses and dthdri^^
        Nonofficial Passengers   passengers aboard govemment aircraft.- However, OBim had t u ^ ^ so
                                 asofMay 1990.                                           - >i|

                                  The use of govemment vehides and aircraft is governed ||^^l!iU^.C.
                                  1344. The law provides that government vehides tmtd ith^
                                  Only for official purposes. However, it does not dei^epirpro^ddo^^
                                  dance on what constitutes an "offidal puri)ose." We hjvv^j^^       the
                                  transportation of spouses ih government vehicles v^^tj^^
                                  States is permissible when the spouse is accompanyiAg^ja jgpy^it^

                                  'GovenanentdvlllanAircraffc Central ManagamCTtRefonnfl Are Encwiraidngi^
                                  ()vCTlidit^6AOyfigMMe.Sei>t».U)8C                          •: T ^ . ; : . ; : * ! ^

                                  Page as                                      OAO/OOMOM GomnuBBtt jCMUaii^^A i i c ^
                Chapter 2
                Attomey General's and FBI Director's Use of
                Government Aircraft

                official to or from an official function.^' In that circumstance, the provi-
                sion of transportation to a nonoffidal passenger would be permissible
                provided that it is incidental to otherwise authorized use of the vehide
                involved and does not result in additional expense to the govemment.
                We continue to beUeve that a govemmentwide poUcy is needed to clarify
                under what drcumstances spouses should be permitted to accompany
                govemment officials to offidal fimctions aboard govemment aircraft. In
                thisregard,several questions need to be answered, including the
              • What constitutes an "offidal purpose" or "offidal function?"
              • When is it in the govemment's best interest for a spouse to accompany a
                govemment official to an offidal function? Are there security
              • When would it be appropriate forrelativesor other nonoffidal passen-
                gers to accompany govemment officials on govemment aircraft?
              • Should spouses and other nonofficial passengers be permitted to fly free
                on govemment aircraft?
              • Are there steps the govemment can or should take, such as requiring
                nonofficial passengers to sign UabUity waivers, to negate or mlidmize its
                potential UabUity for nonoffidal passengers in the event of an acddent
                or other emergency?
                OMB did not provide new guidance on travel by spouses and nonpffidal
                passengers in its 1989 version of Circular A-126 because it considered
                the existing language to be adequate and because it beUeved l^al bar-
                riers inhibited makmg a stronger, more spedfic policy statement. "There-
                fore, A-126 stiU leaves guidance on this issue up to agendes, stating
                "agency-owned or operated aircraft shaU be used only to transport...
                others [nonagency passengers] whose transportation on those aircraft is
                permitted by statute or an official agency directive or poUcy."

Conclusions     "^^^ Attorney General and FBI Director traveled extensively on govem-
                ment aircraft, particularly FBI aircraft, for their personal security and
                requirementsrelatedto handling secure information. During their
                travels, they were often accompanied by their wives or other passengers
                who were not Justice employees. During the period wereviewed.Justice
                did not have a poUcyregardingtravel by spouses and nonoffidal pas-
                sengers. The FBI had a poUcy specifying when such travd would be
                ='67 Comp. Gen. 226 (1978).

                Page 26                                       GAO/G(H>4MM4 Govonmoit CiviUan Alicnft
Chapter 2
Attomey General's and FBI Dhrectoi's Use of
Govemment Aircraft

authorized but not whenreimbursementwould be required or how

In November 1989, Justice issued a poUcy addressing when travd
aboard its aircraft is authorized for nonoffidal passengers and under
what circumstances they would be required to reimburse Justice. Fur-
ther, Justice was developing, as of May 1990, a travel order incorpo-
rating tlus poUcy and providmg guidance on calculating

The Attomey Generalreimbursedthe govemment for personalti^vdby
himself and his famUy members aboard Justice aircraft He a ] ^ reim-
bursed for trips his wife took in connection with his offidad biisuiess
even though Justice did not requirereimbursement,"nie FBI IXuhe<^
reimbursed the government for the personal portion of one tH|pEb^
self and his wife. Justice also receivedreimbursementfrom thr^e of four
news reporters for travel aboard its aircraft.

 Page 27                                      GAO/G(a>8M4 Government QviUan Aberafk
Chapter 3

Justice Should Ck)nsider Private Aircraft
Services and Accumulate Cost Data

                         As discussed earlier, Justioe virtuaUy always uses its aircraft, generaUy
                         FBI aircraft, for the Attomey General's and FBI Durector's air travel: Ck>n-
                         trary to OMB requirements, Justice has not compared its costs for trans-
                         porting these executives to the cost of private commerdal aircraft
                         services, and the FBI has not accumulated complete cost (teta oh aire
                         operations. Justice says that aU of its aircraft use is "inherentiyi^oyem-
                         mental" and therefore exempt from the cost comparison recLuhem^nt.
                         Under OMB criteria, air transportation is a commerdal-tjipe suppotit
                         function for which commerdal sources should be considered.:pi^
                         ysis indicates that private commercial aircraft seirices cpUld^ifi^]^ the
                         major security and rdated concems Justice has esqpressc^ fwitiie|^^
                         tives' transportation better than regularly scheduled ia^riiv^fi^^ Jus-
                         tice offidals have not determined whether private comihercj^iso
                         can fully satisfy executive transportation requirement^ ahd,^j^^
                         whether their use would be more cost effective than u^nqg|gc^i^^
                         aircraft.                                               • '".';'V;'|:|iS"g

                         Further, if private aircraft services can be used, the FBI may t« ii^bl^ to
                         use the three aircraft that have been used mainly for <»e<cti1iye travd
                         for more investigative missions. Should additional misskmtise^l^^
                         rialize, the FBI ms^ not need one or more of the three airaift^m^
                         or may not need to acquire an additional aircraft currehtiyiiiun^^
                         consideration.                                           'yyyyyM

                         Justice cannot be assured that it is transporting the Attpm^byG^end
Justice Has Not          and FBI Directcr in the most costeftiective maimer untilltCl^lK^ dder-
Considered Private       mined whether private services can acccNnomodate theexecU^^
Aircraft Services for    portation needs and (2) has compared its own transpbitiitipht(xxs^
                         those that would be incurred by using a private s e r v i c e r ' " S
the Elxecutives'

OMB Requirements Apply   OMB Circulars A-76 and A-126 require agencies to consider altematives
to Executive             to using govemment aircraft to transport people. A-76 estapiishii^^
Transportation           executive branch poUcy to rely on commerdally avail£^)le s6tu^ces tb
                         provide commerdal services, including air transportaticmil^ apil^^
                         function, such as directing the personal security of goventme^t bffidals,
                         is inherently govemmental in nature, however, A-76 statiesthiittii^^
                         function shaU be performed by govemment employees.            .'yi^iy

                         Page 28                                GAO/GGIMOM      GawrtmeeiiCiMiMMKtmtt
       Justioe Should Consider Private Aircraft
       Servicea and Aocnmolate Coat Data

       OMB Circular A-126 requires that s^encies comply with A-76 before
       purchasing, leasing, or otherwise acquiring aircraft and rela^siervices.
       Further, it requires agendes to periodicaUy review the contihuUtj^ need
       for aU of their aircraft and the cost effectiveness of aircraft operations
It     in accordance with Ar76. In addition, the circular requires a g d i ^ ^
11;    justify and document eadi use of their aircraft to trsm^port
I,     aiul provides the criteria to be met, induding that itt>con^^
       or aircraft service was reasonably available to fiilfiU effedivil^
y'-    transportation requirement.
       Although required to do so by OMB, as of May 1990, J u s t u » ^ h a ^ ^
p%     pared the costs of its aircraft operations that provide t r a ^ ^
|:1^   theAttorney(Seneral, FBI Director, and Other e x e c u t i v ^ t ^ ^
ill    merdal services as required by Cuxular A-76. The A s d i ^ ^
       (Seneral for Admintetratioh, in a letter to OMB oMKune^^
yi     A-126 revidons, explained that Justice had determinediMabi^^
       with Circular A-76, that its aircraft operations were w l i e n ^ ^
       mental aiid thus not subjed to the cost compariscm i ^ ^
       that aU Justice aircraft were acquired for misskm use^o^^
       for administrative fUghts(i.e., executive transportatii^^
       savings could be shown or other special consideratJuHn^
 ||i   security, scheduling constraints, or pilot training reqUiren^^^
 W     present.                                                  v^fS-'i^Sf-l
 If    We believe use of government aircraft fbr the ocecUtiv^
 I'l   is a commerdal activity. Ar76 classifies air transpcnrta^^
 ]ij   dal-type support function for which commerdal scnn^
 I^    sidered. The need to satisfy certain security^retyiedleiiiu^^        for
 P     the Attorney (Seneral or FBI Durector does not altertii^
       commerdal source can satisfy the security requiremdj^Justi^ s^^
       consider it for the executives* transportation.        \;-^:y:y')yy^i^
        We discussed Justice's position and our analysis witii tihteolffi offidals
        responsible for A-76. They agreed with our assessniintoli^^
        cability and said that agencies commonly mistadre seivic^:ar^j^^
        that support govemmental functions for inherently goVenrat^^ func-
        tions themselves. According to the OMB offidals, r^iwnsibiUfy^^^
        ensuring the Attomey (Seneral's and FBI Director's seiifUril^         FBI
        agent escort can be considered inherently governmdr^ beca^^
        require the exercise of discretion in applying goyerhnidit a^          or
        the use of value judgments in making dedsions for the g p y d r ^
        However—again, according to OMB officials—^transpdrtiug t^^
        tives is not inherently govemmental but is a commdcisd ^ $eniiw

        Page 29                                   GAO/Gffl>aM4Gawcniinait:a^^
Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
Services and Accumulate Cost Oata

supports a govemmental function. Therefore, they said that if a npngov-
emmental service can transport officials -' )Ue simultaneously meclting
their security requirements, A-76 require^ that an agency consid^the
use of that service. Further, altemative services must be used if they
are more cost effective than providing the support services (i.e.,aif'
transportation) using govemment resources.
As explamed in chapter 1, as of May 2,1990, Justice was deye;lpping an
order to provide Department-wide poUcy to implement oiffl C^lrciiUa^ A-
126 on aircraft use and management. In part, this order wdiifdis^^ that
the Attomey General's use of govemment aircraft or other nonopimner-
dal aurcraft, induding for personal travd, is justifiedas am or^^ng mis-
sion requirement. The order makes his travel a misdon rc^qituren^ to
provide for his securify, the securify of dassified infbrih^itiim ]h^^
carry, and access tc secure and instantaneous communicatiohs^^^;

Classifying the Attomey General's travel as a mission does nPt exclude
the use of commerdal sources, however. An OMB offidaln^ponsibie for
A-76 explained that she has been informing agency represen|&tiyes of
the distinction between an agency mission and an A-76 ihKeirat^^
emmental function, i'^ example, while GSA'S mission inclui|i^pro^^
motor pool services, this service can be done by commeidi^ |wurv^ GSA
does, in fad, contract for some motor pool operations. Sihdiad^tl^
basic function of transporting an executive can be done by c6mm|rcial
sources as weU as by govemment agendes.                       Sgl

FBI offidals did not do the cost comparisons required by A-763ahdM-126
because they beUeved that using their aircraft would be less e^p^intstive
than using a lease, charter, or rental service for the Attixnu^'Gi^^^^
and FBI Duector's transportation. Offidals beUeved thsdttiveirods^?^
would be lower because the aircraft used were aU seized prppiii^j^es^l^^
little or no acquisition cost.                            ' •'' "••-•^My
Comparing the FBI'S costs to those of private airline sendees ifmbei^^
the scope of our work. Moreover, any such comparison would dep^^ on
numerous decisions—often rdated as to how b^t to pmyid^^to^
tives' securify—that are most appropriately made by JUsti(%1o£fii^lds.
An example of such a decision is detennining if the FBI shpuldusiii^
agents as pUots or use a contractor's pilots.                    ; i^ I

The specific issue of how to handle seized and foifeited aircnift^forcost
comparison purposes was being considered by an OMB offidal a^ifiiApril

Page 30                                    GAO/GGI>gOS4Ga*enunent0viliaii Aircraft
Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
Services and Accumulate Cost Data

1990. When doing cost comparisons, he said that agendes should depre-
ciate seized and forfeited aircraft from their fair market value at
seizure. Such a procedure recognizes what the federal govemment
would have gained had the aircraft been sold rather thanretained.The
official also said that depreciation costs are very significant in deter-
mining cost competitiveness in the aircraft service industry, OMB and
GSA officials also ssdd that costs related to the seizure and forfdture of
the aircraft, such as transporting, maintaining, storing, and bringing the
aircraft up to safefy standards, should be considered in the cost compar-
ison process. These costs can be substantial: the FBI invested aboUt
$580,000 to restore its Sabreliner to safefy standards. The OMB dfifidal
responsible for A-76 also said that the FBI would have the option of
making the seized aircraft avaUable to a contractor if the contractor
could operate and maintain them less expensively than the govemment.

During a May 2,1990, meeting toreviewtheresultsof our work. Justice
offidals said that they had given some consideration to the cost of Using
leased aircraft and had intuitively concluded that govemment aircraft
would be cheaper. Officials said this condusion was not documented.
On May 4,1990, the FBI prepared a limited comparison that estimated
substantial savings using its Sabreliner versus leasing the same ihpdel
aircraft. This comparison did not meet Circular A-76 requiremehtsi; since
such procedures do not require comparing to the cost of an idditickl air-
craft butratherto the least expensive aircraft services that would meet
agency performancerequirements.Also, the FBI compari^n exdUdied
such potentiaUy significant cost elements as depreciation, costs.
attendant to the seizure andrestorationof the aircraft, and selfrihsur-
ance costs that A-76 requires agencies to consider.
In a letter dated May 8,1990, the Assistant Attomey General for
Administration also provided a limited cost comparison, which alsb esti-
mated substantial savings from using the FBI'S Sabreliner versus leiasing
an identical model. According to a Justice official who oversaw develop-
ment of this cost comparison, it was intended to be a quick analysis
showing that areasonablebasis existed for Justice offidals' earU^r intu-
itive conclusion that it was less expensive to use Justice aircra^ tllan
leased aircraft. The official said that the estimate was not developdi
foUowing A-76 procedures and said that once OMB issues its new stream-
lined cost comparison guidance for aircraft. Justice wiU make a Compar-
ison under the required procedures.

 Page 31                                   GAO/GGDS044 Govemment CMIian Airoraft
                             Chapter 3
                             Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
                             Services and Accumulate Cost Data

Regularly Scheduled          According to Circular A-126's general poUdes, an agency does not have
                             to rely on a commercial source if that source cannot effectively meet its
Airlines Reportedly Do Not   transportation needs. Justice and FBI officials said that regularly sched-
Satisfy Needs                uled commercial airline flights did not effectively satisfy the Attomey
                             General's transportation requirements because they cannot adequately
                             provide for

                             flexibiUfy m schedulmg travel,
                             secure communications whUe in flight,
                             securify for classified or sensitive materials, and
                             personal securify.

                             These considerations developed over several years. In a Septeinber 1985
                             memorandum, the Assistant Director responsible for the FBI'S airdraft
                             program said that priority would always (FBI emphasis) be ^vdi to
                             operational flights m support of investigative requirements. The memo-
                             randum then listed other factors to consider when offidals authorize
                             noninvestigative use of FBI aircraft, induding the need to provide phys^
                             ical security for officials such as the Attomey General and FBI tKrector.

                             by a July 18,1988, letter to usregardingour review of Attomey^Gteneral
                             Meese's travel, the Assistant Attomey General for Administraitiph npted
                             that A-126 allows use of goveinment aircraft when commerdal|Service
                             is not avaUable to effectively meet the agency's transportation liedi. He
                             said that use of an FBI plane enabled the Attomey General vtocomj^lete a
                             multitude of assignments in one day, with possible cost saving^;|pro-
                             vided access to secure voice radio communications in connection with
                             his national securify and other statutorily mandated responsibiUties;
                             and enhanced his personal securify. The Assistant Attomey (Seheiral
                             said that the Attomey General had received dozens of serious and docu-
                             mented death threats each year.

                              In an August 18,1988, addendum to an FBI intemal audit report on com-
                              pUance with A-126, an FBI Assodate Depufy Duector stated thaiitiie
                              Attomey General and FBI Director had to approve certainFBi ihvidstiga-
                              tive techniques and activities in both criminal and foreign cdiihterintel-
                              Ugence areas. The FBI thus required immediate secure commiuucation
                              access to both officials; such access was only avaUable on FBI aircraft.
                              Moreover, the Associate Deputy Director stated that (1) FBI aircraft
                              could satisfy the Attomey (Seneral's and FBI Director's personal securify
                              requirements in ways that commercial air carriers could not, (2) these
                              offidals routinely worked with dassified or sensitive materials whUe on
                              FBI aircraft but could not do so whUe onregularcommerdal air carriers,

                              Page 82                                   GAO/GGDMM Govemment CiviUan Atrenft
                                  Chapter 3
                                  Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
                                  Services and Accumulate Cost Data

                                  and (3) both officials neededflexibilifyto alter travel plans or schedules
                                  in a manner that neither commercial airlines norrentalservices could
                                  accommodate as weU as FBI aircraft. Similar positions werereiteratedin
                                  four other FBI and Justice memoranda signed during the period from
                                  January through June 1989.

Possible Use of Private           We agree virith Justice thatregularlyscheduled commerdal airline ser-
Aircraft Services                 vices may not effectively satisfy securify and other concems. However,
                                  a variefy of private aircraft services are avaUable that better suit these
                                  requirements. Private services can provide an aircraft dedicated solely
                                  to one cUent or on an as-needed basis. The private service's aircraft can
                                  beflownby its pUots or by the cUent's pUots. If an ainraft is dedicated
                                  solely to an agency, the agency can choose where to store the c r ^ .
                                  Also, if special modifications are required, a private aircraft service
                                  may make such modifications to a dedicated plane or planes. The Assis-
                                  tant Attomey General for Administration, in his February 1989 memo-
                                  randum, recognized that private air services are available and said:

                                  "To my knowledge the availability of a private aircraft service has not been
                                  explored. If the Attomey General's security and operational needs can be met effec-
                                  tively and at a reasonable cost by a private airline service then we should consider
                                  and utilize that altemative."

                                  CJircular A-76 requires that an agency publish notices in the Commerce
                                  Business Daily to determine if a commerdal source is avaUable to meet a
                                  transportation need. Altematively, OMB requires that the agency provide
                                  a written explanation of how use of a private aircraft service would
                                  cause unacceptable delay or dismption to an agency program. As of May
                                  1990, Justice had not explored the private aircraft altemative in accor-
                                  dance with these requirements.
                                  Our analysis, which foUows, indicates that private lease or charter ser-
                                  vices could satisfy the Attomey General's and FBI Director's aircraft
                                  travel needs, as spedfied above, better thanregularlyscheduled com-
                                  mercial airline flights.
FlexibiUfy in Scheduling Travel    Accordmg to both the head of the FBI Securify DetaU Unit and a repre-
                                   sentative of a private aviation service, lease orrentalaircraft generaUy
                                   would be asflexibleas FBI aircraft. In rare cases, if a leaseor rental
                                   aircraft was committed to another cUent, the Securify DetaU Unit head
                                   thought that the private service might not be able to extend a trip
                                   beyond the period originaUy scheduled. This circumstance would not

                                   Page 33                                   6AO/GGIM0M Govenunent Civilian Aircraft
                                         Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
                                         Services and Accumulate Cost Data

                                         arise if a plane were dedicated for Justice use, however. A private air-
                                         craft service representative, identified for us by GSA, said no impedi-
                                         ments exist to changing the length, destination, or other parameters of a
                                         trip, even on short notice.
     Secure bi-FUght (}oinmunications    Secure communications equipment is not normaUy available on private
                                         service aircraft. However, the secure communication units used by the
                                         FBI can be moved among aircraft, so long as the aircraft's wiring wiU
                                         accommodate the unit. The private aviationrepresentativesaid tliat his
                                         company could modify the wiring if an aircraft were dedicated t6 a
                                         dient. To the extent that special radio frequendes were required for
                                         communications, therepresentativealso thought that his service bould
                                         use any special radio frequency needed for communication, assiuning
                                         the service was given advance notice and appropriate equipment wias
                                         avaUable. The GSA transportation specialist told us that the Foresit Ser-
                                         vice, which had special radio communication needs for aircraft it leased,
                                         required that such radios be avaUable as a condition of the contract.

                                         Although A-76 does not provide guidancerelatedto securify considera-
                                         tions, June 1989 draft OMB guidance that provides a new streainlUied
                                         procedure for comparing the cost of agendes' aircraft services to those
                                         avaUable from commerdal sources said that the requirement for
                                         securify devices is not suffident to justify procurement orretentionof
                                         agency-operated aircraft. The draft guidance specified that, in com-
                                         paring the costs of providing the transportation by govemment planes
                                         versus commercial sources, agencies should detemune if unique equip-
                                         ment and/or personnel requirements can befittedto a contract or
                                         charter/rental aircraft agreement thatresultsin lower total flight cost.
                                         WhUe this draft guidance had not been issued as of May 1990, OMB has
                                         required since 1983 that agencies do cost comparisons.
     Security for Classified/Sensitive   AnotherreasonJustice relies on govemment planes is that the Attomey
     Materials                           (jeneral and FBI Director need to work with dasdfied or sensitive mater-
                                         ials whUe inflight.This work can be done on government aircraft
                                         because everyone on board can be appropriatdy deared for access to
                                         dassified information. Private aircraft services can also meet this
                                         requirement. The FBI can use its own pUots on lease or charter aircraft.
                                         Conversely, the FBI could do background investigations and issue appro-
                                         priate securify clearances to the private aurcraft service pUots who
                                         would fly the Attomey General and FBI Diredor.
     Personal Securify                   Private aircraft services also could satisfy the Attomey (Seneral's and
                                         FBI Du-ector's personal securify needs better thanregularlyscheduled

                                         Page 84                                    GAO/Gffl>glMM Govenunent OviUaa Alicnft

                     JuHtice Should Consider Private Aircraft
                     Services and Aecnmnlate Cost Data

                     commerdal airline services. If a dedicated aircraft were obtained from a
                     private service, the FBI could provide hangar fadUties, guard sovices,
                     and other securify precautions in the same manner as it does for FBI air-
                     craft. Even if a dedicated aircraft is not obtained, private aviation ser-
                     vices may be able to provide adequate securify. For example, the private
                     aviation service representative described securify precautions for its
                     nondedicated aircraft that were sinular to those taken by the FBI for its
                     aircraft, including storage in secured, alarmed hangars.

                     Private aircraft services omild meet other securify requirements as weU,
                     such as using private terminals. The FBI uses private terminalswith its
                     own planes, wluch avoids crowded and nonsecure airiine tenninals. In
                     addition, FBI agents could ensure that aU baggage is known and
                     inspected as necessary.
                     The servicerepresentativewe interviewed noted that securify was an
                     important concern to some of his company's dients. A list of dignitaries
                     for whom his cmnpany had provided air transportation induded two
                     former presidents, current and former federal executives, and foreign
                     dignitaries. In adcUtion, he said corporate executives have concems
                     about their own personal safefy and the securify of corporate

                     OMB (Circular A-126 requires agendes to maintain accounting syiums to
Complete Cost Data   accumulate costs firar aircraft operations and specifies theityp^lc^^^sosts
Were Not             to be accumulated. However, the FBI did not have c(mq[^etecpi|<dk^
Accnimulated         any of its aircraft, induding the three OHnmonly used to traippprt the
                     Attomey General.' When estimating its aircraft cost to bill Jiiistice for
                     the Attomey (jeneral's transportation, the FBI adjusted pi|jA>U^ed rates
                     for comparable commerdal aircraft. These estimates unddsbitMl actual
                     aircraft costs because some cost dements required by oiiB were

                     During the period wereviewed.Justice did not require acbpuntiitg by its
                     compcments for aircraft costs as Circular A-126 requires!, ils dif|F!d>-
                     ruary 1990, however, a draft Justice order implementun^ the dircular
                     did say that components should accumulate cost data per,catiiS^y

                      '-Hiese aircraft were the FBTs SalBeiina-jet and the seven-andfive-passengertnrtMiirop^airaaft.

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                                 Chapter 3
                                 Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
                                 Servicea and Accumulate Coat Data

                                 We were asked to provide information on the costs that Justice incurred
                                 to transport the Attomey (General and FBI Director on Justice aircraft.
                                 Because complete cost intormation on a per hour of flight time basis was
                                 not avaUable for the aircraft commonly used to transport the execu-
                                 tives, we cannot provide this information.

  OMB Circular A-126             Since 1983, OMB Circular A-126 has required agendes to maintain
  Requires Agencies to           accounting systems for their aircraft operations that wiU pennit them to
  Accumulate 0)st Data           justify the use of govemment aircraft in Ueu of commerdaUy available
                                 aircraft, or the use of one govemment aircraft in Ueu of anothe;r;
                                 recover the costs of operating govemment aircraft when appropriate;
                                 determine the cost effectiveness of various aspects of thdr aiicraft pro-
                                 grams; and
                                 make the cost comparisons required by OMB (Circular A-76 to justify in-
                                 house operation of govemment aircraft versus procurement of oommer-
                                 daUy avaUable aircraft services.

      FBI Did Not Have           At the time of our review, the FBI did not have an accounting sjiBtem
                                 that accumulated complete cost data for its aircraft, indu(Uhg those
      (Complete Aircraft CJost   used to transport the Attomey GSeneral, FBI Durector, and bther esedi^
      Data                       tives. According to an FBI accounting section official, tiie BUn^u-^M
                                 accoiu^' ing system was not detaUed enough to provide cost informal
                                 for individual aircraft.

                                 The unit operating the FBI'S aircraft maintained some cpsti^^infprmattion in
                                 its Bureau Aircraft Operations (BAO) System. According tb an m pffi-
                                 dal, the FBI started the BAO System to provide acoiralte cost |md bene-
                                 fits data and cost projections for its aircraft operations. The system was
                                 designed to enable each field office to monitor its aircradt prpgi|k^ Avi-
                                 ation support personnd or agents at FBI locations nataonwid^id^
                                 into the system. BAO System information, which is takdv^ft^c^j^ibts'
                                 fUght reports, uM^ludes aurcraft type; fUght date; flight Ivour^
                                 mission performed; fUel and oU costs; and miscellaneous,cpsti|ina^^
                                  during the flight (i.e., landing fees, ovemight parking or Ibcal^tabi^.

                                  The BAO System does not capture aU of the data the FBI hedis^|deter-
                                  mine the cost effectiveness of each aircraft. For examide^the;JiAO>
                                  System does not track personnel costs assodated with pilbtingbr main-
                                  taining each aircraft and does not account for insurance or deprtidiation

                                   Page 38                                  GAO/GGIMM4 Gofvonment CMUan Aircraft

& •   r
Chapter 3
Justice Should Consider Priv£t4> Aircraft
Services and Accumulate Cost Data

costs. OMB Circular A-126 spedfies that these data should be

FBI officials said that, in addition to the BAO System, they have ledgers
that accumulate certain costs for each aircraft; again, these do not
include aU of the costs required by OMB.

In March 1989, the Assistant Director of the Administrative Services
Division recommended that the FBI take actions to implement the Jan-
uary 1989 revision of A-126. He recommended that the accounting sec-
tion review the circular and develop a standard cost accounting system
to satisfy its requirements. However, the Criminal Investigative Divi-
sion—which manages the FBI'S aircraft program and maintains and flies
headquarters-operated aircraft—responded that it was awaiting Jus-
tice's implementing regulations before determining what changes, if any,
would be needed.

In an October 1989 memorandum, the FBIrespondedto our inquiry
about the hourly cost of operating the three aircraft commonly u$ed to
transport the Attomey General and the FBI Director. The memorandum
said that the then-current operating costs were $960 per hour for the
Sabreliner jet aircraft and $664 per hour for the five- and seven-pas-
senger turboprop aircraft. The memorandum also said that the per-hour
costs included the cost of fiid; oU; reserves for engine ovdrhaid;:i11ainte-
nance; landing and parking fees; smaU suppUes and catering; aihdmiscel-
laneous crew expenses (e.g., rental cars, lodging, and meals). M^en we
asked FBI officials to provide detaUed costs, however, they explaihed
that the figures were estimates based on those published in Thie Aircraft
Cost Evaluator, whichratimatesthe relative costs of operatuigyarious
popular models of aircraft.- According to an FBI offidal, an roi agent
who served as a pUot adjusted the figures from the pubUcatipn to what
he beUeved was appropriate for the FBI aircraft; the adjustment^ were
not documented.

 For each type of aircraft, the pubUcation Usted three per-hour cost esti-
 mates. These estimates varied depending on the treatment of depreda-
 tion. The lowest published estimates for each aircraft compared to those
 of the FBI are as foUows:

 Sabreliner jet: $1,362 per hour versus $950 per hour (FBI).

 'H>>nklin Associates, Inc., The Aircraft C(«t Evaluator. Turtwprops (Orleans, MA: Paraclete Press,
 October 1989) and The Aircraft Cost Evahiator Jrts (Orleans. MA: Paradete Press, July 1989).

 Pages?                                            GAO/GGD4M4 Govemment OvUlanAbcraft
Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
Services and Accumulate Cost Data

Five-passenger turboprop aircraft Uke the FBI'S: $698 per hour versus
$664 per hour (FBI).
Seven-passenger turboprop aircraft like the FBI'S: $732 per hour versus
$664 per hour (FBI).
We asked a (iSA offidal who was responsible for assisting federal agen-
cies in developing theu* aircraft cost systems toreviewthe pubUcation's
aircraft cost estimates for the Sabreliner and the turboprop aircraft. The
official said that some FBI costs might be higher or lower than those of a
commercial operation, but he did not identify any of the pubUcation's
cost elements that were inappUcable to a federal aircraft operation like
the FBI's.

The FBI used several cost estimates for the operation of its aircraft
during the period July 1986 through July 1989. During a 1988 G^b
review of civiUan agencies' use of aircraft, the FBI fUmished us with
data showing that it cost $653 per hour to operate the Sabreliher during
the period July 1986 through May 1987.'' For the period firornGfefober
1987 through July 1988, the FBI used a $950 per hour figiue#h(ESii
seeking reimbursement from Justice for transporting the Attbiini^yGen-
eral on the Sabreliner. The per hour estimate for puiposes of jbilUng Jus-
tice declined to $854 per hour for the period from ()ctober 19M t ^ ^
March 1989 and then reverted to $950 per hour from ApirU tiiirpiph
June 1989. For the last Sabreliner flight by the Attorney (3encl^ the
time period we reviewed, the FBI billed Justice at a rate of $i650peF
hour. Moreover, the Office of Legal Counsel's memorandum aidvis^ the
Attomey Greneral about his authorify to travel on goveriuheht'aircraft
quotes a cost figure supplied by the FBI for its SabreUntf of ''iarbuhd
$600" per hour.

Figures for the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft also varied pver
time. According to FBI documents, during the period December Ws^
through March 1989, the FBI biUed Justice at a rate of $352 per hbiU- for
transporting the Attomey General aboard its seven-passenger turbbprop
aircraft; from April through July 1989, it biUed at a $664 rate.
According to the FBI official responsible for mamaging aircraft operii-
tions, the pilot in charge of FBI headquarters planes began tracking costs
in October 1989 to develop a cost estimate that was based on actual

 'civil Agency Aircraft: Agencies' Use of Certain Aircraft to Transpmrt Passengers (GAG/
 Gtib^d2BR, Aug. 1,1%8).                                         '-^         "^

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                                      Chapter 3
                                      Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
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                                      operating experience for the aircraft. The pilot said that he was col-
                                      lecting cost information on fuel, oU, maintenance, and repairs. He was
                                      not accumulating costs for such OMB-required items as pilot s^lia^i^el or
                                      providing hangar fadUties for the aircraft. Based on his woric, fo|^
                                      period October 1,1989, through March 31,1990, the a v e r a ^ ^ d H ^
I                                     costs to operaite the aircraft were
                                    • $750fbrtheSabrelmer,                                                  1 ?
                                    • $261 for the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft, and
                                    • $382 for the five-passengdr tiurboprop aurcraft. ( T l w ^
|;|il:                                than for the seven-passenger tuilmprop aircraft becaUsi^^
||i|r                                 msuor engine repairs,dmring;th(^period.)              -''-'-^l^yly'-M&yA

y 0 ' Reasons for Not H a v i n g     ^ ^ December 1988 letter to oiyiB commenting on the^i^^                to
                                      Circular A-126, the;As^ii^adfit A t i x ^ ^ (lendl^ fcNri|A)i^^
                    Data              stated Justice's p p { ^ s i t i b h t » t ^ cost au:countmjg di^a^^
                                      planned to reqiiire; The Justice offidal stateditiKatfh^
                                      ficify proposed for aiccouhtiri^elements would n^ult ih d g i ^ ^
                                      in terms of departmental t ^ u n x s with only Ulmti|d^^;|^
                                      He further stated that the hew provisions couM i i l q i x ^ e a l ^ ^
                                      recordkeeping requirement thad: could drain liinrdted
 ffi- ?•;;,•,                         from direct missibnsuppoHjNbtwithstauridi^
 wy--:i-                              retained its accountih^ systeni requirements. '' ^'--yyMMyyi^yy^-:
 m                                     An FBI official responsible for managing airoraft Ope
 a ; ;   .-•   •                       ilar reasons to us for not adhering to OMB's cost^^^i^^
 1^ I                                  ments. He said that the cost pfdevdoping and hiadc^^
                                       cost accounting system wbuld hot be worthtiieiMrne^
                                       data. Regarding the di^reht figures used to biUJu^bei|^^
                                       the Attomey Gdteral, he sadd that the amnount o^pmb^^
                                       not substaufitial and the effed pf an inaccuraitebUling^y^
  |;H|                                 thetransactiononlytransfid;si;moiiey from OTO p i ^
  fyi                                  another.                                       '-'•''.yy^Wy§yiS-M^,           . '
    %}$                                The (iSA offidalresponsiblefor assisting agehcieis in 1^^
    1^ ;^                              data said that he had been^yi^ similar-reas»nsliyi:J^^
                                       not coUecting cost data. He siaid that these Pffu^^
                                       coUecting the cost data was too hard to do, they 1 ^
                                       information, and they had nb inanagement iiuxihtiyes^tx^^
                                       information. The ()8A officisd found this attitude (jm
         py                            that agencies need an accurate picture of their costs tbproperi^ m ^
                                       t h d r aircraft operations.                         •^-•• ;i\"?illl|iS;Si;    '";;•'

                                       Page 39                                   GAp/GCaMMM^Gcmo^^
         fc;                          '''^•'•^y'-:y''-:'yyy:yyyyyy-:^^
                            JusUce Should Consider Private Aircraft
                            Services and Accumulate Cost Data

                            The FBI official also said that developing the cost information required
                            by Circular A-126 was unnecessary because Justice beUeves aU of its
                            aircraft are used for inherentiy governmental functions and therefore
                            are not covered by the A-126 and A-76 requirement to compare their
                            costs to those of commercially available services. As discussed earUer in
                            this chapter, we and OMB officials disagree with this position. The air-
                            craft that are primarily used for executive transportation are per-
                            forming a commercial-type support service, not an inherentiy
                            govemmental function, and are covered by the cost comparison

                            In addition, the Circular A-126 requirement to accumulate cost informa-
                            tion is independent of the cost comparison requirement. The circular
                            requires that such costs be accumulated for several reasons that are
                            applicable to FBI aircraft. For example, cost data are needed to justify
                            usmg FBI aircraft for executive transportation versus any pf the aircraft
                            operated by the other Justice components. The FBI also has reobVered
                            the cost of providing transportation for the Attomey (jeneral udubg esti-
                            mates that may understate its true costs since these estimates did not
                            indude all cost elements required by Circular A-126.

USMS and DEA Cost           The Justice Management Division (JMO) examined Justice components'
Estimates Were Incomplete   charges for executive use of their aircraft from August 1,1988, through
                            September 30,1989. JMD analyzed copies of data that USMS and DEA (as
                            weU as the FBI) had provided to us during our review. It found that
                            "none of the components calculate the tme operating costs of their air-
                            craft" when charging theur executive offices for the use of these air-
                            craft. JMD further foimd that charges for operating costs would be
                            significantly higher if components induded such items as hangar-
                            storage, recurrent pUot training, aircraft modemization, depredsition,
                            etc. JMD did not detennine whether the DEA or USMS accounting systems
                            contained the additional cost data.

                            JMD recommended that Justice issue an order on executive use of air-
                            craft that woiUd indude a consistent policy for use, a formula for devel-
                            oping operating charges, and reimbursement poUdes for nonfederal
                            travelers accompanying Justice executives. As noted in chapter 2, Jus-
                            tice began requiringreimbursementfrom nongovemmental aircra^ pas-
                            sengers in November 1989 when their presence was not by request of a
                            Justice offidal to assist in the mission of the Department.

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                             If private lease or charter services are able to meet the Attomey Gen-
Potential Benefits of        eral's and FBI Director's transportation needs more cost effectively than
Leasing Aircraft             govemment aircraft, the three FBI aircraft that are used mainly for the
                             executives' transportation may be available for increased use by the FBI
                             for investigative missions. Altematively, since FBI offidals said that
                             they were able to satisfy aU investigative mission needs plus transport
                             the executives, the FBI may not continue to need aU three of tlie aircraft.
                             In addition, the FBI may not need the long-range jet aircraft it was
                             thinking of acquiring in April 1990. However, determining spedficaUy
                             how the FBI's aircraft fleet would be affected by a decision to useprivate
                             aircraft services for executive transportation was beyond the scope of
                             our work.

Usage of CJurrent Aircraft   As previously discussed. Justice has not considered the use of Ibaised
                             aircraft for executive transportation. If it is less exp&ts&ye to i ^ leased
                             aurcraft than Justice aircraft, the three FBI aircraft tha^ had been^mainly
                             used for executive transportation could then be made avaUable for other
                             FBI missions or, should the FBI not need the additionad capacity i ^ h u ^
                             sion support, it would have the opportunify to make a mbitg M ^
                             decisionregardingthe need to retain one or more of those threb^^a^^
                             Our analysis showed that more than half of the planes' cphibmbd flight
                             hours during the period studied were for executive transpcnrtatk^
                             marily of the Attomey (Jeneral and the FBI Director. Fybm Aujg^
                             1988, through July 31,1989, the investigative missuHis f b r W h ^
                             planes were placed into the FBI fleet made up 23.1 peroei^ p | t h ^ t b t a l
                             combined work load, while executive transportation inade;juj[| $2J5 1 ^
                             cent of the combined work load.

                              Table 3.1 shows how the 818.2 total fUght hours of the three a i r a i ^
                              commonly used for executive transportation were distributed o>^^
                              period of our review.

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                                           Chapter 3
                                           Justice Should Consider Private Aircraft
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Table 3.1: Total Work Load of tho Ttirae
Aircraft Commonly Used for Executive       Mission                                                                  inigiitliburs          Percent
Transportation (August 11,1988, to July    Attomey General transportation
31.19^)                                                                                                                      146.0             17.8
                                           FBI Director transportation                                                       213.5             28.1
                                           Other executive transportation                                                     71.0              8.7
                                           Total executive transportation                                                   430.5              52.6
                                           Investigative missions^                                                           188 8             23.1
                                           Aviation support operations"                                                      1989              24.3
                                           Total                                                                             818.2          : 100.0
                                           ^Includes undercover missions (76.5 hours), transportation of passengers to supportinvesti^titive mis-
                                           sions (63.8 hours), equipment and evidence transport (42.9 hours), and photography (5.6 houifs)^
                                           "Includes pilot training (73.7 hours), maintenance and testing ot the planes (62.6 hours), and feriying,
                                           i.e., moving the planes from one location to another (62.6 hours).

                                           The SabreUner jettogged398.1flighthours during our reyiewjtieriq^
                                           About 77 percent of its use (306.1 flight hours) was for dcpcutiVe tians^
                                           portation: 71 percent of its use (282.5 hours) was fbr the j^ttpmey;j(3en-
                                           eral's and FBI Director's transportation. Figure 3.1 shows thetotalwork
                                           load of the Sabreliner.

                                            Page 42                                               GAO/GGIMWM Govenunent CIvtIlan Aircraft
                                          Chapter 3
                                          JusUce Should Consider Private Aircraft
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     Figure 3.1: Total Work Load of the
     Sabreliner Jet Aircraft
                                                                                             Attomey General Transportadon

                                                                                              FBI DhBdor Transportation

                                                                                              Other Executive Transportation
                                                                                              Aviation Support Operations
                                                                                              invasligaiive Missions
                                                        Total exacutive Hanspofiallon work load (76.0%).

                                          The seven-passenger turboprop aurcraft logged 318.8 hours. Abput 27
                                          percent of that time (85.3 hours) was for executive transportattibn.
                                          Figure 3.2 shows the total work load of the seven^passenger tiirbbprop

                                          Page 4a                                          GAO/GGDWHM Govemnent CMUaii Atrccaft

                                            Chapter 3
                                            JusUce Should Consider Private Aircraft
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Figure 3.2: Total Work Load of the Seven-
Passenger TurlMprop Aircraft
                                                                                                  Investigative Missions

                                                                                                  Aviation Support Operations

                                                                                                  Attomey Generai Transportation

                                                                                                  FBI Director Transportation

                                                                                                  Other Executive Tiansportatbn
                                                        = Total exacutive transportation woiktoad(26.7%).
                                            Note. Percentages do not total to 100 percent due to rounding.

                                            Because it was not officiaUy forfeited to the govemment and made
                                            avaUable for its use untU Febmary 27,1989, theftve-passengbrturbo-
                                            prop aircraft logged only 101.3 fUght hours during the period we
                                            reviewed. About 39 percent of its flight hours (39.1 hours) Wert for
                                            executive tramsportation. Figure 3.3 shows thetotalwork load bf the
                                            five-passenger turboprop aircraft.

                                             Page 44                                            OAO/GQDaOM Govennnent Civilian Alicnft
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Figure 3.3: Total Work Load of the Rve-
Passenger Tljrtioprop Aircraft
                                                                                               Investigative Missions

                                                                                               Aviation Support Operations

                                                                                               Attorney General Transportation

                                                                                               FBI DiredDr Transportatton

                                                                                               Other Executive Transportation
                                                       a: Total executive transportation work load (38.9%).

                                          Note: Percentages do not total to 100 percent due to rounding.

FBI May Not Need to                       As of April 1990, the FBI was considering requesting congressional
                                          approval to purchase another aircraft for its fleet. This adrcraft wpuld
Acquire Another Aircraft                  be used, in part, for transporting the Attomey General and the FBI
                                          Director. If leased aircraft are used for executive transportation, the FBI
                                          would need to determine whether theremaininganticipated use Would
                                          justify acquiring the aircraft.

                                          An FBI official said that the FBI does not have an aircraft capable of non-
                                          stop coast-to-coast flight, which the Attomey (Seneral often requues. He
                                          said that the FBI was preparing cost estimates for acquuing such a long-
                                          range aircraft and funding the personnel necessary to pUot and maintain
                                          it. If another aircraft is acquired, the 24-year-old Sabreliner may be dis-
                                          posed of, according to another official.

                                          According to the Associate Deputy Director for Investigations, he told
                                          Attomey (jeneral Meese in about 1986 that the FBI needed a jet airdraift
                                          capable of flying long distances without refueling—an aircraft with
                                          intercontinental capabiUty primarily to transport hostage rescue teiEunns
                                          and prisoners extradited from other countries. He recommended
                                          acquiring the aircraft solely for operational considerations unrelated to

                                           Page 46                                           GAO/GGDSOM Govmunait Civliian Aircraft
              Chapter 3
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              executive transportation. A former chief of the FBI aviation unit said
              military aircraft are used for these missions, but they are not avaUable
              as quickly as the FBI needs them for emergencies; also, the costs are very
              The Associate Deputy Director also said that money had not been avaU-
              able in the FBI budget to acquire a long-range aircraft. Instead, the FBI
              was considering funding altematives, including asking for congressional
              approval to trade in aircraft not in use, or seized airoraft that are not
              needed, to help defray the costs of acquiring the long-range jet. The
              Associate Deputy Director said that the proposed airoraft woidd not be
              acquired at the expense of other FBI aviation needs. An FBI offldal who
              stodied the possible aircraft acquisition estimated that a used long-range
              aircraft in good condition would cost about $20 miUion.

              We discussed the potential acquisition of this airoraft with an OMB offl-
              dal responsible for A-76. He said that a cost comparison to commerdal
              sources would be required if the aircraft's mission is passenger trans-
              portation. He said that if the aircraft would be used about 75 percent of
              itsflyingtime for executive transportation, as the Sabreliner jet had
              been, a cost comparison should be done.

Conclusions   Justice said that the Department's aircraft are npt subjed to the A-76
              requirement to compare their costs to those of commerdal sources
              because all Justice aircraft are used for inherentiy govemmental func-
              tions. Further, a draft Justice order classifles air transportation for the
              Attomey (General, and certain other department offldals needing
              security protedion, as an ongoing Justice mission. FinaUy, FBI offldals
              did not coUect OMB-required cost data on their aircraft because they did
              not believe they had to do the A-76 cost comparisons and beUeved that
              developing accounting systems to capture complete cost data would not
              be justified.                         ,
              We believe that Justice is required to compare the costs of its aircraft
              that are generaUy used for executive transportation to the costs of com-
              mercial sources. Although responsibility for providting security for the
              Attomey (General and FBI Director is an inherentiy govemmental func-
              tion, their actoal transportation is a support fundion that is not inher-
              ently govemmental and that conunerdal sources may be able to provide.
              If commercial sources—including those available pn a lease, charter, or
              rental basis—can satisfy the executives' security requirements, Justice
              should use these sources if their cost is less than using Justice aircraft.

               Page 46                                   GAO/GGIVS0«4 Gofvenunoit Civilian Airaraft
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      When we reviewed the results of our audit work with Justice offidals,
      they said that they had considered the cost of private commercial ser-
      vices, but they had not documented their intuitive conclusion t^at it
      would be less expensive to use FBI aircraft. The FBI and Justice siibs^
      quentiy prepared limited cost comparisons that showed substahllM cost
      savings from using the FBI'S Sabreliner aircraft rather thanleai^Ungkn
      identical aircraft. Offidals pointed out that the compisuisobrls dbjn^
      comply with OMB Circular A-76 procedures, and a Justice rep>resbhtative
      said that a comparison wouki be made usuig pending OAffiguidaffiicebn
      cost comparisons spedflcaUy for aircraft when such guidahl^Iis i^ued.

      Justice transported the Attorney General and FBI Directbr esctehsiiVely
      aboard three of it^ aircraft because offldals judged pbiniher^^^^i^
      service madequatetbfulfiU their needs for          flexibiUiyJn^t^              to
      secure communicatimis, access to classified OT sehsitiveidniat^^
      m transit, and persohaU securi^. Although these cbrl^dera^ti<^               a
      reasonable basis for bypassihg^regulariy scheduldlb^                   aii^e
      services, our analysis indicates that private adiscraft spryioe^^^^
      through lease, chairter^ orrehtailarrangements xic^cUdi^^^
      dpal security andrelatted<»hicbms better tliaui r^uiair|^
      lines. As the Assistant Attoniey (xeneral for !A|Uhuiis^^                     out,
      Justice had not explored the ayailability of privati p r c r ^               for
      executive transportaticm. Justif^ and FBI offidals^^^
      for the executives' security and compUance with jiiniiEiCu^^                 to
      determine the fullsuitabiUty of private aircraft seivicieisi for
      transportation and the rdative cost effd;tiveness of liiesb s e r S ^ ^
      versus govemment aircraft. '                          '• '{l."^^;:;Sli'i;|!s
      The FBI did not account for all aircraft costs as required j>y<^^      A-
      126. Wie believe accounting systems that provide the :)dat^^
      this circular are necessary for the sound managdnent (:^|iir^^
      tions. Without such data, the FBI cannot assure itself Illicit isi^^^
      effedivdy managmg its 84 aircraft. Cu-cular A-126 est;ii>lishesbli^
      inanagement principles for aii-qraft that should jt^ f(^i|iy^'b;^ aU:(^^
      tive agendes. OMB was aware of Justice's beUef that cpUbcting^^^^i^^
      would be expensive but nevertheless retauied thb require^
      1989 versum of the cuculari Finally, if Justice dddniinies^
      aircraft services can satisfy the Attomey (3«ieral's andlDireciJ^'^^^
      security requirements, a cost comparison must be dphe: J]iis0ob c
      do this without A-126 required data on Justice airdraft^it^r^^
      If private aircraft services can liied the executive$'!tran£q^^
      security needs, the three FBI aircraft that have beendsdl^esiiiib^^           fbr

       F*8«47                                    GAO/GGDM^Odiraii^

                        JusUce Should Consider Private Aircraft
                        Services and Accumulate Cost Data

                        this purpose may be avaUable for either increased support of investiga-
                        tive missions or disposal if such increased support is not needed. Of the
                        totalflyingtime for these aircraft, about 44 percent was for the
                        Attomey General's and FBI Director's transportation, and about 53 per-
                        cent was for all executive transportation intotal.Twenty-three piercent
                        of theirflyingtime was for investigative missions, and 24 pen%ht was
                        for aviation support such as pUot training and airoraft maihteiiahcb.
                        Further, the FBI is considering acquiring a long-range jd aircrafi^tl^
                        would likely be used extensively for executive transportation. Iros air-
                        craift may not be needed if private aircraft services can satisfactorily
                        med executive transportation needs.

                        In ordertocomply with OMB poUdes, the Attomey General shbiui
     Recoimnendations   mstrud the FBI Durector to
                        develop aircraft cost data and
                        determine whether private aircraft services can effectivdy meet the
                        security needs and other considerations of the Attomey (idneral|
                        Director, and other executives; and, if so, further determine ilsn;i^ pri-
                        vate services could provide this transportation more cost ef fei^ybly
                        than FBI or other Justice aircraft.

                         Page 48                                  CAO/G0i>e0g4 Gomnmtent CtviUaii Abcraft

m                                                                                        yMsyMm-
              Chapter 4

              Modification of an Aircraft for Surveillance
              Was Delayed

                                      During our analysis of executive transportation, we leamed tliat pne of
                                      the FBI's aircraft that was usedtotransport the Attomey General and
                                      FBI Director had not been modified for one of its intended inissibin& In
                                      discussing this issue with (Chairman Wise's office, we ag^eeAttir^emew
                                      the FBI's actionstocomplete tte proposed modification.
                                      FBI managonent did not ensure that their seven-passeanger tiujb^ipro^
                                      aircraft—and later the fivepassenger turboprop that wa^ s ^ ^        as a
                                      substitiitefbrthesevrairpassan^germodd—was modilied^j^a^cM^
                                      photograqphic survdUanoe iiiissions. Initially, FBI moutageii^
                                      dearly assign responsibility fdi- making the modificatipn; stibsi^i0ebitiy,
                                      managers did not oVensee tlie tosk to identify and
                                      issues that inqieddlthe itiodlflbation. In an ()ctol^ i8iG9ime^^
                                      managonont reooghized tKatproUems (j^agred tiiejmi^^
                                      said that corrective actions would b^
                                      FBI's failure to modifyltiie seyotpassenger t i ^ ^
                                      the five-passenger airgaft)diiidinot aulversely aCtebt t ^ rai^ii^^
                                      tive operations. ''                                   y''.-J:y&yyi0y

                                      In November 1986, the Assistant Director, FBI CrindiuA;]^^
              Need for AdcUtkxnal     IMvisitm, stated that the Fn needed additicmal a i i c i ^ x a ^ ^    pho-
              Surveillance Aircraft   tpgriq>hic survdllaiioe. At tliat time, the FBai relied (Ni^0^
              Identified              Baron fbr its photograQduc surveUlance missions. The B ^
                                      primary photographic surveilliance aurcraft bi his menutno^
                                      fying the need for additional ca^iadty, the Assistant Ettr^^^
                                      two additional aircraft wmild be made available f(»- tUlE^j^^
                                      were a Cessna 404 aircraft that was undergoing r^penirai^^
                                      passonger turboprop aircraft, which had beat reaentily^^
                                      boprpp aircraft wouM be made available whoi the s d z ^
                                      ture process was 0Qiiq>leted.'''                         ly^i'M^^Sff^A
                                      bl a Febmary 8,1988, memorandumtothe (2rinunialbiy«i^^ve Divi-
m                                     sion and the Lab(»radx»y IMviston, which (^peiates the|ai^^
                                      used for photographic surveiUance, the Assodate D^u^^ir E^inedb
                                      Investigations said that the seven^ltassenger tmrlMipn^
                                      ' A third aircraft was also ID be avaaaUe for tesUqg andiBiliijMi|m«i» maarf g J^i^iri^tiwiiH jili«iii^iM|ilri«.

                                      'AcemJing t n nn F B I nffjrbil, dig Clf>im» J I M airpr»» I M H IMMHI iMnnfiiwI ifar | . h a ^ ^ i ^ p * f r
                                      lanoe and was unde^goiag testing anl evalnatian m FUsuaiy ISM I t e PBTsSali^^
                                      modified in FUBiiaiy 1986 90 tint it oooU be iBBdte suiveillajra in i ^ ^
                                      HuMwvia,Ui(eSilBcIlw!i flies too Cut fbr good photovavhlc quality.

> i ••--•••

SMI-:                                                                                                                         y:iyy^si^mss& •,:-.
                                              Chapter 4
                                              Modificadon of an Aircraft for Surveillance
                                              Waa Delayed

                                              be modified for photographic surveiUance. A February 16,1988, memo-
                                              randum from the FBI Director seeking Justice approvaltoretainthe
                                              seven-passenger turboprop aircraft for FBI use simUarly stated that the
                                              aircraft's mission woiUd include photography.
                                               Modifying an aircraft for a photographic surveiUance nussion can entaU
                                               mayor structural changes, which indude cutting a hole in the bpttom of
                                               the fuselage and installing a glass plate. Depending upon the spedfic
                                               instaUladlon, the aircraft's inside flooring ma^ need to be removd|^
                                               that a camera can be mounted above the glass. When usedfornybssipns
                                               pther than surveillance, the glass plate must be prptected, either j:^
                                               through removal or with a cover. In addition, seating ma^ nebd tbl)e
                                               reinstalled between photographic uses.

                                               Neither memorandum specified whether the Criminal Inyesti^itiyb^vi-
                     Responsibility for        sion or the Laboratory Divisicoi would be responsiUe for m ^ ^
                     Aircraft Modification     seven-passenger turboprop adraraft Both divisions, at 1^^
                     Unclear                   became involved in the modification e ^ r t .

                                               In July 1988, the Laboratory Diyisum issued a $155,()p0;|nir^^
                                               to modify the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft fbri)f^^
                                               veillance, identi^ring the Fra as the plane's owner. Acbprd||g|o b i i ^
                                               in the Laboratory and Criminal Investigative Divisipns, ajlt^
                                               purchase order was issued, it was not used, because tbdki^lsbf^biil^
                                               revealed that the FBI owned the aircraft In the same mooifithit^
                                               purdia^e order was issued, the Fra had also moved its t^iij|i^^
                                               operated aircraft into a company not publicly linkdl to thi^ i^:|W^^^
                                               not determine why the purchase order was issued vdidtJU:^iis^^
                                               have revealed that the FBI owhed the aircraft.              ii;! Sgs^S
                                               In May 1989, staff from the two divisions met to discussllibpa^^
                                               Oiminal Investigative Division staff said they were rdudant ;tp mpd^
                                               the aircraft because                                      yyymMM
                                             • a visible modification to the aircraft would negate its use fbrmdbroover
                                               operations;                                               ky'-f-^yy;^
                                             • work under the purchase order would publidy identiQr thb aird^
                                               the FBI's;                                                 ^-yy&Sim
                                             • it would take too long toreinstaUseating after a photbgrapmclniissibn,
                                               which could interfere with other uses; and                 il^fiS|jEif?i
                                             • the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft wa£ in "mint''ONfuUl^^
                                               previously undergone extensive interior renovations priortoits Sk^z^

                                               Page BO                                      GAO/Gra>aoa4 Goveinnnnt GKHiian Ainxaft

• f t S V :••,:.••
                                     Chapter 4
                                     ModUlcation of an Aircraft for Surveillance
                                     Was Delayed

                                     To overcome these problems, the Criminal Investigative Division staff
                                     suggested making the modifications to the FBI'S five-passenger turbo-
                                     prop airoraft, which had been forfeited in Febmary 1989. A Laboratory
                                     Division offidal agreed with this altemative.

                                     Problems then aroseregardingwho was responsible for arranging and
                                     funding the modification to the five-passenger turboprop aircraft. After
                                     the May meeting, the Laboratory Division offidal responsible for the
                                     surveiUance program thought that the Criminal Investigative Division
                                     would arrange for the modiflcation and fund it. Criminal Investigative
                                     Division offldals, on the other hand, considered the Laboratory Division
                                     to be responsible.

                                     According to a Cruninal Investigative Division offidal, as of February
                                     1990, the flve-passenger turboprop aircraft had not been modified, and
                                     issues related to the July 1988 purchase order and funding responsi-
                                     bUity were being addre^ed but had not yet been resolved.

         Additional Factxurs Cited   Various FBI officials cited several factors that may have contributed to
         for the Delays              ddays in modifying the seven-passenger torboprop adrcraft suidlthdi the
                                     five-i>assenger modd.

                                     The Laboratory Division offidal responsible for the surveiUahpei pro-
                                     gram beUeved that the Criminal Investigative Division's reluctadicito
                                     modify the ori^naUy selected seven-passenger turboprop aircr^t was
                                     due in part to the plane's suitabiUty for executive transppriatiph. The
                                     turboprop aircraft were often used to transport the Attomey Obhbral
                                     and Fra Director. Further, according to this official, (]riminad Inyiestig^^
                                     tive Division personnd worked dUigently to fulfiU the exeditiv^l^ans-
                                     portation needs. Other FBI offidals—including the Assodate Depu^
                                     Du'ector for Investigations—said that executive transportation never
                                     interfered with a mission use of the aircraft.

                                     The official who headed the aircraft unit until October 1988 sjaidith^ in
                                     addition to the unit's normal responsibiUties for operating; the aircraft, a
                                     number of other pressing issues existed during the time period whch the
                                     turboprop aircraft modifications were to occur. These issueis induijed
                                     modifying other aircraft and relocating the FBI headquarters-operated
                                     aurcraftfiromone faciUty to another. According to the official^ in(|iifying
                                     the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft was not a mayor issue jb^ati^e
                                     the Beechcraift Baron was atvaUad>le fbr surveiUance missions ahd^the
                                     Sabreliner jet had also been modified for this purpose.

                                     PageU                                         OAO/OGI>«M4 Government cavilhin Aircraft
                             Chapter 4
                             Modification of an Aircraft for SurveUlance
                             Waa Delayed

                             Similarly, within the Laboratory Division, the offidal who led the
                             efforts to modify the seven-passenger turboprop aircraft and then the
                             flve-passenger turboprop aircraft had competing responsibiUties,
                             according to a Division mans^er. The offidal's first priority was doing
                             surveiUance work, and he had additionalresponsibiUtiesrelatedto
                             developing other surveiUance technologies.

                             The Associate Deputy Director for Investigations and the offidal who
                             headed the aviation unit until October 1988 also dted persKumel^ange-
                             over as contributing to the dd£^s m modifying the aurcraft. lliellmit
                             head and^other staiff responsible for these efforts were transfbrred, and
                             new staff replaced them. The Associate Deputy Director sail timt
                             changes in key personnel contributed to the delajrs, but did nPt bkcuse
                             the failure to cpmplete the medifications.

Recognition of the Problem   The Assodate Deputy Director, whose February 1988 mempirandUm said
and Commitment to            that the seven-passenger turiioprop aircraft should be mbdified'j^ the
                             surveiUance mission, told us that problems had interfered^wiihiltlMe mod-
Correct It                   ification and said that t h ^ would be resolved so that theifiVe^^lisBenger
                             turboprop aircraft would be modified.

                             On October 3,1989, we discussed our understanding of the dtiiiatibn
                             rdated to the turboprop aircraft modifications with the A^spdi^l
                             Deputy Director. Until our meeting, he had been iinawarbtihuiii^^
                             fication had not occurred. The Director said that the (>indnM?In^^
                             tive Division was responsible for managing the aviation pHrpgrain^
                             should have ensured that the aircraft was modified. He hadintbhded
                             that Laboratory Division offidals provide technical assistart6e|isj^;f

                             He also disagreed with the Criminal Investigative Division ofhdiads' rea-
                             sons for not modifying the aurcraft, stating—for example^:^--tiiatt^
                             modification would not necessarily interfere with undercoyclr ppeirations
                             and, when it might, another plane could be rented. He alsb isaddli^ the
                             Division should have objected to the award of the purdia^ pi^er tlefore
                             its issuance because the Division's Deputy Assistant EKrd;t^^
                             FBI contrad review board. The Director said that he (Udriot bll^^
                             substitoting the five-passenger turboprop aircraft for the {^yeiilrpas-
                             senger modd because either aircraft could accomplish thb%us»dii^i>u^
                             he should have been apprised of the substitotion. He also ^aMftlu^^
                             issues holding up the modification would be resolved and thb inbdifica-
                             tion made without further delay.

                              Page 58                                      GAO/GG04NK84 Govemment CSvUlan Atacndl
                                                       Chapter 4
                                                       ModiflcaUon of an Aircraft for Surveillance
                                                       Waa Delayed

     Delay Reportedly Did Not                          FBI offidals said that although neither of the turboprop adrcradft was
                                                       modified, the agency's investigative operations were not adversiely
     Affect Investigative                              affected during the period we reviewed. They noted thaut some addi-
     Missions                                          tional capacity was avaUablejbdrause the Fra's Sad>reliner j d aur|r^
                                                       could be used for surveiUance, the Beechcraft Baron rf»nainetlih|u^
                                                       and other less sophisticated surveiUance techniques were sonietimes

                                                       The Laboratory Division of fidal responsible for the suryeiUanoe mission
                                                       did not find any adverse effoct on missions becaui% ndtiidi-ttmi|i^^
                                                       nor flve-passenger turbpprpp aircraft had been hujiidrfiMf Tlibb^
                                                       had his sta^ review photographic missions requestedidiiii^
                                                       1989 and found that no investigation or survdUamce i h i s ^ ^
                                                       adversely affected because the aircraft were hot mbdlR^^
                                                       said that photographic mission requests were sati|flbid^b|rpi^
                                                       Investigative Division in aU emergency situations;vLn( m ^ ^         situ-
                                                       ations, missions were either r^dieduled or les^ 4>f>^^^^
                                                       factory, photographic techniques were used.

                                                       The Oiminal Investigative Division official respbhlnl^
                                                       the aurcraft operation also aslffid his pilots whdli«r a^ t^l^dc^ <^
                                                       graphic missions had developed during the :pecibdmie^^
                                                       Although they fbund no indication of a backloig, thd)^
                                                       in scheduling some of the missions because of ml^iuUda                    with
                                                       the Beechcraft.                                     -;:^^i!-:Si|iii/f|S;;

                                                       As of Febmary 1990 a Crimiiiad Investigative pi\i^|dnLiQ^^
                                                       that modifying the five-piassenger turboprop airci^ftyras i ^
                                                       matter. The offidal said tha^ besides the Beechqr^ Bii^
                                                       Sabreliner being used fbr siuiyei^     the CJessanii^ld^h^
                                                       fied fbr survdUance and v m Undergoing testUvgi^
                                                       this testing and evaluattiPn was completed, the FBI w b ^                air-
                                                       craft capable of flying survdllahce missions; ^ I E^

                                                        Responsibilify for mpdifyinj^the seven-passehj^|t(iuriK)^^
          Ccihclusions                                  was npt clearly assigned tbeititer the CriminayTlhy^t^^
                                                        which operates airdnaft, di^thi Laboratory Diyii^m^ w ^
                                                        surveiUance mtssioh& Thii^ iindarity, in our ^j^jninj^
                                                        delays in achievihg tiielhtdidiid motUficatibrffi fm^
                                                        sengertorbopropadrci^^wdt)^^ to the fh^^asiet^^
u-'-- •                                                 modifications to the seyen^pfts%nger turbbpi^^
tv.                                                     Instead, the fiye-passdiger lym^ was diosienls|K^^

                                                        PageSS                                       QAO/Gffl>4M«4 ( ^ ^      Airaaft

           ^^^yy •iftrfii'i-iiif-StS's;: i^y&   iill
                       Chapter 4
                       Modiflcation of an Aircraft for SurveUlance
                       Was Delayed

                       to FBI officials, executive transportation for the Attomey (General and
                       FBI Duector, competing responsibUities of the staff working on the modi-
                       fication projed, and personnel turnover in the aviation program also
                       contributedtothe delay. The Associate Deputy Duector for Investiga-
                       tions recognized that problemsregardingresponsibiUty for modifymg
                       the adrcraft existed between the two FBI divisions and said that the
                       Criminal Investigative Division was responsible for modifying the air-
                       craft. He said the assodated problems would be resolved so that the
                       five-passenger turboprop aircraft would be modified, FBI officials also
                       said that the failure to modify either turboprop aircraft did not
                       adversely affed investigative missions.

                       PageS4                                        GAP/GGDSOM GowenuiuHiMlS^^



          Appendix 1

          List of Attomey General Trips on Glovemment
          Aircraft (August 11,1988, to July 31,1989)

                                                                                                 Peraonal staff               Oltier pauHMigers
                                                                                                 accompanying tlie            accoinpanying the
          Date       Aircraft                 itinerary               Purpose of trip            Attomey General*             Atlonny^QeneraP
          10/7 to    FBI Sabreliner           Washington, D C , to    Dinner hosted by an        William Snyder. Henry        Retum only: one
          10/8/88                             Charleston. SC, and     official of the U.S.       Barr                         Justice official
                                              return                  Sentencing
                                                                      Commission; address
                                                                      U.S. Attorneys
          10/18/68   Rented aircraft witti    Washington, D C . to    Address Appeal of          Murray Dickman                Retum only: one
                     FBI pilot                New York. NY, and       Conscience                                               Federal Reserve Board
                                              return                  Foundation award                                         official and his security
                                                                      dinner                                                   detail
          10/28/88   FBI Sabreliner           Washington. D.C. to     Address Florida Blue       William Snyder                None
                                              Gainesville, FL. and    Key banqviet
          11/14/88   FBI seven-passenger      Washington. D.C. to      Address meeting of        William Snyder                None
                     turboprop aircraft       Pittsburgh. PA, and      Allegheny Conference
                                              return                   on Community
          11/21/88   FBI Sabreliner           Washington. D.C, to      Republican Governors-     Robert Ross. Murray           None
                                              Point Clear. AL. and     Conference,               Dickman, William
                                              return                   participate ;n panel      Snyder
                                                                       discussion on illegal
          11/23 to   FBI Sabreliner to NY;    Washington. D.C. to      Visit a US. Attorney's    NY only: William              None
          11/25/88   automobile from NY to    New York. NY. and        Office; attend Federal    Snyder
                     RA and return to         Philadelphia, PA, and    Bar Council's Annual
                     Washington. D.C.         retum                    Thanksgiving
                                                                       luncheon; personal -
                                                                       Thanksgiving holiday
                                                                       in PA
          11/28 to   Military aircraft from   Washington, D.C -        Presidential mission;     European trip: Robert         Europoah trip: two
          12/13/88   \Ateishington, D.C, to   Andrews AFB- to          meetings arKl             Ross, Henry Barr; MA:         DEAofficiaisrtwo
                     European destinations    London, England:         receptions with several   William Snyder, Linda         Justiceofficials;
                     and return to NY;        Zurich, Switzerland;     European law              Stames                        Athefisbnly:iiwo FBI
                     automobile from NY to    Bonn, W. Germany;        enforcement officials                                   officials:
                     MA; FBI seven-           Rome, Italy; Athens,     and groups; address
                     passenger turboprop      Greece; New York, NY; PA Society dinner and
                     aircraft from MA to      and Boston, MA; and      accept an award;
                     Washington. D.C.         return                   remarks at Kennedy
                                                                       School of Govemment
                                                                       seminar for newly
                                                                       elected Members of                                                             '   •   •   •   •   ;

          12/18 to   Military aircraft        Washington, D.C. •        Presidential mission;    Rotwrt Ross                    Two DEA officials
          12/20/88                            Andrews AFB -to           sign the United
                                              Vienna. Austria, and      Nations Convention
                                                                       Against Illegal Drug
                                                                                                                                    • fM^M
                                               return                                                                                     yyMS'::-
           1/16/89    DEA Merlin IVC           Washington. D.C. to      Remarks to Dr. Martin    Cuyler Walker; return         Mrs.mK)fnburgh.= FBI
                                               Atlanta, GA, and return Luther King. Jr.,         only: William Snyder          officisd arid wife, and
                                                                        ecumenical service                                     Justicephotographer

                                                       PageSe                                        QAO/GlCa>WS4,Gmmmam»0Mf^ Alicnit

Xgri---                                                                                                             r-- :-.-,:\'-:i;'i^: .\yyr4^[:A*>ii\t^'i^^                ..\.-y-
                                                             Appendix I
                                                             List of Attorney General IMpa on
                                                             Govenunent Aircraft (August 11,1988, to
                                                             July 31,1989)

                                                                                                        Peraonal ataff           Other paeeengere
     Data       Aircraft                      Itinerary                       Purpoaeoftrip             Attomey General'         Attorney General^
     1/16 to    DEA Meriin IVC.               Washington. D.C. to             Remarks at oath of        William Snyder           Mrs. Thomburgh^
     1/17/89    automobile on retum           Harrisburg, PA. and             office for PA Attorney
                                              return                          General; television
     2/3 to     FBI Sabreliner                Washington, D.C. to             Address WV Bar            WV and CO: David         WV and CO: one news
     2/6/89                                   Charleston, WV;                 Association; meet with    Runkel; CO, MA and       reporter"
                                              Denver, CO; and Bos-            Bar Association           return: William Snyder
                                              ton, MA; and retum              Committee on Federal
                                                                              Judiciary; address
                                                                              Judicature Society
                                                                              lunch; meet virith U.S.
                                                                              Attomey and staff;
                                                                              meet with FBI field
                                                                              office staff
     2/20 to    FBI Sabreliner                 Washington, D.C, to            Address Society of        William Snyder           None
     2/21/89                                   Palm Beach, FL, and            Four Arts
     2/22/69    FBI seven-passenger            Washington, D.C, to            Address Economic          David Runkel: retum      None
                turtwprop aircraft             New Yorit. NY. and             Club of NY dinner         only: William Snyder
     3/6 to     Military aircraft              Washington, D.C, to            Presidential mission;     Robert Ross              Two DEA officials, one
     3/9/89                                    Bogota, Columbia: La           meetings with govern-                              State official„brie
                                               Paz, Boliva; and Lima,         ment officials and                                 National Security
                                               Peru; and return               others such as United                              Coundl:6fficial,and
                                                                              Nations, State                                     one interpireter
                                                                              Department, and DEA
     3/17 to    FBI Sabreliner to MA           Washington, D.C, to            Television interview;     AZ only: William         AZ only: FBI Director
     3/20/^     and AZ; commercial             Boston, MA, and                address FBI/DEA           Snyder
                aircraft on return             Phoenix, AZ, and               conference; personal
                                               return                         day for Attomey
     3/22/89    Marine One                     VMishington, D.C, to           Accompany the             None                     Presidential paily
                                               Lancaster, PA, and             President to a drug
                                               Wilmington, DE, and            awareness education
                                               return                         meeting; attend
                                                                              presidential addresses
     3/23/89    FBI seven-passenger             Washington, D.C, to           Meet with the dean of     David Runkel, William    Mrs. Thomjburgh'
                turt)oprop aircraft             Boston, MA, and retum         Kennedy School of         Snyder
                                                                              reception: forum on 3-
                                                                              Mite Island emergency
     4/11 /89    FBI seven-passenger            Washington, D.C, to           Address Wbrid Affairs     Murray Dickman.          None
                turiooprop aircraft             Pittsburgh, FV^, and          Council of Pittsburgh;    David Runkel; retum
                                                return                        press meetings            only: Kathy Dickey.
                                                                                                        William Snyder

                                                              Page 87                                       GAO/GGDWM Gora^^            OvOlaa Alicnft

ii                                     •:ii,fl'g^/iateia<-
                                                         Appendix I
                                                         Ust of Attorney General IMpa on
                                                         Government Alrciafk (August 11,1988, to
                                                         July 81,1989)

                                                                                                             Personal ataff                                   Other I
                                                                                                             aceompanyingthe                                  accompMiylnglhe
                Date       Aircraft               Itinerary               Purpoaeoftrip                      Attomey General*                                 Attorney General^
                4/20 to    FBI Sabreliner         Washington, O.C, to     Address Foundation                 William Snyder                                   Mrs. Thomburgh'
                4/25/89                           San Diego and Los       for Developmental
                                                  Angeles, CA, and        Disabilities & Worid
                                                  retum                   Affairs (^uncil; visit
                                                                          former Pres. and Mrs.
                                                                          Reagan and U.S.
                                                                          Attorney's Office;
                                                                          participate in briefing
                                                                          with the Los Angeles
                                                                          (Sang Task Force:
                                                                          attend asset forfeiture
                                                                          announcement with
                                                                          the President: press
                4/26 to    FBI seven-passenger    Washington, D.C, to     Address and introduce              David Runkel                                     None
                4/27/89    turt»prop aircraft     Miami, FL, and retum    President to Intema-
                                                                          tional Drug
                                                                          Conference dinner;
                                                                          attend opening of
                                                                          Customs Command
                                                                          and Intelligence
                4/28 to    FBI seven-f»ssenger    Washington, D.C, to     Personal travel t)y                None                                             Mrs. ThporritMjrgti*
                5/1 /89    turtMprop aircraft:    New Bedford. MA, and    Attomey General
                           retum on FBI           retum
                5/4/89     FBISabreli             Washington, DC. to      Meetings with Chief                Davkl Runkel: retum                              One Justtoe official
                                                  New York, NY, and       Judge, U.S. Attomey,               only: William Snyder
                                                  retum                   and NY Dmg
                                                                          Enforcement Task
                                                                          Force: asset forfeiture
                5/8/89     FBI Sabreliner         Washington, D.C. to     Address 5th & 11th                 David Runkd: return                              None
                                                  New Orleans, LA, and    Circuits Judicial                  only: Steve Ross
                                                  retum                   Conference
                5/8 to     Military aircraft      Washington, DC. •       PreskJential mission;              Robert Ross, Murray                              O.C. to France and
                5/12/89                           Andrews AFB - to        attend meetings and                Dickman, Rot)ert                                 Spain: one State
                                                  Paris, France, and      dinners with foreign               Mueller, and William                             officiai: Ranee to
                                                  Madrid, Spain, and      officials inciuding the            Snyder: Madrid to DC.                            Srain only, one Justice
                                                  retum                   French and Spanish                 only: Julie Andrews                              official, another State
                                                                          Justioe and Interior                                                                officiai: Spain to D.C:
                                                                          Ministers: attend inter-                                                            FBI Director, DEA
                                                                          national law                                                                        Administrator, another
                                                                          enforcem^tt meeting                                                                 Justtee official, and
                                                                                                                                                              one DEA officiai
                5/13 to     FBI Sabreliner        Washington, D.C, to      Address University of    William Snyder                                            Mrs. ThomtHirgh''
                5/14/89                           F)aleigh^urham, NC.      NC Law School
                                                  and return               graduation
                 5/15 to    FBI seven-passenger   Washington, O.C, to      Meet with ahd address William Snyder                                               None
                 5/17/89    turtMprop aircraft:   Pittsburgh, R^, and      FBIfieldstaff; voting
                            retum on USMS Jet     return                   poll, televisiori inter-
                            Star                                           view

                                                          PageSS                                                 QAO/13iGb0iUQanama^Q4auiidte^

                                                                                       Vi't^.-'tflV-'.ViJ^               i'iH')-. ji'l^-!^;.'.'^.;- '^t. V^                     :;^;;i:;.ij^:#-j^^^
                                        Appendix I
                                        List of Attomey General Trips on
                                        Government Aircraft (August 11,1988, to
                                        July 31,1989)

                                                                                    Peraonal ataff                                 Other paaaengera
                                                                                    accompanying the                               aceompanyingthe
Date      Aircraft              itinerary                 Purpoaeoftrip             Attomey GeneraP                                Attomey GeneifaP
5/25/89   FBI five-passenger    Washington. D.C. to       Address a private         Return only: William                           None
          turisoprop aircraft   New York, NY. and         dinner gathering          Snyder
6/2 to    FBI seven-passenger   Washington, D.C, to       Address Yale Class of     William Snyder                                  Mrs. Thomburgh<=
6/3/89    turboprop aircraft    New Haven, CT, and        1954 reunion dinner;
                                retum                     Yale faculty lecture
6/6/89    FBI seven-passenger   ^shington, D.C, to        Attend D.C Circuit's      Cuyler Walker                                   One U.S. Senator
          turtjoprop aircraft   Williamsburg, VA, and     50th Judicial
                                return                    Conference
6/7/89    FBI five-passenger    \Afetshington, D.C. to    Meet with U.S.            None                                            One U.S. Senator, one
          turboprop aircraft    Wilmington, DE and        Attorney and address                                                      Justice official
                                return                    DE Bench and Bar
6/9/89    FBI Huey helicopter   Washington, D.C, to       Address DEA               Dick Weatherbee                                 None
                                Quantico, VA, and         Academy graduation
6/12 to   USMS Jet Star         Washington, D.C, to       Address TX Police         David Runkel, William                           One Justice official,
6/14/89                         Dallas, Galveston, and    Association, Galveston    Snyder; TX to D.C.                              one news reporter; TX
                                Houston, TX. and          County Bar                only: Eric Jowett                               to D.C; only::enbther
                                return                    Association, Houston                                                      Justice official
                                                          Lawyers Association,
                                                          and Houston Bank
                                                          Fraud Conference;
                                                          meet Dallas Bank
                                                          Fraud Task Force
6/15/89   Air Force One         Washington, D.C -         Accompany the             None                                             Presidential party
                                Andrews AFB - to          President to a wreath
                                Glynco, GA, and return    laying ceremony for
                                                          slain Federal Law
                                                          Enforcement Training
                                                          Center graduates
6/19/89   FBI Sabreliner        Washington, D.C, to       Testimony before          David Runkel: return                             One Justice official
                                New York. NY. and         Senate Caucus on          only: William Snyder
                                retum                     Intemational Narcotics
                                                          Ck}ntrol hearing
6/27/89   FBI Sabreliner        Washington, D.C. to       Address Operation         David Runkel                                     One Justice,.
                                Chicago, IL, and return   Push Convention &                                                          consultant, two hews
                                                          Mid-America                                                                reporters"    I
7/7/89    FBI Huey helicopter   Washington, D.C. -Fort    Address FBI Academy       Rotiert Mueller                                 FBI Director^ orieiFBI
                                McNair - to Quantico,     graduation and tour                                                       official, and Jiiistice
                                VA, and return            racility                                                                  photographer! •
7/10 to   FBI Sabreliner        Washington, D.C, to        Asset forfeiture press   Rot>ert Mueller; retum                           None
7/11/89                         Los Angeles, CA, and       announcement:            only: William Snyder
                                return                    address 9th Circuit
                                                          Judicial (inference;
                                                           meeting with U.S.
7/12/69   FBI seven-passenger   Washington. D.C, to       Attend 71st annual        Return only: William                            Norter:
          turboprop aircraft    Pittsburgh, PA, and       convention of PA          Snyder
                                retum                     American Legion

                                         PageS9                                         GKO/QGIDWMGamnm^

                                                                                           ' ^ - - - ^ U Z ...-,^^.-i\r:^ii(H^u.^v^|i^J.-jJ^!^i'^<^JJ^:u-^ASC^    -":':
                                          Appendix I
                                          List of Attomey General IVlps on
                                          Government Aircraft (August 11,1988, to
                                          July 31,1989)

                                                                                          Peraonal staff                Otherpassengers
                                                                                          accompanying the              accompanying the
  Date      Aircraft              itinerary                   Purpoaeoftrip               Attomey General*              Attomey'Geheral"
  7/18 to   FBI seven-passenger   Washington, D . C , to      Address National            None                          Mrs. Thomburgh*
  7/22/89   turboprop aircraft    Portland, ME, and New       District Attorney's                                       Peter Thbmburgh*
                                  Found Lake, NH, and         Association summer
                                  return                      conference; personal

                                          ^Staff of the Office of the Attorney General.
                                          "An FBI security detail also accompanied the Attorney General on all trips.

                                          '^Reimbursement made for official travel based on the commercial fare with 14-day advance
                                          "Reimbursement made tiased on standard commercial fare.
                                          'Reimbursement made for personal travel based on standard commercial fare.

                                              Page 60                                           GAO/GGIM0S4Gdwenun<mtdvl]lra               "i

Appendix II

List of FBI Director Trips on (jovemment
Aircraft (August 11,1988, to July 31,1989)

                                                                                          Personal ataff          Other paaaengera
                                                                                          accompanying the        aceompanyingthe
Date       Aircraft                 Itinerary                  Purpose of trip            Director*               Directoi"
8/29/88    FBI seven-passenger      Washington, D.C, to        Briefing                   Oliver Revell, Floyd    None
           turtjoprop aircraft      Fort McPherson, GA,                                   Clarke
                                    and return
9/15/88    FBI Sabreliner           Washington, D.C, to        Participate in Joint       None                    Mrs. Sessions, one FBI
                                    St. Louis, MO, and         Session of Judicial                                official
                                    retum                      C)nference and Bar
                                                               Association ot MO
9/19 to    FBI Sabreliner from      Washington, D.C, to        Address training           Oliver Revell           None
9/24/88    Washington, D.C, to      Oslo, Nonway, and          session of European
           New York, NY;            London, England, and       Chapter of FBI
           commercial aircraft to   return                     National Academy;
           Oslo, London, and                                   attend law
           return to NY; FBI                                   enforcement
           Sabreliner from NY to                               conference
9/26 to    FBI Sabreliner           \Abshington, D.C, to       Address International      None                    Mrs.           , one FBI
9/28/88                             Atlanta, GA, and Little    Association of Wbmen                               official
                                    Rock, AR, and return       Police; dedicate new
                                                               FBI field office
10/2 to    FBI Sabreliner           Washington, D.C, to        Address Metropolitan       None                    Mrs. Sessions: Miami
10/3/88                             Miami and Key West,        District Chief Judge's                             to Key Westarid retum
                                    FL, and return             Conference                                         only: a Judge and wife;
                                                                                                                  Key WlBst to Miami
                                                                                                                  only: one FBI agent
10/4/88    FBI Sabreliner           V\bshington, D.C, to       Address University of      None                    Mrs. Sessions^one FBI
                                    Charlottesville, VA, and   VA Speakers                                        official—^'^:-^
                                    return                     Committee
10/9 to    FBI Mitsubishi           Washington, D.C, to        Attend U.S. Attorney's     None                    D.C. to Charieston and
10/11/88                            Charleston, SC; and        Conference; address                                Ashville bnly;:two FBI
                                    Black Mountain,            Retired YMCA                                       officials arid one DEA
                                    Asheville, and (Char-      Directors meeting; visit                           official: Asheville to
                                    lotte, NC; and return      FBI field office                                   (^ariotte Chly: one FBI
                                                                                                                  agent '.:';:;:-'-v
10/15/88   FBI Mitsubishi           Washington, D.C, to        Address National           None                    MI'S. Sessions;
                                    Williamsburg, VA, and      Conference of Metro-
                                    retum                      politan Courts
10/16 to   FBI Sabreliner           Washington, O.C, to        Address Intemational       Washington, D.C, to     None
10/20/88                            Salt U k e City, UT;       Association of Chiefs      UT and OR: Floyd
                                    Portland, OR; Seattle,     of Police and Intema-,     Clarke: OR to WA:
                                    WA; Detroit, Ml; and       tional Society of Crime    John Otto
                                    return                     Prevention
                                                               Practitioners; visit FBI
                                                               field offices
10/28 to   FBI Mitsubishi           Washington, D.C, to        Address Society of         John Otto               MrS: Otto;;D.C?to TN
10/29/88                            Nashville, TN, and         Former FBI Agents                                  only: pne]FBil;pfficial
11/3/88    Military aircraft        Washington, D.C, to        Address FBI/Marine         None                    Marine Corps ^:
                                    (^mp Smith, NY, and        Corps Association                                  comrriarKiant?
                                    retum                      birthday celebration

                                             Page 61                                          GAO/GGIMie84 Govmiiieat a v t U u i ^ ^
                                                     Appendix D
                                                     Ust of FBI Director IMps on Govemment
                                                     AlKraft (August 11,1988, to July 31,1988)

                                                                                                    Peraonal ataff            Otlier passengera
                                                                                                    accompanying the          aceompanyingthe
       Date       Aircraft                   Itinerary                 Purpose of trip              Director*                 DIriBctiM*- ^^
       11/13 to   FBI Sabreliner for         Washington, D.C, to       Attend 57th Interpol         None                      One FBI official: NE to
       12/1 /88    domestic travel from      Hong Kong; Bangkok,       General Assembly and                                   SD only: onie FBI
                  NE to return to D.C:       Thailand; Sydney and      Far East Legal Attache                                 agent: SD to MN only:
                  commercial aircraft for    Canberra, Australia;      Conference; visit                                      another FBI agent
                  international travel and   Honolulu, HI; San         National Press Qub of
                  from HI to CA, CO, and     f^rancisco, dA; Denver,   Australia; visit FBI field
                  NE                         CO; Omaha, NE; Sioux      offices: address
                                             Falls, SD; Minne-         Annual Law
                                             apolis, MN; and return    Enforcement dinner
       12/4 to    FBI seven-passenger        Washington, D.C, to       Attend Italian-              Retum only: Oliver        One Justice officia]
       12/10/88   turt>oprop aircraft from   New York, NY; Athens,     American Wbridng             Revell
                  Washington, D.C, to        Greece: Rome, Italy:      Group meeting and
                  NY; commercial air-        and retum                 intemational law
                  craft to European                                    enforcement meeting
                  destinations and
                  return to NY; FBI
                  Sabreliner from NY to
li:               D.C.
iS-. ^2/•^3to     FBI Satveliner             Washington, O.C, to       Dedicate high school         None                      Mrs. Sessiwisr
jiSI   12/14/88                              Kansas City, MO, and      courtroom in the
                                             return                    Director's name
       1/3 to     FBI Sabreliner             Washington, D.C, to       Visit FBI field office       None                      None
       1/4/89                                New York, NY, and         and address
                                             return                    employees
       1/5/89     FBI seven-passenger        Washington, D.C, to       Visit FBI field office;      None                       Mrs. Sessions!
                  turt)Oprop aircraft:       Norfolk, VA, and return   attend executive
                  automobile on retum                                  retreat
       1/12 to    FBI Sabreliner             Washington, D.C, to       Address Palm Beach           None                       D.C to FL and SC: one
       1/14/89                               West Palm Beach, FL,      Roundtable and SC                                       FBIofficieiK'f
                                             and Greenville, SC.       Bar Association
                                             and retum
       2/2 to     FBI seven-passenger        Washington, D.C, to       Attend executive             Oliver Revell, John        Two FBI officials
       2/3/89     turboprop aircraft         Virginia Beach, VA,       conference retreat           (Dtto, and Sarah
                                             and retum                                              Munford
       2/8 to     FBI Sabreliner             Washington, D.C, to       Address Harvard Law          None                       Mrs. Sessions^
       2/12/89                               Boston, MA; and           School forum: lecture
                                             Houston, San Marcos,      at Southwest Texas
                                             and San Antonio, TX;      State Univel^ity;
                                             and return                address Forum (^ub
                                                                       meeting: personal day^
       2/14 to    FBI Sabreliner             \Abshington, D.C, to      Address meetings of          Retum from OK only:        Mrs. Se^iore-
       2/17/89                               Las Vegas, NV, and        Academy of Forensk;          Oliver Revell
                                             Oklahoma City, OK.        Sciences and
                                             and return                Committee of One

                                                      Page 68                                           OAO/aa»«i>M<

 m                                                                                                                 '.••>?• j'Bli-i>M3ji£it§lSi-         „l)r^
                                                                          Ust «tf P U MrectorTHpa OB 4
                                                                          Alicnft (Ai«nBt 11. U M , to Jdjr 31. U8S)

2/2Zto     FBI Sabreliner                                          ii.D.C.to               Address meetngs of                                                 Mane                   Return frioim Cdifpus
2/25/89                                                            I Antonio.              theOaPasCound^rf                                                                          Chii^oJniyrMhs.
                                                         McAOen. and (>orpus               WbrtdAfbirs, Dales                                                                        Scssioos''"
                                                         Ohnsi. TX. and retum              Rotary, f^arents
                                                                                           RBhabMatioo, and the
                                                                                           Nationiri Hispanic

                                                                                           Confeience Ii9ic|uet:
                                                                                           visit FBI Held offioes
3/4/89     FBI Sabreliner                                Washington. D C . to              Attend tunetal of a                                                Ofiuer Revell          One FBI official, one
                                                         Parsippany. NJ. and               OEAagent                                                                                  Justioe^oHiciai;.D.C to
                                                         return                                                                                                                      tUcinly:iaiia^^
                                                                                                                                                                                     Justice official: rietiAn
                                                                                                                                                                                     only: ehoitier FBI

3/11 to    FBISabreGner                                   Washington. O C . to             AddressDrdie                                                       None                   M B . SessMMisJ
                                                          Deis Momes, IA, end              IJiMversity Law School
3/19 to    FBISafareiiner                                 Washington. D C . to              Pick up Attorney        Mono                                                             MAtoAZeriiy:
                                                          Boston, MA, and                   General in MA for fight                                                                   AttomeyGeiiMaral, one
                                                          Phoenix, AZ; stop at              to AZ: address Annual                                                                    Juslipe ic^ficial: return
                                                          Fert Smith. AR; and               DEA/FBI Superi^iy                                                                        -oiilyiMI&'Qe^SJoris
                                                          return                            Agents'Conference
4/27 to    FBI Sabreliner                                 Washington. D C . to              Address Univefsity of                                                                    fMi»h:dird^i^Mrs.
4/30/89                                                   Lawrence. KS: and                 KS Law School; Me-                                                                       SC3Si0nS'"vr;.".
                                                          Waco and Austin. TX;              Lermsi ComnHnity
                                                          wid return                        Coiege.the10tti
                                                                                            Associaliuii. and the

5/1/89     FBI Sabielaier                                 WaslBngtan.DC..to                 Attend U.S.Na«ryFleel                                             None                   Mrs. Sessions':;
                                                          IMewYbrit.NY.and                  H i l l lii     i f

5/6to      FBI Sabreliner from                            Washington. D C . to              Address 9 h and 11th                                                                     Mrs. Sessisris^f
SffjtB     D C to LA: commercial                          New Orleats. LA. end              Ciroiflts'Judicial   '
           aircraft on retum                              reti0n                            Conference; visit FBI
5/9to      FBI Sabreliner from                             V)taslMngton.OC..to              Attend intematiorial                                              Onver Hevea             fteturh:eiiiy:;Attorn^
5/12789    D.C.toNY:                                       Madrid, Spa^ and                 law enforcement                                                                          •'GeniBralsSi-fTs'i;''
           commercial aircraft                             retum                            meetng^
           from NYtoSpainoid
           retum; nAtaiy aircraft
           on relwntoD.C.
5/13/89    FBlSabre&ier                                    Wfehinglon. D.C.. to             Address Ikivensity df                                                                    Fivei
                                                           Ann Artxir. Mi. and              MLawSciioal

                            • - ' i r - - - .'•;-'"-W'W;-;-i5,-'fV-.['-
                                                                                                   ''4j!.;iag^: )^L f i j ^ ^ t - t i ;!i.'.^4.J^j:J'!:H ;•                   S'liiiiiifej^^Mfl
                                                    Appendix n
                                                    Liat of FBI Director Tilpe on Government
                                                    Aircraft (August 11,1888, to July 31, IMS)

                                                                                                    Personal staff                               OtherjMiiehgera
                                                                                                    accompanying the
         Date       Aircraft                Itinerary               Purpoaeoftrip                   Director*                                    bireiitort ' * '
         5/15 to    FBI Sabreliner          Washington, D.C, to     Attend CA Peace                 None                                         None i
         5/17/89                            Palm Springs and Los    Officers Association
                                            Angeles. (A. and        meeting: address
                                            retum                   memorial service for
                                                                    FBI snent: visit Police
                                                                    Law Enforcerrient
                                                                    Memorial: address
                                                                    Academy of Television
                                                                    Arts and Sciences
         5/20 to    FBI Sabreliner          Washington. D.C, to     Address University of           None                                          One FBI official
         5/21/89                            Austin, TX, and return  TX commencement                                                                                 ' i " -•." .,

         6/2 to     FBI Sabreliner          Washington, D.C, to     Address society of              From ID to D.C only:                          Noney                             '
         6/6/89                             Salt Lake City. UT; Sun legal professionals, the        John Otto                                             •         :;;a,...:
                                            Valley, ID; and Aurora. National Executive
                                            CO; and retum           Institute, and the
                                                                    National Oime                                                                             i-<yyy
                                                                    Advisory Board
         6/15/89    FBI five-passenger      Washington. D.C, to     AddressAnti-                    None                                         •ftoniyy''*:
                    turtMprop aircraft      New York, NY. and       Defamation League of
                                            retum                   B'Nai B'rith                                                                   •' )'^fyi
         6/18 to    FBI five-passenger      Washington, D.C, to      Address lationai               None                                           Nonet; ?w^'«:
         6/19/89    turboprop aircraft      Atlanta. GA;             Organization of Black                                                         ';:. yy.i[' y.
                                            Pensacda. FL;            Law Enforcement                                                                '""i'yyyy
                                            Huntsville. AL; and      Executives,                                                                              - /^••'••""•-':"'     "'V

                                            retum                    Int^national                                                                              :--v-:iy"'.T.TVv;

                                                                     Association for
                                                                     Identification, and FBI/
                                                                     Chamt>er of
                                                                     Cunmerce Drug-Free
                                                                     Workplace Comeience
         6/23 io    FBI Sabreliner          Washington, D.C. to      Address American               None                                           Mris: Sessions
         6/25/89                            Sacramento. San          Academy of
                                            Francisco, and San       Achievement Salute to
                                            Diego, CA, and retum     Excellence: visit
                                                                     hospitalized FBI iagent
                                                                     and an FBIfieldoffice
         7/18 to    FBI Sabreliner           Washington. D.C, to        Visit FBIfieldoffices: None                                              >!TX;to NM only: Mrs.
^J        7/21/89                            Norfolk, VA: Fort          address FBI Nationial                                                    :;Sessi6ris~;;g:^:;
                                             Smith. AR; El Paso, TX;    Academy Associates
                                             and AltMjquerque. NM;      Retraining Session iand
                                             and retum                  the Rotary (^ub of Fort
                                                                        Smith: visit research
                                                                        laboratories ait Los']
                                                                        Atanras and Sandia,
                                                                        NM •
                                                     'Nncludes the Deputy Director^ Assbdat&Oeputy Directors, and s ^ df ijy Qffira^ the piiiector.
                                                     ' ^ FBI security detail also accoinpahjedttieDirector on all trips.
                                                     <=Re)inl>ursement made lor personal travel tased on standard                                         commutiaiii^yyyygy


                                                     Page 64                                             GM«/GCaM0«4 G o ^ ^

                                     f||^^S|*^                                                                  . 1 '-v.^/.^fi^ .^r;•V f'i^^-:.tf;^v^y-'v.. ^•.•^>'^^£5V-Mj

       Appendix 111
       Seized Aira:'aft Used Without Justice Approval

                           The FBI did not obtain a required authorization from Justice before
                           beginning to use a seized and forfeited aircraft in February 1989.
                           Because the aircraft was one 6f the planes frequently used to transport
                           the Attomey General and FBI Director, Chairman Wise expressed
                           interest in this situation. In October 1989, the FBI did obtain Justice
                           authorization to use the aircraft.

                           At the time the Hve-passenger turboprop aircraft was forfeited, the
       FBI Used a Seized   Attomey General's Guidelines on Seized and Forfeited Property
       Aircraft Without    required concurrence by the Associate Attomey General for any Justice
       Justice Approval    component agency to retain seized property appraised at between
                           $750,000 and $2 million. Concurrence by the Deputy Attomey General
                           was required for all property appraised at $2 million or more. The
                           appraised value of the Hve-passenger turboprop aircraft used by the FBI
                           from Febmary 27,1989—the time of its forfeiture to the federal gov-
                           emment—until October 16,1989, was $900,000. However, as of early
                           August 1989, the FBI had not requested approval from the Associate
                           Attomey General to retain the aircraft.

                           FBI officials said this approval had not been requested because the posi-
                           tion of Associate Attomey General was vacant. The FBI'S Associate
                           Deputy Director for Investigations said, however, that the Acting
                           Deputy Attomey General would have full authority to approve the
                           retention of the aircraft in the absence of an appointee to the position of
                           Associate Attomey General.
                           In a memorandum dated August 21,1989 the rsi Director asked Justice"
                           to retain thefive-passengerturboprop aircraft for OLlficial use. On
                           October 16,1989, the Acting Deputy Attomey General approved the
                           The Director of Justice's Executive Office for Asset Forfeiture noted
                           that the value of property seized by the U.S. govemment has grown dra-
                           matically, rising from $27.2 million infiscalyear 1986 to $580 miUion in
                           fiscal year 1989. He explained that high-level Justice review of agency
                           retention of expensive property for official use is intended to ensure
                           that (1) Justice maintains accountability for forfeiture and retention
                           decisions, and (2) seized properties are managed with care. Such careful
                           management, he said, is imperative in retaining public and congressional
                           support for asset forfeitures.


                            Page 65                              GAO/GGD4NM4 Govemment CMUan Airenft

  myii                                                                                    .,..\. yli
Appendix IV

Mgjor Contributors to This Report

                     James M. Blume, Assistant Director,
General Government     Administration of Justice Issues
Division,            Michael Brostek, Evaluator-in-Charge
Washington, D.C.     Rita M. Rhodes, Evaluator
                     Deborah A. Knorr, Evaluator

                     Paul W. Britner, Attorney-Advisor
Office of General

(181924)             Page 66                             GAO/GGIM044 Gow^nunint CavtUan Aircraft
J'l.t^   ''^ '"T "

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