oversight

Illegal Drugs: Observations and Selected Data Concerning Portland, Maine

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1990-05-14.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

      ^



                   United   States   General   Accounting   Office
                   Report to the Chairman, Permanent
6AO                SubcoMmittee on Investigations
                   Committee on Governmental Affairs
                   U.S. Senate

 May 1990
                       ILLEGAL DRUGS
                       Observations md
                       Selected Data
                       Concerning Portland,
                       Maine




,:




            RESTRICTED---    Not to be released out&de the
            General Accoudug     Of&e unless specifically
            approved by the Office of Cmgmasional
            B&&lOlUL                                                 I
                        United States
GAO                     General Accounting Office
                        Washington, D.C. 20548

                        General Government   Division

                        B-230748

                        May 14,199O

                        The Honorable Sam Nunn
                        Chairman, Permanent Subcommittee
                          on Investigations
                        Committee on Governmental Affairs
                        United States Senate

                        Dear Mr. Chairman:

                        In January of this year, the Subcommittee told us it would hold field
                        hearings examining how the criminal justice system in Portland, Maine,
                        is responding to drug crime and violence. You asked that we provide
                        general background information on the extent of illegal drug activity in
                        that city and efforts to combat it so that the Subcommittee could become
                        familiar with the overall situation before the hearings. To respond to
                        that request, we interviewed a number of individuals at the state and
                        local level and collected data that were readily available. This report is a
                        compilation of the opinions and perspectives we obtained and selected
                        data intended to provide a broad overview of the situation.


                        Officials of the criminal justice system in Portland-as well as the rest
Results in Brief        of Maine-are concerned with what they consider to be a significant
                        increase in illegal drug activity. The consensus of those we talked with
                        is that cocaine is now the drug of choice but that the use of heroin and
                        LSD is increasing. Although exact data are not available, many of those
                        we talked with believe that the increase in drug use is responsible for an
                        increase in other types of crimes, especially property crimes. Data to
                        show the effect of drug crimes on the rest of the criminal justice system
                        are also not available. However, officials we spoke with generally
                        believe that drug crimes have worsened an already serious overcrowd-
                        ing of corrections facilities.

                        To combat drug crimes on a statewide basis, Maine has legislated a coor-
                        dinated effort of federal, state, and local law enforcement officers and
                        criminal prosecutors. Local enforcement efforts are also continuing.


                        As agreed with the Subcommittee, our original objective was to collect
Objective, Scope, and   general background information on the extent of drug crime and vio-
Methodology             lence in Portland, Maine, and local efforts to combat this problem.
                        Because it is difficult to address Portland’s problems with illegal drugs
                        without discussing those of Maine as a whole, we expanded our efforts


                        Page 1                                              GAO/GGD96-66 Illegal Drugs
                       B-230748




                       to include gathering readily available information and data on a state-
                       wide basis.

                       During the week of March 26, 1990, we visited Portland and the state
                       capital in Augusta and spoke with a number of individuals, including
                       members of Portland’s city council, state and local law enforcement
                       officers, state corrections and probation officials, the U.S. Attorney for
                       the district of Maine, substance abuse counselors, a state superior court
                       justice and superior court clerk, and the president of the Maine Police
                        Chiefs Association. In addition to obtaining the opinions and perspec-
                        tives of these individuals, we reviewed statewide crime statistics and
                        Maine’s drug strategy and collected readily available caseload and arres
                        data from state and local law enforcement, judicial, and corrections
                        offices. Reports on Maine’s Department of Corrections and the probation
                        system were also obtained and reviewed.

                       We did not verify any of the information or data given us nor did we
                       draw our own conclusions from it. The conclusions and opinions
                       expressed in this report are either those of individuals we spoke with 01
                       else were contained in studies and reports provided us.


                       Maine is the largest of the six states in New England. About 320 miles
Geography and          long and 210 miles wide with an area of 33,215 square miles, it has a
Economy of Maine and   population of 1,187,OOO.Maine is the most sparsely populated state eas
Portland               of the Mississippi river but has nearly half of the total area of New
                       England.

                       The state has 16 counties, 22 cities, 424 towns, and 416 unorganized
                       townships. Only a few cities have 25,000 or more inhabitants. About
                       half of the state’s population is concentrated in the four counties in the
                       southwestern tip of the state.

                       More than 80 percent of Maine’s total area, about 17 million acres, is
                       forestland. Maine has 3,478 miles of coastline and more than 2,000
                       coastal islands. It has a common border with Canada that runs for 591
                       miles and has 62 unguarded border crossings. Maine also has approxi-
                       mately 200 unattended and uncontrolled airports, most of which are
                       located in rural areas.

                       Portland is the state’s largest city and the county seat of Cumberland
                       county. It has a population of 61,572 but is the center of a metropolitan
                       area with a population of about 184,000.


                       Page 2                                              GAO/GGD9046 Illegal Dru]
                             B-230746




                             While Maine is considered a relatively poor state, with the second lowest
                             per capita income in New England, the Greater Portland Council of Gov-
                             ernments considers the area’s economy sound. The 1990 unemployment
                             rate for the Portland area is 3.1 percent, up slightly from the 2.2 percent
                             rate for 1989. Retailing, wholesaling, services, manufacturing, commer-
                             cial fishing, and shipping contribute to Portland’s diversified economy.
                             The city is just over 100 miles from Boston and a popular tourist attrac-
                             tion for much of the Northeast.


                             Appendix I contains selected statistics regarding illegal drug activity in
Illegal Drugs in Maine       Maine
and Portland
                             In the 1970s and early 198Os, Maine was confronted primarily by the
                             problem of marijuana smugglers who took advantage of the state’s
                             extensive coastline to import the drug into the United States from Cen-
                             tral or South America. For the most part, the smuggling organizations
                             did not distribute the drug on a wholesale or retail basis within the state
                             but usually transshipped it to other areas of the country.

                              According to state law enforcement officials, seaborne marijuana smug-
                             gling has been greatly curtailed in the last several years. While mari-
                             juana use continues, especially among juveniles, most of it is now locally
                              grown or smuggled into the state by automobile from states to the south.
                              Marijuana is currently available in multiple-ton quantities, with whole-
                              sale prices for low-grade Colombian at $350 to $800 per pound. A
                              November 1988 seizure netted 10,000 pounds smuggled into the state
                              for distribution in Maine and southern New England.

                             officials generally concede that, since approximately 1983, Maine has
                             seen a dramatic upsurge in cocaine use by every age and socio-economic
                             group within the state. The state faces all of the facets of criminal activ-
                             ity associated with cocaine:

                         - users,
                         . individual retail dealers,
                         . smuggling and wholesale trafficking organizations, and
                         l national and international production and smuggling cartels.

                              According to the state’s drug strategy, cocaine is available in multiple-
                              kilo quantities, with wholesale prices varying from $18,000 to $30,000
                              per kilo. Several kilo quantity cases were made during 1988, with a 3-
                              kilo seizure occurring in *January of 1989.


                              Page 3                                              GAO/GGD90-66 Illegal Drugs
R-230748




We were told by several law enforcement officials that crack, an espe-
cially addictive derivative of cocaine that is smoked, is not currently
readily available in Maine although, in time, it could be.

Maine law enforcement officials have also noted an increase in the use
of LSD. It is believed this drug is resurfacing because it is relatively
cheap and does not have to be smuggled into the state but can be manu-
factured in home labratories. Additionally, heroin is becoming an
increasing problem in Maine. The state’s largest seizure occurred in
1988, netting 6 pounds of Asian heroin. Heroin wholesale prices average
$200,000 per pound.

The extent to which illegal drug activity has increased other types of
crime in Maine and Portland cannot be accurately measured. Most of the
individuals we spoke with, however, believe it is substantial and they
generally attribute an increase in property crimes throughout the state
to drugs. For example, thefts from vehicles of such items as stereos and
radar detectors reached such a level that legislation was recently
enacted making it a felony to break into a vehicle with the intent of
stealing property.

Cocaine especially is thought to be a major influence on property crimes
and crimes of violence. Many individuals we spoke with echoed the
opinion of the U.S. Attorney for the district of Maine, who is also the
former State Attorney General. In a 1988 article, he wrote:

“The drug of choice is now cocaine.It is both easier to conceal as well as more prof-
itable. Unfortunately, it is also much more dangerous in terms of addictive potential
as well as psychological and physical destructiveness. It in turn has fostered an
alarming upsurge in derivative crimes such as burglary, robbery and theft commit-
ted to finance its acquisition. In addition, unlike the marijuana smuggling organiza-
tions which we confronted in the late 1970s and early 1980s those who traffic in
cocaine, both on a retail and on a wholesale level, have proven to be much more
prone to violence. For example, in 1986 there were 5 homicides directly related to
cocaine trafficking in Maine.”

“Frankly, we have never seen in the history of this state a crime problem that has
had such a deleterious impact on our citizens of every geographic and demographic
level throughout the state. Nor have we seen a crime problem which has had such an
enormously destructive effect on the quality of life of Maine’s citizens, be they a
user of the substance or be they the victim of a crime perpetrated by the user of the
substance.“’


‘Richard S.Cohen,“Maine StrikesSack,” MaineTrial Practice,Volume4, Number 1,(November
1987-January 19881,p.6.



Page 4                                                       GAO/GGD9O-86 IIle@ Drugs
                          ES-230748




                          Another disturbing aspect of the increase of illegal drugs in Maine is the
                          participation of organized crime. In a 1987 survey of Maine law enforce-
                          ment agencies, nearly half reported that more than 20 percent of the
                          drug trafficking activity in their jurisdictions was controlled by a crimi-
                          nal organization of some form. Cocaine trafficking has been linked to
                          traditional crime organizations. Additionally, Maine’s local motorcycle
                          gang members are seen to have ties with larger national groups with
                          chapters in the southern New England region, particularly involving the
                          distribution of hallucinogenic substances.


                          Maine has recently passed a number of laws designed to strengthen its
State and Local Law       efforts against illegal drugs. For example, the procedure for asset forfei-
Enforcement Efforts       ture has been clarified and refined, and the ability to seize real estate
                          has been included. Recent trafficking statutes include the following:

                      . possession of specific amounts of cocaine and heroin is now a presump-
                        tion of unlawful trafficking or aggravated trafficking,
                      l specific offenses of trafficking to minors and repeat drug offenders have
                        been created, and
                      . minimum mandatory sentences have been established for certain drug
                        trafficking offenses.

                          Other significant legislation includes the Intergovernmental Drug
                          Enforcement Act of 1987, which, among other things, established within
                          the Maine Department of Public Safety the Bureau of Intergovernmental
                          Drug Enforcement (BIDE). BIDE'S mission is to develop, coordinate, and
                          carry out a statewide drug enforcement program at all levels of law
                          enforcement, including federal, state, county, and municipal levels and
                          including both prosecutorial as well as investigative agencies.

                          RIDE  began operations in April 1988 and currently has 55 officers
                          detailed to it from state, county, and local law enforcement agencies.
                          The assignments generally last for 1 year, and the state reimburses the
                          officer’s salary. In addition, BIDE has 10 prosecuting attorneys assigned
                          to it: 4 from the U.S. Attorneys Office and 6 from the state’s Office of
                          the Attorney General.

                          BIDE has eight field offices across the state. Its funding, approximately
                          $3.5 million for the current fiscal year, comes from the state general
                          fund, federal block grant assistance, and asset seizures and forfeitures.




                          page5                                               GAO/GGD90-86IllegalDmgs
5220748




BIDE  was established after the success of several task forces in Maine
composed of federal, state, and local law enforcement and prosecuting
officers. Officials we spoke with consider the bureau to have a number
of advantages over task forces. It has “institutionalized” the coordina-
tion believed essential for effective drug enforcement and has put the
funding for these efforts on a permanent basis. It is a very efficient
means of attacking the drug problem in a state where most of the police
departments are very small and often do not have the resources neces-
sary for drug enforcement work. Officers receive extensive training and
experience while assigned to BIDE that they take back with them when
they return to their departments.

Another of BIDE’S advantages that was related to us is flexibility. All
officers are deputized as U.S. Marshals, which allows them to work with
federal as well as state grand juries and to investigate leads outside the
state. Federal and state attorneys are authorized to prosecute in either
judical system. In 1989 approximately a third of the arrests made by
 BIDE were prosecuted in federal court by the U.S. Attorney. The remain-
 der were prosecuted in the state court system.

BIDE’S arrests and drug seizures (see app. II) are increasing rapidly. Total
arrests in 1989, its first full year of operation, were 377. The Bureau
expects that number to reach 600 in 1990. As figure 1 illustrates, almost
half of BIDE’S arrests were for offenses involving cocaine during the
period from April 1988 through March 1990.




 page 6                                              GAO/GGD9046 Illegal DN@
                                        B-230748




Figure 1: Bureau of Intergovernmental
Drug Enforcement Arrests by illegal
Substance, April 1999 Through &torch
1990




                                                                                                Marijuana

                                        N=795
                                        Source Bureau of Intergovernmental   Drug Enforcement


                                        Local law enforcement agencies are also involved in drug enforcement.
                                        The Portland Police Department has 153 officers. Its narcotics unit is
                                        staffed by a detective sergeant-in-charge, three detectives, and one
                                        patrolman assigned on a rotational basis. The Department’s total 1989
                                        budget was about $5.7 million, of which about 10 percent went to drug
                                        enforcement efforts. In 1989 the Department seized and purchased over
                                        $650,000 worth of illegal drugs and drug paraphernalia and made over
                                        360 arrests for illegal drugs.

                                        Adjacent to Portland is the city of South Portland, with a population of
                                        about 23,000. The South Portland Police Department has 55 officers. In
                                        January of this year, in order to combat a growing drug problem, the
                                        Department increased its narcotics unit from two to four officers. In
                                        addition, the Department has two dogs trained to detect drugs. In 1989,
                                        the Department made 236 arrests for illegal drugs.

                                         According to Maine’s annual crime reports, the greater Portland area
                                         has a significantly higher crime rate than other urban and rural areas
                                         within the state. Assisting the Portland and South Portland police


                                         Page 7                                                             GAO/GGIMO-S6 Illegal Drugs
                      departments in providing law enforcement in the area is the the Cum-
                      berland County Sheriff’s Office. The office, which has 28 patrolmen and
                      6 detectives, does not have a separate narcotics unit, and data on arrests
                      and seizures involving drugs are not available.


                      In Maine, the more serious state offenses are tried in superior court.
The Judicial System   There are 16 superior court districts in the state, 1 for each county.
                      From 1986 through 1989,243 indictments naming 317 individuals were
                      issued for illegal drug activity. During that same period, the Superior
                      Court for the Cumberland County district held a total of 17 trials for
                      drug offenses. In the first 3 months of 1990,23 indictments naming 33
                      individuals have been issued and 4 trials for drug charges have been
                      held.

                      In fiscal year 1989, the U.S. Attorney prosecuted 114 defendants in fed-
                      eral court for drug offenses. (See app. III for additional data.) Figure 2
                      depicts prosecutions by the U.S. Attorney since 1981 by illegal
                      substance.




                       Page 8                                             GAO/GGB~     II&al   Dm@
                                           E-230743




Figure 2: Breakdown of United States Attorney Prosecutions for Drug Offenses by illegal Substance
150   Prosecutions
140
130
120
110
199
 99
 50
 m
 59
 50
 40
 39
 29
 10
  0


      1981                 1982
      Year

      0        Cocaine
               Marijuana
               Omer Drugs (e.g.. LSD)



                                           Source Offw   of the United States Attorney, Dlstrlct of Mame



                                            Individuals we talked to and reports we reviewed indicate a general con-
Corrections                                 cern that state correctional facilities and county jails are seriously over-
                                            crowded and that the probation system is becoming saturated to an
                                            alarming degree. Some corrections officials attribute much of the over-
                                            crowding to an increase in illegal drug activity. Other factors cited by
                                            officials and in reports include drug offenders being given long
                                            sentences and the recent passing of mandatory sentences for drug traf-
                                            ficking and other drug-related offenses.

                                            As of March 31, 1990,7.5 percent of the state’s prisoners were serving
                                            sentences for possession, trafficking, or furnishing illegal drugs.
                                            Although exact data on the role played by drugs in other offenses are
                                            unavailable, it is generally believed that a significant amount of other
                                            criminal activity is committed either to finance drug use or under the



                                            Page 9                                                         GAO/GGD-99.86 Illegal Drqs
B-220748




influence of drugs. Substance abuse counselors at one correctional facil-
ity estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the inmates have a substance abuse
problem-either    drugs and/or alcohol-and that this abuse caused or
was at a minimum a contributory factor in the inmate’s offense.

The Maine Department of Corrections operates 8 adult facilities with a
total capacity of 1,106 inmates. The system is currently housing 1,448
prisoners, with 26 prisoners housed in county jails and 87 in out-of-state
facilities or other facilities, such as federal prisons, nursing homes, or
halfway houses. The Department estimates that by 1995, the state will
still be short about 600 beds even after all planned construction and
improvement projects are completed.

There is severe overcrowding at the Maine Correctional Center, a
medium security facility located approximately 10 miles from Portland.
The facility has a capacity of 293 inmates but is currently housing 485.
To cope with the crowding, the center is keeping two and three prison-
ers in cells orginally intended for one and housing others in dining
rooms, classrooms, and work areas. In 1973 this facility had just over 80
prisoners. The Center’s superintendent attributes most of the increased
population to drug crimes and drug abuse.

The Maine Youth Center is the state’s only juvenile facility and is
located in South Portland. With a capacity of 190, it is currently housing
249 youths, male and female, between the ages of 11 and 18.

Maine’s county jails are also overcrowded. The 16 facilities have a total
capacity of 721. During 1989, the average statewide population was
763. This does not reflect, however, the extent of overcrowding at some
facilities. We were told by a Department of Corrections official that one
county jail, for example, has a capacity of 34 but routinely holds 90 to
120 prisoners. Similarly, the Cumberland County jail has a capacity of
100, but at the time of our visit it held 210 prisoners.

 Maine’s Division of Probation, which is part of the Department of Cor-
 rections, is also strained. In December 1985, the Division’s total caseload
 was 5,753, of whom 1,891 were juveniles. In December 1989, the total
 caseload had increased to 8,823, of whom 2,156 were juveniles. The
 average caseload for officers handling adult cases is now 137,60 for
 officers handling juveniles. Because case supervision is only one area of
 responsibility for field officers, the Division is concerned that severe
 constraints are being placed on the individual officer’s ability to super-
 vise cases.


 Page 10                                             GAO/GGDpoBB llle@xl m
                  E-23074.9




                  A recurring comment of law enforcement, court, and correction officials
Substance Abuse   we spoke with was that there was a shortage of affordable or publicly
Treatment         funded substance abuse treatment. Law enforcement and corrections
                  personnel see this shortage as increasing the number of repeat offenders
                  among those who committed a crime under the influence of drugs or in
                  order to support a drug habit. They believe that incarceration of addicts
                  without adequate treatment will not address the basic cause of the prob-
                  lem. In fact, some believe it makes the situation worse since these indi-
                  viduals will be exposed to more experienced criminals who will pass on
                  this expertise. Several officials told us that the shortage was preventing
                  the use of rehabilitation and treatment as alternatives to incarceration.

                  Substance abuse counseling and rehabilitation treat both alcohol and
                  drugs. A survey of selected treatment programs in October 1985 showed
                  that of the 235 individuals in treatment on one particular day, 42 per-
                  cent were being treated for cocaine use and abuse: 9 percent for cocaine
                  only and 33 percent for cocaine and alcohol. A similar survey in August
                  1986 showed that of the 239 persons being treated on one particular
                  day, 31 percent were being treated for cocaine use: 1 percent for cocaine
                  only, 12 percent for cocaine and alcohol, and 18 percent for cocaine and
                  other drugs.

                  Drug treatment resources dedicated to criminal justice clients are con-
                  sidered inadequate. According to a Department of Corrections’ estimate,
                  90 percent of the juveniles at the Maine Youth Center have drug and/or
                  alcohol problems and 67 percent of these youths are drug and/or alcohol
                  addicted. Rehabilitation and educational services are provided, but over-
                  crowding is making the work more difficult. At the time of our visit,
                  there were 42 youths in the substance abuse program, which has a
                  capacity of 35. There are few treatment services available for the
                  remaining offenders within the general population.

                   The Maine Correctional Center, with a population of 560, has recently
                   increased its staff of substance abuse counselors to 6. The counselors
                   have been hampered, however, by a lack of space at the facility in
                   which to operate.


                   As arranged with the Subcommittee, unless you announce its contents
                   earlier, we plan no further distribution of this report until 30 days from
                   its issue date. At that time, we will send it to interested parties and
                   make copies available to others upon request.



                   Page 11                                             GAO/GGD-90-86 Illegal Drugs
The major contributors to this report are listed in appendix V. If you
have any questions concerning the report, please contact me at 276-
8389.

Sincerely yours,




                           /
Lowell Dodge
Director, Administration   of
  Justice issues




Page 12                                             GAO/GGKMXU38 I&gal   DN@
Page 13   GAO/GGD-90-M Illegal Dm@
Contents


Letter                                                   1

Appendix I                                              16
Selected Arrest Data
for Illegal Drugs for
Maine
Appendix II                                             18
Selected Data for the
Bureau of
Intergovernmental
Drug Enforcement,
April 1988 Through
March 1990
Appendix III                                            19
Prosecutions by
United States
Attorney for Drug
Offenses
Appendix IV                                             20
Selected Data for
Maine’s Department of
Corrections
Appendix V                                              22
Major Contributors to
This Report




                        Page 14   GAO/GGIMO56 Illegal Drugs
Tables    Table I. 1: Total Arrests for Manufacturing/Selling and                  16
              Possession of Illegal Drugs
          Table 1.2: Adults and Juveniles Arrested for                             16
               Manufacturing/Selling of Illegal Drugs
          Table 1.3: Adults and Juveniles Arrested for Possession of               16
              Illegal Drugs
          Table 1.4: Arrests for Manufacturing/ Selling by Illegal                 16
              Substance
          Table 1.5: Arrests for Possession by Illegal Substance                    17
          Table 1.6: Arrests for Manufacturing/ Selling and                         17
               Possession by Sex
          Table 11.1:Arrests for Trafficking by Illegal Substance                   18
          Table 11.2:Illegal Drug Seizures                                          18
          Table 11.3:Estimated Value of Illegal Drug Property                       18
               Purchased or Seized

Figures   Figure 1: Bureau of Intergovernmental Drug Enforcement                     7
               Arrests by Illegal Substance, April 1988 Through
               March 1990
          Figure 2: Breakdown of United States Attorney                              9
               Prosecutions for Drug Offenses by Illegal Substance
          Figure IV. 1: Capacity and Population of Maine’s Adult                    20
               Correctional Facilities
          Figure IV.2: Maine’s Probation and Parole Caseload                        21
               Growth




          Page 15                                            GAO/GGD-90.36 Ilk@   Drues
Appendix I

SelectedArrest Data for Illegal Drugs for Maine


Table 1.1:Total Arrests for
Manufacturing/Selling and Possession of                                                       Manufacturing
Illegal Drugs                                Year                                                    selling           Possession           Total
                                             1986                                                        400                  1 347         1,747
                                             1987                                                        346                 -1,516         1,662
                                             1988                                                        310      ~-          1,545         1,855
                                             1989                                                        713                  1,775         2,480
                                             Source Mame State Department of Public Safety


Table 1.2:Adults and Juveniles Arrested
for Manufacturing/Selling of Illegal Drugs   Year                                                        Adults           Juveniles         Total
                                             1986                                                              357               43          400
                                             1987                                                              308               38          346
                                             1988                                                              280               30          310
                                             1989                                                              675               38          713
                                             Source Mame State Department of Pubk Safety


Table 1.3:Adults and Juveniles Arrested
for Possession of Illegal Drugs              Year                                                        Adults           Juveniles         Total
                                             1986                                                         1,179                 168         1,347
                                             1987                                                          1313                 203         1,516
                                             1988                                                        y318                   227         1,545
                                             1989                                                         1,575                 200         1,775
                                             Source Maine State Department of Public Safety


Table 1.4:Arrests for Manufacturing/
Selling by Illegal Substance                                                                             Synthetic
                                             Year                          Cocainea       Marijuana      narcotics           Other”         Total
                                             1986                                126            228                  24           22         400
                                             1987                                110            203                  19           14         346
                                             1988                                103             191                  4           12         310
                                             1989                                327            316                  42           28         713
                                             %cludes   cocaine dewatlves     and op~urr
                                             “Includes LSD
                                             Source Maine State Department of Public Safety




                                             Page 16                                                                   GAO/GGD90-86 illegal Drugs
                                           Appendix I
                                           Selected Arrest Data for Jlle@ Drugs
                                           for Maine




Table 1.5: Arrests for Possession by
Illegal Substance                                                                                      Synthetic
                                           Year                      Cocaine’        Marijuana         narcotic5        Othe+         Total
                                           1986                             165            1.092
                                                                                            ,~                44              46      1.347
                                                                                                                                      .,-
                                           1987                             167            1,248              32              69      1,516
                                           1988                             160            1,308              19              58      1,545
                                           1989                             207            1,410              37             121      1,775
                                           %cludes   cocaine derwattves and opwm

                                           %cludes LSD.
                                           Source: Maine State Department of Public Safety


Table 1.6: Arrests for Manufacturing/
Selling and Possession by Sex         -’   Year                                                Males               Female5            Total
                                           1986      ~~                                         1,557                   190           1,747
                                           1987                                                    1,639                223           1,862
                                           1988                                                    1.622                233           1.---
                                                                                                                                       .a55
                                           1989                                                    2,149                339           2,408
                                           Source: Maine State Department of Public Safety.




                                           Page 17                                                                 GAO/GGDsoBB Ilk@   Drags
Appendix II

SelectedData for the Bureau of
Intergovernmental Drug Enforcement, April
1988 Through March 1990
Table 11.1:Arrests for Trafficking by
illegal Substance                            Substance                                                                 Number of arrests
                                             Cocaine                                                                                  350
                                             Manluana                                                                        ~-       243
                                             LSD                                                                                       41
                                             All Other                                                                                161
                                             Total                                                                                    795
                                             Source: Maine State Department of Public Safety


Table 11.2:Illegal Drug Seizures
                                             Substance                                                                    Amount seized
                                             Cocaine                                       -                                   20.0 Kilos
                                             Marijuana                                                                      611 Pounds
                                             LSD                                                                            13.674 Doses
                                             Source Mafne State Department of Pubk Safety

Table 11.3:Estimated Value of Illegal Drug
Property Purchased or Seized
                                             Estimated value of drua &chases                                                      $267.396
                                             Estimated value of forfelture proceedings: Includes currency, firearms,
                                             real estate, and vehicles                                                         $1,661,127
                                             Estimated street value of maniuana eradication activities                        $26.466.000
                                             Source Maine State Department of Public Safety




                                             Page 18                                                          GAO/GGDSO.E6 Illegal Drugs
Appendix 111

Prosecutions by United States Attorney for
Drug Offenses


                200

                180

                160

                140

                120

                100

                 so

                 so

                 40

                 20

                  0                                         I                     -/
                      dL
                       lwl       lw2       lws       1984       lsw       lsss         1087      1988   1SSB
                       her

                Note: There will be an overlap for 1988 and 1989 figures. Figures for 1988 are for calendar year and
                figures for 1989 are for fiscal year.

                Source: Office of the United States Attorney, District of Maine




                Page 19                                                                       GAO/GGlM9-86 llle@l Dm@
Appendix IV

SelectedData for Maine’s Department
of Corrections

Figure IV.l: Capacity and Population of
Maine’s Adult Correctional Facilities
                                          Cap&y       and Population
                                          500

                                          430

                                          400

                                          330

                                          300

                                          230

                                          200

                                          150

                                          loo

                                           50

                                            0




                                           Correctional Facllltles


                                                  I          Capacity
                                                             Population

                                          Note Population as of February 6.1990
                                          Source Maw        Department of Corrections




                                           Page 20                                      GAO/GGB90.96 llle@l Drugs
                                     Appendix IV
                                     Selected Data for Maine’s Department
                                     of corrections




Figure IV.2: Maine’s Probation and
Parole Caseload Growth               7300   Caseload
                                     7ooo




                                        1965                       1999           1997     1988                 1989
                                        Year

                                               -       Adults
                                               ----    Juveniles

                                     Source. Maw      Department of Corrections




                                     Page 21                                             GAO/GGD9086   llle@   Drugs
Appendix V

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Weldon McPhail, Assistant Director, Adminstration    of Justice Issues
General Government      Michael Eid, Assignment Manager
Division, Washington,   Joan Conway, Evaluator
D.C.




(166736)                Page 22                                             GAO/GGD-904% Illegal Drugs
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