oversight

Federal Judiciary: Information on Noncase-Related Travel of Bankruptcy Judges in 14 Bankruptcy Districts

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-08-08.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

United States
General Accounting  Office
Washington, D.C. 20548

General   Government   Division


B-277701

August 8, 1997

The Honorable Charles E. Grassley, Chairman
Subcommittee on Administrative
  Oversight and the Courts
Committee on the Judiciary
United States Senate

Subject:     Federal Judiciarv: Information on Noncase-Related Travel of
             Bankruntcv Judges in 14 Bankruptcv Districts

Dear Mr. Chairman:

 In April 1997, the Judicial Conference of the United States’ transmitted to
 Congress a request for congressional authorization of 18 additional bankruptcy
judgeships in 14 bankruptcy courts, or districts2 On June 18, 1997, you
requested that we obtain information on the noncase-related travel of the
bankruptcy judges in each of these 14 districts for calendar years 1995 and
 1996. Specifically, you asked that for each noncase-related trip we obtain
information on the dates, purpose, number of workdays required, cost,
 destination, and the organization that paid for each trip. This letter discusses
the methodology we used to gather the data and summarizes our results.

SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY

Through the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), we asked the 83
current judges in the 14 bankruptcy districts for which the Judicial Conference
has requested additional judgeships to provide us information on the dates,
purpose, cost, destination, and paying organization for each noncase-related trip
he or she took in calendar years 1995 and 1996. We also asked the one judge in
the Northern District of Mississippi to provide the same information because



‘The Judicial Conference is the federal judiciary’s principal policymaking body.
It consists of 26 judges plus the Chief Justice of the United States, who presides
over the conference.

TThere are 90 bankruptcy districts with a current authorized total of 326
judgeships.
                                        GAO/GGD-97-166R   Bankruptcy   Judges’ Travel
B-277701
this district is to share the judgeship requested for the Southern District of Mississippi.
We defined noncase-related trips as trips not directly related to adjudicating
bankruptcy cases. We excluded trips, such as vacations, that were paid for entirely
from judges’ personal funds. The judges sent their data both to us and to AOUSC.

We received data from all 14 bankruptcy districts for which the Judicial Conference
has requested additional judgeships, plus the Northern District of Mississippi. In this
report, we combined the travel data for the Southern and Northern Districts of
Mississippi. Together, these 15 districts currently have 84 authorized judgeships, and
we received responses from 81 judges. 3 The total trips reported in this letter exclude
the data reported by one judge in the District of New Jersey who did not provide
information on the dates of the trips reported, their cost, or the paying organizations.
Thus, our totals include data from 80 judges.

Many of the reported trips were for similar purposes, such as training. To make it
easier to compare the number of trips of similar purpose, we organized the reported
trips into five categories: (1) judicial meetings and activities within the district or
cir~uit;~ (2) workshops, seminars, and other activities sponsored by AOUSC or the
Federal Judicial Center (FJC); (3) meetings, conferences, and seminars sponsored by
the National Conference of Bankruptcy Judges (NCBJ), the National Association of




3We received information from seven of nine judges in the Southern District of New
York and three of four judges in the Western District of Tennessee. One judgeship in
the Western District of Tenneesee was vacant for an extended period of time during
1995 and 1996. The judgeship was filled in 1997.
 4The 90 bankruptcy districts are organized into 12 geographic circuits. There are a
 number of bankruptcy districts in each circuit. This category includes trips to circuit
 conferences and circuit committee meetings as well as bankruptcy judges meetings within
 the circuit, either for a specific district or more than one district. We included such
 meetings in this category whether or not the listed destinations were within the
 geographic boundaries of the district or circuit. For example, the eleventh circuit held its
 circuit conference in 1995 in Asheville, North Carolina, which is within the boundaries of
 the fourth circuit.
 2                                                  GAO/GGD-97-166R   Bankruptcy   Judges’ Travel
B-277701

Bankruptcy Trustees (NABT), or the National Association of Chapter 13 Trustees
(NACTI’); (4) Judicial Conference activitiesi and (5) other.’

We used the dates of reported travel for each trip to determine the length of each trip
because travel dates were the only comparable data each reporting judge provided on
the length of each trip. We counted all travel days as whole days except where a
judge specifically reported that a trip included a half-day of travel7 In those instances,
we counted one of the travel days as a half-day. We then identified workdays by
excluding weekend days and federal holidays for 1995 and 1996.

In reviewing the cost data we received, we found that the data on cost per trip were
not always complete or comparable among the reporting judges. For some trips,
judges noted that (1) the costs of the tips were estimates; (2) they did not know the
costs; (3) the costs were combined with the cost of another trip; or (4) part of the
trips’ costs (usually hotel) were paid directly by the sponsoring organization, and the
judge did not know the amount paid. Therefore, the cost data we received were
 sometimes estimates, were not necessarily complete, and may not always have
represented the full or actual cost of each trip. Because the cost data were not
complete or comparable among judges or among districts, we have not included cost
data in this summary.

We did not independently verify the reported data on the number of trips taken, the
dates of travel for each trip, the purpose of each trip, the destination, the cost per trip,
or the paying organization. We did our work principally in Washington, D.C., and
Dallas, Texas, from June through July 1997 in accordance with generally accepted
government auditing standards.




‘This category included trips to attend meetings of Judicial Conference committees or
subcommittees.
?l’his category included any activity not contained in the other four categories. It includes
activities, such as meetings or seminars, sponsored by law schools, bar associations, civic
associations, executive branch agencies of the federal government, or foreign
governments.

70ccasionally, a judge’s response indicated that he or she left on a specific trip late in the
day or returned to the office in the afternoon. To the extent this occurred, our totals may
overstate the total number of travel days or workdays on travel.
3                                                  GAO/GGD-97-166R    Bankruptcy   Judges’ Travel
B-277701
SUMMARY OF DATA

In assessing bankruptcy judge workload, the Judicial Conference assumes that each
bankruptcy judge will spend, on average, about 30 percent of his or her time-about
600 hours per year-on noncase-related matters, such as travel, training, administrative
affairs, and general case management activities that cannot be attributed to a specific
case.8

The 80 judges who responded to our request reported that they took a total of 416
noncase-related trips in calendar year 1995 and 403 trips in calendar year 1996.
Together, circuit or district meetings and activities; Judicial Conference meetings and
activities; and AOUSC- or FJC- sponsored workshops, seminars, and other activities
accounted for about 66 percent of all trips and about 74 percent of all travel workdays
reported for 1995. Comparable figures for calendar year 1996 were about 67,percent
and about 73 percent, respectively. Information on trips by major category is provided
in enclosure I.

As shown in the following table, there was a marked difference between the districts
with the highest and lowest average number of noncase-related trips per judge and
between the districts with the highest and lowest average number of workdays per
judge for noncase-related trips.

Range of Trips and Workdavs Per Judge for Noncase-Related Travel in 1995 and 1996

                                      District range        1995              1996
  Average number of noncase-         High                          9.3                12.0
  related trips per judge
                                     Low                           0.5                 1.3
     Average number of workdays      High                       22.3                  28.5
     per judge for noncase-related
     travel                          Low                           1.5                 5.2

Source: GAO analysis of bankruptcy judges’ travel data.

Enclosure II includes information on highs, lows, and averages for each of the districts
in 1995 and 1996.




 !%.x hundred hours are equivalent to 75 S-hour days.

 4                                                 GAOIGGD-97-166R       Bankruptcy     Judges’ Travel
B-277701
The total number of trips reported varied among districts, and among judges in the
same district, for several reasons. First, in some districts, judges served on Judicial
 Conference committees or subcommittees and traveled to meetings of these
committees and subcommittees-travel not required of their colleagues who did not
serve on such committees. Second, some districts had newly appointed judges who
attended one or more sessions of new judge orientation and training. Third, some
judges were active in national bankruptcy organizations, such as the National
 Conference of Bankruptcy Judges, and traveled to more events sponsored by these
 organizations than did their colleagues within the district or judges in other districts.

Destinations varied widely, from local county bar association meetings to trips
overseas to teach bankruptcy seminars. About 98 percent (805) of the 819 noncase-
related trips reported for 1995 and 1996 were for destinations within the United States.
Five judges reported a total of 14 trips to other nations. About 34 percent of all
reported trips were paid for by the judges personally or by organizations other than
the federal judiciary.g Enclosure III includes information on trip destinations, and
enclosure IV contains information on the organizations that paid for the trips reported.
Enclosure V contains abbreviations used in enclosures I, III, and IV.

AGENCY COMMENTS

 On August 5, 1997, we provided a draft of this letter to AOUSC officials for comment.
On August 6; 1997, an official of the Office of Program Assessment in AOUSC provided
comments on the draft. AOUSC suggested that our use of whole days may overstate
judges travel days or workdays when judges began trips after normal office hours or
traveled only part of a day. AOUSC also suggested that we delete part of a footnote
which stated that some district and circuit meetings did not occur within the
geographic boundaries of the district or circuit. AOUSC believed that location was
irrelevant to identifying the trip’s purpose. Finally, AOUSC suggested that we note
that the average of 600 hours that bankruptcy judges are assumed to devote to
noncase-related activities refers to activities that cannot be attributed to a specific
case, although they may be related to case management generally.

We added a footnote regarding the potential impact of partial days on our travel day
and travel workday totals. We did not delete the reference to meetings which
occurred outside the district or circuit, since this was relevant to how we classified
trips. We also included a statement that noncase-related judges time, as used in the



gAlthough we did not ask judges to provide us information on noncase-related trips for
which they paid entirely from their personal funds, we included such trips in our analysis
when the judges did report them.
5                                                  GAO/GGD-97-166R    Bankruptcy   Judges’ Travel
B-277701
Judiciary’s workload measure for bankruptcy judges, is time that cannot be attributed
to a specific case.



We plan no further distribution of this letter for 30 days, unless its contents are made
public. At that time, we will send copies to the Ranking Minority Member of your
Subcommittee; the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of the Subcommittee on
Commercial and Administrative Law, House Committee on the Judiciary; the Chakmen
and Ranking Minority Members of the House and Senate Committees on the Judiciary;
the Director of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts; the Director of the
Federal Judicial Center; the Chief Judge of each of the 15 bankruptcy districts that
provided travel data; and others, upon request.

Major contributors to this letter are listed in enclosure VI. Please contact me at
(202) 512-8777 if you or your staff have any questions concerning this letter.

Sincerely yours,




Richard M. Stana
Acting Associate Director
Administration of Justice Issues

Enclosures - 6




 6                                                GAO/GGD-97-166R   Bankruptcy   Judges’ Travel   ‘..
ZNCLOSUREI                                                                                                ENCLOSURE I

                        OVERVIEW OF BANKRUPTCY JUDGES NONCASE-RELATED
                                  TRIPS AND AND THEIR LENGTH

‘his enclosure contains information on the calendar year 1995 and 1996 noncase-relatedtrips reported
-1 bankruptcy judges in the 14 districts for which the Judicial Conference has requestedadditional
bankruptcyjudgeships. For each district and each major trip category within each district, this
  closure provides information on (1) the number of judges in the district, (2) the number of noncase-
elatedtrips; (3) the total number of travel days; and (4) the total number of workdays on noncase-
=latedtravel.

                              Number of     Number of    Number of
District/ number of           trips each   travel days   work days
judges/year                       year      each vear    each vear                          Puroose

;;;d;;k    (Eastern)a     /            o


                                                     0           0   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                          I            2             6           6   AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                          I            1             5           3   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                          I            0            0            0   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities


                          I            0             0           0   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                     association meetings)
  1995 total              I            3            11           9

                          I            2             8           4   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                          I            6           32           27   AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                          I            0             0           0   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                          I            0            0            0   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities

                                       0            0            0   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                     association meetings)

  1996 total                                        40          31




zive judges in New York (Eastern)had no noncase-relatedtravel in 1995, and one of thesejudges also
ad no noncase-relatedtravel in 1996.
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                            ENCLOSURE I

                       Number of         Number of    Number of
 District/ number of   trips each       travel days   work days
 judgeslyear               year          each year    each year                           Purpose

 New York (Northern)
 2 judges

                                    1           1.0         1 .O   Circuit or district meetings, activities
                                2               9.0         8.0    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                4             13.0          6.0    NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT         conferences




                                                                               ., law school seminars, bar




8
.JCLOSUFcEI                                                                                    ENCLOSURE I

                             Number of
  I %t/ number of            trips each
-udges/year                      year                                            Purpose

    r York (Southern)b
, judges

                         I
                         I
                         I
                                      0

                                      8
                                      0
                                          +-l-e           Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                                          AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities
                                                          NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                         I            0                   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                                          Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                          association meetings)

 1995 total              I           17     56       43
                                                 I
                                      7     20   I   15   Circuit or district meetings, activities




                                          -$--
                         t            8     30       29   AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                             0        0   NCBJ. NABT. or NACTT conferences

                                             0        0   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                            25       18   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                          association meetings)

 1996 total              I           23     75 I     62




even of the nine judges in New York (Southern) provided travel data.
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                ENCLOSURE I
7
                          Number of        Number of     Number of
    I Iistrictl
             number of    trips each       travel days   work days
    i udgeslyear              year          each year    each year                           Purpose

    I qew JerseyC
     8 judges

                                   6               25           16    Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                   9               38           31    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                   6               18           12    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                                       0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                       0             0           0    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                      association meetings)

       1995 total                  21               81          59

                                       0             0           0    Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                       7           26           24    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars,          activities

                                       4            15          11    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                       0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities
                                       1             3           2    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                      association meetings)

        1996 total                 12               44           37




    ‘One judge in New Jerseydid not provide data on datesof travel, costs, or paying organization, so this
    judge’s data are not included in the districtwide totals.

    10
ENCLOSUREI                                                                                           ENCLOSURE I

                         Number of     Number of    Number of
District/ number of      trips each   travel days   work days
judges/year                  year      each year    each year                          Purpose

Pennsylvania (Eastern)
5 judges
                                  5           20           11   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                  6           14           12   AOUSC or FJC workshops,          seminars, activities

                                  1             3           2   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                                  0             0           0   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities

                                  3             6           3   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                association meetings)

 1995 total                      15            43          28

                                  0             0           0   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                  7           25           22   AOUSC or FJC workshops,          seminars, activities

                                  1             4           2   NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT         conferences

                                  0             0           0   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities

                                  2             4           4   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                association meetings)

 1996 total                      10            33          28
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                        ENCLOSURE I

                             Number of           Number of      Number of
 Districti number of         trips each         travel days     work days
 judges/year                     year            each year      each year                             Purpose

 Pennsylvania (Middle)
 2 judges

                                      3                 12              6      Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                      2                   9             7      AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                      0                   0             0      NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences
                                      0                   0             0      Judicial Conference meetings, activities
                                      0                   0             0      Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                               association meetings)

   1995 total                             5              21            13

                                          1               2             1      Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                          4              16            13      AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities
                                          0               0             0      NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences
                                          0               0             0      Judicial Conference meetings, activities
                                          0               0             0      Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                               association meetings)

   1996 total            I                5 1            18 1           14 1




 12
ZNCLOSUREI                                                                                           ENCLOSURE I

                     Number of     Number of      Number of
District/ numberof   trips each   travel days     work days
judges/year              year      each year      each year                            Purpose

Maryland
4 judges
                              4           16             11     Circuit or district meetings, activities

                              5           20             16     AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                              1            4              3     NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                              6           15             13     Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                             IO           14             13     Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                association meetings)

    1995 total               26            69            56

                              4           13             10     Circuit or district meetings, activities

                              3           10             10     AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                              2            5              4     NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                              6           16             15     Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                              3            8              5     Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                association meetings)

    1996 total                             52 I          44 I




3
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                            ENCLOSURE I

                       Number of         Number of    Number of
 District/ number of   trips each       travel days   work days
 judges/year               year          each year    each year                           Purpose

 Virginia (Eastern)
  5 judges

                               16               35           25    Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                6               23           20    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                    1             4           2    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                                    0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                    3             6           4    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

   1995 total                   26               68          51

                               15                35          24    Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                    6            24          21    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities
                                    0             0           0    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                    0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                    6            17          13    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

   1996 total                   27               76           58




 14
iNCLOSURE I                                                                                             ENCLOSURE I

                            Number of     Number of    Number of
District/ number of         trips each   travel days   work days
judges/year                     year      each year    each year                          Purpose

Mississippi (Southern
and Northern)d
3 judges

                        I            3           13            9   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                        I            3           17           12   AOUSC or FJC workshops,          seminars, activities

                        I            7           25           17   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                        I            2             6           5   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities

                                    11           30           24   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

 1995 total                         26            91          67

                        I            3           13            9   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                        I            6           28           21 1 AOUSC or FJC workshops,          seminars, activities
                                                  7            5   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences
                                                 17           10   Judicial Conference    meetings, activities
                                                 26           24   Other(e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

                                                  91          69




kavel data for the judges in the northern and southern districts of Mississippi were combined since the
iquestedjudgeship to be shared.
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                            ENCLOSURE I

                       Number of         Number of    Number of
 DistrictI number of   trips each       travel days   work days
 judges/year               year          each year    each year                           Purpose

 Michigan (Eastern)
 4 judges

                                4               18           15    Circuit or district meetings, activities

                               12               32           29    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                    4           12           11    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                                    0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                               16               30           22    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

   1995 total                   36               92          77
                                    4            16          12    Circuit or district meetings, activities
                                10              28           24    AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities
                                    3            11           9    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                    0             0           0    Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                19               38          30    Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                   association meetings)

   1996 total                   36               93           75




 16
ZNCLOSURE I                                                                                         ENCLOSURE I

                       Number of     Number of     Number of
District/ number of    trips each   travel days    work days
judges/year                year      each year     each year                          Purpose

Tennessee (Western)*
4 iudaes

                                6           18            16   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                6           23            22   AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                1            4             2   NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT         conferences

                                4           11             9   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                8           23            17   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                               association meetings)

    1995 total                 25           79            66

                                3         12.0           9.0   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                          50.0 I        44.0 1 AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                2          8.0           6.0   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                1          3.0           2.0   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                               13         29.5          24.5   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                               association meetings)

    1996 total                 36         102.5         85.5




“7e
. . received travel data from three of the four judges in TenneseeWestern becauseone judgeship was
‘scant for an extended period of time during 1995 and 1996. The judgeship was filled in 1997.

7
ENCLOSURE I                                                                                                 ENCLOSURE I

                        Number of          Number of     Number of
 District/ number of    trips each        travel days    work days
 judgesiyear                year           each year     each year                            Purpose

 California (Central)
 21 judges
                                                 183 1         113 1 Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                36 1             132 1         114 1 AOUSC or FJC workshops,            seminars, activities
                                 7                26            16     NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                     2              8            8     Judicial Conference    meetings, activities
                                31                92            58     Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                       association meetings)
   1995 total                   132 1                          309 I

                                35               106            76     Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                36               132           120     AOUSC or FJC workshops,          seminars, activities

                                     31             81            8 1 NCBJ. NABT. or NAClT          conferences

                                                                  2 I Judicial Conference     meetings, activities

                                 32                95           60     Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                       association meetings)
   1996 total                   107               343           266




 18
1NCLOSURE I                                                                                              ENCLOSURE I

                           Number of       Number of    Number of
District/ number of        trips each   I travel days   work days
judges/year                   -year        each year    each year                          Purpose
                                        I
California (Eastern)
6 judges

                                   35            107           79   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                    9             41           36   AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities

                                                                0   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT conferences

                                                                0   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                   12             25           15   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                        I                           association meetings)

    1995 total         I           56 1          173          130

                                   32 1                        75   Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                   16   1                      50   AOUSC or FJC workshoos. seminars. activities
                                                                1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences
                                                                0   Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                                               16   Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                    association meetinas)

    1996 total                                                142




9
ENCLOSUFtE I                                                                                                      ENCLOSURE I

                            Number of         Number of        Number of
 District/ number of        trips each        travel days      work days
 judges/year                    year           each year       each year                             Purpose

 Florida (Southern)
  5 judges

                                     6              23.0            17.0      Circuit or district meetings, activities

                                     8              30.0            27.0      AOUSC or FJC workshops, seminars, activities
                                     2                7.0            6.0      NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT         conferences

                                         0            0.0            0.0      Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                         4            8.5            6.5      Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                              association meetings)

   1995 total                        20              68.5            56.5

                                         6          24.0            17.0      Circuit or district meetings, activities

                        I                71          22.0 I         22.0 1 AOUSC or FJC workshoos. seminars. activities

                                         1I           4.0 1          3.0 1 NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            conferences
                                         2            7.0             6.0     Judicial Conference meetings, activities

                                         5           38.5           27.5      Other (e.g., law school seminars, bar
                                                                              association meetings)

   1996 total                                         95.5 1         75.5 1

Source:   GAO analysis of bankruptcy judges’ travel data.




 20
ENCLOSURE II                                                                          ENCLOSURE II
The High, Low, and Average Number of Noncase-Related Trins and Workdavs
Renorted for Calendar Years 1995 and 1996 bv Bankruntcv Judges in the Districts for
Which the Judicial Conference Requested Additional Bankruntcv Judgeshius in 1997




 Virginia,      Eastern     (5)           2    8   5.2   4   9     5.4    4    16   10.2    5   22.0   11.6

 Mississippi, Southern              aud   4   17   8.7   3   15    8.0     8   43   22.3   10   4L.O   23.0
 Northern (3)d

 Michigan,        E&tern     (4)          4   15   9.0   4   14    9.0   10    24   19.3    9   27.0   18.8

 Tennessee,        Western (4)            7   11   8.3   8   17   12.0   20    25   22.0   20   42.5   28.5

 California,      Central (21)            1   13   6.3   0   13   5.1      3   34   14.7    0   37.0   12.7

  California,     Eastern     (6)         6   11   9.3   6   14    9.8   15    25   21.7   15   27.0   23.7

 Florida,       Southern     (5)          2    8   4.0   1   9    4.2    6.5   21   11.3    5   42.0   15.1



“Five judges in New York (Eastern) had no noncase-related travel in 1995, and one of
these judges also had no noncase-related travel in 1996.

bSeven of the nine judges in New York (Southern) provided travel data.

‘One judge in New Jersey did not provide data on dates of travel, costs, or paying
organization, so this judge’s data are not included in the districtwide totals.

dTravel data for the judges in the northern and southern districts of Mississippi were
combined since the requested judgeship is to be shared.

 “We received travel data from three of the four authorized judges because one
judgeship was vacant for an extended period of time during 1995 and 1996. The
judgeship was fIlled in 1997.

Source: GAO analysis of bankruptcy judges’ travel data.


21
ENCLOSURE III                                                                             ENCLOSURE III
           INFORMATION ON THE DESTINATIONS FOR BANKRUPTCY JUDGES’
                          NONCASE-RELATED TRAVEL

This enclosurecontains information on the destinationsfor noncase-relatedtravel
during calendar years 1995 and 1996 reported by bankruptcy judges in districts for
which the Judicial Conferencerequestedadditional bankruptcy judgeships in 1997.

 District/         Number of
 number of         trips each
 judges/year           vear                    Puroose                    Destination (number of trips)

 New York
 (Easternr
 6 judges

                                    Circuit or district meetings,
                                    activities
                                    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Antonio, TX; Marina del Rey, CA
                                    seminars, activities

                                    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            New Orleans, LA
                                    conferences

                                    Judicial Conference
                                    meetings, activities
                                    Other (e.g., law school
                                    seminars, bar association
                                    meetings)

      1995 total

                                    Circuit or district meetings,   Lake George, NY (2)
                                    activities

                                    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Francisco, CA; San Antonio, TX
                                    seminars, activities            (3); Chicago, IL (2)                  /

                                    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                    conferences

                                C   Judicial Conference
                                    meetings, activities

                                C   Other (e.g., law school
                                    seminars, bar association
                                    meetings)

      1996 total                8




 “Five judges in New York (Eastern)had no noncase-relatedtravel in 1995, and one of
 thesejudges also had no noncase-relatedtravel in 1996.


 22
ENCLOSURE III                                                                               ENCLOSURE III

 District/         Number of
 number of         trips each
 judges/year           year                  Purpose                        Destination (number of trips)

  New York
~ (Northern)
I 2 judges

                                ~ Circuit or district meetings,       Utica, NY
                                  activities                      I
                                 AOUSC or FJC workshops,              Boston, MA; Washington,     DC
                                 seminars, activities             I
                                 NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT                 Boston, MA (2); New Orleans, LA (2)
                                 conferences

                                 Judicial Conference
                                 meetinas. activities

                            1    Other (e.g., law school              Syracuse, NY
                                 seminars, bar association
                                 meetings)

      1995 total            8

                            7    Circuit or district meetings,        Albany, NY; Bolton Landing, NY (2);
                                 activities                           New York, NY (2); Syracuse, NY (2)
                            6    AOUSC or FJC workshops,              San Francisco, CA (2); Washington,
                                 seminars, activities                 DC (2); Philadelphia, PA; Chicago, IL

                            1    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT                 San Francisco, CA
                                 conferences

                            0    Judicial Conference
                                 meetings, activities

                            3    Other (e.g., law school              Cooperstown,   NY (2); Lubbock, TX
                                 seminars, bar association
                                 meetings)
     1996 total            17




23
ENCLOSURE III                                                                           ENCLOSURE III
C
 tIistrict/      Number of
 Ilumber of      trips each
 iudgeslyear         year                    Purpose                    Destination (number of trips)

  qew York
 1:Southern)b
 !3 judges
                          0       Circuit or district meetings,
                                  activities

                          8       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Washington, DC; Marina del Rey, CA;
                                  seminars, activities            Orlando, FL (2); San Antonio, TX (3);
                                                                  San Diego, CA

                          0       NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT
                                  conferences
                          0       Judicial Conference
                                  meetings, activities

                          9       Other (e.g., law school         Boston, MA; Chicago, IL; Washington,
                                  seminars, bar association       DC (2); New Orleans, LA;
                                  meetings)                       Philadelphia, PA (2); Toronto, Canada
                                                                  (2)
   1995 total            17

                          7       Circuit or district meetings,   Bolton Landing, NY (7)
                                  activities

                          8       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Chicago, IL (2); Washington, DC;
                                  seminars, activities            Philadelphia, PA; San Antonio, TX;
                                                                  San Francisco, CA (3)

                              0   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                  conferences

                              0   Judicial Conference
                                  meetings, activities

                              8   Other (e.g., law school         Washington, DC (4); Ranch0 Mirage,
                                  seminars, bar association       CA; San Diego, CA (2); SiouxCity, IA
                                  meetings)

    1996 total            23




 bWe received data from sevenof the nine judges in New York (Southern).
 24
ENCLOSURE III                                                                        ENCLOSURE III

 District/        Number of
 number of        trips each
 judges/year          year                 Purpose                   Destination (number of trips)




                           6   Circuit or district meetings,   White Sulphur Springs, WV (6)
                               activities

                           9   AOUSC or NC workshops,          Boston, MA; Orlando, FL (3); Portland,
                               seminars, activities            OR; San Antonio, TX (4)

                           6   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            Atlanta, GA; Boston, MA; Washington,
                               conferences                     DC (2); New Orleans, LA (2)

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities

                           0   Other (e.g., law school
                               seminars, bar association
                               meetings)

     1995 total           21

                           0   Circuit or district meetings,
                               activities

                           7   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; Philadelphia,
                               seminars, activities            PA; San Antonio, TX; San Francisco,
                                                               CA (3)
                           4   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            Washington, DC; San Diego, CA (2);
                               conferences                     San Francisco, CA

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities




E
                           1   Other (e.g., law school         Tampa, FL
                               seminars, bar association
                               meetings)
     1996 total           12




‘One judge in New Jerseydid not provide data on dates of travel, costs, or paying
organization, so this judge’s data are not included in the districtwide totals.
25
ENCLOSURE III                                                                                         ENCLOSURE III

    DistrictI          Number of
    number of          trips each
    judges/year            year                        Purpose                        Destination (number of trips)

    Pennsylvania
    (Eastern)
    5 judges       I                    I                                   I
                                5         Circuit or district meetings,         White Sulphur Springs, WV (5)
                                        I activities                        I

                                6           AOUSC or FJC workshops,             Washington, DC (3); Orlando, FL; San
                                            seminars, activities                Antonio, TX; Portland, OR

                                            NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT                8oston, MA



     ---I-+                     3
                                            conferences

                                            Judicial Conference
                                            meetings, activities

                                            Other (e.g., law school
                                            seminars, bar association
                                                                                Jackson Hole, WY; Washington,
                                                                                San Francisco, CA
                                                                                                                      DC;

                                            meetings)

      1995 total               15
                                0           Circuit or district meetings,
                                            activities
                                7           AOUSC or FJC workshops,             San Francisco, CA (3); Miami, FL (2);
                                            seminars, activities                Philadelphia, PA (2)


                   I            1         NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                        I conferences                       I
                                                                                San Francisco, CA


                                0 1 Judicial Conference
                                    meetings, activities
                                    2       Other (e.g., law school             Pittsburgh,   PA; Palm Springs, CA
                                            seminars, bar association
                                            meetings)

      1996 total                10
L




    26
ENCLOSURE III                                                                             ENCLOSURE III

 District/             Number of
 number of             trips each
 judges/year               year                 Purpose                   Destination (number of trips)




                   I            3   Circuit or district meetings,
                                    activities
                                                                    White Sulphur Springs, WV (2);
                                                                    Princeton, NJ


                   I            2   AOUSC or FJC workshops,
                                    seminars, activities
                                                                    Boston, MA; Marina del Rey, CA



                   I            0   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                    conferences

                                0   Judicial Conference
                                    meetings, activities




 I
                                    Other (e.g., law school
                                    seminars, bar association
                                    meetings)

      1995 total   I            5


                   1            1   Circuit or district meetings,
                                    activities
                                                                    Princeton, NJ


                                    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Francisco, CA (2); West Chester,
                                    seminars, activities            PA; San Antonio, TX
 /

                   I            0   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                    conferences

                                0


                                0

 -+
     1996 total                 5




27
ENCLOSURE III                                                                               ENCLOSURE III

                     Number of
                     trips each



                 c       year                    Purpose




                                      Circuit or district meetings,
                                      activities
                                                                            Destination (number of trips)




                                                                      Hot Springs, VA (4)


                                      AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Antonio, TX (2); San Diego, CA
                                      seminars, activities            (2); Boston, MA
                              1       NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            New Orleans, LA
                                      conferences

                              6       Judicial Conference             San Diego, CA; New Orleans, LA;
                                      meetings, activities            Chicago, IL; Vergennes, VT;
                                                                      Washington, DC; Portland, OR

                             10       Other (e.g., law school         Upper Marlboro, MD; Bel Air, MD;
                                      seminars, bar association       Annapolis, MD (2); Ellicott City, MD;
                                      meetings)                       Eastern Shore, MD (city not specified);
                                                                      St. Mary’s County, MD; Elk-ton, MD;
                                                                      Washington, DC; Charlottesville, VA

I   1995 total   I
                                      Circuit or district meetings,   White Sulphur Springs, WV (4)
                                      activities
                                      AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Chicago, IL; Philadelphia,   PA; San
                                      seminars, activities            Francisco, CA
                              2       NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Chicago, IL; San Diego, CA
                                      conferences

                                  6   Judicial Conference             San Diego, CA; San Francisco, CA;
                                      meetings, activities            Marina del Rey, CA; Memphis, TN;
                                                                      Whitefish, VT; Washington, DC
                                  3   Other (e.g., law school         Coeur d’Alene, ID; Charlottesville,    VA
                                      seminars, bar association       (2)
                                      meetings)

    1996 total                18




 28
ENCLOSURE III                                                                             ENCLOSURE III

    District/         Number of
    number of         trips each
    judges/year           year                 Puroose                    Destination (number of trips)

    Virginia
    (Eastern)     t
    5 judges



I
                             16    Circuit or district meetings,   Charlottesville, VA (4); Hot Springs,
                                   activities                      VA (5); Richmond, VA; Irvington, VA
                                                                   (5); Norfolk, VA

                               6   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Boston, MA (2); Richmond, VA;
                                   seminars, activities            Washington, DC; Marina del Rey, CA;
                                                                   Los Angeles, CA

                               1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Boston, MA
                                   conferences

                               0   Judicial Conference
                                   meetings, activities

                               3   Other (e.g., law school         Virginia Beach, VA; Charlottesville,   VA
                                   seminars, bar association       (2)
~                                  meetings)

     1995 total               26

                              15   Circuit or district meetings,   Williamsburg, VA (5); White Sulphur
                                   activities                      Springs, WV (5); Itvington, VA (5)
                               6   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Richmond, VA; Chicago, IL (3); San
                                   seminars, activities            Francisco, CA; San Antonio, TX

                               0   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT



l--F                           0
                                   conferences

                                   Judicial Conference
                                   meetings, activities




I&
                                   Other (e.g., law school         Hot Springs, VA; Washington, DC;
                                   seminars, bar association       Hilton Head, SC; Charlottesville, VA;
                                   meetings)                       Fairfax, VA; Richmond/Roanoke, VA




29
ENCLOSURE III                                                                           ENCLOSURE III

 District/       Number of
 number of       trips each
 judges/year         year                    Purpose                    Destination (number of trips)

 Mississippi
 [Southern and
 Northern)d
 3 judges

                          3       Circuit or district meetings,   New Orleans, LA (3)
                                  activities

                          3       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Boston, MA; Pasadena, CA; San
                                  seminars, activities            Antonio, TX

                          7       NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT            New Orleans, LA (2); Atlanta, GA;
                                  conferences                     Washington, DC (3); Boston, MA

                          2       Judicial Conference             San Diego, CA; Washington,      DC
                                  meetings, activities

                         11       Other (e.g., law school         Atlanta, GA; Baton Rouge, LA;
                                  seminars, bar association       Memphis, TN (3); Jackson, MS (3);
                                  meetings)                       Washington, DC; Traverse City, Ml;
                                                                  Laguna Niguel, CA

  1995 total             26
                          3       Circuit or district meetings,   Ft. Worth, TX (3)
                                  activities

                          6       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Francisco, CA (3); San Antonio,
                                  seminars, activities            TX; Washington, DC; Philadelphia, PA

                          3       NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Washington,   DC (2); San Diego, CA
                                  conferences

                              3   Judicial Conference             San Francisco, CA; Monterey, CA;
                                  meetings, activities            Williamsburg, VA

                              9   Other (e.g., law school         Memphis, TN (3); Jackson, MS (2);
                                  seminars, bar association       Washington, DC; San Destin, FL;
                                  meetings)                       Hilton Head, SC; Amelia Island, FL

   1996 total             24




dTraveldata for the judges in the northern and southerndistricts of Mississippi were
combined since the requestedjudgeship is to be shared.
30
ENCLOSURE III                                                                        ENCLOSURE III

 District/        Number of
 number of        trips each
 judges/year          year                 Purpose                   Destination (number of trips)

 Michigan
 (Eastern)
 4 judges
                           4   Circuit or district meetings,   Asheville, NC (4)
                               activities

                          12   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Orlando, FL (3); San Antonio, TX (3);
                               seminars, activities            Chattanooga, TN; Cincinnati, OH;
                                                               Detroit, Ml (3); Marina del Rey, CA

                           4   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Boston, MA (2); New Orleans, LA (2)
                               conferences

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities

                         16    Other (e.g., law school         Traverse City (4); Troy, Ml (2);
                               seminars, bar association       Southfield, Ml; Atlanta, GA; Columbus,
                               meetings)                       OH; Memphis, TN (2); Baltimore, MD;
                                                               Washington, DC (2); Virginia Beach,
                                                               VA; Clavton, OH

     1995 total           36
                           4   Circuit or district meetings,   Mackinac Island, Ml (4)
                               activities

                         10    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         San Francisco, CA (3); Pasadena,
                               seminars, activities            CA; Cincinnati, OH (2); San Antonio,
                                                               TX; Detroit, Ml (2); Philadelphia, PA

                           3   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            Lake Tahoe, NV (2); San Diego, CA
                               conferences

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities

                         19    Other (e.g., law school         Troy, Ml (2); Traverse City, Ml (3);
                               seminars, bar association       Harbor Springs, Ml (4); Bellaire, Ml;
                               meetings)                       Cincinnati, OH; Chicago, IL (2);




I-
                                                               Birmingham, AL; Palm Springs, CA;
                                                               Columbus, OH; Washington, DC;
                                                               Clearwater Beach, FL; Jackson, MS

     1996 total           36




31
ENCLOSURE III                                                                       ENCLOSURE III

                Number of
                trips each
                    year                 Purpose                    Destination (number of trips)




                         6    Circuit or district meetings,   Asheville, NC (3); Chattanooga,       TN;
                              activities                      Cincinnati, OH (2)

                         6    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Washington, DC; San Antonio, TX (3);
                              seminars, activities            Boston, MA; Portland, OR
                              NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            New Orleans, LA
                              conferences
                         4    Judicial Conference             Key West, FL; New York, NY; San
                              meetings, activities            Francisco, CA; Washington, DC
                         8    Other (e.g., law school         Atlanta, GA; Park City, UT; Nashville,
                              seminars, bar association       TN (3); Knoxville, TN; Phoenix, AZ;
                              meetings)                       Traverse Citv, Ml
  1995 total            25

                         3    Circuit or district meetings,   Mackinac Island, Ml (3)
                              activities
                        17    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Washington, DC (2); Nashville, TN (5);
                              seminars, activities            Memphis, TN; San Antonio, TX (2);
                                                              San Francisco, CA; Oxford, MS;
                                                              Atlanta GA (2); Tarrytown, NY (2);
                                                              Philadelphia, PA

                              NCBJ, NABT, or NACIT            San Diego, CA (2)
                              conferences

                              Judicial Conference             Greensboro, NC
                              meetings, activities

                              Other (e.g., law school         Nashville, TN (6); Memphis, TN (3);
                              seminars, bar association       Jackson Hole, WY; Birmingham, AL;
                              meetings)                       Washington, DC; Hilton Head, SC

  1996 total             36




We   received travel data from three of the four authorizedjudges becauseone
judgeship was vacant for an extendedperiod of time during 1995 and 1996. The
position was filled in 1997.
32
ENCLOSURE III                                                                             ENCLOSURE III

                      Number of
                      trips each
                          year                Purpose                     Destination (number of trips)




                             56    Circuit or district meetings,   Avalon, CA (2); Catalina, CA (9);
                                   activities                      Riverside, CA (17); San Francisco, CA
                                                                   (7); Maui, HI (19); Phoenix, AZ;
                                                                   Snoqualmie Falls, WA

                             36    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Boston, MA (11); Washington, DC (6);
                                   seminars, activities            Marina del Rey, CA (2); Los Angeles,
                                                                   CA; Philadelphia, PA; Portland, OR;
                                                                   San Antonio, TX (14)

                               7   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Atlanta, GA; Chicago, IL; New
                                   conferences                     Orleans, LA (2); San Antonio, TX; San
                  /                                                Francisco, CA (2)

                               2   Judicial Conference             Bigfork, MT; Williamsburg,    VA
                                   meetinas. activities

                             31    Other (e.g., law school         Atlanta, GA; Bangor, ME; Chicago, IL;
                                   seminars, bar association       Columbus, OH; Washington, DC (8);
                                   meetings)                       Hawks Cay, FL; Honolulu, HI; Indian
                                                                   Wells, CA (5); Los Angeles, CA; Palm
                                                                   Springs, CA; San Diego, CA (2); San
                                                                   Francisco, CA (3); San Antonio, TX;
                                                                   Romania; Ukraine (2); Warsaw,
                                                                   Poland

     1995 total              132
-




33
ENCLOSURE III                                                                               ENCLOSURE III

 District/          Number of
 number of          trips each
 judges/year            year                 Purpose                        Destination (number of trips)

 California
 (Central)
 continued

                                  Circuit or district meetings,       Ojai, CA (12); Sacramento, CA; San
                                  activities                          Francisco, CA (7); Portland, OR (2);
                                                                      Reno, NV (2); Sun Valley, ID (11)

                                  AOUSC or FJC workshops,             Atlanta, GA (5); Chicago, IL (4);
                                  seminars, activities                Washington, DC (5); Miami, FL;
                                                                      Pasadena, CA; San Francisco, CA (6);
                                                                      Philadelphia, PA (9); San Antonio, TX
                                                                      (5)
                                  NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT                San Diego, CA (2); San Francisco, CA
                                  conferences                     I
                                  Judicial Conference                 Washington,   DC
                                  meetings, activities            I
                            32    Other (e.g., law school             Baltimore, MD; Bratislava, Slovakia;
                                  seminars, bar association           Washington, DC (2); Fresno, CA; Los
                                  meetings)                           Angeles, CA; Olympic Valley, CA (4);
                                                                      Miami, FL; New York, NY; Orlando,
                                                                      FL; Palm Springs, CA; Ranch0
                                                                      Mirage, CA; Sacramento, CA; San
                                                                      Diego, CA (3); San Francisco, CA (2);
                                                                      Philadelphia, PA; Phoenix, AZ;
                                                                      Romania (3); Santa Ana, CA; Squaw
                                                                      Creek, CA; Squaw Valley, CA; Santa
                                                                      Fe, NM (2); Ukraine

   1996 total   I           107




 34
ENCLOSURE III                                                                        ENCLOSURE III

 District/        Number of
 number of        trips each
 judgeslyear          year                 Purpose                   Destination (number of trips)

 California
 (Eastern)
 6 judges

                         35    Circuit or district meetings,   Lake Tahoe, CA (5); Monterey, CA
                               activities                      (6); San Diego, CA; San Francisco,
                                                               CA (6); Yosemite, CA (10); Maui, HI
                                                               (6); Snoqualmie, WA

                           9   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Boston, MA (5); Orlando, FL (2);
                               seminars, activities            Portland, OR; San Antonio, TX
                           0   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT
                               conferences

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities
                         12    Other (e.g., law school         Fresno, CA (4); Indian Wells, CA (4);
                               seminars, bar association       San Francisco, CA (3); Tahoe City,
                               meetings)                       CA
     1995 total           56

                         32    Circuit or district meetings,   Bass Lake, CA (6); South Lake
                               activities                      Tahoe, CA (2); Pasadena, CA;
                                                               Sacramento, CA (2); San Francisco,
                                                               CA (6); Squaw Creek, CA (2); Reno,
                                                               NV; Sun Valley, ID (6); Yosemite, CA
                                                               (6)
                         16    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Chicago, IL; Kansas City, MO; Los
                               seminars, activities            Angeles, CA (2); Sacramento, CA (2);
                                                    1          San Francisco, CA (2); Philadelphia,
                                                               PA (4); San Antonio, TX (4)

                           1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            San Francisco, CA
                               conferences

                           0   Judicial Conference
                               meetings, activities
                         10    Other (e.g., law school         Fresno, CA (4); Squaw Creek, CA (5);
                               seminars, bar association       San Antonio, TX
                               meetings)
     1996 total           59




35
ENCLOSURE III                                                                    ENCLOSURE III



                                                                 Destination (number of trips)




                                                            imelia Island, FL; Asheville, NC (5)


                                                            (ey West, FL; Ft. Lauderdale, FL;
                            seminars, activities            Orlando, FL (2); San Diego, CA;
                                                            Boston, MA; San Antonio, TX (2)

                                                            iilton Head, SC; New Orleans, LA




                                                            Irlando, FL; Washington, DC; Amelia
                            seminars    bar association     sland, FL; Tampa/Miami, FL


  1995 total           20
                        6   Circuit or district meetings,   >onte Verde, FL; Bay Point, FL;
                            activities                      ‘anama City Beach, FL (4)

                        7   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Philadelphia, PA (3); San Antonio, TX;
                            seminars, activities            San Francisco, CA (2); Chicago, IL

                        1   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            San Diego, CA
                            conferences

                        2   Judicial Conference             Memphis, TN; San Francisco, CA
                            meetings, activities                                                     I
                        5   Other (e.g., law school         Czech Republic; Republic of Slovenia;
                            seminars, bar association       Thailand; Austin, TX; Tampa, FL
                            meetings)

  1996 total           21


Source: GAO analysis of bankruptcy judges’ travel data.




 36
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                        ENCLOSURE IV

                  INFORMATION ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT PAID FOR BANKRUPTCY
                              JUDGES’ NONCASE-RELATED TRAVEL

This enclosure contains information on the organizations that paid for bankruptcy judges’ noncase-
related travel in calendaryears 1995 and 1996 in the districts for which the Judicial Conference
requestedadditional bankruptcy judgeships in 1997.

 DistrictI            Number
 number of            of trips
 judges/year         each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 New York
 (Eastern)a
 6 judges
                             0   Circuit or district meetings,
                                 activities

                             2   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (2)
                                 seminars, activities

                             1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            Judge personally
                                 conferences
                             0   Judicial conference
                                 activities

                             0   Other (e.g., law school
                                 seminars, bar association
                                 meetings)

     1995 total              3

                             2   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (2)
                                 activities

                             6   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (6)
                                 seminars, activities

                            0    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT
                                 conferences

                             0   Judicial conference
                                 activities

                             0   Other (e.g., law school
                                 seminars, bar association
                                 meetings

     1996 total              8




“Five judges in New York (Eastern)had no noncase-relatedtravel in 1995, and one of thesejudges
also had no noncase-relatedtravel in 1996.

37
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                            ENCLOSURE IV

District/            Number
number of            of trips
judges/year         each year                Purpose                            Paying organization (number of trips)

 New York
 (Northern)
 2 judges

                            1     Circuit or district meetings,       Federal Judiciary (1)
                                  activities

                            2      AOUSC or FJC workshops,            Federal Judiciary (2)
                                 I seminars. activities           I

                            4     NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT                NACl-T (2); NCBJ (2)
                                  conferences

                            0     Judicial conference
                                  activities

                            1     Other (e.g., law school             Central Region Bankruptcy Bar Association
                                  seminars, bar association
                                  meetings)
   1995 total               8

                            7     Circuit or district meetings,       Federal Judiciary (7)
                                  activities
                            6     AOUSC or FJC workshops,             Federal Judiciary (6)
                                  seminars, activities
                            1     NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT                NAC-lT
                I                 conferences


                            7
                            0     Judicial conference
                                  activities
                            3      Other (e.g., law school            Capital Region Bankruptcy Bar Association         (2); Farm
                                   seminars, bar association          Ranch Bankruptcy Institute
                                   meetings)

~ 1996 total                17




38
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                        ENCLOSURE IV

 District/             Number
 number of             of trips
 judges/year          each year               Purpose                       Paying organization (number of trips)

 NewYork
 (Southern)b
 9 judges

                             0    Circuit or district meetings,
                                  activities

                             8    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (8)
                                  seminars, activities

                             0    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                  conferences



 I                            9
                                  Judicial conference
                                  activities
                                  Other (e.g., law school
                                  seminars, bar association
                                                                  INSOL International (2); National Association of
                                                                  Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys; American Law
                                  meetings)                       Institute (3); Toy Manufacturers of America; American
                                                                  Bankruptcy Institute; Georgetown University

     1995 total   I
                  I
                  1



                  I          7    Circuit or district meetings,
                                  activities
                                                                  Federal Judiciary (7)


                                  AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (8)
                                  seminars, activities

                                  NCBJ, NABT, or NACTr
                                  conferences

                              0   Judicial conference
                                  activities

                             8    Other (e.g., law school         Georgetown University (2); American Bar
                                  seminars, bar association       Association; Commercial Law League; American
                                  meetings)                       Bankruptcy Institute; American Bankruptcy Institute
                                                                  and judge personally; World Bank Group; Bankruptcy
                                                                  Seminars of Iowa

     1996 total   I          23




bSevenof the nine authorizedjudges in New York (Southern) provided travel data.
39
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                   ENCLOSURE IV

 District/       Number
 number of       of trips
 judges/year    each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 New Jersey’
 B judges
                        6    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (6)
                             activities

                        9    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (9)
                             seminars, activities

                        6    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ (5); Judge personally
                             conferences

                        0    Judicial conference
                             activities

                        0    Other (e.g., law school
                             seminars, bar association
                             meetings)

  1995 total           21

                        0    Circuit or district meetings,
                             activities

                        7    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (7)
                             seminars, activities
                        4    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ (3); Judge personally
                             conferences

                        0    Judicial conference
                             activities

                        1    Other (e.g., law school         Stetson University
                             seminars, bar association
                             meetings)

   1996 total           12




‘One judge in New Jersey did not provide data on dates of travel, costs, or paying organization, so
this judge’s data are not included in the districtwide totals.

40
ENCLOSUREIV                                                                                        ENCLOSUREN

District/         1 Number 1
number of           of trips
judges/year        each year               Purpose                         Paying organization (number of trips)

 Pennsylvania
 (Eastern)
 5 judges
                         5     Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (5)
                               activities

                         6     AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (6)
                               seminars, activities

                         1     NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NACTT
                               conferences

                         0     Judicial conference
                             I activities
                         3     Other (e.g., law school         Norton Bankruptcy Institute; Georgetown       University;
                               seminars, bar association       National Consumer Law Center
                               meetings)

     1995 total         15
                         0     Circuit or district meetings,
                               activities

                         7     AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (7)
                               seminars, activities
                         1     NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ
                               conferences

                         0     Judicial conference
                               activities

                         2     Other (e.g., law school         Pennsylvania    Bar Institute; American Bankruptcy
                               seminars, bar association       Institute
                               meetings)

     1996 total   I     10I




41
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                        ENCLOSURE IV

 District/         Number
 number of         of trips
 judges/year      each year                  Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 Pennsylvania
 (Middle)
 2 judges
                          3       Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (3)
                                  activities

                          2       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (2)
                                  seminars, activities
                          0       NCBJ, NABT, or NAC’IT
                                  conferences
                          0       Judicial conference
                                  activities

                          0       Other (e.g., law school
                                  seminars, bar association
                                  meetings)

   1995 total             5

                          1       Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary
                                  activities

                          4       AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (4)
                                  seminars, activities

                          0       NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT
                                  conferences

                          0       Judicial conference
                                  activities
                          0       Other (e.g., law school
                                  seminars, bar association
                                  meetings)

     1996 total               5




42
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                         ENCLOSURE IV

    Districtl          Number
    number of          of trips
    judges/year       each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

  Maryland
t 4 judges
                             4    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (4)
                                  activities

                             5    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (5)
                                  seminars, activities

                              1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NCBJ
                                  conferences

                             6    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary   (6)
                                  activities

                            10    Other (e.g., law school         Maryland State Bar Association (8); Virginia
                                  seminars, bar association       Continuing Legal Education; Georgetown University
                                  meetings)

     1995 total   I          26   1
                             4    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (4)
                                  activities

                             3    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (3)



F                            2
                                  seminars, activities

                                  NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                  conferences
                                  Judicial conference
                                  activities
                                                                  NCBJ (2)


                                                                  Federal Judiciary   (6)


                                  Other (e.g., law school         Idaho Bar Association;    Virginia Continuing   Legal
                                  seminars, bar association       Education (2)
                                  meetings)

I    1996 total




43
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                  ENCLOSURE IV

 District/       Number
 number of       of trips
 judges/year    each year              Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 Virginia
 (Eastern)
 5 judges

                      16    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (16)
                            activities
                        6   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (6)
                            seminars, activities

                        1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NACTT
                            conferences

                        0   Judicial conference
                            activities

                        3   Other (e.g., law school         Virginia State Bar Association; American Bankruptcy
                            seminars, bar association       Institute and Virginia State Bar Association jointly;
                            meetings)                       Virginia Law Foundation

   1995 total          26

                       15   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (15)
                            activities

                        6   AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (6)
                            seminars, activities

                        0   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT
                            conferences

                        0   Judicial conference
                            activities

                        6   Other (e.g., law school         Fairfax Bar Association; Georgetown University;
                            seminars, bar association       Virginia Law Foundation (3); American Bankruptcy
                            meetings)                       Institute

   1996 total          27




44
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                        ENCLOSURE IV




1
    IDistrict/        Number
    Inumber of        of trips
    iiudges/year     each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

     Mississippi
    I[Southern and
    INotthem)d
    :3 judges
L
                             3   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (3)
                                 activities

                            3    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (3)
                                 seminars, activities

                            7    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ (5); NACTT; Judge personally
                                 conferences

                            2    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary (2)
                                 activities
                           11    Other (e.g., law school         Louisiana State University; Memphis Bar Association
                                 seminars, bar association       (2); Mississippi Bankruptcy Conference (2); University
                                 meetings)                       of Mississippi; Mississippi College of Law; American
                                                                 Bankruptcy Institute (3); Judge personally

      1995 total            26

                             3   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (3)
                                 activities
t
                            6    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (6)
                                 seminars, activities

                            3    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NCBJ (3)
                                 conferences

                            3    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary   (3)
                                 activities

                            9    Other (e.g., law school         Memphis Bar Association (2); Mississippi Bankruptcy
                                 seminars, bar association       Conference (2); University of Mississippi; American
                                 meetings)                       Bankruptcy Institute (2); VISA, USA, Inc.; Mississippi
                                                                 Bar Association and Mississippi Bankruptcy
                                                                 Conference jointly

      1996 total            24




dTravel data for the judges in the northern and southern districts of Mississippi were combined since
the judgeship requestedfor the southerndistrict is to be shared.
4.5
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                      ENCLOSURE IV

 listrictl          Number
 umber of           of trips
 rdges/year        each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 Michigan
 Eastern)
  judges
                           4    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (4)
                                activities

                          12    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (12)
                                seminars, activities

                           4    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NACTT (2); NCBJ; American Bankruptcy Law Journal
                                conferences
                           0    Judicial conference
                                activities

                          16    Other (e.g., law school         American Bankruptcy Institute (5); Professional
                                seminars, bar association       Education Systems, Inc.; Southeastern Bankruptcy
                                meetings)                       Law Institute; Memphis Bar Association (2);
                                                                Columbus Bar Association; National Bar Association;
                                                                Tidewater Bar Association; Georgetown University;
                                                                Institute for Continuing Legal Education (2); Office of
                                                                U.S. Trustees

  1995 total              36
                           4    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (4)
                                activities

                          10    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (10)
                                seminars, activities
                           3    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NABT (2); NCBJ
                                conferences
                           0    Judicial conference
                                activities

                          19    Other (e.g., law school         Professional Education Systems, Inc. (2); American
                                seminars, bar association       Bankruptcy Institute (3); Midwest Regional
                                meetings)                       Bankruptcy Seminar, Inc.; Association of Insolvency
                                                                Accountants; Seniors Men’s Club of Birmingham, Ml;
                                                                Ford Motor Co.; Western District Federal Bar
                                                                Association (4); Columbus Bar Association; National
                                                                Bar Association; Mississippi Bar Association;
                                                                Georgetown University; Stetson University; E.D.
                                                                Library Fund

      1996 total           36


 46
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                     ENCLOSURE IV

    District/      Number
    number of      of trips
                  each vear               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)



c
    judges/year

    Tennessee
    (Western)*
    4 iudnes
                          6   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (6)
                              activities

                          6   AOUSC or NC workshops,          Federal Judiciary   (6)
                              seminars. activities

                          1   NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ
                              conferences

                         4    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary   (4)
                              activities

                         8    Other (e.g., law school         Southeastern Bankruptcy Law Institute; Norton
                              seminars, bar association       Bankruptcy Law Institute; Tennessee Bar Association
                              meetings                        (3); LRP Publications; American Bankruptcy Institute;
                                                              U.S. Department of Justice
     1995 total          25

                          3   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary   (3)
                              activities

                        17    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary   (17)
-                             seminars, activities
                         2    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NCBJ (2)
                              conferences

                          1   Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary
                              activities

                        13    Other (e.g., law school         American Bankruptcy Institute; Mid-South
                              seminars, bar association       Commercial Law Institute (3); American Bar
                              meetings)                       Association; Norton Bankruptcy Law Institute;
                                                              Tennessee Bar Association (3); Memphis Bar
                                                              Association; Samford University; University of
                                                              Memphis; National Bankrupty Review Commission

I    1996 total         36



We received travel data from three of the four authorized judges in Tennessee(Western) because
one judgeship was vacant for an extendedperiod of time during 1995 and 1996. The position was
filled in 1997.
47
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                 ENCLOSURE IV

                Number
                of trips
               each year              Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)




                     56    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (56)
                           activities

                     36    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (36)
                           seminars, activities

                           NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            American Bankruptcy Law Journal; NCBJ (4); NABT
                           conferences                     (2)


                           Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary (2)
                           activities

                      31   Other (e.g., law school         California Bankruptcy Forum (7); American
                           seminars, bar association       Bankruptcy Institute (2); U.S. Agency for International
                           meetings)                       Development (8); American Bar Association and
                                                           NCBJ jointly; American Bar Association and its
                                                           Standing Committee on Federal Judicial
                                                           Improvements; American Bankruptcy Law Journal;
                                                           Hawaii State Bar; Practicing Law Institute (3); Bar
                                                           Association of San Francisco; Federal Bar
                                                           Association (2); Southern Florida Bar Association;
                                                           Columbus Bar Association; Continuing Education of
                                                           the Bar; Turnaround Management Association
I
1 1995 total         132




    48
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                     ENCLOSURE IV

 District/         Number
 number of         of trips
 judges/year      each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 Calfornia
 (Central)
 continued

                        35    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (35)
                              activities
                        36    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (36)
                              seminars, activities

                         3    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            American Bankruptcy Law Journal; NCBJ (2)
                              conferences
                         1    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary
                              activities

                        32    Other (e.g., law school         California Bankruptcy Forum (4); California
                              seminars, bar association       Bankruptcy Forum and judge personally; American
                              meetings)                       Bankruptcy Institute (4); U.S. Agency for International
                                                              Development (5); American Bar Association and
                                                              NCBJ jointly; New York Law School; California State
                                                              Bar Association; American Bar Association and its
                                                              Committee on Federal Judicial Improvements jointly
                                                              (2); American Bankruptcy Institute and American
                                                              College of Bankruptcy jointly; American Bankruptcy
                                                              Law Journal; National Association of Credit
                                                              Management; State Bar of Nevada; Central California
                                                              Bankruptcy Institute; Commercial Law League of
                                                              America; Sacramento Bar Association; Turnaround
                                                              Management Association (2); Norton Bankruptcy
                                                              Institute; National Bankruptcy Review Commission;
                                                              no expenses (2)

     1996 total        107




49
ENCLOSURE IV                                                                                      ENCLOSURE IV

 Districtl          Number
 number of          of trips
 judges/year       each year               Purpose                        Paying organization (number of trips)

 California
 (Eastern)
 6 judges

                         35     Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (35)
                                activities

                           9    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (9)
                                seminars, activities

                           0    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT
                                conferences
                           0    Judicial conference
                                activities

                          12    Other (e.g., law school         American Bar Association; California Bankruptcy
                                seminars, bar association       Forum (4); Central California Bankruptcy Institute (4);
                                meetings)                       Anthony Kennedy Inn of Court; Placer County Bar
                                                                Association; Association of Insolvency Accountants

   1995 total             56

                          32    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (32)
                                activities
                          16    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (16)
                                seminars, activities
                           1    NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NACTT
                                conferences

                           0    Judicial conference
                                activities

                          10    Other (e.g., law school         American Bankruptcy Law Journal; California
                                seminars, bar association       Bankruptcy Forum (5); Central California Bankruptcy
                                meetings)                       Institute (4)

      1996 total           59




 50
ENCLOSUREIV                                                                                      ENCLOSUREIV

 District/          Number
 number of          of trips
 judges/year       each year               Purpose                       Paying organization (number of trips)

 Florida
 (Southern)
 5 judges

                           6   Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (6)
                               activities

                          8    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (8)
                               seminars, activities

                          2    NCBJ, NABT, or NACTT            NABT; NCBJ
                               conferences
                           0   Judicial conference
                               activities

                          4    Other (e.g., law school         Orlando Bar Association; U.S. Agency for
                               seminars, bar association       International Development; Florida Bar Association
                               meetings)                       (2)
     1995 total           20
                          6    Circuit or district meetings,   Federal Judiciary (6)
                               activities

                          7    AOUSC or FJC workshops,         Federal Judiciary (7)
                               seminars, activities

                           1   NCBJ, NABT, or NAClT            NCBJ
                               conferences

                          2    Judicial conference             Federal Judiciary (2)
                               activities

                          5    Other (e.g., law school         U.S. Agency for International Development (2);
                               seminars, bar association       American Bankruptcy Institute and Government of
                               meetings)                       Thailand jointly; Florida Bar; National Association of
                                                               Attorneys General
     1996 total           21



Source:      GAO analysis of bankruptcy          judges’ travel data.




51
ENCLOSURE V                                                 ENCLOSURIZ V
                                AJ3BREVJATIONS


AOUSC         Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
FJC           Federal Judicial Center
NABT          National Association of Bankruptcy Trustees
NAC’IT        National Association of Chapter 13 Trustees
NCBJ          National Conference of Bankruptcy Judges




52
ENCLOSURE      VI                                              ENCLOSURE   VI


                        MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS    TO THIS REPORT


GENERAL     GOVERNMENT        DIVISION

William 0. Jenkins, Jr., Assistant Director
Katrina R. Moss, Senior Evaluator
Michelle D. Wiggins, Issue Area Assistant

DALLAS     FIELD OFFICE

Jeanne M. Barger, Senior Evaluator
Christopher H. Conrad, Evaluator-in-Charge

OFFICE OF THE GENERAL         COUNSEL

Geoffrey R. Hamilton,   Senior Attorney




(188632)




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