oversight

Federal Law Enforcement: Investigative Authority and Personnel at 32 Organizations

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-07-22.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

                United States General Accounting Office

GAO             Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee
                on Crime, Committee on the Judiciary,
                House of Representatives


July 1997
                FEDERAL LAW
                ENFORCEMENT
                Investigative Authority
                and Personnel at 32
                Organizations




GAO/GGD-97-93
             United States
GAO          General Accounting Office
             Washington, D.C. 20548

             General Government Division

             B-275221

             July 22, 1997

             The Honorable Bill McCollum
             Chairman, Subcommittee on Crime
             Committee on the Judiciary
             House of Representatives

             Dear Mr. Chairman:

             This report responds to your September 18, 1995, request that we provide
             information on federal law enforcement investigative personnel and
             authority. In meetings with your office, we agreed to conduct our work in
             three parts. First, in a November 15, 1995, testimony before your
             Subcommittee,1 we provided information on the organizations authorized
             to investigate suspected criminal violations of federal law, the number of
             investigative personnel employed by those organizations and their related
             salary costs, and previous information we had developed on jurisdictional
             overlap. Second, in a report dated September 30, 1996,2 we provided
             additional information on the federal organizations that employed 700 or
             more law enforcement investigative personnel.

             This report is the third and final in the series, and it provides information
             on federal organizations identified in our November 1995 testimony as
             employing from 25 to 699 law enforcement investigative personnel.
             Specifically, we provide information on (1) the types of violations that
             these organizations investigate; (2) the authorities under which these
             organizations investigate suspected federal criminal law violations,
             execute search warrants, make arrests, and/or carry firearms; (3) the
             number of law enforcement investigative personnel in these organizations
             as of September 30, 1996, and the number of these personnel who were
             authorized to execute search warrants, make arrests, and/or carry
             firearms; and (4) how the number of law enforcement investigative
             personnel in these organizations has changed since the end of fiscal year
             1987.


             The growth of federal law enforcement has been evolutionary. In 1789, the
Background   position of the U.S. Marshal and the U.S. Customs Service were created.
             Since then, additional law enforcement organizations have been

             1
              Federal Law Enforcement: Information on Certain Agencies’ Criminal Investigative Personnel and
             Salary Costs (GAO/T-GGD-96-38, Nov. 15, 1995).
             2
              Federal Law Enforcement: Investigative Authority and Personnel at 13 Agencies (GAO/GGD-96-154,
             Sept. 30, 1996).



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                   established in response to new laws and expanding jurisdictions for
                   federal officers. For example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation was
                   created in 1908 to be the investigative force of the Department of Justice.
                   The Internal Revenue Service’s criminal investigators were established in
                   1919 in the Bureau of Internal Revenue. More recently, in the 1970s, the
                   Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the Drug Enforcement
                   Administration; and the criminal investigators of the Offices of Inspector
                   General (OIG) were added to the ranks of federal law enforcement.

                   In our September 1996 report, we provided information on the 13
                   organizations that employed 700 or more law enforcement investigative
                   personnel. Ten of these organizations employed 38,739 law enforcement
                   investigative personnel (over 90 percent of the law enforcement
                   investigative personnel identified in our November 1995 testimony). This
                   report provides information on an additional 32 federal organizations that
                   employed about 9 percent of the law enforcement investigative personnel
                   identified in our 1995 testimony.


                   We analyzed data maintained by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management
Results in Brief   (OPM) in its Central Personnel Data File (CPDF) and surveyed federal
                   organizations employing from 25 to 699 law enforcement investigative
                   personnel. On the basis of this information, we determined that employees
                   meeting our definition of law enforcement investigative personnel were
                   located in 32 organizations. Twenty of these federal organizations are OIGs,
                   whose responsibilities include criminal investigations. The remaining 12
                   federal organizations are responsible for investigating a variety of criminal
                   violations. These 32 organizations reported that they investigate a variety
                   of suspected criminal violations, ranging from food stamp trafficking to
                   Social Security fraud, and that they derive their authority primarily from
                   statutory provisions set out in the U.S. Code.

                   In addition, the 32 organizations reported that at the end of fiscal year
                   1996, they employed 4,262 law enforcement investigative personnel. Of
                   these law enforcement investigative personnel, they reported that 4,007
                   (about 94 percent) were authorized to execute search warrants, make
                   arrests, and carry firearms.

                   Between the ends of fiscal years 1987 and 1996, CPDF data show the
                   number of law enforcement investigative personnel at the 32 organizations
                   increased about 70 percent, overall. Most of this increase was caused by
                   growth in the numbers of law enforcement investigative personnel at 18 of



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              the organizations. Also, some of the increase was caused by the
              establishment of four of the federal organizations after fiscal year 1987.
              The remainder of the increase was the result of changes that caused
              personnel in four existing organizations to meet our criteria for inclusion
              after fiscal year 1987. Specifically, in three of these four organizations, the
              increase occurred because some existing employees became covered by
              the law enforcement retirement system. The fourth organization
              reclassified the positions of its existing employees into one of the
              investigative occupational series used in this report.


              Our 1996 report focused on those federal organizations employing at least
Scope and     700 law enforcement investigative personnel. For this report, you
Methodology   requested that we gather comparable information for those federal
              organizations identified in the March 31, 1995, CPDF as employing from 25
              to 699 law enforcement investigative personnel.3 In total, there were 32
              such federal organizations, which are listed in appendix I.

              Consistent with our previous work, we defined “law enforcement
              investigative personnel” as those personnel employed in occupational
              series that significantly involve investigative work and that meet the
              definition of “law enforcement officer” in section 5541(3) of Title 5 of the
              U.S. Code for the purposes of certain premium pay provisions.4

              To obtain information on the types of criminal violations that the
              organizations investigated, the organizations’ investigative authority, and
              the authority of the organizations’ law enforcement investigative personnel
              to execute search warrants, make arrests, and/or carry firearms, we
              administered a survey to the 32 organizations. We also used the survey to
              obtain 1996 fiscal year-end data on the number of law enforcement

              3
               The Subcommittee also requested that we report on agency organizations that in the aggregate
              employ 25 or more law enforcement investigative personnel. Department of the Navy organizations
              appeared to meet this criterion on the basis of CPDF data used in our November 1995 testimony.
              However, according to an official at Navy, the Navy organizations had erroneously coded the data
              reported to OPM, resulting in an overstatement of the number of Navy law enforcement investigative
              personnel. Because the actual total of its law enforcement investigative personnel was fewer than 25,
              we excluded the Navy organizations from this report. (The Naval Criminal Investigative Service was
              included in our Sept. 1996 report.)
              4
               For the purposes of certain premium pay provisions, section 5541(3) of Title 5 provides that the term
              “law enforcement officer” means an employee who meets the definition of “law enforcement officer”
              under the retirement provisions of section 8331(20) or 8401(17) of Title 5. In addition, the section
              5541(3) definition also includes an employee who is not subject to such retirement provisions but
              holds a position that OPM determines would satisfy certain statutory criteria. Certain employees
              serving in supervisory or administrative law enforcement positions, but who are not covered by the
              law enforcement retirement provisions (because they did not transfer directly to those jobs from a
              federal primary law enforcement position), were not included within the scope of our survey.



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investigative personnel who were employed by these organizations and
authorized to perform certain law enforcement functions. We reviewed the
organizations’ survey responses for completeness and consistency.

We used CPDF data, and also organization data for Labor’s Office of Labor
Management Standards and the Air Force’s Office of Special Investigations
(end of fiscal year 1991 only), to determine how the number of law
enforcement investigative personnel in the 32 organizations had changed
since fiscal year 1987. We used CPDF data from the ends of fiscal years
1987, 1991, 1995, and 1996.5 We focused our analysis on these fiscal years
because consistent CPDF data were not readily available before fiscal year
1987, we wanted the data we used to be consistent with our previous
work, and we wanted to obtain the most recent data available.

In addition to the 32 organizations reviewed for this report, we also
obtained September 30, 1996, CPDF data for the 13 organizations reviewed
in our September 1996 report. We obtained these data to update our 1996
report. These 13 organizations employed about 45,400 law enforcement
investigative personnel as of September 30, 1996. (See app. VI.)

We did not independently verify the accuracy of the information provided
by the organizations or obtained from the CPDF. However, we discussed
with organization officials the discrepancies between the September 30,
1996, CPDF data and the September 30, 1996, data provided by the
organizations. We were able to resolve most of the discrepancies, but the
remaining differences accounted for about 1 percent of the total number
of personnel.

We did our work between October 1996 and May 1997 in Washington, D.C.,
in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. We
discussed the contents of this report with officials from each of the
organizations listed in appendix I. We requested comments on a draft of
this report from the Director of OPM or his designee. OPM’s comments are
discussed at the end of this report.




5
 These data were obtained directly from Labor’s Office of Labor Management Standards and the Air
Force’s Office of Special Investigations (end of fiscal year 1991 only) because, according to
organization officials, reliable data had not been reported to OPM.



Page 4                                  GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                            B-275221




                            Each of the 32 organizations we surveyed reported it has a designated law
Types of Suspected          enforcement mission and is responsible for investigating a variety of
Violations                  suspected criminal violations (see app. II). Each organization’s
Investigated by             investigative authority, as well as the authority of its personnel to execute
                            search warrants, make arrests, and/or carry firearms, is generally derived
Federal Organizations       from statute (see app. III). Their criminal investigative authorities are
and Their Law               generally implemented through regulations, policies, or interagency
                            agreements.
Enforcement
Authorities                 Twenty of the 32 organizations are OIGs whose responsibilities include
                            criminal investigative functions. For example, the Department of
                            Agriculture’s (USDA) OIG reported it investigates criminal activity and
                            significant abuse within USDA’s 300 programs. These activities and abuses
                            range from food stamp trafficking and food safety violations to assault,
                            bribery, and conflicts of interest involving USDA employees.

                            The remaining 12 organizations reported they are responsible for
                            investigating a variety of criminal violations. For example:

                        •   The Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Office of Law Enforcement investigates
                            crimes committed on or involving Indian country.
                        •   Labor’s Office of Labor Management Standards principally investigates
                            criminal violations of the Labor-Management Disclosure Act, including
                            union funds embezzlement, false reports and records, destruction of
                            records, labor union trusteeship crimes, illegal loans, and prohibited union
                            office-holding or employment.
                        •   The Air Force’s Office of Special Investigations investigates offenses
                            committed by individuals subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice
                            (UCMJ). These offenses include the punitive articles of the UCMJ, violations
                            of federal criminal law, and violations of state laws made applicable to
                            military members by the Assimilative Crimes Act.


                            The 32 organizations reported employing a total of 4,262 law enforcement
Law Enforcement             investigative personnel as of the end of fiscal year 1996. As shown in
Investigative               appendix IV, the percentage of these personnel authorized to perform the
Personnel Authorized        various law enforcement functions varied by organization. At 20 of the
                            organizations, all law enforcement investigative personnel were reported
to Perform Certain          to be authorized to execute search warrants, make arrests, and carry
Investigative               firearms. However, Labor’s Office of Labor Management Standards
                            reported that none of its 165 law enforcement investigative personnel was
Functions                   authorized to perform these functions. In total, about 94 percent (4,007) of



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                            B-275221




                            the law enforcement investigative personnel were authorized to execute
                            search warrants, make arrests, and carry firearms.


                            Overall, the number of law enforcement investigative personnel in the 32
Changes in the              federal organizations that met our definition increased between fiscal
Number of Law               years 1987 and 1996. CPDF data, combined with organization data for
Enforcement                 Labor’s Office of Labor Management Standards and the Air Force’s Office
                            of Special Investigations (end of fiscal year 1991 only), showed that as of
Investigative               September 30, 1996, 4,204 law enforcement investigative personnel were
Personnel Between           employed in the organizations, which is about a 70-percent increase over
                            the 2,471 personnel employed on September 30, 1987.6
Fiscal Years 1987 and
1996                        Most of this increase was caused by growth in the numbers of law
                            enforcement investigative personnel at 18 of the organizations (see app.
                            V). Also, some of the increase was caused by the establishment of the
                            following four organizations after 1987:

                        •   Justice’s OIG was authorized by Congress in 1988 and established in 1989.
                        •   The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s OIG was established in 1988.
                        •   The Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Criminal
                            Investigations, which is within the Department’s Food and Drug
                            Administration, was established in 1992.
                        •   The Social Security Administration’s OIG was established in 1995.

                            However, the remainder of the increase was the result of changes that
                            caused law enforcement investigative personnel in four other federal
                            organizations to meet our criteria for inclusion after fiscal year 1987. First,
                            in the Bureau of Land Management’s Law Enforcement, the increase
                            occurred because some existing employees became covered by the law
                            enforcement retirement system. Second, in Labor’s Office of Labor
                            Management Standards, personnel were not covered by the law
                            enforcement retirement system until 1992. However, according to a Labor
                            official, before 1992, qualified investigative personnel could apply for such
                            coverage. Third, in the Department of the Army’s Army Criminal
                            Investigation Command, coverage under the law enforcement retirement
                            pay system did not begin until 1993. Finally, in 1994, the U.S. Forest
                            Service’s Law Enforcement and Investigations reclassified the positions of
                            its existing law enforcement personnel specifically into law enforcement
                            investigative positions.

                            6
                             This total of 4,204 law enforcement investigative personnel differs from the September 30, 1996, total
                            reported to us in the surveys completed by the organizations, which was 4,262. The CPDF and survey
                            data cannot be completely reconciled; however, the data differ by only about 1 percent.



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                  B-275221




                  On June 24, 1997, the pay team leader from OPM’s Office of Compensation
Agency Comments   Policy provided oral comments on a draft of this report. The official
                  generally agreed with the information presented in this report and
                  provided technical comments that we incorporated where appropriate.


                  We are sending copies of this report to the Ranking Minority Member of
                  your Subcommittee and the Chairman and Ranking Minority Member of
                  the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. We will also make copies available
                  to others on request.

                  The major contributors to this report are listed in appendix VII. Please give
                  me a call on (202) 512-3610 if you have any questions about this report.

                  Sincerely yours,




                  Norman J. Rabkin
                  Director, Administration of
                    Justice Issues




                  Page 7                         GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Contents



Letter                                                                           1


Appendix I                                                                      12

The 32 Selected Law
Enforcement
Organizations
Appendix II                                                                     14

Selected Law
Enforcement
Organizations’
Investigative
Responsibilities
Appendix III                                                                    20

Primary Legal
Authorities Cited by
Selected Law
Enforcement
Organizations as
Enabling Them to
Perform Certain
Investigative
Functions




                       Page 8   GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                        Contents




Appendix IV                                                                        28

Law Enforcement
Investigative
Personnel in Selected
Organizations
Authorized to Perform
Certain Investigative
Functions as of the
End of Fiscal Year
1996
Appendix V                                                                         31

Law Enforcement
Investigative
Personnel in Selected
Organizations at the
End of Fiscal Years
1987, 1991, 1995, and
1996




                        Page 9     GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                        Contents




Appendix VI                                                                                          34

Law Enforcement
Investigative
Personnel at 13
Federal Organizations
With the Largest
Number of Criminal
Investigative
Personnel, End of
Fiscal Years 1995 and
1996
Appendix VII                                                                                         35

Major Contributors to
This Report


                        Abbreviations

                        AFOSI      Air Force Office of Special Investigations
                        CPDF       Central Personnel Data File
                        DOD        Department of Defense
                        EPA        Environmental Protection Agency
                        FDA        Food and Drug Administration
                        FDIC       Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
                        GSA        General Services Administration
                        HHS        Department of Health and Human Services
                        HUD        Department of Housing and Urban Development
                        NASA       National Aeronautics and Space Administration
                        OIG        Office of Inspector General
                        OLMS       Office of Labor Management Standards
                        OPM        U.S. Office of Personnel Management
                        SBA        Small Business Administration
                        SSA        Social Security Administration
                        UCMJ       Uniform Code of Military Justice
                        USDA       U.S. Department of Agriculture
                        VA         Department of Veterans Affairs


                        Page 10                      GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Page 11   GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix I

The 32 Selected Law Enforcement
Organizations

              The names of the 32 law enforcement organizations that we surveyed are
              listed below:

              Department of Agriculture, Office of Inspector General

              Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Law Enforcement and
              Investigations

              Department of the Air Force, Air Force Office of Special Investigations

              Department of the Army, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command

              Department of Commerce, Bureau of Export Administration, Office of
              Export Enforcement

              Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
              Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Staff Office for Law
              Enforcement

              Department of Defense, Office of Inspector General

              Department of Education, Office of Inspector General

              Department of Energy, Office of Inspector General

              Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug
              Administration, Office of Criminal Investigations

              Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General

              Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Inspector
              General

              Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Law
              Enforcement

              Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Law
              Enforcement

              Department of the Interior, Office of Inspector General




              Page 12                        GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix I
The 32 Selected Law Enforcement
Organizations




Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Law
Enforcement

Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General

Department of Labor, Office of Inspector General

Department of Labor, Office of Labor Management Standards

Department of State, Office of Inspector General

Department of Transportation, Office of Inspector General

Department of the Treasury, Office of Inspector General

Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Inspector General

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Criminal Enforcement,
Forensics and Training

Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of Inspector General

General Services Administration, Office of Inspector General

General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service, Federal
Protective Service

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Inspector
General

Small Business Administration, Office of Inspector General

Social Security Administration, Office of Inspector General

U.S. Railroad Retirement Board, Office of Inspector General




Page 13                           GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix II

Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
Investigative Responsibilities


Law enforcement organization        Type of criminal violations investigated
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  U.S. Forest Service, Law          The U.S. Forest Service, Law Enforcement and Investigations, is responsible for
  Enforcement and                   investigating offenses against the United States that occur within or have a nexus to the
  Investigations                    National Forest System. The types of investigations and enforcement actions in which the
                                    Forest Service is involved include the following: minor misdemeanor offenses found in
                                    Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations and major crimes related to National Forest
                                    System lands, facilities, and activities found in Titles 18 and 21 of the U.S. Code.

                                    Investigations involve wildland fire/arson, timber theft, theft and/or destruction of
                                    archeological resources of a historical or prehistoric nature, destruction of resources,
                                    and contract fraud. Drug enforcement investigations are performed under the authority
                                    of the National Forest System Drug Control Act of 1986, as amended, to detect and
                                    prevent the cultivation and manufacturing of marijuana on National Forest System lands.
                                    Investigations also include other environmental and wildlife crimes, illegal occupancy of
                                    National Forest System lands, theft of natural resources, and threats and assaults
                                    against Forest Service employees.
  Office of Inspector General       The USDA OIG investigates criminal activity and significant abuse within the
  (OIG)                             Department’s 300 different programs. These crimes include the following: food stamp
                                    trafficking (which often involves drug and weapons trafficking and other related illegal
                                    financial activity, such as money laundering); food safety violations, including the
                                    processing, transportation, and sale of adulterated meat and poultry products and
                                    tampering with USDA-inspected food products; USDA farm loan fraud, including theft
                                    and conversion of property owned by or mortgaged to USDA; false certifications and
                                    claims in federal crop insurance, disaster, export and other farm programs; rural housing
                                    violations, such as equity skimming and contractor fraud; assault and bribery of USDA
                                    loan officers and inspectors/graders of meat, grain and other commodities;
                                    embezzlements, thefts, and conflicts of interest involving USDA employees; alteration
                                    and forgery of official documents; conspiracy; and other illegal activities involving USDA
                                    programs and operations. The USDA OIG also provides dignitary protection services to
                                    the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Agriculture.
Department of the Interior
  Bureau of Indian Affairs,         The Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Law Enforcement has investigative responsibilities
  Office of Law Enforcement         for crimes committed on, or involving, Indian country. These crimes include (1) major
                                    federal crimes under Title 18 U.S.C. §1153 and (2) state crimes assimilated into the
                                    federal statutes under Title 18 U.S.C. §1153 and state crimes assimilated into the federal
                                    statutes under Title 18 U.S.C. §1152, including, but not limited to, murder; manslaughter;
                                    child sexual abuse; kidnapping; rape; assault with a dangerous weapon; assault with
                                    intent to commit murder; assault resulting in serious bodily injury; arson; burglary;
                                    robbery; counterfeiting; embezzlement; organized criminal enterprises affecting gaming
                                    and gambling operations; the production, sale, or distribution of illegal narcotics, drugs,
                                    and marijuana within Indian country; and violations of many other federal statutes when
                                    the offense occurs in Indian country. In many cases, Bureau officials also enforce tribal
                                    laws and ordinances.
  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,   The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Law Enforcement, is responsible for
  Division of Law Enforcement       investigating violations of U.S. wildlife laws. The Service is also responsible for offenses
                                    committed on the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service investigates offenses
                                    involving federal wildlife laws, environmental crimes, archaeological resource protection,
                                    smuggling, and drug enforcement on Service lands.
                                                                                                                    (continued)




                                    Page 14                              GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                         Appendix II
                                         Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
                                         Investigative Responsibilities




Law enforcement organization              Type of criminal violations investigated
  Bureau of Land Management,              The Bureau of Land Management, Law Enforcement, is responsible for the following
  Law Enforcement                         types of violations as they relate to federal lands administered by the Bureau:
                                          archaeological resources, wild horses and burros, recreation use fees, cave resources,
                                          fish and wildlife, National Trails use, National Wild and Scenic Rivers use, grazing,
                                          unlawful enclosures, migratory birds, endangered species, bald and golden eagles,
                                          Native American graves, oil and gas leasing, minerals leasing, hazardous materials,
                                          clean water, property theft and vandalism, coal theft, timber theft and damage, wildland
                                          arson and fire prevention, survey interference, land fraud, hazardous devices, marijuana
                                          cultivation and drug labs, subsistence hunting in Alaska, motorized and off-road vehicle
                                          use, recreation restrictions, and various other land use restrictions.
  Office of Inspector General             The Interior OIG is responsible for investigating bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest;
                                          false claims; conspiracy to defraud; embezzlement and theft; program fraud; false
                                          statements; crimes involving Indians (to include embezzlement and theft from Indian
                                          tribal organizations and thefts from gaming establishments on Indian lands); mail fraud;
                                          wire fraud; racketeering; and other alleged violations of criminal, civil, and administrative
                                          regulations against Interior’s programs and operations.
Department of Defense (DOD),              The DOD OIG is responsible for investigating fraud involving Defense contractors; fraud
Office of Inspector General               in the programs and operations of DOD; and product substitution, health care fraud, cost
                                          mischarging, bribery, corruption, kickbacks, false claims, and false statements.
Department of Labor
  Office of Inspector General             The Labor OIG has the responsibility to investigate fraud, abuse, and other criminal
                                          activity that involves Labor employees, programs, and operations. This responsibility
                                          includes investigative authority over serious Labor employee integrity and misconduct
                                          matters and other criminal violations that occur within Labor’s contract, grant, and
                                          benefit programs administered by over 24 program agencies. Some of the more
                                          significant Labor programs that receive investigative attention by the Labor OIG include
                                          the Unemployment Insurance Program; the Job Training Partnership Act Program; the
                                          Federal Employees’ Compensation Act Program, with its related Black Lung and
                                          Longshoremen’s compensation benefit programs; and programs administered by the
                                          Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

                                          The Labor OIG also has the responsibility to investigate traditional and nontraditional
                                          organized crime groups’ labor racketeering activity related to employee health and
                                          welfare benefit plans, labor-management relations, and internal union affairs. This
                                          responsibility includes possible violations of the Employee Retirement Income Security
                                          Act, the Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, and other labor-related
                                          statutes.
  Office of Labor Management              The Office of Labor Management Standards’ principal activity is the investigation of
  Standards                               criminal violations of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act, including
                                          union funds embezzlement, false reporting, false records, destruction of records, labor
                                          union trusteeship crimes, failure to bond, illegal loans, and prohibited union
                                          office-holding or employment. In addition, agency investigations often identify related
                                          criminal violations of federal statutes under Title 18 of the United States Code, which are
                                          investigated under authority delegated by U.S. Attorneys.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
  Office of Inspector General             The HHS OIG is responsible for investigating fraud and other criminal activity in
                                          programs and operations of the Department, including fraud and other criminal activity in
                                          the Medicare and Medicaid programs.
                                                                                                                           (continued)




                                         Page 15                                GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                               Appendix II
                                               Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
                                               Investigative Responsibilities




Law enforcement organization                   Type of criminal violations investigated
  Food and Drug Administration                 The FDA Office of Criminal Investigations investigates suspected criminal violations of
  (FDA), Office of Criminal                    the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act; the Public Health Service Act; the Federal
  Investigations                               Anti-Tampering Act; and provisions of other laws within the jurisdiction of FDA. These
                                               criminal investigations cover: counterfeit or unapproved prescription drugs; illegal
                                               diversion of prescription pharmaceuticals and other products; unapproved or
                                               misbranded medical devices, drugs, biological products, and veterinary drug products;
                                               crimes relating to the improper manufacturing, labeling, or distribution of drugs, foods,
                                               devices, biological products such as vaccines and blood, and veterinary drug products;
                                               product approval application fraud; clinical investigation fraud; illegal product ingredient
                                               substitution; tampering with consumer products; trafficking in adulterated or misbranded
                                               foods or drugs; hazardous drug residues in food animals; and health care frauds related
                                               to FDA regulated products.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  Office of Criminal Enforcement,              The Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training is responsible for
  Forensics and Training                       investigating alleged criminal violations of EPA-administered environmental protection
                                               statutes. For example, these violations include mishandling of hazardous waste,
                                               unpermitted water pollution, misuse of pesticides, failure to report releases of hazardous
                                               substances, violations of hazardous air pollutant standards, and false statements in
                                               reports made pursuant to requirements in the environmental laws.
  Office of Inspector General                  The EPA OIG is responsible for investigating fraud and other criminal activity in
                                               programs and operations of the Agency. The EPA OIG investigates allegations or
                                               indications of fraud and other criminal activity in EPA programs and operations by EPA
                                               employees and by EPA contractors, subcontractors, assistance recipients, and others
                                               who do business with the Agency. Some of the crimes that the EPA OIG investigates
                                               include false claims, false statements, conflict of interest, bribery of EPA employees,
                                               extortion by EPA employees, obstruction of justice, mail fraud, falsification or forgery of
                                               contractor bids or guarantees, theft of government property, misuse of public funds,
                                               antitrust violations, false personation, and aiding and abetting.
  Department of the Air Force,                 The Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) has the authority to investigate
  Air Force Office of Special Investigations   significant offenses committed by individuals subject to the Uniform Code of Military
                                               Justice (UCMJ) wherever the offense is committed. These offenses could be violations of
                                               the punitive articles of the UCMJ, violations of federal criminal law, or violations of state
                                               law made applicable to military members by the federal Assimilative Crimes Act. These
                                               offenses include crimes such as murder, child abuse, espionage, rape, theft, bribery,
                                               embezzlement, forgery, perjury, and robbery.

                                               AFOSI also has the authority to investigate violations of federal criminal laws by
                                               individuals not subject to the UCMJ, if these offenses are committed against Air Force
                                               resources or using Air Force resources. These offenses typically occur on Air Force
                                               installations and frequently involve Air Force civilian employees or contractors.

                                               Under the Inspector General Act, AFOSI may also investigate when Air Force contractors
                                               commit fraud offenses that are prohibited by federal law. This covers a broad spectrum
                                               of fraud offenses, including environmental offenses committed by contractors.
Department of Commerce
  National Oceanic and                         The National Marine Fisheries Service, Staff Office for Law Enforcement, is responsible
  Atmospheric Administration,                  for investigating fish and wildlife violations subject to the provisions of the Lacey Act, the
  National Marine Fisheries                    Marine Mammal Protection Act, and the Endangered Species Act, which carry a criminal
  Service, Staff Office                        sanction.
  for Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                 (continued)




                                               Page 16                               GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                        Appendix II
                                        Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
                                        Investigative Responsibilities




Law enforcement organization            Type of criminal violations investigated
  Bureau of Export                      The Bureau of Export Administration, Office of Export Enforcement, investigates criminal
  Administration, Office of             dual-use export control violations arising out of national security and foreign policy
  Export Enforcement                    controls imposed under the Export Administration Act and the Export Administration
                                        Regulations. In conducting these investigations, the Office of Export Enforcement seeks
                                        to deter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction to countries and end-users of
                                        concern. The Office protects U.S. national security, foreign policy, and economic
                                        interests by interdicting illegal exports and assisting the Department of Justice in
                                        prosecuting violators. Other duties include the investigation of export violations
                                        pertaining to the Chemical Weapons Convention and counterterrorism. Additionally, the
                                        Office has sole responsibility for the criminal enforcement of the Fastener Quality Act.
Social Security Administration          The SSA OIG is responsible for investigating fraud involving Social Security programs
(SSA), Office of Inspector              and operations. The following types of violations are examples of those commonly
General                                 investigated by the SSA OIG, either alone or jointly with other agencies: aiding and
                                        abetting, bribery of a public official, conflict of interest, fraudulent claims, conspiring to
                                        defraud the United States, embezzlement, false statements or entries, fraud in
                                        connection with identification documents, computer fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, Social
                                        Security fraud, and supplemental Social Security income fraud.
General Services Administration (GSA)
  Public Buildings Service,             The Public Buildings Service, Federal Protective Service, is responsible for investigating
  Federal Protective Service            all crimes and incidents that occur on GSA-controlled facilities. These crimes and
                                        incidents include any federal criminal offense with a nexus to GSA’s responsibility, which
                                        can include murder, rape, aggravated assault, theft of government property, narcotics
                                        violation, weapons and explosives offenses, child abuse, and threats against federal
                                        employees and visitors to GSA facilities.
  Office of Inspector General           The GSA OIG has broad investigative authority over all criminal, civil, and administrative
                                        violations of law, rule, and/or regulations associated with programs, operations, and/or
                                        personnel of GSA. The GSA OIG emphasizes and places special expertise on the
                                        investigation and enforcement of criminal statutes associated with financial crime,
                                        white-collar crime, and public corruption impacting the integrity and effectiveness of
                                        GSA’s mission within the federal government.
Department of Justice, Office of        The Justice OIG is responsible for investigating (1) allegations of waste, fraud, and
the Inspector General                   abuse involving Justice programs and activities, including allegations involving entities
                                        contracting with or receiving benefits from the Department, and (2) allegations of
                                        misconduct on the part of Department employees (in components other than the Federal
                                        Bureau of Investigation and the Drug Enforcement Administration), including allegations
                                        of misconduct involving Department attorneys and investigators that do not relate to
                                        attorneys’ authority to litigate, investigate, or provide legal advice.

                                        Specific types of cases that have been investigated by the Justice OIG include theft of
                                        government property, theft of inmate or detainee property, embezzlement, contractor
                                        fraud, time and attendance fraud, Immigration and Naturalization Service document
                                        fraud, mail fraud, drug and narcotics offenses, weapons law violations, sex offenses,
                                        bribery, alien smuggling, deprivation of rights under color of law, unauthorized release of
                                        official information, physical abuse, obstruction of justice, smuggling of contraband into
                                        a prison facility, possession of contraband in a prison facility, murder, assisting in an
                                        attempted escape, flight to avoid prosecution, failure to perform duties, and conflicts of
                                        interest.
                                                                                                                           (continued)




                                        Page 17                                GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                    Appendix II
                                    Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
                                    Investigative Responsibilities




Law enforcement organization        Type of criminal violations investigated
Department of Housing and Urban     The HUD OIG is responsible for investigating the following: (1) fraud involving HUD
Development (HUD), Office of        transactions and programs, including loans, grants, and contracts; (2) fraud and criminal
Inspector General                   activity related to public, Indian, and assisted housing; single-family housing; multifamily
                                    housing; and community planning and development; and (3) fraud and misconduct
                                    committed by HUD employees. Moreover, the HUD OIG coordinates with federal, state,
                                    and local law enforcement officials to investigate violent criminal offenses (e.g., drugs
                                    and firearms) involving public, Indian, and assisted housing.
Department of the Army, U.S. Army   The U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command is responsible for investigating certain
Criminal Investigation Command      Army-related felonies, such as mutiny and sedition, murder, rape, theft of government
                                    property, robbery, burglary, drug offenses, kidnapping, and major procurement fraud
                                    violations.
Department of Education, Office     The Education OIG investigates fraud involving financial institutions, mail fraud, bank
of Inspector General                fraud, fraud and embezzlement involving federal student aid programs, and federal
                                    employee misconduct.
Department of Transportation,       The Transportation OIG is responsible for investigating federal criminal violations relating
Office of Inspector General         to programs, operations, and employees of Transportation and for preventing and
                                    detecting fraud and abuse in such programs and operations. The types of federal
                                    criminal violations that the Transportation OIG is responsible for investigating include the
                                    following: (1) false certifications made to Transportation regulators, such as the Federal
                                    Aviation Administration (e.g., unapproved aircraft parts); (2) contract/grant fraud; (3)
                                    criminal violations involving hazardous materials transportation; (4) theft and
                                    embezzlement; (5) highway construction bid-rigging or price-fixing; (6) false claims; (7)
                                    evasion of motor fuel excise tax; and (8) other fraud against the government (e.g.,
                                    Worker’s Compensation fraud).
Department of Veterans Affairs,     The Veterans Affairs OIG is responsible for investigating violations of federal law relating
Office of Inspector General         to the programs and operations of the Department. These violations involve fraud, waste,
                                    and abuse in the areas of health care, procurement, and entitlement programs. More
                                    specifically, the types of investigations covered by the Veterans Affairs OIG include the
                                    following: bribery and kickbacks, product substitutions, theft of government property,
                                    loan origination fraud, patient abuse and homicide, and fraud by third-party health care
                                    providers.
Federal Deposit Insurance           The FDIC OIG is responsible for conducting investigations of criminal and other
Corporation (FDIC), Office of       prohibited activities that (1) cause or could potentially result in financial losses to FDIC or
Inspector General                   the Federal Deposit Insurance Fund or (2) would otherwise adversely impact the
                                    operations of FDIC and the financial institutions under its control. Some of the more
                                    common areas of investigation include the following: concealment of assets by
                                    individuals attempting to avoid repayment of debts to FDIC, fraud and false claims by
                                    FDIC contractors, and fraud in the purchase or sale of FDIC assets. The FDIC OIG is
                                    also responsible for conducting criminal and administrative investigations of alleged
                                    misconduct by FDIC employees.
National Aeronautics and Space      The NASA OIG is responsible for investigating fraud against the government (especially
Administration (NASA), Office       procurement fraud); bribes; kickbacks and conflicts of interest; false statements; false
of Inspector General                claims; theft, embezzlement, conversion, and misuse of government property;
                                    falsification of travel claims; crime on NASA premises; wire fraud; mail fraud; conspiracy;
                                    conspiracy to defraud; computer intrusion; and computer fraud.
Department of Energy, Office of     The Energy OIG is responsible for investigating various violations of law involving Energy
Inspector General                   Department programs, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the National
                                    Laboratories, various Power Administrations, contractors, grantees, and employees. The
                                    Energy OIG’s investigative efforts include environmental violations, contract fraud,
                                    bribery, corruption, stolen Energy Department property, and conspiracy.
                                                                                                                      (continued)



                                    Page 18                               GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                  Appendix II
                                  Selected Law Enforcement Organizations’
                                  Investigative Responsibilities




Law enforcement organization      Type of criminal violations investigated
Small Business Administration     The SBA OIG investigates fraud involving financial institutions, disaster loan fraud,
(SBA), Office of Inspector        misappropriations of collateral, fraud involving federal procurements, bribery of
General                           government officials, and threats or assaults on government employees.
Department of the Treasury,       The Treasury OIG (1) conducts, controls, and oversees the investigation of alleged fraud
Office of Inspector General       and abuse regarding Treasury employees, programs, and operations and (2) oversees
                                  the internal investigative programs of the Internal Revenue Service; the Bureau of
                                  Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the U.S. Customs Service; and the U.S. Secret Service.
                                  In addition, the Treasury OIG promotes integrity and fraud awareness among
                                  Departmental employees, is responsible for the OIG hotline, and participates in joint
                                  fraud prevention and detection surveys with the audit, information technology, and
                                  evaluations organizations.
Department of State, Office of    The State Department OIG is responsible for investigations dealing with fraud within the
Inspector General                 programs and operations of the State Department, the Arms Control and Disarmament
                                  Agency, the U.S. Information Agency, and the Broadcasting Board of Governors. These
                                  types of investigations include employee embezzlement, theft, and corruption; visa and
                                  passport fraud; and contractor fraud.
U.S. Railroad Retirement Board,   The Railroad Retirement Board OIG is responsible for investigating the theft of
Office of Inspector General       government funds, forgery, mail fraud, conspiracy, false statements, and false claims.

                                  LEGEND:
                                    U.S.C. - United States Code
                                    § - Section

                                  Source: Law enforcement organization responses to GAO survey.




                                  Page 19                               GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix III

Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
Them to Perform Certain Investigative
Functions
                             Authority to                Authority to                                        Authority to
                             conduct criminal            execute search           Authority to               carry firearms,
Law enforcement              investigations              warrants                 make arrests               if necessary
organization                 (1)                         (2)                      (3)                        (4)
Department of Agriculture
  U.S. Forest Service, Law 16 U.S.C. §§551a, 553,        16 U.S.C. §§559c,        16 U.S.C. §§559,           16 U.S.C. §§559, 559c,
  Enforcement and          559, 559c, 559d(2),           1338(b), 3375(b)         559c(3), 1338(b),          3375(b)
  Investigations           559d(5), 559f, 559g(c),                                3375(b)
                           3375(b)
  Office of Inspector        Inspector General Act of 7 U.S.C. §2270; 18          7 U.S.C. §2270             Same as the authority in
  General                    1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3);  U.S.C. §3105                                           column 3.
                             Agriculture and Food Act
                             of 1981 (7 U.S.C. §2270)
Department of the Interior
  Bureau of Indian Affairs, 25 U.S.C. Chapter 30         25 U.S.C. §2803(2)       25 U.S.C. §2803(3)         25 U.S.C. §2803(1)
  Office of Law             (specifically, §2803)
  Enforcement

  U.S. Fish and Wildlife     Migratory Bird Treaty Act   Lacey Act (16 U.S.C.     Same as the authority in   Lacey Act (16 U.S.C.
  Service,                   (16 U.S.C. §§703-712);      §§3371-3378);            column 2.                  §§3371-3378)
  Division of Law            Endangered Species Act      Endangered Species Act
  Enforcement                (16 U.S.C.                  (16 U.S.C.
                             §§1531-1543); Lacey Act     §§1531-1543); Marine
                             (18 U.S.C. §42, 16          Mammal Protection Act
                             U.S.C. §§3371-3378);        (16 U.S.C.
                             Eagle Protection Act (16    §§1361-1407); Migratory
                             U.S.C. §668 et seq);        Bird Treaty Act (16
                             Marine Mammal               U.S.C. §§703-712);
                             Protection Act (16 U.S.C.   Airborne Hunting Act (16
                             §§1361-1407); National      U.S.C. §742j-1);
                             Wildlife Refuge System      Migratory Bird Hunting
                             Administration Act of       and Conservation Stamp
                             1966 (16 U.S.C.             Act (16 U.S.C. §718f);
                             §§668dd-668ee);             Eagle Protection Act (16
                             Archaeological              U.S.C. §668 et seq);
                             Resources Protection Act    National Wildlife Refuge
                             (16 U.S.C. §704aa); Wild    System Administration
                             Bird Conservation Act of    Act (16 U.S.C.
                             1992 (16 U.S.C. §4901);     §§668dd-668ee)
                             African Elephant
                             Conservation Act (16
                             U.S.C. §§4201-4245)
                                                                                                                           (continued)




                                              Page 20                              GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                          Appendix III
                                          Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                          Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                          Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                          Functions




                         Authority to               Authority to                                            Authority to
                         conduct criminal           execute search              Authority to                carry firearms,
Law enforcement          investigations             warrants                    make arrests                if necessary
organization             (1)                        (2)                         (3)                         (4)
  Bureau of Land         The Federal Land Policy    Federal Land Policy and     Federal Land Policy and     Federal Land Policy and
  Management,            and Management Act of      Management Act (43          Management Act (43          Management Act (43
  Law Enforcement        1976 (P.L. 94-579) (43     U.S.C. §1733(c)(1)); Wild   U.S.C. §1733(c)(1)); Wild   U.S.C. §1733(c)(1));
                         U.S.C. §1733); The Wild    Free-Roaming Horses         Free-Roaming Horses         Sikes Act (16 U.S.C.
                         Free-Roaming Horses        and Burros Act (16          and Burros Act (16          §670j)
                         and Burros Act of 1971     U.S.C. §1338); Sikes Act    U.S.C. §1338); Sikes Act
                         (P.L. 92-195) (16 U.S.C.   (16 U.S.C §670j)            (16 U.S.C. §670j); Land
                         §1338); The Sikes Act of                               and Water Conservation
                         1960 (P.L. 86-797) (16                                 Fund Act (16 U.S.C.
                         U.S.C. §670j); The Land                                §460l-6a)
                         and Water Conservation
                         Fund Act of 1965 (P.L.
                         88-578) (16 U.S.C.
                         §460l-6a); The Federal
                         Oil and Gas Royalty
                         Management Act of 1982
                         (P.L. 97-451) (30 U.S.C.
                         §1717)
  Office of Inspector    Inspector General Act of   Inspector General Act of    Same as the authority in    Same as the authority in
  General                1978, as amended           1978, as amended, and       column 2.                   column 2.
                                                    an MOU among the
                                                    Interior OIG, the
                                                    Department of Justice,
                                                    and the FBI, dated
                                                    September 27, 1996
Department of Defense,   Inspector General Act of   Special Deputation; 28      Special Deputation; 10      10 U.S.C. §1585
Office of                1978, as amended           C.F.R. §60.3(a)(2);         U.S.C. §807(b)
Inspector General                                   Military Rules of
                                                    Evidence 315(h)(4)
Department of Labor
  Office of Inspector    5 U.S.C. App. 3 (P.L.      MOUs with the            Same as the authority in       Same as the authority in
  General                95-452)                    Department of Justice:   column 2.                      column 2.
                                                    Program Fraud, July 12,
                                                    1995; Labor
                                                    Racketeering, June 26,
                                                    1987. Prior to these
                                                    dates, OIG special
                                                    agents were deputized
                                                    on a case-by-case basis.
  Office of Labor        29 U.S.C. §§439, 461,      N/A                         N/A                         N/A
  Management             463, 501(c), 502, 503,
  Standards              504
                                                                                                                          (continued)




                                          Page 21                               GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                            Appendix III
                                            Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                            Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                            Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                            Functions




                           Authority to               Authority to                                          Authority to
                           conduct criminal           execute search             Authority to               carry firearms,
Law enforcement            investigations             warrants                   make arrests               if necessary
organization               (1)                        (2)                        (3)                        (4)
Department of Health and Human Services
  Office of Inspector      Inspector General Act of   Requests issuance of     Deputation as Special        Same as the authority in
  General                  1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3),    search warrants by       Deputy U.S. Marshals.        column 3.
                           Health Insurance           authority of 28 C.F.R.
                           Portability and            Part 60. Executes search
                           Accountability Act of      warrants pursuant to
                           1996 (P.L. 104-191)        authorities conferred by
                                                      Department of Justice
                                                      authority as Special
                                                      Deputy U.S. Marshals.
  Food and Drug            21 U.S.C. §§371(a), 372,   21 U.S.C. §372(e)(2); 21   21 U.S.C. §372(e)(2); 21   21 U.S.C. §372(e)(1); 21
  Administration,          393(b)(2); 21 C.F.R.       C.F.R. §5.35; Fed. R.      C.F.R. §5.35; 18 U.S.C.    C.F.R. §5.35
  Office of Criminal       §5.35                      Crim. P. 41; 28 C.F.R.     §3062
  Investigations                                      §§60.2-60.3
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  Office of Criminal       18 U.S.C. §3063;           18 U.S.C. §3063 (Powers Same as the authority in      Same as the authority in
  Enforcement,             (Powers of the             of Environmental          column 2.                   column 2.
  Forensics and Training   Environmental Protection   Protection Agency). Prior
                           Agency); also, criminal    to the enactment of
                           enforcement provisions     §3063 in 1988, EPA’s
                           of EPA-administered        criminal investigative
                           environmental laws,        personnel exercised law
                           under which the            enforcement powers
                           Administrator and her      under deputation by the
                           designees have inherent    Department of Justice.
                           investigative authority
                           (e.g., Clean Air Act (42
                           U.S.C. §7413); Clean
                           Water Act (33 U.S.C.
                           §§1319, 1321);
                           Comprehensive
                           Environmental Response,
                           Compensation, and
                           Liability Act (42 U.S.C.
                           §9603); Solid Waste
                           Disposal Act (42 U.S.C.
                           §6928))
  Office of Inspector      Inspector General Act of   Deputation as Special      Same as the authority in   Same as the authority in
  General                  1978, as amended (5        Deputy U.S. Marshal        column 2.                  column 2.
                           U.S.C. App. 3)
                                                                                                                          (continued)




                                            Page 22                              GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                              Appendix III
                                              Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                              Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                              Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                              Functions




                             Authority to               Authority to                                            Authority to
                             conduct criminal           execute search              Authority to                carry firearms,
Law enforcement              investigations             warrants                    make arrests                if necessary
organization                 (1)                        (2)                         (3)                         (4)
Department of the Air        10 U.S.C. §8013; Section Military Rule of Evidence     10 U.S.C. §807; Rule for    10 U.S.C. §1585, DOD
Force, Air Force             1233 of the Department   315; 28 C.F.R. §§60.2         Courts-Martial 302          Directive 5210.56, AFPD
Office of Special            of Defense Authorization (g), (h), 60.3                                            31-2, Air Force
Investigations               Act, 1986 (P.L. 99-145);                                                           Instruction 31-207
                             Air Force Mission
                             Directive 39, AFPD 71-1;
                             Inspector General Act of
                             1978, as amended (5
                             U.S.C. App. 3)
Department of Commerce
  National Oceanic and       16 U.S.C. §§1531-1544,     Same as the authority in    Same as the authority in    16 U.S.C. §§3371-3378
  Atmospheric                3371-3378, 1801-1882,      column 1.                   column 1.
  Administration,            1361, et seq.
  National Marine
  Fisheries Service, Staff
  Office for Law
  Enforcement
  Bureau of Export          Export Administration Act   50 U.S.C. App.              50 U.S.C. App.              50 U.S.C. App.
  Administration, Office of of 1979, as amended (50     §2411(a)(3)(B)              §2411(a)(3)(B)              §2411(a)(3)(B)
  Export Enforcement        U.S.C. App.                 (i). During periods when    (ii). During periods when   (iii). During periods when
                            §§2410-2420); Fastener      the EAA has elapsed,        the EAA has elapsed,        the EAA has elapsed,
                            Quality Act (15 U.S.C.      Office of Export            Office of Export            Office of Export
                            §§5401-5414, as             Enforcement special         Enforcement special         Enforcement special
                            amended by P.L.             agents execute search       agents make arrests         agents carry firearms
                            104-113 (Mar. 7, 1996)).    warrants under the          under the authority         under the authority
                            During periods when the     authority provided them     provided them through       provided them through
                            EAA lapses, the             through their designation   their designation as        their designation as
                            president continues the     as Special Deputy U.S.      Special Deputy U.S.         Special Deputy U.S.
                            system of export controls   Marshals.                   Marshals.                   Marshals.
                            authorized by the EAA
                            pursuant to an executive
                            order issued under the
                            authority of the
                            International Emergency
                            Economic Powers Act
                            (50 U.S.C. §§1701-1706).
                                                                                                                              (continued)




                                              Page 23                               GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                             Appendix III
                                             Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                             Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                             Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                             Functions




                            Authority to                Authority to                                            Authority to
                            conduct criminal            execute search              Authority to                carry firearms,
Law enforcement             investigations              warrants                    make arrests                if necessary
organization                (1)                         (2)                         (3)                         (4)
Social Security             Inspector General Act of    MOU between the Social      MOU between Social          Same as the authority in
Administration,             1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3)      Security Administration     Security Administration     column 3.
Office of Inspector General as amended by the           OIG, the Department of      OIG, the Department of
                            Social Security             Justice, and the FBI;       Justice, and the FBI.
                            Independence and            Social Security             Social Security
                            Program Improvements        Administration OIG          Administration Special
                            Act of 1994 (P.L.           Special Agents are          Agents are deputized as
                            103-296); MOU between       deputized as Special        Special Deputy U.S.
                            the Social Security         Deputy U.S. Marshals        Marshals pursuant to 28
                            Administration OIG, the     pursuant to 28 C.F.R.       C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),
                            Department of Justice,      §§0.19(a)(3), 0.112(d).     0.112(d).
                            and the FBI, dated          Social Security
                            October 5, 1995. This       Administration OIG
                            MOU was renewed with        Special Agents are
                            modifications on July 31,   authorized to request the
                            1996.                       issuance of a search
                                                        warrant under 28 C.F.R.
                                                        §60.2(p).
General Services Administration
  Public Buildings Service, Criminal Investigative      40 U.S.C. §§318, 318d       Same as the authority in    Same as the authority in
  Federal Protective        Personnel authority: 40                                 column 2.                   column 2.
  Service                   U.S.C. §§318d, 486 (i)
  Office of Inspector       Inspector General Act of    1989 designation by the     1980 delegation by the      Same as the authority in
  General                   1978, as amended (5         Attorney General under      Administrator of GSA,       column 3.
                            U.S.C. App. 3)              Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(h)      pursuant to 40 U.S.C.
                                                                                    §318d
Department of Justice,      Inspector General Act (5    Pursuant to Attorney        Same as the authority in    Same as the authority in
Office of                   U.S.C. App. 3); Attorney    General Order 1393-90,      column 2.                   column 2.
the Inspector General       General Order 1393-90       the U.S. Marshals
                                                        Service deputizes OIG
                                                        Special Agents on an
                                                        annual basis.
Department of Housing       Inspector General Act of    Fed. R. Crim. P. 41, 18     28 U.S.C. §566 and 28       Same as the authority in
and Urban                   1978, as amended (5         U.S.C. §3105                C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),        column 3.
Development, Office of      U.S.C. App. 3)                                          0.112(d) provide that the
Inspector General                                                                   Attorney General may
                                                                                    deputize special agents
                                                                                    as Special Deputy U.S.
                                                                                    Marshals.
                                                                                                                              (continued)




                                             Page 24                                GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                             Appendix III
                                             Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                             Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                             Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                             Functions




                            Authority to               Authority to                                                Authority to
                            conduct criminal           execute search               Authority to                   carry firearms,
Law enforcement             investigations             warrants                     make arrests                   if necessary
organization                (1)                        (2)                          (3)                            (4)
Department of the Army,     Inspector General Act of   Inspector General Act of     10 U.S.C. §807(b); AR          32 C.F.R. §632.1; DOD
U.S. Army                   1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3);    1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3);      600-40; Rule for Courts        Directive 5210.56; AR
Criminal Investigation      10 U.S.C. §807(b); 28      28 C.F.R. Part 60, Fed. R.   Martial 302, Manual for        195-2, paragraph 3-24;
Command                     U.S.C. §535; 5 U.S.C.      Crim. P. 41; AR 195-2,       Courts Martial 1984; AR        AR 190-14; Criminal
                            §301; 1996 MOU             paragraph 3-22; AR           195-2, paragraph 3-21;         Investigation Division
                            between DOD and the        190-22; Criminal             Criminal Investigation         Regulation 195-1,
                            Department of Justice      Investigation Division       Division Regulation            paragraph 3-6, and
                            (AR 27-10); AR 195-2;      Regulation 195-1,            195-1, paragraph               Chapter 17
                            Criminal Investigation     paragraph 3-5, and           3-4
                            Division Regulation        Chapter 5; Military Rules
                            195-1, Chapter 2           of Evidence 312, 314-317
Department of Education,    Inspector General Act of   MOU dated August 22,         Same as the authority in       Same as the authority in
Office of Inspector         1978, as amended           1996, between the            column 2.                      column 2.
General                                                Department of Justice
                                                       and the FBI granting
                                                       blanket special
                                                       deputation through
                                                       September 30, 1997,
                                                       pursuant to 28 C.F.R. §§
                                                       0.19(a)(3), 0.112(d).
Department of               Inspector General Act of   28 C.F.R. §§60.2(i),         28 U.S.C. §§566(c), (d);       28 U.S.C. §566(d); 18
Transportation,             1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3);    60.3(a)(6); 28 U.S.C.        18 U.S.C. §3053; 1995          U.S.C. §3053; 1995 MOU
Office of Inspector         49 C.F.R. §1.23(h)         §566(c); Fed. R. Crim. P.    MOU with the                   with the Department of
General                                                41(a), (c)(1). On August     Department of Justice          Justice and the FBI; 28
                                                       21, 1996, an annual          and the FBI; 28 C.F.R.         C.F.R. §0.112
                                                       blanket deputation MOU       §0.112
                                                       signed by the
                                                       Department of
                                                       Transportation OIG,
                                                       Department of Justice,
                                                       and the FBI; 28 C.F.R.
                                                       §0.112.
Department of Veterans      Inspector General Act of   The VA OIG has been          The VA OIG has been            The VA OIG has been
Affairs,                    1978 (5 U.S.C., App. 3)    given a component-wide       given a blanket                given a blanket
Office of Inspector General                            deputation through an        deputation through an          deputation through an
                                                       MOU with the                 MOU with the                   MOU with the
                                                       Department of Justice        Department of Justice          Department of Justice
                                                       and the FBI. Based on        and the FBI. Based on          and the FBI. Based on 28
                                                       28 C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),      28 C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),        C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),
                                                       0.112, special agents        0.112, special agents          0.112, special agents
                                                       assigned to and              assigned to and                assigned to and
                                                       supervised by the VA         supervised by the VA           supervised by the VA
                                                       OIG, Office of               OIG, Office of                 OIG, Office of
                                                       Investigations, are          Investigations, are            Investigations, are
                                                       deputized as Special         deputized as Special           deputized as Special
                                                       Deputy U.S. Marshals.        Deputy U.S. Marshals.          Deputy U.S. Marshals. 18
                                                       28 C.F.R. §60.3(a)(16);      18 U.S.C. §3053; Fed. R.       U.S.C. §3053.
                                                       Fed. R. Crim. P. 41(c)(1).   Crim. P. 4(d)(1), (9)(c)(1).
                                                                                                                                 (continued)




                                             Page 25                                GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                             Appendix III
                                             Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
                                             Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
                                             Them to Perform Certain Investigative
                                             Functions




                            Authority to               Authority to                                          Authority to
                            conduct criminal           execute search             Authority to               carry firearms,
Law enforcement             investigations             warrants                   make arrests               if necessary
organization                (1)                        (2)                        (3)                        (4)
Federal Deposit Insurance Inspector General Act of     Deputation from the      Same as the authority in     Same as the authority in
Corporation, Office of    1978, as amended (5          Department of Justice on column 2.                    column 2.
Inspector General         U.S.C. App. 3);              a case-by-case basis as
                          Deputation from the          a Special Deputy U.S.
                          Department of Justice on     Marshal
                          a case-by-case basis as
                          a Special Deputy U.S.
                          Marshal
National Aeronautics and    Inspector General Act of   Inspector General Act of   Same as the authority in   Same as the authority in
Space                       1978, as amended (5        1978, as amended, (5       column 2.                  column 2.
Administration, Office of   U.S.C. App. 3)             U.S.C. App. 3), (P.L.
Inspector General                                      95-452), in conjunction
                                                       with 28 C.F.R.
                                                       §§0.19(a)(3), 0.112(d)
Department of Energy,       Inspector General Act of   28 U.S.C. §566(c); 28      28 U.S.C. §566(d), 28      Same as the authority in
Office of                   1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3)     C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),       C.F.R. §§0.19(a)(3),       column 3.
Inspector General                                      0.112(d)                   0.112(d)
Small Business              Inspector General Act of   Department of Justice      MOU signed by the        Same as the authority in
Administration,             1978, as amended           order #1188-87,            Department of Justice,   column 3.
Office of Inspector General                            amending 28 C.F.R. Part    the FBI, and SBA on July
                                                       60, dated May 12, 1987     13, 1995.
Department of the           Inspector General Act of   28 U.S.C. §§561(a),        Same as the authority in   Same as the authority in
Treasury,                   1978, as amended (5        566(c), 509, 510; 28       column 2.                  column 2.
Office of Inspector General U.S.C. App. 3)             C.F.R. §§0.112, 0.113
Department of State,        Inspector General Act of   28 U.S.C. §566(d).        Same as the authority in    Same as the authority in
Office of                   1978 (5 U.S.C. App. 3)     According to the OIG, all column 2.                   column 2.
Inspector General                                      law enforcement
                                                       functions derive from
                                                       appointment as Special
                                                       Deputy U.S. Marshals in
                                                       accordance with a MOU
                                                       signed with the
                                                       Department of Justice in
                                                       July 1995.
U.S. Railroad Retirement    Inspector General Act of   Case-by-case deputation Same as the authority in      Same as the authority in
Board, Office of            1978, as amended (5        as Special Deputy U.S.  column 2.                     column 2.
Inspector General           U.S.C. App. 3)             Marshals under the
                                                       authority of 18 U.S.C.
                                                       §3053

                                                                                                              (Table notes on next page)




                                             Page 26                              GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix III
Primary Legal Authorities Cited by Selected
Law Enforcement Organizations as Enabling
Them to Perform Certain Investigative
Functions




LEGEND:
  AFPD - Air Force Policy Directive
  App. - Appendix
  AR - Army Regulation
  C.F.R. - Code of Federal Regulations
  DOD - Department of Defense
  EAA - Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended
  EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
  FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation
  Fed. R. Crim. P. - Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure
  MOU - Memorandum of Understanding
  N/A - Not Applicable
  OIG - Office of Inspector General
  P.L. - Public Law
  SBA - Small Business Administration
  U.S.C. - United States Code
  VA - Department of Veterans Affairs
  § - Section


Source: Law enforcement organization responses to GAO survey.




Page 27                                  GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix IV

Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
Selected Organizations Authorized to
Perform Certain Investigative Functions as
of the End of Fiscal Year 1996
                                                    Total number of    Execute                   Carry
                                                       investigative    search        Make firearms, if
Law enforcement organization                              personnel    warrants     arrests necessary
Department of Agriculture
  U.S. Forest Service,                                          612         612         612           612
  Law Enforcement and
  Investigations
  Office of Inspector                                           249         248         248           248
  General
Department of the Interior
  Bureau of Indian                                              326         326         326           326
  Affairs, Office of
  Law Enforcement
  U.S. Fish and Wildlife                                        240         240         240           240
  Service, Division of
  Law Enforcement
  Bureau of Land                                                211         211         211           211
  Management, Law
  Enforcement
  Office of Inspector                                            37           36         36            36
  General
Department of Defense,                                          363         363         363           363
Office of Inspector
General
Department of Labor
  Office of Inspector                                           148         145         145           145
  General
  Office of Labor                                               165            0b         0b            0b
  Management Standardsa
Department of Health and Human Services
  Office of Inspector                                           165         165         165           165
  General
  Food and Drug,                                                128         128         128           128
  Administration,
  Office of Criminal
  Investigations
Environmental Protection Agency
  Office of Criminal                                            166         166         166           166
  Enforcement,
  Forensics and
  Training
  Office of Inspector                                            49           30         30            30
  General
                                                                                               (continued)




                                          Page 28     GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                  Appendix IV
                                  Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
                                  Selected Organizations Authorized to
                                  Perform Certain Investigative Functions as
                                  of the End of Fiscal Year 1996




                                                                   Total number of     Execute                   Carry
                                                                      investigative     search        Make firearms, if
Law enforcement organization                                             personnel     warrants     arrests necessary
Department of the Air                                                          171          171         171          171
Force, Air Force
Office of Special
Investigations
Department of Commerce
  National Oceanic and                                                         105          105         105          105
  Atmospheric
  Administration,
  National Marine
  Fisheries Service,
  Staff Office for Law
  Enforcement
  Bureau of Export                                                               66           66         66           66
  Administration,
  Office of Export
  Enforcement
Social Security                                                                145          135         135          135
Administration,
Office of Inspector
General
General Services Administration
  Public Buildings                                                               63           63         63           63
  Service, Federal
  Protective Service
  Office of Inspector                                                            58           58         58           58
  General
Department of Justice,                                                         111          111         111          111
Office of the
Inspector General
Department of Housing                                                          109          109         109          109
and Urban Development,
Office of Inspector
General
Department of the Army,                                                          85           85         85           85
U.S. Army Criminal
Investigation Command
Department of Education,                                                         75           75         75           75
Office of Inspector
General
Department of                                                                    75           71         71           71
Transportation, Office
of Inspector General
Department of Veterans                                                           68           67         67           67
Affairs, Office of
Inspector General
                                                                                                              (continued)




                                  Page 29                             GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                               Appendix IV
                               Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
                               Selected Organizations Authorized to
                               Perform Certain Investigative Functions as
                               of the End of Fiscal Year 1996




                                                                     Total number of         Execute                     Carry
                                                                        investigative         search          Make firearms, if
Law enforcement organization                                               personnel         warrants       arrests necessary
Federal Deposit                                                                      43              28           28                28
Insurance Corporation,
Office of Inspector
General
National Aeronautics and                                                             52              18           18                18
Space Administration,
Office of Inspector
General
Department of Energy,                                                                45              44           44                44
Office of Inspector
General
Small Business                                                                       40              40           40                40
Administration, Office
of Inspector General
Department of the                                                                    36              36           36                36
Treasury, Office of
Inspector General
Department of State,                                                                 34              33           33                33
Office of Inspector
General
U.S. Railroad Retirement                                                             22c             22           22                22
Board, Office of
Inspector General
Total                                                                             4,262          4,007         4,007          4,007

                               Note: Fiscal year-end 1996 law enforcement organization data differ from those reported to the
                               CPDF (see app. V) by about 1 percent.
                               a
                                The Office of Labor Management Standards (OLMS) was formerly a program component of the
                               Office of the American Workplace, which was eliminated as of September 30, 1996. OLMS, which
                               is staffed with law enforcement investigative personnel, is now a program agency within the
                               Employment Standards Administration.
                               b
                                According to an Office of Labor Management Standards official, there is typically no need to
                               execute search warrants, make arrests, and/or carry firearms in the course of agency
                               investigations. However, criminal investigations conducted by OLMS either independently or
                               jointly with other federal law enforcement agencies, such as the FBI, require the essential
                               knowledge, skills, and abilities required of traditional law enforcement officers. OLMS
                               investigators on occasion have been deputized to make arrests but, typically, secure the services
                               of the FBI or U.S. Marshals when arrest warrants are issued and services of the FBI to execute
                               search warrants.
                               c
                                Although the Railroad Retirement Board no longer meets the criterion of employing at least 25
                               investigative personnel, the OIG is included because it did meet this criterion on March 31, 1995,
                               which is the date used to determine inclusion in this report.

                               Source: Law enforcement organization responses to GAO survey.




                               Page 30                                  GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix V

Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
Selected Organizations at the End of Fiscal
Years 1987, 1991, 1995, and 1996

Law enforcement organization                               1987         1991         1995         1996a
Department of Agriculture
  U.S. Forest Service, Law                                  105          159          491b          603b
  Enforcement and
  Investigations
  Office of Inspector                                       246          264          254           245
  General
Department of the Interior
  Bureau of Indian Affairs,                                 341          326          374           334
  Office of Law
  Enforcement
  U.S. Fish and Wildlife                                    192          205          237           237
  Service, Division of
  Law Enforcement
  Bureau of Land                                             22           57          210c          205c
  Management, Law
  Enforcement
  Office of Inspector                                        27           41           40            37
  General
Department of Defense,                                      283          349          379           359
Office of Inspector
General
Department of Labor
  Office of Inspector                                       163          162          160           148
  General
  Office of Labor                                             0d           0d         127           165
  Management Standards
Department of Health and Human Services
  Office of Inspector                                       286          274          178e          163
  General
  Food and Drug                                               0f           0f         108           126
  Administration, Office
  of Criminal
  Investigations
Environmental Protection Agency
  Office of Criminal                                         48           55          156           156
  Enforcement, Forensics
  and Training
  Office of Inspector                                        41           61           53            46
  General
Department of the Air                                       146          152          159           160
Force, Air Force Office
of Special Investigations
Department of Commerce
                                                                                             (continued)




                                          Page 31   GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                                  Appendix V
                                  Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
                                  Selected Organizations at the End of Fiscal
                                  Years 1987, 1991, 1995, and 1996




Law enforcement organization                                                    1987      1991         1995        1996a
  National Oceanic and                                                           84        106          112          105
  Atmospheric
  Administration,
  National Marine
  Fisheries Service,
  Staff Office for Law
  Enforcement
  Bureau of Export                                                                5        69            68           64
  Administration, Office
  of Export Enforcement
Social Security                                                                   0g            0g       84          135
Administration, Office of
Inspector General
General Services Administration
  Public Buildings Service,                                                      22         38           66           64
  Federal Protective
  Service
  Office of Inspector                                                            84         90           60           58
  General
Department of Justice,                                                            0h        97          119          110
Office of the Inspector
General
Department of Housing and                                                        75         95          111          108
Urban Development, Office
of Inspector General
Department of the Army,                                                           0i            0i       63           73
U.S. Army Criminal
Investigation Command
Department of Education,                                                         58         86           82           75
Office of Inspector
General
Department of                                                                    64         76           64           74
Transportation, Office of
Inspector General
Department of Veterans                                                           63         64           63           59
Affairs, Office of
Inspector General
Federal Deposit Insurance                                                         0j        16           29           61k
Corporation, Office of
Inspector General
National Aeronautics and                                                         30         47           52           51
Space Administration,
Office of Inspector
General
Department of Energy,                                                            25         41           56           49
Office of Inspector
General
                                                                                                              (continued)



                                  Page 32                             GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
                               Appendix V
                               Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel in
                               Selected Organizations at the End of Fiscal
                               Years 1987, 1991, 1995, and 1996




Law enforcement organization                                                     1987           1991           1995           1996a
Small Business                                                                      31             38             42                41
Administration, Office of
Inspector General
Department of the Treasury,                                                         14             36             39                37
Office of Inspector
General
Department of State, Office                                                         10             31             32                34
of Inspector General
U.S. Railroad Retirement                                                             6             35             28                22
Board, Office of
Inspector General
Total                                                                           2,471          3,070           4,096           4,204

                               a
                                Fiscal year-end 1996 CPDF data differ from those reported by the organizations (see app. IV) by
                               about 1 percent.
                               b
                                Beginning in 1994, personnel in this organization were reclassified from the Forestry Technician,
                               Forestry, and other job series to the law enforcement investigative series. The increases in
                               investigative personnel in 1995 and 1996 were the result of this reclassification.
                               c
                                The numbers of investigative personnel in this organization increased in 1995 and 1996 because
                               personnel in the General Inspection, Investigation, and Compliance series received coverage
                               under special law enforcement retirement in October 1994.
                               d
                                Officewide law enforcement retirement coverage for investigative personnel was not available
                               until September 1992.
                               e
                                The Social Security Administration was first established as a separate federal department on
                               March 31, 1995. Its Office of Inspector General was staffed by personnel from the Department of
                               Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General; therefore, the number of law
                               enforcement investigative personnel in the Department, Office of Inspector General, decreased.
                               f
                                Data are not shown for 1987 and 1991 because the Office of Criminal Investigations was
                               established in March 1992.
                               g
                                Data are not shown for 1987 and 1991 because the Social Security Administration was
                               established as a separate federal department on March 31, 1995.
                               h
                                Data are not shown for 1987 because the Department of Justice, Office of Inspector General,
                               was authorized by Congress in 1988 and established in 1989.
                               i
                                Most of the criminal investigative personnel in this organization are military personnel. During
                               1987 and 1991, the small number of civilian criminal investigative personnel were not covered by
                               law enforcement retirement.
                               j
                                Data are not shown for 1987 because the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Office of
                               Inspector General, was established in 1988.
                               k
                                On January 1, 1996, the Resolution Trust Corporation, Office of Inspector General, merged with
                               this organization, which caused an increase in law enforcement investigative personnel.

                               Sources: Law enforcement organization data for the Department of Labor, the Office of Labor
                               Management Standards, and the Department of the Air Force, Air Force Office of Special
                               Investigations (end of fiscal year 1991 only), and CPDF data for all others.




                               Page 33                                  GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix VI

Law Enforcement Investigative Personnel at
13 Federal Organizations With the Largest
Number of Criminal Investigative Personnel,
End of Fiscal Years 1995 and 1996
                                                                                          Number of law
                                                                                           enforcement
                                                                                      investigative personnel
               Law enforcement organization                                                   1995          1996
               Department of Justice
                 Federal Bureau of
                 Investigation                                                             10,082         10,662
                 Immigration and
                 Naturalization Service                                                      8,014          9,982
                 Drug Enforcement
                 Administration                                                              3,471          3,729
                 U.S. Marshals Service                                                       2,463          2,625
               Department of the Treasury
                 Internal Revenue Service                                                    3,756          3,744
                 U.S. Secret Service                                                         3,225          3,246
                 U.S. Customs Service                                                        2,912          2,826
                 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco
                 and Firearms                                                                1,929          1,867
               U.S. Postal Inspection Service                                                2,226          2,254
               National Park Service                                                         1,953          1,775
               U.S. Capitol Police                                                           1,074          1,074
               Naval Criminal Investigative
               Service                                                                         934               896
               Department of State, Bureau of
               Diplomatic Security                                                             709               686
               Total                                                                       42,748         45,366
               Sources: Federal law enforcement organization data from the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, the
               U.S. Capitol Police, and the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and CPDF data for the other
               organizations.




               Page 34                                 GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
Appendix VII

Major Contributors to This Report


                        Weldon McPhail, Assistant Director
General Government      Doris Page, Evaluator-in-Charge
Division, Washington,   Michael Kassack, Senior Evaluator
D.C.                    Mary Hall, Evaluator
                        Charlotte Moore, Communications Analyst
                        David Alexander, Senior Social Science Analyst
                        Stuart M. Kaufman, Senior Social Science Analyst
                        Gregory Wilmoth, Senior Social Science Analyst


                        Geoffrey Hamilton, Senior Attorney
Office of the General
Counsel, Washington,
D.C.




(182030)                Page 35                      GAO/GGD-97-93 Investigative Authority and Personnel
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