oversight

Customs and Border Patrol: Resources Needed for Reopening Rail Line From Mexico-U.S. Border Into the United States

Published by the Government Accountability Office on 1997-11-05.

Below is a raw (and likely hideous) rendition of the original report. (PDF)

        United States
GA!!0   General Accounting Of&e
        Washington, D.C. 20548

        General   Government   Division


        B-276886

        November 5, 1997

        The Honorable Duncan Hunter
        House of Representatives

        Subject:     Customs and Border Patrot Resources Needed for Reoneninp Rail
                     Line Prom Mexico-US. Border Into the United States

        Dear Mr. Hunter:

        This letter responds to your March 19,1997, request for information concerning
        federal resources that would be necessary if a long-abandoned rail line from
        near Tecate, Medico, into the United States to Plaster City, California, was
        reopened. On April 29, 1997, we briefed you on the results of our work You
        asked us to expand the scope of our work to include information about how
        many Border Patrol agents would be needed to secure the border in eastern San
        Diego County, Cal.Zomia, where the rail line closely parallels the border, and to
        inspect all railcars on the proposed reopened rail line. On June 18, 1997, we
        briefed you on the results of the expanded work and informed you that because
        of our review, the Border Patrol planned to assessthe potential impact of the
        reopening of the rail line on its operations. You then requested that we include
        information from the Border Patrol’s assessment in our final report to you




                                          GAOIGGD-98-20R   Resources for Rail Line Reopening


                                              /sPsa”7
B-276886


This letter responds to your requests. . Spe&ca.Uy, it discusses resources used by the
U.S. Customs Service (Customs) and the Immigration and Natmalization Service (INS)
to monitor freight service on currently operating rail lines from San Diego to Tecate,
Mexico. It al50 identifies the resources, such as personnel, inspection facilities, and
equipment, that Customs and INS, believe would be necessary to detect and deter.
illegal activities associated with reopening the rail line, such as drug smuggling and
illegal immigration.

We performed our work at Customs and INS headquarters in Washington, DC., and in
the San Diego, California, area. We observed rail and inspection operations at the San
Ysidro, California, port of entry. We also toured the rail line where it closely parallels
the California-Mexico border, accompanied by Border Patrol agents. We obtained
resource estimates from Customs and INS officials. Their estimates were based on
certain scenarios of rail freight, composition, and volume and the frequency of entry to
and exit from the United States. We also reviewed a draft report of the Border
Patrol’s assessment of the rail line reopening. We did not, however, attempt to
validate the completeness or reasonablenessof the estimates or scenarios.

BACKGROUND

The San Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway (SD & AK), owned by the San Diego
Metropolitan Transit Development Board, consists of two primary lines, the Main T&e
and the Desert Line. The Main Line is 16 ties long and runs from San Diego to the
international border at San Ysidro!IIjuana, Mexico. The Desert Line, which has been
 closed since 1983, is 70 miles long and runs Tom the California-Mexico border at a
junction called Division, 4 miles south of Campo, California, to Plaster City, California,
which is 17 miles west of El Centro, California, in the Imperial Valley. In addition, the
Mexican Line, which is 44 miles long, connects SD & AB’s Main Line to its Desert
Line. (See fig. I.) The San Diego and Imperial Valley (SD & IV) Railroad, a private
 company and subsidiary of RaiITex, Inc., currently transports freight on the SD & AE
 Main Line and Mexican Line.




                                             GAO/GGD-9%20R    Resources for Rail Line Reopening
      Et-276886

      Figure 1: MaD of the SD & f%ERailwav




Railway lines                    Legend
-        SD and AE main tine     .i$   I-MISand rugged tenain
-        Mexicanline
-        SD and AE desert line
I        Union Pacific




     Source: San Diego Association of Governments.



     3                                                          GAO/GGD-98-20R   Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886
According.to the San Diego Association of Governments’ (SANDAG) Economic
Feasibiliti Studv of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railwau, reopening the Desert
Line would restore freight service between San Diego and the Imperial Valley, with
continuing service to the eastern United States.’ Rail freight service for the San Diego
region is currently provided by a single continental railroad via Los Angeles.
According to SANDAG, reopening the rail link to the east via the SD & AE Railway is
needed to improve the international and interstate movement of goods through the
San Diego region.

SANDAG’s Economic Feasibility Study contains estimated costs in 1995 dollars to
repair and improve the Desert Line for two levels of service: basic and modem, as
shown in enclosure L The study estimated that about $25 million would be required
to restore basic fi-eight service, improve the rail line’s reliability, and provide Customs
with inspection yards. For more modern service, including “double stack” container
railcars and auto carriers, the estimated costs rise to between $99 and $105 GIlion in
1995 dollars. SANDAG’s Economic Feasibility Study did not specifically identify the
source of funding for the rail line improvements. The study suggested that a
public@ivate partnership should be pursued and referred the task of developing a
financing strategy to the San Diego Mayor’s Finance Committee for the SD & AE
Railway. According to SD & IV Railroad officials, RailTex, Inc., its parent
organization, plans to provide a $7.9 million initia.l capital investment to reopen the
Desert Line of the SD & AE Railway.

Customs is responsible for collecting revenue from imports and for enforcing Customs
and related laws. It also processes persons, carriers, cargo, and mail into and out of
the United States. A major goal of Customs is to prevent the smuggling of drugs into
the countty.~

INS is responsible for ensurin g that persons entering the United States do so in
accordance with U.S. immigration laws. Within INS, the Border Patrol is responsible
for maintaining control of the international boundaries between the ports of entry by
detecting and preventing smuggling and illegal entry of aliens into the United States.




‘SANDAG is a public agency formed voluntarily by local governments to ensure overall
areawide planning and coordination for the San Diego region. SANDAG’s Economic.
Feasibiliw Study, dated March 1, 1996,was funded by the California Department of
Transportation and the San Diego Unified Port District. A SANDAG advisory committee
guided the study and prepared recommendations based on the study kxbngs.
4                                            GAO/GGD-9%20R     Resources for Bail he   Reopening
3276886
RESULTS IN BRIEF

Customs and INS officials told us that they would need as many as 31 to 35 staff and
related equipment, depending on the level of illegal activity once the Desert Line is
reopened. Currently, one freight train traveling on the Main and Mexican Lines
crosses each weekday fiorn San Diego to Mexico at San Ysidro and returns the same
day, according to SD & IV Railroad officials. Customs has assigned two inspectors for
both the inbound and outbound trains but has no available inspection facilities. The
Border Patrol said it generally has two agents in mobile units stationed in an area near
the train gate, but not specifically because of the train crossing. The SD & IV Railroad
has agreed to modify an existing building at the San Ysidro railroad border inspection
station for use by Customs inspectors.

To process the proposed basic freight service associated with reopening the Desert
Line, Customs said that at San Ysidro, it would require five inspectors and one canine
enforcement officer (CEO). Customs also said that additional equipment would be
needed Customs believes the planned modification of an existing building for use by
Customs inspectors to inspect current freight service would also be sufEicient for the
proposed basic freight service. The Border Patrol would not req@re additional agents
at San Ysidro for the proposed basic freight service, unless the number of illegal aliens
discovered were to increase.

At Campo, California, neither inspection facilities nor equipment are currently
available. Similar to resource needs at San Ysidro, Customs officials said it would
require five inspectors, one CEO, and various equipment to process basic freight
semice associated with reopening the Desert Line. The SD & IV Railroad has agreed
to provide inspection facilities. The Border Patrol said it would require a minimum of
two agents to observe the &ain at Camp0 and a minimum of two additional agents at
Division to observe the train as it comes through a tunnel into the United States. The
Border Patrol said it would need to pull these agents from other areas of the border to
provide tram coverage.

For approximately 12 to 15 miles east of Campo, the Desert rail line closely parallels
the border. Near Jacumba, California, trains traveling on the reopened Desert Line
would come within about 75 yards of the border. To limit illegal immigrants’ use of
railcars along this stretch if the Desert Line is reopened, the Border Patio1 said it
would need up to 10 agents to observe the train as it travels between Campo and
Jacumba, depending on the volume of illegal immigration. In addition, if necessary,
the Border Patrol said it would need a minimum of four agents to physically board
and check all railcars at Jacumba. According to Border Patrol officials stationed at
Campo, more agents could be necessary depending on the number of illegal
immigrants using the train.

5                                          GAOIGGD-9%2OR    Resomces for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886
Along with inspectors, Customs officials told us it would also need additional special
agents if the Desert Line were to reopen. A Customs Assistant Special Agent-in-
Charge, Tom the San Diego Of&e of Jnvestigations, told us that the office would need
four additional special agents and related support staff and equipment to handle and
investigate potential smuggling activities that may be associated with reopening the
rail line.

For modern freight service over the rail line, Customs and Border Patrol officials told
us that they may need additional resources, depending on the vohime, frequency, and
composition of the freight shipped. However, because no firm plans exist for this
service, Customs and Border Patrol officials said it would be difficukto estimate
resource needs.

As a result of our review, the Border Patrol conducted an assessment of the threat
posed by the rail line reopening on its operation to assist it in identifying the
resources needed to counter the threat. The Border Patrol’s Tactical Unit conducted
the threat assessment and drafted a report, but that report had not yet been approved
by Border Patrol headquarters as of October 23, 1997. The draft assessment report,
which we reviewed, essentially idenmed levels of resources similar to the levels
Border Patrol officials had already provided us.

CUSTOMS AN-D BORDER PATROL RESOURCE USE
WITH CURRENT FREIGHT SERVICE

Currently, one freight train traveling on the Main and Mexican Lines crosses each
weekday fro-m San Diego to Mexico at San Ysidro and returns the same day, according
to SD & IV Railroad officials, the current freight operator. On average, each train
leaving the United States consists of 14 railcars carrying such commodities as liquid
petroleum gas, gram, rolled steel, and granite blocks, according to Railroad officials.
Prior to August 1997, all trains generally returned to the United States with empty
railcars. Beginning on August 27, 1997,inbound trains Tom Mexico to the United
States began transporting sand in five to seven railcars, according to Railroad officials.

According to Customs’standard operating procedures, at least two Customs officers
are required to inspect the train at San Ysidro. The usual procedure, according to the
supervisor of the Container, Rail, and Truck (CRT) unit based at the Otay Mesa
Commercial Facility, is to send two inspectors from nearby Otay Mesa to San Ysidro
each morning and afternoon to inspect the train as it departs from and reenters the
United-States. We observed Customs inspections of both outgoing and incoming
trams; these inspections lasted about 15 minutes each. Customs CRT inspectors told
us that longer inspections occur if, in Customs’opinion, a railcar needs a more
intensive inspection. Customs does not use any special facilities or equipment for the

 6                                          GAO/GGD-9%20R    Resources for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886       -
inspections. Customs has asked the SD & IV Railroad to modify an existing building
at San Ysidru to facilitate inspection of the railcars. Railroad officials -told us that as
of the end of August, although plans were in process to modify the building,
construction had not yet begun and a portable office was on site for Customs’use.

Like Customs, the Border Patrol said it also has personnel on hand as the train
departs and reenters the United States at San Ysidro. According to the Assistant Chief
Patrol Agent from the San Diego Sector, the Border Patrol stations two agents in
mobile units in the vicinity of the railroad border crossing, but not solely for the tram.
The two agents are very close to the San Ysidro passenger port of entry in an area of
high illegal immigration activity. The Assistant Chief told us that the railroad crossing
is controlled and inspected by Customs, and the Border Patrol does not require any
additional staf6ng for the current railroad operations. We also watched the Border
Patrol agents on station observing the train for illegal immigrants. On that day, these
agents were augmented by another agent in a mobile unit for the arrival of the
inbound train from Mexico.

CUSTOMS AND BORDER PATROL RESOURCES
NEEDED FOR REOPENED DESERT LINE

Customs and Border Patrol officials told us that they will need additional resources to
detect and deter illegal activities, such as drug smuggling and illegal immigration, if
the Desert Line portion of the SD & AB Railway is reopened. They estimated that the
amount of additional resources needed would vary depending on whether the Desert
Line is rehabilitated to handle basic or modem &ig.ht service. &I particular, they said
resource needs would be dependent on the volume and composition of freight to be
shipped under those services and the eequency of trams entering and exiting the
United States. Because no firm plans ex&t for the proposed modem freight service,
Customs and Border Patrol officials said that it would be dif&ult to estimate resource
needs for that service. A Border Patrol draft threat assessment report on the
proposed reopening of the Desert Line essentially identified similar levels of resources
that Border Patrol officials provided for our review. (See encs, Ii and III for a
complete list of the personnel and equipment needs that Customs and Border Patrol
officials identified during onr review for proposed basic freight service for San Ysidro,
CampofI’ecate, and eastern San Diego County.)

Reonenin,a the Desert Line
With Basic Freight Service

Reopening the Desert Line would make available fi-eight service along the entire SD &
AE Railway with the Main Line, Mexican Line, and Desert Line available for such
service. According to SD & IV Railroad officials, reopening the Desert Line to provide

7                                            GAO/GGD-98-20R   Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886
basic freight service would involve one tram running each weekday, during daylight
hours, Tom San Diego to Plaster City, and another tram starting each -weekday at
Plaster City and traveling to San Diego. In addition, they estimate that the number of
railcars per train would increase from an average of about 14 on current freight
service to as many as 25 and that the cars would carry such commodities as liquid
petroleum gas, rolled steel, gram, lumber, gypsum, sand, beer, and lard.

SD & IV Railroad officials told us that they plan to have the Desert Line refurbished
for basic freight service and opened 6 to 8 months Tom the time anew agreement is
reached for continued access to the Mexican Line portion of the railway. The entire
project is contingent on the Railroad reaching an agreement for continued access
rights to the Mexican Line, according to SD & IV Railroad officials.

Customs and Border Patrol Resources
Needed for Basic Freight Service

To inspect the one daily train in and out of the San Ysidro border crossing under the
basic freight service scenario, Customs CRT inspectors told us that they would need a
minimum of five inspectors (including the current two), for an increase of three
inspectors, and one CEO. These inspectors would possibly work full time at San
Ysidro, depending on the types of commodities shipped and time required for
inspections. The culTent CRT inspectors stated that the planned building modification
to facilitate inspections under current freight service at San Ysidro would be s&&ient
to also support basic freight service on the reopened Desert line.

Customs CRT inspectors also gave us a list of equipment that they feel would be
needed to inspect the diverse array of commodities expected to be imported. The
equipment l&Includes a pallet x-ray unit; overhead lighting; computers and printers; a
mobile hylift (“cherry picker”); enforcement tools (density detectors, probes, drills,
etc.); and a video surveillance security system. (See enc. RI for the complete list of
the equipment needs that Customs ideni3ied.)

For Campo, Customs officials told us that depending on arrival and departure times of
the trains, they would also need at least five inspectors and one CEO. Additional
inspectors could be needed if, for instance, the SD & IV Railroad began nighnime
operations.

Along with inspectors, Customs officials told us it would also need inspection facilities
at Campo, which would be provided by the Railroad, according to SD & IV Railroad
officials. According to the Customs officials, the same type of equipment required at
the San Ysidro border crossing would also be needed at Campo. (See enc. III.)


8                                           GAOIGGD-9%20R    Resources for Rail Line Reopening
%276886

In addition to inspectors, Customs told us it would also need additional special agents
if the Desert Line were to reopen. A Customs Assistant Special Agent-m-Charge from
the San Diego Office of Investigations told us that four additional special agents and
one additional investigative assistant, along with new equipment, including vehicles,
radios and computers, would be needed at Tecate, California, to handle and
investigate potential smuggling activities that may be associated with reopening the
rail line.

For the Border Patrol, the Assistant Chief Patrol Agent from the San Diego Border
Patrol Sector told us that no additional agents would be needed at San Ysidro unless
the tram gate remained open much longer than usual and the number of illegal aliens
discovered were to increase. The Assistant Chief also told us that a minimum of two
agents would be needed to observe the tram at Campo while Customs conducts its
inspection; this procedure would be much like the current process at the San Ysidro
border crossing. In addition, a minimum of two agents would be needed at Division to
observe the train as it comes through a tunnel into the United States. The Assistant
Chief told us that these agents would be pulled from other areas of the border to
provide train coverage.

      Border Patrol Agents Would Also Be Needed
      Where Rail Line Closelv Parallels the Border

We visited the stretch of rail line that closely parallels the U.S./Mexico border for
approximately 12 to 15 miles in eastern San Diego County. (See fig. 2.) The rail line
comes within several miles of the border at various locations, down to less than a mile
in other areas, and within about 75 yards near Jacumba, California We observed
very rugged lerritory with some small settlements and ranches. A Border Patio1 Agent
who has worked in the area for 26 years said that about 100 to 150 illegal aliens a day
are apprehended there, most near Jacumba at the eastern end of San Diego County,
with many more coming through the mountains between Jacumba and Campo.




9                                          GAO/GGD-98-20R   Resources for Rail Line Reopening
         B-276886 -

         RWe         2:   Man of the SD & A33Railwav Showing                                      Locations    Close   to the Border




                                      Deteiied enlargement showing the rail line
                                               from Campo to Jacumba.                                                                  Imperial County



                                                                                  California




                                 I          SanYsidro




                                                                  *,,,,\ “.              2 c ,,,$.,,F
                                                                              Mexico      * 9,,,,,!F
Railway lines
-        SD and AE main line         $(;   Hills and rugged terrain
-        Mexican line
-        SD and AE desert line
I        Union Pacific




        Source: SD & IV Fkilroad.




        10                                                                             GAO/GGD-9%20R          Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886                                                               -

According to Border Patrol officials, a lack of roads and trails limits the Border
Patrrol’s access to much of the track between Campo and Jacumba, Where the rail line
comes closest to the border. The Border Patrol officials said that the reopened rail
line would be a vehicle for illegal immigration and that it is likely that the illegal
immigrants would board the train and move through areas of Border Patrol coverage
to areas where the Border Patrol has limited resources.

Currently, according to Border Patrol officials stationed at Campo, about 30 to 45
Border Patrol agents are on duty at any one time during 3 shifts &cm Tecate,
California, to the eastern San Diego County line. To properly inspect and maintain
control as much as possible over illegal immigrants’ use of the railroad on the
reopened rail line, the Border Patrol believes it would need, at a minimunx

       up to 10 agents to observe the train depending on the volume of illegal
       immigration between Camp0 and Jacumba; and

       4 agents to physically board and check all r&cars at Jacumba, if necessary.

.The Assistant Chief Patrol Agent for San Diego pointed out that as an extension of
Operation Gatekeeper; and not in response to the proposed reopening of the Desert
Line, the Border Patrol is adding resources to the eastern San Diego County area For
example, new border fences and access roads are being built, additional lighting is
being added, and increased numbers of agents are being assigned to the area

Customs and Border Patrol Resources
Needed for Modern Freight Service
Difficult to Determine

According to the SANDAG Economic Feasibility Study, modernization of the rail line
would include a capital outlay of about $99 million to about $105 n-&ion in 1995
dollars, including the cost of a truck-to-rail inter-modal facility. As part of the
modernization program, track on the Desert Line would be straightened and lowered
in tunnels to enable high and long loads, including “double stack” container cars and
tri-level auto racks, to pass. SD & IV Railroad officials told us that any modernization




‘Operation Gatekeeper was initiated in 1994 as a multiphase, multiyear project to reduce
illegal immigration into the San Diego area and to force immigration traffic eastward. Its
strategy involved deploying new personnel, equipment, technology, and tactics specifically
tailored to the geography, crossing pattm, and characteristics of immigrants who
attempt to enter the United States illegally through the San Diego area
11                                         GAO/GGD-9%2OR    Resources for Rail Line Reopening
B-276886
of the SD & AE railway is entirely contingent on securing funding and generating
enough business to support expanded railway operations and modernization.

Railroad officials told us that under modernization, trains would have a limit of 40
railcars, would arrive and depart during daylight, and would carry diverse products.
For this modernization scenario, Customs and Border Patrol officials told us basically
the same thing the inspection resources and equipment needed would depend on the
types of railcars (e.g., gondolas, boxcars, liquid petroleum gas tankers); commodities
and cargo shipped; number of railcars to be inspected; and-unique to the Border
Patrol-the number of illegal aliens spotted and apprehended along the rail line and on
the Irains. However, because no fum plans exist for this service, Customs and Border
Patrol officials said it would be difficult to estimate resource needs for modem freight
service.

Border Patrol Threat Assessment

The Border Patrol says it periodically assessesthe threat posed by aliens attempting to
enter the United States illegally. This enables it to adjust st&ing levels to respond to
changes in threat. As a result of our review, the Border Patrol Tactical Unit, at the
direction of Border Patrol headquarters, conducted a threat assessment in July 1997 to
help predict the resources it would need if the SD & IV Railroad opened the Desert
he.

Border Patrol headquarters provided us with a copy of the draft assessment report,
which had not yet been approved by headquarters as of October 23, 1997. The draft
threat assessment report essentizilly confkmed that additional resources needed for
reopening the rail line would be similar to those already identified and discussed in
this report.

SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY

To obtam information on reopening the Desert Line, we interviewed a SANDAG
official and SD & IV Railroad offici&, these organizations are proponents of
reopening the Desert line. We also reviewed SANDAG’s March 1, 1996, Economic
Feasibihtv Studv of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railwav.

To identify the resources (personnel, equipment, and facilities) that would be needed
if the Desert Line were reopened, we interviewed (1) Customs officials at
headquarters, the Southern California Customs Management Center, the San Ysidro
and Tecate ports of entry, and the San Diego Office of Investigations; and (2) Border
Patrol officials at headquarters, the San Diego Sector, and Campo Station. These
officials have responsibilities for inspection and enforcement activities at the ports of

12                                          GAO/GGD-9%20R    Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
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entry and border areas where trains will enter and exit the United States_ under the
proposed rail line reopening project.

We requested information on estimated resource needs based on three service
scenarios: current freight service, proposed basic service, and proposed modem
service. Two of the three scenarios, basic and modem service, were discussed in the
SANDAG Economic Feasibility Study; additional information was provided by officials
from the SD & IV R&oad, which is the current n-eight operator on the SD & AE
railway. As pointed out by SD & IV Railroad and agency officials, the estimates may
change as the project proceeds. We also observed Customs and Border Patrol
inspections of trains entering and exiting the United States at San Ysidro and
accompanied Border Patrol officials on a tour of portions of the Desert Line where it
closely parallels the border. We also reviewed a draft of the Border Patrol’s threat
assessment of the rail line reopening. We did not verify the completeness or
reasonableness of the estimates provided by Customs and Border Patrol officials.

We conducted our review from March through September 1997 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards.

AGENCY COMMENTS

We requested oral comments on a draft of this letter from the Attorney General and
the Secretary of the Treasury or their designees. On October 23, 1997, INS’Assistant
Director, Internal Review Branch, in the Office of Internal Audit, informed us that
after reviewing the draft letter, INS had one technical comment, which we
incorporated as appropriate. By letter dated October 23, 1997, Customs’Director of
the Office of Planning informed us that Customs reviewed the draft letter and
generally agreed with our findings.




13                                        GAOIGGD-9%2OR    Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
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We are also sending copies of this letter to the Attorney General, the Secretary of the
Treasury; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; the Commissioner of the
Immigration and Naturalization Service; the Commissioner of Customs; Representative
Brian Bilbrax Representative Bob l!Ilne.r; and other interested parties. We will also
make copies available to others upon request.

Major contributors to this letter are listed in enclosure IV. If you have any questions
about this letter, please contact me on (202) 51243777.


Sincerely yours,



Norman J. R&h
Director, Administration
 of Justice Issues




 14                                         GAO/GGD-9%20R    Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
ENCLOSTJRGI                                                                             ENCLOSURE I

                       COST ESTIMATES FOR IMF’ROVEMENTS
                        TO BE MADE ON SD & AJ3 RAILWAY



                                                                                          Capital cost
                                                                                         (1995 dollars in
 Service type                                Improvements                                    millions)

 Basic               Repairs to reopen Desert Line                                                     $7.9

                     Desert Line reliability improvements                                              10.9

                     Provide staging yard at San Ysidro                                                     2.6

            .        Provide Customs inspections yards                                                      3.2

                      Subtotal:    basic service                                                       $24.6

 Modem               Modernization of Desert Line                                                      56.2
                     Provide intermodal (truck-to-rail) facility                                       18.5
                      Subtotal:    basic service and modemiration                                      $99.3

 Modem with          Provide staging yard                                                                   3.1
 additional
 improvements that   Provide an extension of bulk facilities                                                3.0
 may be needed
                      Total:       basic service, modernization, and additional                       $105.4
                                   improvements


Source: SANDAG Economic Feasibilitv Studv of the San Diego & Arizona Eastern
Railwav, March 1, 1996.




15                                                 GAO/GGD-9%20R        Resonrces   for Rail Line Reopening
          ENCLOSURE II                                                                          - ENCLOSURE II

                                              RESOURCES NEEDED FOR

                                                INSPECTION STATIONS


          Table II-l: Resources Idenmed bv Customs and Border Patrol for San Ysidro Railroad
          Border hmection Station

                                                     Personnel                                       Facilities
                                                                                                  and equipment

                                                                                        U.S. Customs          U.S. Border
Service                           U.S. Customs Service       U.S. Border Patrol            Service               Patrol

Current: 1 freight train daily,   .2 inspectors for both    2 agents assigned         No inspection        Mobile units
inbound and outbound; 11           inbound and              full time to area near    facilities
to 17 outbound railcars;           outbound                 train gate, but not       available;
exports of diverse                                          specifically for train    planned new
commodiies (including                                       crossing; since train     inspection office
liquid petroleum gas, grain,                                is controlled and         space to be
rolled steel, and granite                                   inspected by              provided by SD &
blocks); beginning August                                   Customs                    IV Railroad
27, 1997, inbound trains
carried sand in 5 to 7
railcars
Basic (proposed): 1 freight       Minimum of 5              2 agents assigned         Equipment            Mobile units
train daily, inbound and          inspectors to include     full time to area near    needs include
outbound; 14 to 25 raiicars;      1 supervisory             train gate, but not       overhead lighting,
imports and exports of’           inspector,                specificaliy for train    pallet X-ray, and
diverse commodities (liquid       1 senior inspector,       crossing; no              video
petroleum gas, roiled steel,      and                       additional agents         surveillance/
grain, lumber, gypsum,            3 inspectors              unless the number of      security system
beer, and lard)                   (including the 2          illegal aliens            (see enc. III)
                                  inspectors identified     discovered were to
                                  for current service );     increase
                                  and 1 canine
                                  enforcement officer
                                  for both inbound and
                                  outbound trains

          Source: U.S. Customs Service and U.S. Border Patrol.




          16                                                     GAO/GGD-9%20R       Resources for Rail Ihe    Reopening
          ENCLOSURE II                                                                               E-NCLOSUREII
          Table II.2 Resources Identified bv Customs and Border Patrol for ProDosed
          Tecate/Camr)o Railroad Border JnsDection Station

                              -

                              T                                                      T                Facilities
                                                                                                   and eq 3ment
                                                                                         U.S. Customs         U.S. Border
Service                           U.S. Customs Service         U.S. Border Patrol           Service              Patrol
Basic (proposed): 1 freight       For both inspection of     A minimum of 2           Inspection            Mobile units
train daily, inbound and          inbound and outbound       agents to ObSeNe the     facilities and
outbound; 14 to 25                trains, minimum of 5       trains at Campo; a       equipment
railcars; imports and             inspectors to include 1    minimum of 2 agents      needed at
exports of diverse                supervisory inspector,     needed at Division to    Campo; railroad
commodities (liquid               1 senior inspector, and    observe trains as        will pay for
petroleum gas, rolled             3 inspectors; 1 canine     they come through        facilities;
steel, grain, lumber,             enforcement officer.       tunnel into U.S.         equipment, such
gypsum, beer, and lard)           For smuggling                                       as X-Ray unit,
                                  activities, 4 special                               probes, drills, and
                                  agents and 1                                        off ice equipment,
                                  investigative assistant.                            needed (see enc.
                                                                                      Ill); also, new
                                                                                      office space,
                                                                                      vehicles, and
                                                                                      equipment
                                                                                      needed for
                                                                                      special agents




          Source:    U.S. Customs Service and U.S. Border Patrol.




          17                                                    GAO/GGD-9%20R        Resources for Rail Line Reopening
          ENCLOSURE II                                                                       - ENCLOSURE It
          Table Il.3    Resources Identified bv Border Patrol for eastern San Diego Countv


                                                                U.S. Border Patrol

Service                                       Personnel                  I            Facilities and equipment

Basic (proposed): 1 freight   A minimum of 4 agents to physically            Mobile units
train daily along 12- to      board and check the train at Jacumba, if
15mile stretch, inbound       necessary; up to 10 agents to visually
and outbound; 14 to 25        inspect the train between Camp0 and
railcars; imports and         Jacumba depending on volume of illegal
exports of diverse            immigrants
commodities (liquid
petroleum gas, roiled
steel, grain, lumber,
gypsum, beer, and lard).
Border Patrol has limited
access to about 7 or 8
miles of rail line east of
Campo.

          Source:      U.S. Border Patrol.




           18                                                GAO/GGD-98-20R        Resources for Rail Line Reopening
ENCLOSURE III                                                                   ENCLOSURE III


        INSPECTION FACILlTiES AND EQUIPMENT IDENTIFI[ED BY CUSTOMS
         AS NEEDED FOR SAN YSIDRO AND CAMPO/TECATE CALTFORNIA

     Inspection and office space

     Radio base stations with hand-held radios

     Overhead lighting

     Computers and laser jet printers

     Sidings and/or spurs segregating railcars and commodities

     Catwalk (for inspection of top side of railcars)

     Mobile hyliWcherq picker

     Bobcat for unloading railcars for enforcement purposes

     Full railcar X-ray (currently not available, being tested)

     Pallet X-ray with conveyors

     Full set of probes

     Full set of*pry/cheater bars

     Emergency generator

     Portable lighting system

     Compressor with full set of nonsparking pneumatic tools

     Fully loaded mechanic’s tool box

     Fiber optic system (mobile battery-powered type with flex and fixed wand)

     High-power heavy duty buster

     Bulk inspection area where hopper cars can be unloaded, inspected, and reloaded


19                                           GAO/GGD-98-20R       Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
ENCLOSURE III                                                                    - ENCLOSURE ID
l            Global positiomng system and transponders to track rail vehicles while in transit
             through Mexko, including all associated hardware and software-(currently not
             available, being tested)

l            Safety items, which include:

             l   intercom/public address system

             *   video surveillance/security system with remote and zoom capabilities

             l   monitor base station for video cameras w&h reaxding capability

             l   utility four-wheel-drive vehicle

l            Of&e fun&we for main inspection building

    l        Radiation detection equipment (for hazardous materials inspection)

    l        Ventilation equipment (for hazardous material inspections)

Source: U.S. Customs Service, Southern California Customs Management Center.




        20                                          GAOIGGD-98-20R   Resources   for Rail Line Reopening
ENCLOSURE IV                                                           ENCLOSURE IV

               MAJOR CONTRIBUTORSTO THIS CORRESPONDENCE- -

GENERAL GOVERNMENT DIVISION. WASHINGTON. D.C.

Darryl W. Dutton, Assistant Director
Samuel A. Caldrone, Evaluator-in-Charge
Michael. H. Little, Communications Analyst
Katherine M. Wheeler, publishing Advisor

LOS ANGELES FIELD OFFICE

Brian J. Lipman, Site Senior




(264437)


21                                       GAO/GGD-98-20B   Resources for Rail Line Reopening
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